ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0177.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: ensemble models; species distribution models (SDMs); ticks; Amblyomma americanum; Ixodes scapularis; Florida; biased sampling; study design
Online: 14 March 2022 (08:55:50 CET)
Ensembles of Species Distribution Models (SDMs) represent the geographic ranges of pathogen vectors by combining alternative analytical approaches and merging information on vector occurrences with more extensive environmental data. Biased collection data impact SDMs, regardless of the target species but no studies have compared the differences in the distributions predicted by the ensemble models when different sampling frameworks are used for the same species. We compared Ensemble SDMs for two important Ixodid tick vectors, Amblyomma americanum and Ixodes scapularis in mainland Florida, USA, when inputs were either convenience samples of ticks, or collections obtained using the standard protocols promulgated by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The Ensemble SDMs for the convenience samples and standard surveys showed only a slight agreement (Kappa = 0.060, A. americanum; 0.053, I. scapularis). Convenience sample SDMs indicated A. americanum and I. scapularis should be absent from 34.5% and 30.9% of the state where standard surveys predicted the highest likelihood of occurrence of the respective vectors. Ensemble models from standard surveys predicted 81.4% and 72.5% (A. americanum and I. scapularis) of convenience sample sites. Omission errors by standard survey SDMs, of the convenience collections, frequently were associated with adjacency to at least one SDM or errors in geocoding algorithms that failed to correctly locate convenience samples. These geocoding errors emphasize commonly overlooked needs to explicitly evaluate and improve data quality for vector survey data used in spatial models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0409.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Design; birthing bed; user centered design; medical design; user hierarchies; design process; design; education
Online: 23 September 2021 (12:55:44 CEST)
Medical Device Design process carries a high responsibility when defining the characteristics of the object for its correct interaction with users. This study presents a proposal for the improvement of the medical device design processes, in order to increase user acceptance, considering two key factors: the hierarchy of users and the relationship with the patient's health status. The goal of the study seeks to address this research gap and raise design factors with practical suggestions for the design of new medical devices. The results obtained will help medical device designers in the development stage to make more informed decisions about the functions and features required in the final product; As well, in the design process didactics, demonstrating the importance of the correct execution of the process, and how the factors considered can generate an impact on the final product. An experiment was carried out with Forty design engineering students, who designed birthing beds, with two design processes, the traditional product design process, and the new design process based on hierarchies (proposed in this study). The results showed that there is a significant increase in user acceptance with the new birthing bed that was developed with the hierarchical based design process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; modular design; design-for-manufacturability; sustainable design; design optimization; product re-design
Online: 21 September 2018 (15:23:15 CEST)
This work explores an additive-manufacturing-enabled combination-of-function approach for design of modular products. AM technologies allow the design and manufacturing of nearly free-form geometry, which can be used to create more complex, multi-function or multi-feature parts. The approach presented here replaces sub-assemblies within a modular product or system with more complex single parts that are designed and manufactured using AM technologies. This approach can increase the reliability of systems and products by reducing the number of interfaces, as well as allowing the optimization of the more complex parts during the design. The smaller part count and the ability of users to replace or upgrade the system or product parts on-demand should reduce user risk, life-cycle costs, and prevent obsolescence for the user of many systems. This study presents a detailed review on the current state-of-the-art in modular product design in order to demonstrate the place, need and usefulness of this AM-enabled method for systems and products that could benefit from it. A detailed case study is developed and presented to demonstrate the concepts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0485.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: game design, design patterns; pattern language; design pattern application; design pattern creation
Online: 21 July 2021 (11:11:15 CEST)
Existing implementations of game design patterns have largely been confined to theoretical or research settings. Weaknesses in these implementations have prevented game design patterns from being properly evaluated as an educational and practical development tool. This paper examines these weaknesses, describes a method of developing and applying patterns that overcome the weaknesses, and evaluates use of the method for game design education and practice. Weaknesses in existing pattern implementations are: omission of design problems, presumption of functional completeness at the level of pattern languages, narrow topical focus, and lack of a concise, repeatable method for pattern production. Several features of the proposed method were specifically built to address these weaknesses, namely the pattern template, the process for connecting patterns into a language and assessing the language’s scope, a rubric for assessing pattern confidence and interconnectivity confidence, and pattern-building exercises. This method was applied in a classroom setting. Results, as assessed by the evaluation of student work, suggest that creating patterns/pattern languages is an effective pedagogical approach. De-signs produced using designer-created patterns closely align with existing design theory and are clearly understood by students. The above results may indicate that the path to gaining wider acceptance of pattern theory as a design framework within game design is not to produce a universal pattern language but to facilitate the creation of case-specific languages, by students and professional designers, that use a shared ontology and thus can be combined easily to solve the diverse sets of problems faced by these groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Design knowledge, Knowledge dimensions, prototyping, design cognition, design thinking
Online: 7 June 2021 (11:30:21 CEST)
Whilst prior works have characterised the affordances of prototyping methods in terms of generating knowledge about a product or process, the types, or ‘dimensions’ of knowledge towards which they contribute are not fully understood. In this paper we adapt the concept of ‘design domains’ as a method to interpret, and better understand the contributions of different prototyping methods to design knowledge in new product development. We first synthesise a set of ten dimensions for design knowledge from a review of literature in design-related fields. A study was then conducted in which participants from engineering backgrounds completed a Likert-type questionnaire to quantify the perceived contributions to design knowledge of 90 common prototyping methods against each dimension. We statistically analyse results to identify patterns in the knowledge contributions of different methods. Results reveal that methods exhibit significantly different contribution profiles, suggesting different methods to be suited to different knowledge generation. Thus, this paper indicates potential for new methods, methodology and processes to leverage such characterisations for better selection and sequencing of methods in the prototyping process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0264.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Design for Sustainability; Responsible Design; transdisciplinary design; design education; social design; ecological literacy; transition; disciplinary fragility; defuturing; sustainability
Online: 19 May 2022 (16:11:35 CEST)
Sustainable and Responsible Design (SRD) harnesses design’s potential to address eco-social problems and in doing so challenge the status quo of design education by reframing the social and ecological consequences, boundaries and agencies of design. This critical and transdisciplinary approach frays the edges of traditional design disciplines with embedded and reflexive modes of learning. We describe characteristics of SRD education and present theories of learning to empower students in this complex terrain. The learning associated with SRD education is ecologically engaged, participative, critical, expansive and designerly. We recount case studies of our own experiences advancing sustainable and responsible undergraduate design education in the UK. We identify path constraints such as disciplinary fragility, appropriation, and power dynamics in the design school. The push for a revision of priorities generates tensions where there is often greenwashing rhetoric of sustainability and inclusivity. We describe strategies and tactics to address these tensions. We highlight the agency we have as educators and designers and argue that design education can only meaningfully participate in response to the challenges presented by climate change, other types of ecocide, and social problems when educators make substantive commitments to supporting sustainability literacies and design approaches that serve the interests of diverse stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0296.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: design patterns; urban design; problem-solving; creativity; urban design education; teamwork
Online: 17 September 2018 (10:01:27 CEST)
Urban design is a complex problem-solving activity that commonly requires the aid of a variety of methods to support the process and enhance the quality of the outcomes. How to help designers with adequate methods to deal with ill-defined urban problems constitutes a major challenge in the urban design domain. In this regard, the use of urban design patterns is considered as a method that can contribute to urban design problem-solving. However, this tool was never investigated to understand its role in the task-related activities that take place during the design process by designers working in team, and its effect on the creativity of the final design outcome as perceived by urban designers and students. Therefore, an empirical research based on a controlled experiment was carried out to explore the aid provided by design patterns during the conceptual stages of the process. The study contributed to gain a better insight into the main design activities derived from the use of patterns as problem-solving tools, and to unveil their contribution to urban design. Implications for design practice and design education are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0047.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: design for society; design for sustainability; design under uncertainty; circular design; donut economics; life cycle analysis
Online: 5 August 2020 (04:50:02 CEST)
Since the beginning, humans advanced their civilization by making better tools to improve their lives. Tools and products were designed for better living considering manufacturing issues, cost and time as predominant criteria. It has become clear that not considering environment and society, both at local/global levels, has now become a major impediment affecting living conditions on a large portion of the Earth and in many societies. Design methodologies should lead to creative solutions with consideration to engineering and economics for practicality but also to environmental and social constraints for sustainability. We propose a comprehensive design methodology based on multidisciplinary design to include the knowledge of humanities, environmentalists, science and engineering, and allowing for experts’ inputs from these areas to provide a holistic approach to engineering design . For example, experts in humanities are expected to interact with stakeholders to evaluate their value systems to provide guidance for the design. The methodology that we synthesize is new and combines (i) Societal level impacts at all scales, (ii) Environmental impacts and (iii) Engineering design with economic impacts, including uncertainty considerations. The proposed design methodology is called Social-Environmental-Economical-Engineering Framework (SEEEF). It can utilize concepts and tools such as Circular Design, Doughnut Economics, design based on environmental life cycle analysis, among others. SEEEF is quantity based and provides steps for evaluating any project or product in an objective manner and will help train engineers in design for sustainability. It also provides non-engineers with a significant role in design to increase their understanding of the hard constraints of engineering. Ultimately, SEEEF allows society to take an informed decision considering short/long term and local/global impacts of the design and the pertinent uncertainties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0163.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: design and fabrication framework; origami; topological design
Online: 19 March 2018 (12:53:53 CET)
Structure/material requires simultaneous consideration of both its design and manufacturing processes to dramatically enhance its manufacturability, assembly and maintainability. In this work, we present a novel design framework for structure/material with requested mechanical performances in virtue of the compelling properties of topological design and origami techniques. The framework comprises four procedures, including topological design, unfold, reduction manufacturing, and fold. Topological design method, i.e. Solid Isotropic Material Penalization (SIMP) method, serves to optimize the structure to achieve preferred mechanical characteristics and origami technique is exploited to make the structure rapidly and easily fabricated. Topological design and unfold procedures can be conveniently completed in a computer; then, reduction manufacturing, i.e. cutting, is performed to remove materials from the unfolded flat plate; the final structure is finally obtained by folding the plate of the previous procedure. A series of cantilevers, consisting of origami with parallel creases and Miura-ori (usually regarded as a metamaterial), made of paperboard are designed with least weight and required stiffness by using the proposed framework. The findings here furnish an alternative design framework for engineering structures which could be better than 3D printing technique, especially for large structures made of thin metal materials.
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: C-K Theory; Design Science Research; Design decisions; IT artefacts; WIM system design
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:55:36 CEST)
Concept Knowledge (C-K) theory has been used in engineering and science-based research for more than a decade. Design of an Information Technology (IT) artefact is mostly pragmatic in nature. Design Science Research (DSR) methodology applied and studied in many Information Systems (IS) research. Many sub design decisions involved through the design of an IT artefact from a concept (idea) to a working prototype. A DSR artefact is based on a combination of decisions made during several sub-design stages. Artefacts are built based on the selection of elements in each sub-design space. Recording the design decisions on each sub-design space would be beneficial for future researchers. By knowing the design decisions on each sub-design space, researchers would be able to try different combinations of the design. C-K theory provides the ability to capture the design processes’ several sub-design spaces. In this paper, we discuss the DSR research methodology by looking at the stages proposed in the literature, and the application of C-K theory in an IT-based DSR. This paper also proposed a C-K theory-based protocol called Concept Tree for tracking and reporting artefact design steps. The application of C-K theory in DSR is exhibited using the implementation of the Concept Tree for a prototype design IT artefact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0396.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: production process design; design for manufacturability; fuzzy logic
Online: 27 March 2020 (13:01:50 CET)
The paper presents design methodology for the production process of a new product from the point of view of the assembly operations technology criterion (Design for Assembly - DFA) in the conditions of high-volume production. Mentioned are DFA methods and techniques used in the implementation of a new product. Author presents a new method to assess design for manufacturability based on fuzzy variables based on fuzzy variables. An example was given to illustrate the proposed course of action
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0708.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: landscape design and planning; research-by-design; multifunctional agriculture
Online: 30 July 2021 (15:49:35 CEST)
Rural landscapes all over the world are subject to great transformations, first of all the continuous and slow depopulation of land and villages. It is a dramatic phenomenon that causes devastating consequences for environmental systems and for the tangible and intangible heritage of entire territories. The situation becomes more ambiguous when it comes to cultural landscapes, especially those internationally recognized as exceptional (i.e. inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List). In this case, the risk is to abandon agricultural production in favor of consumerist tourist economies, which can damage the territorial authenticity. In this paper we question the role of the landscape project in strengthening territorial resilience. In particular, a composite and interdependent action is proposed between landscape design and implementation of a multifunctional agriculture model, oriented towards teaching and tourism. To undertake this investigation, a master's thesis work on Landscape Architecture is examined, as an opportunity for a research-by-design method. The application case is the Italian UNESCO site of Vignale Monferrato, a depopulated rural village, characterized by abandoned land and buildings. The paper concludes by outlining replicability application scenarios for the proposed model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; drug design; covid-19; structure-based drug design; ligand-based drug design
Online: 2 March 2022 (03:00:37 CET)
The recent covid crisis has proven important lessons for academia and industry regarding digital reorganization. Among fascinating lessons from these times is the huge potential of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The crisis exponentially accelerated the adoption of analytics and artificial intelligence, and this momentum is predicted to continue into the 2020s and over. Moreover, drug development is a costly and time-consuming business, and only a minority of approved drugs return the revenue that exceeds the research and development costs. As a result, there is a huge drive to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. With modern algorithms and hardware, it is not too surprising that the new technologies of artificial intelligence and other computational simulation tools can help drug developers. In only two years of covid research, many novel molecules have been designed/identified using artificial intelligence methods with astonishing results in terms of time and effectiveness. This paper will review the most significant research on artificial intelligence in the de novo drug design for COVID-19 pharmaceutical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0558.v1
Online: 27 January 2021 (12:31:24 CET)
Additive manufacturing (AM) provides opportunities to design objects differently than traditional manufacturing methods allow, but only if designers understand the possibilities AM presents. In this study, we examined whether an AM workshop combined with an idea generation session could inspire engineering professionals to use AM solutions to solve current technical problems they face. All subjects were employees at an organization that will be referred to as Company X, a multinational commercial organization based in North America. During the study, we collected ideas for 24 projects generated before and after a training workshop focused on design for AM. In the workshop, we provided three hours of instruction about design for two metal-based AM processes. The participants’ ideas were assessed using four specific metrics: (1) cost, (2) time,(3) completeness of solution, and (4) quality, which was a function of feasibility, usefulness, and novelty. Using these data, we explored whether the workshop was effective in inspiring the participants to use AM methods and techniques from AM research in their concept generation and whether participants’ AM solutions showed improvement in cost, implementation time, and quality over non-AM designs generated before the workshop.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0539.v1
Online: 26 January 2021 (12:18:45 CET)
Traditional metals such as stainless steel, titanium and cobalt chrome are used in biomedical applications (implants, scaffolds etc.) but suffer from issues such as osseointegration and compatibility with existing bone. One way to improve traditional biomaterials is to incorporate ceramics with these metals so that their mechanical properties can be similar to cortical bones. Tricalcium phosphate is such a ceramic with properties so that it can be used in human body. This research explores the use of binder jetting based additive manufacturing process to create a novel biocomposite made of cobalt chrome and tricalcium phosphate. Experiments were conducted and processing parameters were varied to study their effect on the printing of this biocomposite. Layer thickness, binder saturation and drying time affected the dimensional tolerance and the density of the green samples. This effect is important to understand so that the material can be optimized for use in specific applications.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0057.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Media Studies Keywords: Artificial Intelligence; Deep Learning; Design Processes; Graphic Design; User Experience
Online: 3 February 2022 (15:17:15 CET)
Artificial Intelligence (AI) has many advantages over humans in that it can detect incredibly subtle patterns within large quantities of data. This study suggests using AI algorithms in user research tasks for mining variables ranging from the tone of voice, image banks, historical records, and product use to determine where brands sit and where there could be competitive advantages. This study reviews the current design processes of User Experience (UX) designers and the advancements in Deep Learning (DL). It identifies potential areas of automation in the Preparation, Incubation and Illumination stages of the design process. It recognises the possibility of using Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) models to automate design feedback and the creation of alternate designs with Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0572.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Digital Smile Design; digital dentistry; dentistry software; dentistry design software
Online: 21 April 2021 (11:46:39 CEST)
Without impacting the dental sciences, breakthroughs in technology and applications could not be accomplished. In the advancement of technology and information technology, dentistry and dental materials have been fully active, so much so that they have revolutionized dental techniques. Material & methods; We want to produce the first series of articles in this review on the use of digital techniques and software, such as Smile Concept Digital. The goal is to gather all the findings on the use of this program and to highlight the fields of use. The analysis included forty-nine articles, the latter discussing the use of Digital Smile Design and the area of use. The research aims to classify the dental fields are using "digitization." Change is constant in this field and will be increasing Interest in dentistry by recommending the speed and reliability of outcomes for care planning. Conclusion: As seen in the study, the digital workflow facilitates recovery that is reliable both from an aesthetic and functional point of view. The current area of use of Digital Smile Design techniques in the different branches of medicine and dentistry as well as knowledge have emerged from this research
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0012.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: polyurethane; polyol; Mixture design; Design of experiment; structure-properties relationship
Online: 2 July 2018 (12:52:57 CEST)
Polyurethanes are materials with a strong structure-property relationship. The goal of this research was to study the effect of a polyol blend composition of polyurethanes on its properties using a mixture design and setting mathematic models for each property. Water absorption, hydrolytic degradation, contact angle, tensile stretch, hardness and modulus were studied. Additionally, Thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Area under the curve was used to evaluate the effect of polyol blend composition on thermal stability and kinetics of water absorption and hydrolytic degradation. Least squares were used to calculate the regression coefficients. Models for the properties were significant, and lack of fit was not (P<0.05). Fit statistics suggest both good fitting and prediction. Water absorption, hydrolytic degradation and contact angle were mediated by the hydrophilic nature of the polyols. Tensile strength, modulus and hardness could be regulated by the molecular weight and hydroxyl index of the polyols. Regression of DTG curves from thermal analysis showed improvement of thermal stability with the increase of PCL and PE. An ANOVA test of the model terms demonstrated that three component effects on bulk properties like water absorption, hydrolytic degradation, hardness, tensile strength and modulus, and the PEG*PCL interaction with the contact angle, which is a surface property. Mixture design application allowed for an understanding of the structure-property relationship through mathematic models.
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: process design; sustainable development; chemical industry; process industry; megatrends; design tools
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:32:26 CET)
This paper describes the state of the art and future opportunities for process design and sustainable development. In the Introduction the main global megatrends and European Union's response to two of them, the European Green Deal, are presented. The organization of professionals in the field, their conferences and publications support the two topics. A brief analysis of the published documents in the two most popular databases shows that the environmental dimension predominates, followed by an economic one, while the social pillar of sustainable development is undervalued. The main design tools for sustainability are described. As an important practical case, the European chemical and process industries are analyzed and their achievements in sustainable development are highlighted; in particular, their strategies are presented in more detail. The conclusions cover the most urgent future development areas of the process industries, carbon capture with utilization or storage, process analysis, simulation, synthesis and optimization tools; zero waste, circular economy and resource efficiency already play an important role. However, more profound changes are needed in the coming decades, including a shift away from growth with changes in habits, lifestyles and business models. Lifelong education for sustainable development will play a very important role in the growth of democracy and happiness instead of consumerism and neoliberalism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0065.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Pile design; Fiber Reinforced Polymer; GFRP; FRP; Composite Piles; Bridge design
Online: 5 February 2020 (11:42:09 CET)
This paper deals with analyzing the structural responses of glass-fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP) tubes filled with recycled and concrete material for developing composite piles, as an alternative to traditional steel reinforced piles in bridge foundations. The Full-scale GFRP composite piles included three inner and outer layers, using a fiber-oriented material that was inclined longitudinally, almost 40 degrees from the horizontal axis of the pile. The segment between these two layers was inclined 80 degrees from the longitudinal axis of the tube. The behavior of the filled GFRP tubes was semi-linear, and resulted in increasing the total ductility and strength of the piles. Adjusting the material’s properties, such as the EAxial, EHoop, and Poisson ratios optimized the results. The lateral strength of the GFRP composite pile and pre-stressed piles are comparable in both axial and lateral loading conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0008.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: food packaging; customization; product design; personalized design; reverse engineering; CAD; FDM
Online: 3 January 2019 (10:53:30 CET)
In the context of food packaging design, customization enhances the value of a product by meeting the needs of the consumer. Personalization is also linked to adaptation. This makes it possible to improve the properties of the packaging from various points of view: functional, aesthetic, economic and ecological. Currently the functional and formal properties of packaging are not investigated among themselves, however the study of both properties are the basis for creating a new concept of personalized and sustainable product. In accordance with this approach, the conceptual design procedure of packaging with personalized and adapted geometries based on the digitization of fresh food is proposed in this work. This study is based on the application of advanced technologies for the design and development of food packaging, in this case apples, in order to improve the quality of the packaging. The results obtained show that it is possible to use advanced technologies in the early stages of product design in order to obtain competitive products adapted to new emerging needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: social media; social robots; negative mood; self-disclosure; intervention design; anthropomorphic design
Online: 16 June 2022 (06:11:48 CEST)
COVID-19 may not be a ‘youth disease’ but nevertheless impacts the life of young people dramatically, loneliness and negative mood being an unexpected additional pandemic. Many young people rely on social media for their feeling of connectedness with others. However, social media are suggested to have many negative effects on people’s anxiety. Instead of self-disclosing to others, design may develop alternatives to employ social robots for self-disclosure. In a follow-up on Duan et al. (2021), we report on a lab experiment of self-disclosing negative emotions to a social-media group as compared to writing a conventional diary journal or to talk to an AI-driven social robot after negative mood induction (i.e. viewing shocking earthquake footage). Participants benefitted the most from talking to a robot rather than from writing a journal page or sharing their feelings on social media. Self-disclosure on social media or writing a journal page did not differ significantly. In the design of interventions for mental well-being, human helpers thus far took center stage. Based on our results, we propose design alternatives for an empathic smart-home, featuring social robots and chatbots for alleviating stress and anxiety: a social-media interference chatbot, smart watch plus speaker, and a mirror for self-reflection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0149.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: organic electronics; organic semiconductors; molecular design; crystal design; π-stacking; charge mobility
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:23:32 CEST)
Chemical versatility of organic semiconductors provides nearly unlimited opportunities for tuning their electronic properties. However, despite decades of research, relationship between molecular structure, molecular packing and charge mobility in these materials remains poorly understood. This reduces the search for high-mobility organic semiconductors to the inefficient trial-and-error approach. For clarifying the abovementioned relationship, investigations of the effect of small changes in the chemical structure on OSs properties are particularly important. In this study, we address computationally the impact of substitution of C-H atom pairs by nitrogen atoms (N-substitution) on molecular properties, molecular packing and charge mobility of crystalline oligoacenes. Besides of decreasing frontier molecular orbital levels, N-substitution dramatically alters molecular electrostatic potential yielding pronounced electron-rich and electron-deficient areas. These changes in the molecular electrostatic potential strengthen face-to-face and edge-to-edge interactions in the corresponding crystals and result in the crossover from the herringbone packing motif to π-stacking. When the electron-rich and electron-deficient areas are large, sharply defined and, probably, have certain symmetry, charge mobility increases up to 3-4 cm2V-1s-1. The results obtained highlight the potential of azaacenes for application in organic electronic devices and are expected to facilitate rational design of organic semiconductors for steady improvement of organic electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0015.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: packaging design; product design; mechanical properties, thermoforming, tensile test, 3D printing, simulation
Online: 3 January 2019 (12:17:27 CET)
The increased consumption of food requiring thermoformed packaging means that the packaging industry demands customized solutions in terms of shapes and sizes to make the packaging unique. In particular, the food industry increasingly requires more transparent packaging, with greater clarity and a better presentation of the product features they contain. However, in turn, the differentiation of products is sought through the geometry and final finish of the product, as well as the arrangement of food inside the packaging. In addition, these types of packaging usually include ribs in the walls to improve physical properties, however they also affect the final aesthetics of the product. In accordance with this, this research study analyses by studying the mechanical properties of different relief geometries that can affect not only the aesthetics but also their strength. For this purpose, tensile and compression tests have been carried out. The results provide comparative data on the reliefs studied and show that there are different shapes, sizes and layout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: structural optimization; system design; artificial intelligence; morphological operations; topology optimization; structural design
Online: 26 January 2018 (07:23:02 CET)
Structural system design is the process of giving form to a set of interconnected components subjected to loads and design constraints while navigating a complex design space. While safe designs are relatively easy to develop, optimal designs are not. Modern computational optimization approaches employ population based metaheuristic algorithms to overcome challenges with the system design optimization landscape. However, the choice of the initial population, or ground structure, can have an outsized impact on the resulting optimization. This paper presents a new method of generating such ground structures, using a combination of topology optimization (TO) and a novel system extraction algorithm. Since TO generates monolithic structures, rather than systems, its use for structural system design and optimization has been limited. In this paper, truss systems are extracted from topologies through morphological analysis and artificial intelligence techniques. This algorithm, and its assessment, constitutes the key contributions of this paper. The structural systems obtained are compared with ground truth solutions to evaluate the performance of the algorithms. The generated structures are also compared against benchmark designs from the literature. The results indicate that the presented truss generation algorithm produces structures comparable to those generated through metaheuristic optimization, while mitigating the need for assumptions about initial ground structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0048.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Arena software, Discrete event simulation, Design of simulation experiment, Metamodeling, Regression metamodel, Simulation modeling, NYTIL, Resolution V design, Experimental design, Throughput
Online: 4 May 2020 (10:03:37 CEST)
The today competitive advantage of Ready-made garment industries depends on the ability to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of resource utilization. Ready-made garment industries have long historically adopted fewer technological and process advancement as compared to automotive, electronics and semiconductor industries. Simulation modeling of garment assembly line system has attracted a number of researchers as one way for insightful analysis of system behaviour and improving its performance. However, most of simulation studies have considered ill-defined experimental design which cannot fully explore the assembly line design alternatives and does not uncover the interaction effects of the input variables. Simulation metamodeling is an approach to assembly line design which has recently been of interest to so many researchers. However, its application in garment assembly line design has never been well explored. In this paper, simulation metamodeling of trouser assembly line with 72 operations has been demonstrated. The linear regression metamodel technique with resolution-V design was used. The effects of five factors: bundle size, job release policy, task assignment pattern, machine number and helper number on the production throughput of the trouser assembly line were studied. The increase of 28.63% of the production throughput was achieved for the best factors’ setting of the metamodel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0472.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: Entropy weight; VIKOR method; Head-up display; Interface design; Design evaluation; Scheme optimization
Online: 26 December 2022 (04:47:50 CET)
Background: With the trend of intelligent display, the interface design of in-vehicle HUD is an expanding research field; Methods: To solve the subjectivity and uncertainty in the optimization of HUD interface design schemes, this paper proposed a hybrid scheme evaluation and optimization method based on entropy weight and VIKOR. The entropy weight method was used to reduce the subjectivity the decision-maker's weighting and obtain the objective weight of each indicator; The VIKOR method was used to obtain the best ranking of alternative schemes, and then the optimal interface design scheme was selected; Results: The evaluation of in-vehicle HUD interface design schemes were taken as an example for verification and calculation. The results showed that this method considers the subjectivity and uncertainty of the decision-making process in the optimization of design scheme, which can effectively improve the objectivity and accuracy of the evaluation results, and provide a reference for designers to optimize interface design schemes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0517.v3
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Robust Design, Taguchi Method, Product Design, Manufacturing Systems, Quality Engineering, Quality Loss Function.
Online: 25 August 2022 (08:36:39 CEST)
One of the main technological and economic challenges for an engineer is designing high-quality products in manufacturing processes. Most of these processes involve a large number of variables included the setting of controllable (design) and uncontrollable (noise) variables. Robust Design (RD) method uses a collection of mathematical and statistical tools to study a large number of variables in the process with a minimum value of computational cost. Robust design method tries to make high-quality products according to customers’ viewpoints with an acceptable profit margin. This paper aims to provide a brief up-to-date review of the latest development of RD method particularly applied in manufacturing systems. The basic concepts of the quality loss function, orthogonal array, and crossed array design are explained. According to robust design approach, two classifications are presented, first for different types of factors, and second for different types of data. This classification plays an important role in determining the number of necessity replications for experiments and choose the best method for analyzing data. In addition, the combination of RD method with some other optimization methods applied in designing and optimizing of processes are discussed.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0129.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Digital Design; Digital Architecture; Image Processing; Machine learning; FPGA; Dedicated Design; Image Processor
Online: 14 April 2022 (05:09:47 CEST)
Many dedicated designs for real-time operations provide functionality on fixed-sized operators, but where speed, scalability, and flexibility are required, extensive research is demanded. Dedicated designs can provide real-time processing for many applications. This paper presents an FPGA-based design of a general image processor. The proposed design is based on a fixed-point representation of binary numbers. The proposed design provides a mechanism to manage matrices on-chip along with matrix arithmetic. The matrices are represented with simple identifiers and microinstruction that assist in the computation of many operations which are useful for solving complex problems. The design was successfully implemented and tested using VHDL language. The proposed design is an efficient architecture as a standalone processor with all embedding computational resources necessary for an embedded image processing application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0550.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Interdisciplinary co-design; healthcare design; exercise; low-back pain; older adult patients; rehabilitation
Online: 30 August 2021 (15:12:45 CEST)
This study presents three forms of interdisciplinary expertise in the healthcare design context to approach a particular multifaceted problem around the current healthcare for older adult patients with chronic low-back pain (LBP). Using an interdisciplinary co-design framework, first, our design approach performs the role of an initiator to define the problem by exploring the current context of healthcare. Second, it facilitates the experiences of experts and patients to reach the roots of the problem by functioning as a mediator. Third, our approach fulfills the primary role of healthcare design in producing new meanings considering the principles of patient-centeredness. These roles significantly contributed to the design of healthcare innovations. Our framework transformed the distributed disciplinary knowledge developed while tackling the multifaceted problem into new forms of expertise for collaboration in healthcare innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0690.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: : Artificial Intelligence; Generative Adversarial Network; Machine Learning; Computationl Design; Urban infill; Facade design
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:20:29 CEST)
Artificial Intelligence and especially machine learning have noticed rapid advancement on image processing operations. However, its involvement in the architectural design is still in its initial stages compared to other disciplines. Therefore, this paper addresses the issues of developing an integrated bottom up digital design approach and details a research framework for the incorporation of Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) for early stage design exploration and generation of intricate and complex alternative facade designs for urban infill. This paper proposes a novel building facade design by merging two neighboring building’s architecture style, size, scale, openings, as reference to create a new building design in the same neighborhood for urban infill. This newly produced building contains the outline, style and shape of the parent buildings. A 2D urban infill building design is generated as a picture where 1) neighboring buildings are imported as a reference using mobile phone and 2)iFACADE decode their spatial adjacency. It is depicted the iFACADE will be useful for designers in the early design stage to generate new façades depending on existing buildings in a short time that will save time and energy. Besides, building owners can use iFACADE to show their architects their preferred architecture facade by mixing two building styles and generating a new building. Therefore, it is depicted that iFACADE can become a communication platform in the early design stages between architects and owners. Initial results properly define a heuristic function for generating abstract design facade elements and sufficiently illustrate the desired functionality of our developed prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0251.v1
Online: 14 December 2022 (06:57:08 CET)
Since its introduction almost 50 years ago, the concept of ‘flow’ has been descriptive of optimal experiences, also in relation to play. However, the explorative nature of play leads to some discrepancies between flow and the optimal experience of play. In this paper the differences between flow and play are explored, leading to proposing the state of ‘wonder’ (directed at exploration) as an alternative to ‘flow’. From this perspective, the study further explores how we may design toys that enable meaningful experiences of play, identifying opportunities in designing for toys as the enablers of immersed experiences of wonder.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0259.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Microbiology; fashion; design; education; biotechnology
Online: 14 November 2022 (11:24:04 CET)
Fashion industry is the second most polluting industry in the world representing a 2 trillion dollars and growing valuation (Pal, 2017). This dual context makes its challenges hard to address. From one side, fashion design education and practice systems have been perpetuating an industrial-focused approach which relies mostly in the economic improvement through fast cycles of product development (Pal, 2017). On the other side, fashion industry has also been closed to either multidisciplinary and transdisciplinary initiatives outside the scope of the artistic disciplines. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to solve fashion industrial challenges. One of the most promising fields to tackle fashion current environment and technological problems is microbiology (Mazzoto et al., 2021). During the past 50 years, microbiology has played a vital role in solving human grand challenges in health, agriculture, food, and waste management sectors, and it also represents an opportunity for fashion industry as well. Microbiology biotechnological potential for the fashion industry relies mostly on the improvement of toxic waste bioremediation and the development of novel biomaterials and biomolecules. Moreover, the emergent field of synthetic biology is expanding the tools and approaches available, and they can already be seen in the development of engineered living materials that have functional properties (Mazzoto et al., 2021). Despite the urgent need for change, there is still a long way until a more sustainable fashion industry is achieved. Therefore, microbiological research and innovation need maturation to be able to scale-up and reach a global impact for tackling fashion industrial problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Stick-free flight stability; Flight dynamics; Modeling and simulation; Aircraft design; Aircraft design optimization
Online: 9 December 2022 (10:26:34 CET)
The stick-free flight stability is an old-fashioned and non-progressive issue; nevertheless, it is still existent, and of significant importance to the design of aircraft whose control system is reversible. The problem’s existence necessitates a deep assessment of stick-free flight stability throughout the aircraft design. Up to now, this problem has been addressed using either analytical approaches, which are only related to the static stability evaluation, or performing flight tests. In this study, the problem is handled in its entirety, from static and dynamic flight stability assessment to design criteria with a comprehensive perspective. Moreover, it is also exhibited that contrary to what has been generally proposed in the literature, limiting the problem of stick-free flight stability through static stability assessment is far from the main challenge. As a brief scope, the derivation of the control surface dynamics, a stick-free trim algorithm, and assessment rationale of the stick-free static and dynamic flight stability using a simulation approach are proposed. As a consequence, the aim is to set a broad understanding for designers related to this phenomenon and add adjunct design criteria in the design optimization process by approaching it in terms of modeling, simulation, and flight test perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: francis turbine; draft tube; optimization design; experiment of design; non–dominated sorting genetic algorithm
Online: 24 April 2017 (10:52:28 CEST)
In order to improve the performance of the draft tube in hydraulic turbine, a multi–objective optimization method for the draft tube is developed by combining the design of experiment (DOE), the radial basis function (RBF) and the non–dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA–II) in this paper. The geometrical design variables of the median section in the draft tube and the cross section in its exit diffuser are considered as design parameters in this optimization, which objective function is to maximize the pressure recovery factor (Cp) and minimize the energy loss coefficient (ζ). The limited numbers of design matrix required for the shape optimization of the draft tube is generated by optimal Latin hypercube (OLH) method of the DOE technique, of which performances are evaluated through computational fluid dynamic (CFD) numerical simulation. For reducing of the computational consumption, the approximate model is used based on the RBF. The Pareto optimal solutions are finally performed using the NSGA–II for obtaining the best geometrical parameters of the draft tube. The optimization result of the draft tube shows a marked performance improvement over the original, which verifies the theoretical validity and feasibility of the proposed method in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0031.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: user centred design; air pollution exposure campaign; report to participants; communication; focus group; design thinking
Online: 4 November 2021 (15:18:43 CET)
Using low-cost portable air quality (AQ) monitoring devices is a growing trend in personal exposure studies enabling a higher spatio-temporal resolution and identifying acute exposure to high concentrations. Comprehension of results by participants is not guaranteed in exposure studies. However, information on personal exposure is multiplex, which calls for participant involvement in information design to maximise communication output and comprehension. This study describes and proposes a model of a user centred design (UCD) approach for preparing a final report for participants involved in a multi-sensor personal exposure monitoring study performed in seven cities within the EU Horizon 2020 ICARUS project. Using a combination of human-centred design (HCD), human-information interaction (HII) and design thinking approaches, we iteratively included participants in the framing and design of the final report. User needs were mapped using a survey (n=82), and feedback on the draft report was obtained from a focus group (n=5). User requirements were assessed and validated using a post-campaign survey (n=31). The UCD research was conducted amongst participants in Ljubljana, Slovenia and the results report was distributed among the participating cities across Europe. The feedback received made it clear that the final report was well-received and helped participants better understand the influence of individual behaviours on personal exposure to air pollution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0652.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: quantified self; health; physical activity; behavior change; model; support system; persuasive design; user centered design
Online: 7 December 2020 (10:53:52 CET)
Since the emergence of the quantified self movement, users aim at health behavior change, but only those who are sufficiently motivated and competent with the tools will succeed. Our literature review shows that theoretical models for quantified self exist but they are too abstract to guide the design of effective user support systems. Here, we propose principles linking theory and implementation to arrive at a hierarchical model for an adaptable and personalized self-quantification system for physical activity support. We show that such a modeling approach should include a multi-factors user model (activity, context, personality, motivation), a hierarchy of multiple time scales (week, day, hour), and a multi-criteria decision analysis (user activity preference, user measured activity, external parameters). This theoretical groundwork, which should facilitate the design of more effective solutions, has now to be validated by further empirical research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: demographic change; barrier-free design; living space; quality of life; specific needs; modular home design
Online: 16 July 2018 (11:51:08 CEST)
In Europe we can see a change in the social structure in the last period. Average life expectancy has increased dramatically over the last 50 years. Because of the improved life situation and advanced level of health care, older people are slower. With advancing age, the likelihood of experiencing a variety of constraints such as visual impairment, reduced hearing or physical ability increases. In such a life stage tenants are often forced to leave their long-term living space because these homes can not serve "new" individual needs and the resulting personal protection goal. This transition from the privacy of their home to the new environment often appears to be a painful change. They will take their familiar and well-known surroundings, because their homes can not be adapted to serve new needs. It must be the policy’s role to create a new inclusive social space and the requirement for architects and designers to create new goals for the design of an adaptable environment. This is a comprehensive approach to the design of the outer and inner space that could serve people even if there is an unexpected situation and changes in movement and physiological limitations of older people. The contribution shows the results of the survey conducted in Germany and Slovakia. In the survey respondents expressed their opinion on what they considered important in creating an adaptive environment. Results are processed graphically with explanation. The results were mainly for designers and developers of the indoor environment. Based on the results of the questionnaire survey, studies of possible modifications in the interior of the flats were then prepared. The contribution yielded these results in three age groups of respondents; i. people aged 35, 50 and over 50.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Arm Prosthesis; Versatile Gripping; Design Process
Online: 3 October 2022 (12:59:58 CEST)
One of the biggest challenges in arm prosthesis design is to resemble normal hand functionality. Some of arm prosthesis try to mimic all hand movement, while other try to produce several main hand grip patterns. We design a Versatile Gripping Technology (VGT) from a basic whippletree mechanism to produce main hand grip patterns in arm prosthesis. VGT development is the result of abstraction, negation, and systemic variation process of existing solution. To validate VGT, we test it to produce six pattern of hand grip from Southampton Hand Assessment Procedure. VGT capable to produce lateral, power, tip, extension, and spherical grip. In other hand, VGT including the thumb movement and it only use one simple shape moving part. Thus, VGT is effective and efficient. With this result, we argue that abstraction, negation, and systemic variation process of existing solution can create a novel solution and it is applicable in another problem or domain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: direct nanoimprint; process design; deep learning
Online: 15 June 2022 (08:49:17 CEST)
A hybrid smart process and material design system for nanoimprinting is proposed, which combines with a learning system based on experimental and numerical simulation results. Instead of carrying out extensive learning experiments for various condition, the simulation learning results are partially complimented where the results can be theoretically predicted by numerical simulation. In other word, the lacking data in experimental learning are complimented by simulation-based learning results. Therefore, the prediction of nanoimprint results under various conditions without experimental learning could be realized even for unknown materials. In this study, material and process design for a low-temperature nanoimprint process using glycerol-containing polyvinyl alcohol are demonstrated. Experimental results under limited conditions are learned to investigate optimum Glycerol concentrations and process temperatures. On the other hand, simulation-based learning is used to predict the dependence on press pressure and shape parameters. The prediction results for unknown Glycerol concentrations agreed well with the follow-up experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0480.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: architecture; sustainability; sustainable development; sustainable design
Online: 25 November 2021 (14:43:15 CET)
Sustainability is a concept shrouded in abstraction. While we have definitions in existence, it is often difficult to explain the concept itself. The current definition of ‘sustainable development’ was given by the Brundtland Commission’s report in 1987. The Earth Summit at Rio in 1992 gave us Agenda 21, an action plan to achieve sustainable development. Now in the 21st century, philosophers, academicians, and researchers across the globe are paving the way for a new understanding of the term ‘sustainability’, its contextual nature, and its relation to humans, politics, and ecology. This article investigates the origins of the term ‘sustainability’, its derivatives, and the concept of sustainable development. A semantical analysis is carried out to understand the differences between ‘sustainability’ and ‘sustainable development’. Next, the development of the three pillars of sustainability and the application of these concepts in the field of architecture and design is also investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0789.v1
Online: 30 April 2021 (15:19:44 CEST)
Patriarchy culture is formed indirectly through a concept of a man as a head of family or the holder of the highest position. It leads to viewpoint that catcalling is assumed normally. Although catcalling seems like a compliment, but it is quite different with the exact compliment. The basic difference from them both is a compliment comes to sincerely from its giver, meanwhile catcalling is aimed to harass indirectly to women. This study aims to give an information and solution about the catcalling expansion in public areas especially by women community. The use of method to finish this study is qualitative design from literature sources for the last four years about problems of catcalling. The result of this study is giving information about catcalling by providing data and looking for solution related to catcalling phenomenon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0692.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Genetic algorithms, structures, algorithms, generative design
Online: 29 March 2021 (12:50:16 CEST)
The prevalence of algorithms and computational tools in the modern-day has intersected with nearly every field. Generative design, specifically those using genetic algorithms, is an increasingly effective, yet cost efficient way to generate architectural designs in modern engineering. Thus, we adopt a genetic algorithm model in pursuit of maximizing the durability of a structure when it is stressed while minimizing the material cost. After the model is formulated, the algorithm is able to approximate with high accuracy the load a small-scale structure is able to bear, as well as iterate upon its designs to maximize a fitness function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0484.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: color; indigo dyeing; sustainable design; clothing
Online: 22 February 2021 (15:24:30 CET)
Various colors of clothing originating from synthetic dyes are presently causing serious environmental pollution problems, whereas natural dyes extracted from natural indigo plants help reduce the harm to the environment and extend the sustainable use of clothing. This study focuses on the relation between indigo dyeing colors and the environment on the basis of sustainable design. The results reveal that light colors are considered to conform to the sustainable spirit more than dark colors in different indigo colors. In fact, the recyclable light-colored indigo dyeing t-shirt is beneficial in its reuse. Indigo dyeing fabric can be decomposed by a variety of microorganisms; however, the light-colored indigo dyeing takes a short time. Light colored indigo dyeing is more resource-saving when considering dye, water and electricity costs. The results of colors and environmental protection provide scheme references to consumers or industry for clothing collocation of different indigo dyeing colors for a series of blue clothing and carry out the ideal of the sustainability and co-existence between clothing and natural resources.
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: Ferry design; wave generation; ship hydrodynamics
Online: 14 January 2021 (07:54:26 CET)
In this paper, we revisit the hydrodynamics supporting the design and development of the RiverCat class of catamaran ferries operating in Sydney Harbor since 1991. More advanced software is used here. This software accounts for the hydrodynamics of the transom demisterns which experience partial or full ventilation, depending on the vessel speed. This ventilation gives rise to the hydrostatic drag, which adds to the total drag of the vessel. The presence of the transom also creates a hollow in the water. This hollow causes an effective hydrodynamic lengthening of the vessel, which leads to a reduction in the wave resistance. Hence a detailed analysis is required in order to optimize the size of the transom. It is demonstrated that the drag of the vessel and the wave generation can be predicted with good accuracy. Finally, the software is also used to optimize the vessel further by means of affine transformations of the hull geometry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: classroom design; higher education; Malaysia; undergraduate
Online: 7 August 2019 (05:56:20 CEST)
The design, facilities and conditions inside a classroom play a significant role in the teaching and learning experience for both students and lecturers. Prior studies of primary schoolchildren indicate three design principles affecting student learning, namely: naturalness, individualisation and stimulation. The current study extends these investigations to Higher Education through a survey of undergraduate students and university lecturers aimed at determining the most critical factors in undergraduate classroom design. One-to-one interviews were conducted with students and lecturers (n. 31) at the University of Nottingham, Malaysia Campus. Interviewees were encouraged to express their opinions, comments, concerns and suggestions through open-ended questions. The interviews were recorded and then transcribed and coded using NVivo10. Results show a strong desire among lecturers and students for improved classroom equipment, greater flexibility in classroom arrangement, more attractive decoration and for the addition of natural elements to the classroom environment. Of the three design principles, individualisation and naturalness emerged most strongly from the interviews and appear to be more important factors for undergraduates than stimulation. These findings could make a novel and significant contribution to the physical aspects of classroom design in Higher Education settings. Educational institutions are increasingly employing non-traditional classroom designs, which are expected to provide for more flexible, collaborative, and active learning and teaching experiences. Taking into consideration the environmental psychology of teaching and learning, several of the reported design attributes can serve as benchmarks for upgrading current classroom design and facilities in the future, as institutions look to upgrade their physical infrastructures to meet the changing demands of teachers and learners arising from technological innovations and shifts in our understanding of the methods and purposes of Higher Education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0520.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Service innovation; Design value; Value measurement
Online: 30 August 2018 (10:31:06 CEST)
1) Background: In service business areas, design enhances the customer experience through the elements which anticipate specific emotional responses of customers. Many service companies are keen to develop and examine design elements from the customer perspective. Furthermore, recently, having considered the significance of customers’ emotional responses by design elements, categorising design elements into manageable dimensions can facilitate the evaluation of design elements. However, design elements and dimensions of design value are not defined in the current service marketing literature, and companies need a measurement tool and managerial guideline to their innovative value creation and compelling service delivery. For these reasons, this research aims to categorise the design value dimensions and propose the managerial implication for the innovative use of design; 2) Methods: This study used the mixed methodology; two stages of interviews and SEM (Structural Equation Modelling); 3) Results: Interview analyses facilitate the identification of design elements in the service delivery process. SEM results underpin the relevance of the categorised design elements and their impact on customer loyalty by comparing different groups (country and time elapsed from experience); and 4) Conclusions: Findings are the fundamentals of developing measuring tool for design and trigger future studies for conceptualising intangible assets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0004.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydroxyapatite, xenografts; implant design; implant surface
Online: 1 June 2017 (06:19:41 CEST)
The aim of the present study was to monitor implant stability after sinus floor elevation with two biomaterials during the first 6 months of healing by a resonance frequency analysis (RFA), and how physico-chemical properties affect the implant stability quotient (ISQ) at the placement and healing sites. Bilateral maxillary sinus augmentation was performed in 10 patients in a split-mouth design using a bobine HA (BBM) as a control and porcine HA (PBM). Six months after sinus lifting, 60 implants were placed in the posterior maxilla. The ISQ was recorded on the day of surgery from RFA at T1 (baseline), T2 (3 months), and T3 (6 months). Statistically significant differences were found in the ISQ values during the evaluation period. The ISQ (baseline) was 63.8±2.97 for BBM and 62.6±2.11 for PBM. The ISQ (T2) was ~ 73.5±4.21 and 67±4.99, respectively. The ISQ (T3) was ~ 74.65±2.93 and 72.9±2.63, respectively. All the used HAs provide osseointegration and statistical increases in the ISQ at baseline, T2 and T3 (follow-up), respectively. The BBM, sintered at high temperature with high crystallinity and low porosity, presented higher stability, which demonstrates that variations in the physico-chemical properties of a bone substitute material clearly influence implant stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: process improvement; ewe’s cheese; systemic design
Online: 30 December 2016 (07:34:54 CET)
The research reported on this paper was aimed at improving the overall efficiency of a PDO certified artisanal cheese production process. Being a PDO certified foodstuff by the EU, it is considered to have properties and qualities determined by the geographical environment in which is made, with its production taking place in a specific and determined geographical location, in this case the Serra da Estrela region. In that sense, the authors conducted a mapping according to a systemic perspective of the processes involved in the context of manufacturing and distribution of certified Serra da Estrela cheese. Numerous methods were used throughout the process, such as a systemic design analysis, and techniques derived from ethnographic methods, which led to the collection of data in the field and consequently provided the immersion of the researcher in genuine work situations. Critical points were identified and emphasized in the systemic map with the purpose of encouraging initiatives to address and overcome the gaps and inefficiencies detected. The systemic design analysis triggered the development of design work. Observations following an ethnographic approach identified ergonomic risks in cheese making during the process of cutting excess chips, fostering the emergence of musculoskeletal disorders at the wrist. A tool that fits best to the task at hand was developed. A prototype of the new tool enabled collecting feedback from use in the work context, in order to inform product development. The domains of agricultural production and microbiology, considering the specific microorganisms developed trough the ripening process of the cheese, turned out to be aspects of high importance for the issue under focus, contributing to a broader understanding of the ripening process and its risks, simultaneously improving the efficiency and success of cheese production. If it were not for the systemic analysis, which served as a link between the boundaries of distinct domains such as the risk of microorganism contamination, ergonomics, energy efficiency, legislation and regulation policies, transportation challenges and economic viability, approached throughout the research. Simultaneously creating bridges between them, the various problems might not have been detected in the first place, as they are usually addressed in specialized disciplines, predetermined by the restrictions of each specific area of knowledge. As a consequence of the development of this research, which was based on an analysis that sought to establish possible connections between various disciplines and tried to constantly maintain a holistic perspective, making new connections and observing the issues from a new angle, apart from the already established methodologies. All this allowed to lay out the seeds for the development of a plan to tackle the critical points identified by the systemic analysis reported in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0266.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: Asian architecture; Asian heritage; China; Japan; Urban Design; Garden and Landscape Design; Reformation of the Arts.
Online: 15 September 2021 (14:50:54 CEST)
With this article we would like to clarify the often-disregarded fact by virtue of which the European Missionaries in Asia acted as catalysts of a kind of nuanced acculturation named Accommodatio (adaptation). To a great extent they became harbingers of Culture and Science more than Faith itself to the dismay of many, including the Roman Church. Such cultural and scientific transference was actually two-pronged, for simultaneously they presented in Europe unique findings related to Language, e.g. the Chinese Characters (considered to be the sole natural language), Geography, Cosmology and even Governance. We would try to prove that such procedure contributed positively to the modern scientific notions of sustainability and to provide the kind of accoutrements that model the modern world as we know it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: 3D printing (3DP), Construction processes, Architectural design, Concrete Engineering, Numerical Modelling, Arch-Roof, High-density polyethylene (HDPE), Additive manufacturing (AM), Computer-aided design (CAD), Manufacture, Design, Sustainability
Online: 14 November 2018 (10:39:43 CET)
Three-dimensional (3D) printing technologies are transforming the design and manufacture of components and products across a variety of disciplines, however their application in the construction industry is still limited. Material deposition processes can achieve infinite geometries and have advanced from rapid prototyping and model-scale markets to their application in fabricating functional products, large objects and the construction of full-scale buildings. Many international projects have recently been realized and the construction industry is beginning to utilise these dynamic technologies. The potential advantages for integrating 3D printing into house construction are significant, these include the capacity for mass customization of designs and parameters for functional and aesthetic purposes, reduction in construction waste from highly precise material placement, and the use of recycled waste products in layer deposition materials. With the ultimate goal of improving construction efficiency and decreasing building costs, applying Strand7 Finite Element Analysis software, a numerical model was designed specifically for 3D printing in a cement mix incorporated with recycled waste product High Density Polyethylene (HDPE) and found that construction of an arched truss-like roof was structurally feasible without the need for steel reinforcements. The lab sizes prototypes were manufactured based on the destined numerical model by using a 3D printing technology. Currently available 3D printing technologies can be adopted for building construction and this paper discusses the applications, advantages, limitations and future directions of 3D printing as an innovative and viable solution for affordable house construction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0201.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ligand-based pharmacophores; structure-based pharmacophores; virtual screening; drug design; machine learning; molecular dynamics; de novo design
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:10:58 CEST)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are amongst the most pharmaceutically relevant and well-studied protein targets, yet unanswered questions in the field leave significant gaps in our understanding of their nuanced structure and function. 3D pharmacophore models are powerful computational tools in silico drug discovery, presenting myriad opportunities for the integration of GPCR structural biology and cheminformatics. This review highlights success stories in the application of 3D pharmacophore modeling to de novo drug design, discovery of biased and allosteric ligands, scaffold hopping, QSAR analysis, hit-to-lead optimization, GPCR de-orphanization, mechanistic understanding of GPCR pharmacology and elucidation of ligand-receptor interactions. Furthermore, advances in the incorporation of dynamics and machine learning will be highlighted. The review will analyze challenges in the field of GPCR drug discovery, detailing how 3D pharmacophore modeling can be used to address them. Finally, we will present opportunities afforded by 3D pharmacophore modeling in the advancement of our understanding and targeting of GPCRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0006.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; protein design; complementarity; competitive inhibitor; homology-based threading in rational protein design
Online: 4 March 2021 (10:14:39 CET)
COVID-19 is characterized by an unprecedented abrupt increase in the viral transmission rate (SARS-CoV-2) relative to its pandemic evolutionary ancestor, SARS-CoV (2003). The complex molecular cascade of events related to the viral pathogenicity is triggered by the Spike protein upon interacting with the ACE2 receptor on human lung cells through its receptor binding domain (RBDSpike). One potential therapeutic strategy to combat COVID-19 could thus be limiting the infection by blocking this key interaction. In this current study, we adopt a protein design approach to predict and propose non-virulent structural mimics of the RBDSpike which can potentially serve as its competitive inhibitors in binding to ACE2. The RBDSpike is an independently foldable protein domain, resilient to conformational changes upon mutations and therefore an attractive target for strategic re-design. Interestingly, in spite of displaying an optimal shape fit between their interacting surfaces (attributed to a consequently high mutual affinity), the RBDSpike–ACE2 interaction appears to have a quasi-stable character due to a poor electrostatic match at their interface. Structural analyses of homologous protein complexes reveal that the ACE2 binding site of RBDSpike has an unusually high degree of solvent-exposed hydrophobic residues, attributed to key evolutionary changes, making it inherently ‘reaction-prone’. The designed mimics aimed to block the viral entry by occupying the available binding sites on ACE2, are tested to have signatures of stable high-affinity binding with ACE2 (cross-validated by appropriate free energy estimates), overriding the native quasi-stable feature. The results show the apt of directly adapting natural examples in rational protein design, wherein, homology-based threading coupled with strategic ‘hydrophobic ↔ polar’ mutations serve as a potential breakthrough.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:37:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0505.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: computer thinking; game design; programming; review; robotics
Online: 27 January 2023 (12:04:52 CET)
This study presents review of 7580 papers in 13 academic journals, published from January 2015 to January 2020. After a detailed analysis of all papers, 46 papers were further selected showing research on a student population aged between 6 and 15 years old. In order for the paper to be included in the research, the condition was that the paper deals with teaching at least one of the following content areas: programming languages, game design, computer thinking (CT), algorithmic thinking and robotics programming. This study shows the representation of the listed content area in reviewed papers for the specified time period as well as a detailed analysis of the selected papers. Available data about study, participants and education level, country (first author), learning domain, teaching tools, research questions, hypothesis, pre/post-test results, interviews, control groups, course duration, research design, previous experience, project or grant and re-search purpose in detected papers were analysed. In addition, impact of studying some of the listed content areas on student learning performance, motivation, attitude and perception were investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0369.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 20 December 2022 (14:58:41 CET)
Questionnaires are useful instruments for gathering responses to specific factual questions. However, the problems of questionnaire responses impede the effective use of the questionnaire. Some of these problems including non-responses, non-completion, issues of judgement, and social desirability such as information that the respondent is not willing to disclose need to be dealt with. The situation is more compounded in a scenario where an information security practice study in a typical hospital consists of broad categories of respondents and the survey findings are to be relied on to actually address information security compliance issues. This study, therefore, shares "pitfalls" to watch when preparing a questionnaire to measure the information security practice level in a hospital which is characterized by different respondents with varying domain knowledge such as knowledge in information security, information communication technology, and that of the domain knowledge of healthcare. A synergy of a conventional pretesting method and behaviour coding were therefore used to pretest the questionnaire. Questionnaire problems including a lack of understanding of the healthcare information systems’ structure of all hospitals, unclear questions, the insignificant difference between questions, problematic questions, inadequate questions, and complex terms were among the identified pitfalls to watch. Out of a total of 118 questionnaire items that were used in the pretesting, a total of 50 questionnaire items (representing 42%) were identified to have problems after the pretesting was conducted with a total of 36 respondents in behavior coding and 21 respondents in conventional pretesting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: industry 4.0; sensors; sensor technologies; product design
Online: 5 December 2022 (02:16:25 CET)
The fourth industrial revolution, also known as Industry 4.0, has led to an increased transition towards automation and reliance on data-driven innovations and strategies. Companies in the manufacturing sector are heavily integrating Industry 4.0 technologies, including cloud compu-ting, cyber-physical systems (CPS), big data analytics, horizontal and vertical system integration, the internet of things (IoT), and additive manufacturing (3d printing). The interconnected systems and processes have significantly increased operational efficiency, enhanced organizational capacity to monitor and control functions, reduced costs, and improved product quality. One significant way that companies have achieved these benefits is by integrating diverse sensor technologies within these innovations, allowing critical data collection on products, equipment performance, and maintenance. The sensors connect systems and machines, allowing them to communicate and track operations for enhanced operations. While numerous research has been conducted to show the role of sensors in industry 4.0, limited studies show how these innovations can leverage product design to maximize benefits and opportunities. Given the rapidly changing market conditions, Industry 4.0 requires new products and business models to ensure companies adjust to the current and future changes. These requirements call for the evolutions in product design processes to accommodate design features and principles applicable in the current dynamic business environment. This research paper employs a systematic bibliometric literature review (LRSB) methodology to explore and synthesize data on how Industry 4.0 and sensors can leverage product design. The results show that various product design features create opportunities to be leveraged to guarantee the success of Industry 4.0 and sensor technologies. However, the research also identifies numerous challenges that undermine the ongoing transition towards intelligent factories and products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: hippotherapy; horse riding simulator; mechanical horse design
Online: 19 October 2022 (07:31:52 CEST)
Hippotherapy is a popular rehabilitation method for children with cerebral palsy (CP), which is done by riding an actual horse or a horse riding simulator (HRS) device. Riding a real horse is more expensive than using an HRS device due to its high maintenance cost. However, most HRS devices commonly sold in the market are designed as exercise devices, not rehabilitation devices. Most of them are designed to simulate a horse's walk, trot, canter, or gallop gait at various speeds. Hippotherapy aims to improve the walking ability of CP patients. Therefore, the device should aim to replicate the walking gait of a healthy human, the end goal of hippotherapy. This problem motivates us to design and build a specialized HRS device replicating the walking gait of a healthy human that is suitable for hippotherapy, which is achievable by simulating a horse walking gait with several adjustments. We first studied and observed the walking gait cycle of a horse, then analyzed and derived a formulation of it. We then continue by designing an HRS device using a single electrical rotational motor and mechanical means to replicate the walking gait of a horse, then tune it to an extent to replicate a human walking gait. To measure the performance of our design, we compare the gait of the user when riding our device versus walking.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: Rehabilitation; new technology; validation; study design; methods
Online: 3 June 2022 (11:12:44 CEST)
Important current limitations of the implementation of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) in the rehabilitation field are related to the validation process of new technologies and interventions. Indeed, most of the strict guidelines that have been developed for the validation of new drugs (i.e., double or triple blinded, strict control of the doses and intensity) cannot – or only partially – be applied in rehabilitation. Well powered high quality randomized controlled trials are more difficult to organize in rehabilitation (e.g., longer duration of the intervention in rehabilitation, more difficult to standardize the intervention compared to drugs’ validation studies, limited funding’s since not sponsorized by big pharma companies), which reduces the possibility of conducting systematic reviews and meta-analyses, as currently high level of evidence is sparse. The current limitations of EBP in rehabilitation are presented in this paper and innovative solutions are suggested such as: technology-supported rehabilitation systems, continuous assessment, pragmatic trials, rehabilitation treatment specification systems, and advanced statistical methods, to tackle the limitations to increase the quality of the research in rehabilitation. The development and implementation of new technologies should increase the quality of research and the level of evidence supporting rehabilitation provided some adaptation in our research methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0247.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Security practice; Healthcare; Questionnaire design; Questionnaire pretesting
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:47:36 CET)
Recent reports have it that over 85\% of data breaches are still caused by the human element, of which healthcare is one of the suitable organizations mostly targeted by cybercriminals. The work of healthcare staff is often associated with high workloads, high emergency cases, and a broad range of psychological, social, and cultural factors. The significance of these factors could undermine conscious care information security (IS) practice leading to serious violations. This study comprehensively examined the correlation between the psycho-social-cultural factors, work factors with IS and privacy behaviour in a hospital that has fully adopted electronic health records (EHR) management system. The findings are to facilitate the decision-making process towards improving the cyber-security practice in healthcare. A quantitative approach was adopted where we collected responses from 212 healthcare staff through an online questionnaire survey. A broad range of constructs was selected from psychological, social, cultural perception and work factors based on earlier review work. These were therefore related to some security practices, to assess the IS knowledge, attitude and behaviour gaps among healthcare staff in a comprehensive way. From the study, IS self-reported conscious care behaviour (ISCCB) risk was relatively higher as compared to information security knowledge (ISK) risks and information security attitude (ISA) risk. Furthermore, the study revealed that work emergency has a positive correlation with ISCCB (r=1.95, p-value =0.001) risk. Conscientiousness also had positive correlation with ISCCB risk (r=0.157, p-value=0.05) however agreeableness negatively correlated with ISK risk (r=-0.166, p-value =0.05), and ISA risk (r=-0.140, p-value =0.05). Based on these findings, intrinsic and extrinsic motivation methods combined with cutting-edge technologies can be explored to discourage IS risks behaviours while enhancing conscious care security practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0036.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Electrophile; Drug Design; Covalent Drug; Chemical Biology
Online: 19 October 2021 (10:28:15 CEST)
Of the manifold concepts in drug discovery and design, covalent drugs have re-emerged as one of the most promising over the past 20-or so years. All such drugs harness the ability of a covalent bond to drive an interaction between a target biomolecule, typically a protein, and a small molecule. Formation of a covalent bond necessarily prolongs target engagement, opening avenues to targeting shallower binding sites, protein complexes, and other difficult to drug manifolds, amongst other virtues. This opinion piece discusses frameworks around which to develop covalent drugs. Our argument, based on results from our research program on natural electrophile signaling, is that targeting specific residues innately involved in native signaling programs are ideally poised to be targeted by covalent drugs. We outline ways to identify electrophile-sensing residues, and discuss how studying ramifications of innate signaling by endogenous molecules can provide a means to predict drug mechanism and function and assess on- versus off-target behaviors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0698.v1
Online: 30 July 2021 (11:43:12 CEST)
Background: In an age where information is generally accessible, most of the interest these days has focused on how accessible and convenient technology can be. So small and personal, mobile devices can transform our perception of learning by combining both mobility and convenience. Mobile learning is part of the digital learning landscape alongside e-learning and serious games. However, knowledge about effective design of mobile learning experiences remains of interest with a focus on appropriate design models and the embodiments that can be implemented to achieve the intended educational outcomes. Exploring the instructor's perspective on mobile learning is essential. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the Moroccan instructors' perception and practice of mobile learning to inform the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Methods: Higher education Instructors (n=41) were recruited to the study. The Moroccan instructors' perception and their experiences regarding their adoption of mobile learning were collected using an online survey. The analysis focused on their mobile use, perceived IT competency, and opinions on mobile learning. Results: We described most of the instructors' considerations regarding integrating mobile technologies into their teaching activities. We found that most of the mobile learning activities defined by the respondents corresponded to relatively advanced use of mobile devices. More promising, instructors have found innovative ways to use the educational potential of mobile devices. However, the prospect of mobile devices was still to challenge. No or poor Wi-Fi connection, number of devices or limited access, sometimes fees or applications incompatibility were identified as reasons and obstacles to mobile learning usage. Conclusion: Mobile learning is mostly perceived positively among Moroccan instructors allowing many applications and usage to enhance teaching and learning. In this study, a better understanding of aspects and factors influencing the integration of mobile learning in the Moroccan educational context is exposed, helping further the development of an ecologically valid mobile learning integration model. Future work on mobile learning should consider the highly paced evolution of mobile technologies, emphasizing the flexibility of integration frameworks to support instructors and learners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0061.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: robot-tutelage; social robots; multiplications; experience design
Online: 2 December 2020 (11:46:37 CET)
In the design of educational robots, it seems undecided whether robots should show social behaviors and look human-like or that such cues are indifferent to learning. We conducted an experiment with different designs of social robots, rehearsing the multiplication tables with primary school children in Hong Kong. Results show that affective bonding tendencies may occur but did not significantly contribute to the learning progress of these children, perhaps due to the short interaction period. Nonetheless, 5 minutes of robot tutoring improved their scores with about 30% and only for a few challenged children, performance dropped. We discuss that topics such as teaching language skills may be fostered by human likeness in appearance and behaviors but that for STEM-related subjects, the social aspects of robots hardly matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0388.v1
Online: 17 July 2020 (15:10:26 CEST)
Innovative interventions in the planning and design of stair and escalator facilities call for understanding their effects on stair use. This study considers five planning variables for the twinned stair and escalator facilities–stair pitch and width, angle of deviation, height and separating distance. Public sites were identified in 8 commercial districts in Beijing. Facilities (n=21) presenting heterogeneously across variables were sampled for simultaneous up and down pedestrian counts in 18 5-minute video segments middays, for a total of 1464 counts. Stair width accounts for 20% of the variance in ascending rate and 10% in descending. Plan angle accounts for 2% in ascending and 5% in descending, while pitch accounts for 1% in ascending and 5% in descending. The study confirms the effects of layout and design of stairway and escalator facilities on facility choice. The results point directly to interventions in support of higher stair-climbing rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0036.v1
Online: 4 June 2020 (13:35:40 CEST)
The masonry building Heritage is appreciated for its aesthetic and historical value all around the world. The widespread presence of curved elements, such as arch, vault and dome express the relevant constructive abilities in the different historical epochs. These curved elements are characterized by architectural beauty, structural strength (especially against the gravity loads), thermal comfort and fire resistance. On the other hand, curved structures required scaffolding in order to be erected. The design, the construction and the dismantling of the scaffolds is typically time-consuming and expensive. In addition, the on-site working risk is related to time-interferences (e.g. in manpower working, at the same time, over and under scaffold). This technology dates back to the Era of the Roman Empire and it is currently still used, despite its limitations and disadvantages. In the present paper, an innovative technique (recently patented), aiming for the construction of a curved structural member without scaffolds, is proposed and illustrated. It consists in a Hinged Lifting Arch (HLA), using FRP (Fiber Reinforced Polymer) bonded strips. In details, a series of blocks are cut following an arch geometry and then aligned on the ground-floor in order to bond a composite on their top surface. Moreover, the impregnation of the polymeric adhesive is not allowed at the extremities of each block. The fiber sheet is applied continuously along the entire extrados. In this sense, hinges are introduced, in fact, the FRP-connected blocks are able to easily rotate, in the opposite direction, around the contact ends (i.e. hinge). Finally, the middle block is lifted-up and the arch takes the desiderated shape. In the first experimental demonstration, the natural calcareous stone was used, even if the proposed technique is totally material-independent. Moreover, an analytical model is proposed and discussed for designing the proper aspect ratio of the blocks in order to ensure the full mutual contact when the HLA is totally lifted up. The advantages of the proposed technique are related to the absence of scaffolds and improved seismic strength against horizontal loads thanks to the presence of the FRP, which limits the occurrence of hinges at the extrados.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0452.v1
Online: 27 May 2020 (12:10:45 CEST)
The assessment of positive emotional states in animals has been advanced considerably through the use of judgement bias testing. JBT methods have now been reported in a range of species. Generally, these tests show good validity as ascertained through use of corroborating methods of affective state determination. However, published reports of judgement bias task findings can be counter-intuitive and show high inter-individual variability. It is proposed that these outcomes may arise as a result of inherent inter- and intra-individual differences as a result of biology. This review discusses the potential impact of sex and reproductive cycles, social status, genetics, early life experience and personality on judgement bias test outcomes. We also discuss some aspects of test design that may interact with these factors to further confound test interpretation. There is some evidence that a range of biological factors affect judgement bias test outcomes, but in many cases this evidence is limited and needs further characterisation to reproduce the findings and confirm directions of effect. It is our proposition that researchers should consider dedicated study on these factors and their impact on judgement biasing. This is needed to confirm effect and investigate mechanisms. Alternately, consideration and reporting of these factors in JBT studies through incorporation in statistical analyses will provide much needed additional data on their impact. These actions will enhance the validity and practical applicability of the JBT for welfare assessment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0241.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: security; hardware design; trust; cryptography; Anomaly Detection
Online: 17 February 2020 (07:06:07 CET)
Critical Infrastructures and associated real time Informational systems need some security protection mechanisms that will be able to detect and respond to possible attacks. For this reason, Anomaly Detection Systems (ADS), as part of a Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) system, are needed for constantly monitoring and identifying potential threats inside an Information Technology (IT) System. Typically, ADS collect information from various sources within a CI system using security sensors or agents and correlate those information so as to identify anomaly events. Such sensors though in a CI setting (factories, power plants, remote locations) may be placed in open areas and left unattended thus becoming targets themselves of security attacks. They can be tampering and malicious manipulated so that they provide false data that may lead an ADS or SIEM system to falsely comprehend the CI current security status. In this paper, we describe existing approaches on security monitoring in critical infrastructures and focus on how to collect security sensor - agent information in a secure and trusted way. We then introduce the concept of hardware assisted security sensor information collection that improve the level if trust (by hardware means) and also increase the responsiveness of the sensor. Thus, we propose a Hardware Security Token (HST) that when connected to a CI Host, it acts as a secure anchor for security agent information collection. We describe the HST functionality, its association with a host device, its expected role and its log monitoring mechanism. We also provide information on how security can be established between the Host device and the HST.Then, we introduce and describe the necessary Host components that need to be established in order to guarantee a high security level and correct HST functionality. We, also provide a realization-implementation of the HST overall concept in a FPGA SoC evaluation board and describe how the HST implementation can controlled. Finally, we provide indicative use case scenarios of how the HST can be used in practice to provide a variety of different security services beyond acting as a secure ADS sensor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0273.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: configuration design; PMO; calculation; solidified structure refinement
Online: 24 November 2019 (12:52:59 CET)
This paper outlines our effort on optimizing Pulsed Magneto-Oscillation (PMO) design in order to improve the efficiency of ingot manufacturing under PMO. Our calculation and experiment provided optimized PMO coil design and special configuration. Our optimized PMO design offered us a device that enabled the operator to examine and operate the melt without losing the efficiency. In one of the designs, the equipment even refined the grain sizes. Our work also showed an optimized distance range between the coil and the melt surface that maximized the refinement effects.
Subject: Chemistry, General & Theoretical Chemistry Keywords: structure prediction; Rosetta; computational modeling; protein design
Online: 16 October 2019 (05:40:52 CEST)
The Rosetta software suite for macromolecular modeling, docking, and design is widely used in pharmaceutical, industrial, academic, non-profit, and government laboratories. Considering its broad modeling capabilities, Rosetta consistently ranks highly when compared to other leading methods created for highly specialized protein modeling and design tasks. Developed for over two decades by a global community of scientists at more than 60 institutions, Rosetta has undergone multiple refactorings, and now comprises over three million lines of code. Here we discuss the methods developed in the last five years, involving the latest protocols for structure prediction, protein–protein and protein–small molecule docking, protein structure and interface design, loop modeling, the incorporation of various types of experimental data, and modeling of peptides, antibodies and other proteins in the immune system, nucleic acids, non-standard amino acids, carbohydrates, and membrane proteins. We briefly discuss improvements to the energy function, user interfaces, and usability of the software. Rosetta is available at www.rosettacommons.org.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0281.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: algorithm; heat-pump; drying; food; design; optimization
Online: 17 September 2019 (15:27:08 CEST)
Drying food involves complex physical atmospheric mechanisms with non-linear relations from the air-food interactions and those relations are strongly dependent on the moisture contents and the type of food. Such dependence makes it complex to design suitable dryers dedicated to a single drying process. To streamline the design of a novel compact food-drying machine, a heat pump dryer component design optimization algorithm was developed as a subprogram of a Computer Aided Engineering tool. The algorithm requires inputting food and air properties, the volume of the drying container and the technical specifications of the heat-pump off-the shelf components. The heat required to dehumidify the food supplied by the heat exchange process from condenser to evaporator, and the compressor’s requirements (refrigerant mass flow rate and operating pressures) are then calculated. Compressors can then be selected based in the volume and type of food to be dried. The algorithm is shown via a flow chart to guide the user through 3 different stages: Changes in drying air properties, Heat flow within dryer and Product moisture content. Example results of how different compressors are selected for different type of produces and quantities (Agaricus Blazei mushroom with 3 different moisture contents or fish from Thunnini tribe) conclude this article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: amyloid diseases; biocomputing; drug design; natural antiamyloids
Online: 8 August 2018 (04:27:10 CEST)
Amyloids result from the aggregation of several unrelated proteins, due to either specific mutations or promoting intra- or extra-cellular conditions. Structurally, they are rich in intermolecular β-sheets and are the causative agents of several diseases, both neurodegenerative and systemic. It is believed that the most toxic species are small aggregates, referred to as oligomers, rather than the final fibrillar assemblies. Their mechanisms of toxicity are mostly mediated by aberrant interactions with the cell membranes, with resulting derangement of membrane-related functions. Much effort is being put in the search for natural antiamyloid agents, and/or in the development of synthetic molecules. Actually, it is well documented that the prevention of amyloid aggregation results in several cytoprotective effects. Here, we portray the state of the art in the field. Several natural compounds are effective antiamyloid agents, notably tetracyclines and polyphenols. They are generally non-specific, as documented by their partially overlapping mechanisms, and the capability to interfere with the aggregation of several unrelated proteins. Among rationally designed molecules, we mention the prominent examples of β-breakers peptides, whole antibodies and fragments thereof, and the special case of drugs contrasting transthyretin aggregation. In this framework, we stress the pivotal role of the computational approaches. When combined with biophysical methods, in several cases they have helped clarify in detail the protein/drug modes of interaction, which make it plausible that more effective drugs will be developed in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0153.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: asymmetrical rotors, synchronous machine design, surrogate optimization.
Online: 11 April 2018 (14:12:01 CEST)
This paper introduces a new rotor design for the easy insertion and removal of the rotor windings. The shape of the rotor is optimized based on surrogate method in order to achieve the lowest power loss under the maximum power output. The performance of the new rotor is examined in 2-D finite element software and validated by experiments. This rotor shows good potentials for reducing the maintenance and repair costs of synchronous machines, making it suitable for manufacturers within the mass production markets such as gen-sets, steam turbines, wind power generators and hybrid electric vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0045.v1
Online: 5 May 2017 (05:29:10 CEST)
Dump design and scheduling are critical elements to effective mine planning, especially if several of them are required in large-scale open pit mines. Infrastructure capital and transportation costs are considerable from an early stage in the mining project, and through the life-of-mine as these dumps gradually become immense structures. Delivered mining rates, as well as certain spatial and physical constraints, provide a set of parameters of mathematical and economic relationship that creates opportunities for modelling and thus facilitates the measuring and optimization of ultimate dump design by using programming and empirical techniques while achieving economic objectives. This paper presents a methodology to model and optimize the design of a mine dump by minimizing the total haulage costs. The proposed methodology consists on: (i) Formulation of a dump model based on a system of equations relying on multiple relevant parameters; (ii) Solves by minimizing the total cost using linear programming and determines a ‘preliminary’ dump design; (iii) Through a series of iterations, modifies the ‘preliminary’ footprint by projecting it to the topography and creates the ultimate dump design. Finally, an example application for a waste rock dump illustrates this methodology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0049.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: design optimization; axial compressor blade; Sweep angle; Taper; Dihedral angles; Aero elasticity; multidisciplinary design optimization; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 6 May 2019 (10:29:25 CEST)
In this study, an optimization of the first blade in new test rig presented. Blade tuning is conducted using 3D geometrical parameters. Sweep and dihedral play an essential role in this study. Compressor characteristics and blades vibrational behavior are the main objective of the evaluation. Here, the attachments are designed to isolate blade dynamics from Disk. So, the Vibrational behaviors of the one's blade are tuned based on the self-excited and forced vibration phenomenon. Using a semi analytical MATLAB code instability conditions are satisfied. The code takes advantages of whitehead and force response theory to predict classically and stall flutter speeds. Beside, Forced vibrations instability is controlled using a theory presented by Campbell. Aerodynamics of new blade geometry determined using multistage simulations Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Numerical results show increasing performance near the surge line and working interval along with increasing mass flow.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0054.v2
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: product design; design defect; robust statistics; nonparametric statistics; model uncertainty; optimization; liability; tortious product liability; strict product liability
Online: 17 December 2017 (08:48:29 CET)
Statistical modeling lies at the heart of product design and development throughout numerous engineering disciplines, especially since processing large amounts of data has become increasingly ubiquitous. While mathematical statistics provide elegant guidance pertaining to the question of whether or not some particular underlying modeling assumptions are justified and appropriate, when pursuing a more comprehensive assessment of product design and development other considerations often increase in significance. Therefore, we will examine and analyze the tedious interactions and implications of statistical modeling choices and product liability exposure. To the best of our knowledge, this paper is the first to draw attention to and explore some often overlooked or oversimplified dangers and pitfalls that enter the equation when product design heavily relies on statistical modeling. In particular, through a diligent analysis of both statistical and legal aspects we will explore how statistically optimal procedures may yield far from optimal outcomes in terms of product liability when applied to actual real life problems and why suboptimal nonparametric or robust approaches may constitute better alternatives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0326.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hydrogen propulsion; aircraft design; conceptual integration; performance assessment
Online: 23 June 2022 (15:59:12 CEST)
The present paper deals with the investigation, at conceptual level, of the performance of short-medium-range aircraft with hydrogen propulsion. The attention is focused on the relationship between figures of merit related to transport capability, such as passenger capacity and flight range, and the parameters which drive the design of liquid hydrogen tanks and their integration with a given aircraft geometry. The reference aircraft chosen for such purpose is a box-wing short-medium-range airplane, object of study within a previous European research project called PARSIFAL, capable to cut the fuel consumption per passenger-kilometre up to 22%. By adopting a retrofitting approach, non-integral pressure vessels are sized to fit into the fuselage of the reference aircraft, under the assumption that the main aerodynamic, flight mechanic and structural characteristics are not affected. A parametric model is introduced to generate a wide variety of fuselage-tank cross-section layouts, from a single tank with the maximum diameter compatible with a catwalk corridor to multiple tanks located in the cargo deck , and an assessment work-flow is implemented to perform the structural sizing of the tanks and analyse their thermodynamic behaviour during the mission. This latter is simulated with a time-marching approach that couples the fuel request from engines with the thermodynamics of the hydrogen in the tanks, which is constantly subject to evaporation and, depending on the internal pressure, vent-ed-out in gas form. Each model is presented in detail in the paper and results are provided through sensitivity analyses to both the technology parameters of the tanks and the geometric parameters influencing their integration. The guidelines resulting from the analyses indicate that light materials, such as the Aluminium alloy AA2219 for tanks’ structure and polystyrene foam for the insulation, should be selected. Preferred values are also indicted for the aspect ratios of the vessel components, i.e. central tube and endcaps, as well as suggestions for the integration layout to be adopted depending on the desired trade-off between passenger capacity, as for the case of multiple tanks in the cargo deck, and achievable flight ranges, as for the single tank in the section.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0307.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Architecture And Design Keywords: creative relations; biomimicry; design method; creativity; innovation; aptness
Online: 22 June 2022 (07:37:14 CEST)
Prospective end-users rated aptness, creativity, and innovativeness of biomimetic examples that featured different relationships to create combinations (e.g., used for) between nature and technology. Against common theorizing, similarity was not the most profound for creativity but rather appearance, being part_of, and property_of were. Creativity explained most of the variance in the level of innovation with aptness of the design in a strong supporting role. The focus of conceptualization shifted from ‘creation as new things coming from new ideas’ to ‘innovation as new ideas leading to new things.’ Results are interpreted in the Chinese context of utility. Both in education and industry, the use of 5*5 research grids with rating scales may work as a design method to develop and select functional variants during early design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0205.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: city trees; landscape design; nursery production; urban greenspace
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:38:21 CEST)
While many practitioners and experts understand the risks associated with low urban tree diversity, they often lack the ability to rectify issues they encounter on their own. The current system of tree production and procurement is complex – shaped by market pressures, nursery and site constraints, local governance, and differing professional objectives among those who grow, specify, and plant trees. To understand this complexity as well as constraints to- and opportunities for increasing urban tree diversity, we conducted a series of focus groups comprised of nursery growers, landscape architects, and urban foresters. Our results highlight a significant list of considerations and constraints to diversity (both shared among green industries and some specific to growers or purchasers). More importantly, in discussing our findings we outline actionable strategies for increasing urban tree diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0128.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Nash equilibria; Mechanism design; Artificial inference; Global learning
Online: 31 January 2022 (11:19:04 CET)
This paper presents an extension of the results obtained in previous work concerning the application of global optimization techniques to the design of finite strategic games with mixed strategies. In that publication the Fuzzy ASA global optimization method was applied to many examples of synthesis of strategic games with one previously specified Nash equilibrium, evidencing its ability in finding payoff functions whose respective games present those equilibria, possibly among others. That is to say, it was shown it is possible to establish in advance a Nash equilibrium for a generic finite state strategic game and to compute payoff functions that will make it feasible to reach the chosen equilibrium, allowing players to converge to the desired profile, con- sidering that it is an equilibrium of the game as well. Going beyond this state of affairs, the present article shows that it is possible to ”impose” multiple Nash equilibria to finite strategic games by following the same reasoning as before, but with a fundamental change: using the same fundamental theorem of Richard McKelvey, modifying the originally prescribed objective function and globally minimizing it. The proposed method, in principle, is able to find payoff functions that result in games featuring an arbitrary number of Nash equilibria, paving the way to a substantial number of potential applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0275.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Physics simulations; Neural Networks; Electronic design; Heat equation
Online: 16 December 2021 (14:55:05 CET)
Thermal simulations are an important part in the design of electronic systems, especially as systems with high power density become common. In simulation-based design approaches, a considerable amount of time is spent by repeated simulations. In this work, we present a proof-of-concept study of the application of convolutional neural networks to accelerate those thermal simulations. The goal is not to replace standard simulation tools but to provide a method to quickly select promising samples for more detailed investigations. Based on a training set of randomly generated circuits with corresponding Finite Element solutions, the full 3D steady-state temperature field is estimated using a fully convolutional neural network. A custom network architecture is proposed which captures the long-range correlations present in heat conduction problems. We test the network on a separate dataset and find that the mean relative error is around 2 % and the typical evaluation time is 35 ms per sample ( 2 ms for evaluation, 33 ms for data transfer). The benefit of this neural-network-based approach is that, once training is completed, the network can be applied to any system within the design space spanned by the randomised training dataset (which includes different components, material properties, different positioning of components on a PCB, etc.).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0373.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Linguistics Keywords: review; article; perception; practice; challenge; design; methodology; findings
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:32:03 CEST)
This review paper aimed at reviewing English language teaching articles on EFL teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching. In this review, two ELT articles, which have been conducted on teachers’ perceptions, practices and challenges towards communicative language teaching in EFL classes, were reviewed in detail. While reviewing the articles, the researcher adapted Rideley’s (2008) checklist to evaluate elements of article. Thus, articles were reviewed by focusing on the title, abstract, introduction, research questions, objectives, research design, participants, sample and sampling techniques, data collecting instruments, methods of data analyses, findings and references based on the checklist provided above. The review revealed that the articles had clear objectives, researchable questions, appropriate methods and inevitable conclusions. They tried to answer the questions which were raised in each article, and the objectives went along with the overall research findings. The review, on the other hand, revealed that the participants in the articles were not representative so as to conclude and generalize the overall population by taking only few participants which were selected even by using non probability sampling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0275.v1
Online: 16 September 2021 (11:02:38 CEST)
Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations model motion of molecules in atomistic detail and aid in drug design. While simulations on large systems may require several days to complete, analysis of terabytes of data generated in the process could also be time consuming. Recent studies captured exciting and dramatic drug-receptor interactions under cell-like complex conditions. Such advances make simulations of biomolecular interactions more realistic, insightful, and informative and have potential to make drug design more realistic. However, currently available resources and techniques do not provide, in reasonable time, a comprehensive understanding of events seen in simulations. We demonstrate that big data approach results in significant speedups, and provides rapid insights into simulations performed. Advancing this improvement, we propose a scalable, self-tuning, and responsive framework based on Cloud-infrastructure to accomplish the best possible MD studies with given priorities and within available resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0737.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: adaptive design; sustainability of construction; BIM environment; formwork
Online: 29 December 2020 (16:44:42 CET)
Progressive technologies and practices are shifting the possibilities of building design and improving work efficiency. Constantly changing site conditions require different procedures and designs that take into account these changing conditions, whether it is a design solution, a change in environmental conditions, or just sustainability factors. Adaptive building design offers opportunities to cope with changing factors to achieve the highest possible level of building quality. This case study deals with the topic of adaptive formwork design for building renovation, taking into account sustainability. Aim of the article is an investigation and demonstration of the building information modelling (BIM) environment used for the adaptive design of formwork elements for the building renovation in the context of sustainability. The object of the case study is a building in the center of Kosice, Slovakia. BIM environment allows prompt and correct adaptation of the formwork design to changing conditions of lighting, ventilation, heating and temperature during the design of the building.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0572.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: arena; design; evacuation time; fire safety; computer simulation
Online: 23 December 2020 (09:01:47 CET)
The designs of two large arenas of different epochs are discussed, which are the most famous antique amphitheater the Roman Colosseum (Italy) and the modern Gazprom Arena stadium (St. Petersburg, Russia). 3D-computer models of the arenas have been built and evacuation of people has been simulated in the Sigma FS software (Russia). The arena designs are analyzed in terms of organizing pedestrian evacuation, a comparative analysis is made, and the specific characteristics affecting the evacuation time are established.
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: creativity; ideation; architectural design studio; education; systematic review
Online: 17 December 2020 (11:58:29 CET)
Creativity is fundamental to design problem-solving. This paper sets out a systematic review of the literature in relation to its role in the architectural design studio in order to identify central issues that impact upon this activity. Challenges and best practice in relation to systematic reviews are outlined, and the procedure followed in this context is set out in detail. This involves an iterative evaluation process that resulted in a pool of 17 papers for analysis. Eleven themes emerged in the analysis of the papers, which were organized into 5 key categories dealing with: pedagogy, cognitive approach, interaction and socialization, information representation, and measuring ideation and creativity. A discussion of these categories contributed to the comparison and connections between the selected papers, and the identification of critical issues and directions for promoting creativity in the architectural design studio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0035.v1
Online: 4 November 2020 (10:01:36 CET)
The aim of this paper is to analyze the five grand parks in Dubai, United Arab Emirates (UAE) and provide a geoprocessing approach to different aspects such as sport, health, leisure, recreation, and public wellbeing. The study uses a hybrid of qualitative and quantitative approach as methodology. Sustainability offerings, accessibility for people of determination and special needs, typology and the geolocations of the grand parks plays crucial role in residents’ wellbeing. The paper concludes with recommendations for Dubai government to design new and innovative approaches to manage wellbeing of urban public places into the leisure environment for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0176.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Virtual Reality; Learning Analytics; STEM Education; Instructional Design.
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:02:32 CEST)
The commercial popularity of Virtual Reality attracted educators’ interest and brought new opportunities to the educational landscape. At the same time, Learning Analytics emerged with the promise to revolutionise the traditional practices by introducing ways to systematically assess and improve the effectiveness of instruction. However, the collection of ‘big’ educational data is mostly associated with web-based platforms as they offer direct access to learners’ activities with minimal effort. On the antipode, the nature of VR limits the opportunities for such data collection. Hence, in the context of this work, we present a four-dimensional theoretical framework, that accounts the information that can be gathered from VR-supported instruction, and propose a set of structural elements which can be utilised for the development of a Learning Analytics prototype system. The outcomes of this work are expected to support practitioners to maximise the potential of their interventions and provide inspiration for new ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: performance-based building design; PBBD; high-rise residential.
Online: 7 July 2020 (09:46:46 CEST)
The complexity of the design in high-rise residential projects is a challenge for the construction industry in completing projects that fit the needs of users. Performance-Based Building Design (PBBD) appears as a design concept that can describe these needs into performance requirements. In this case designing a building can be considered as an iterative process of exploration, where desired functional properties can be created, the shapes are suggested, and evaluation processes is used, so as to bring together the shapes and functions of the building. This concept is a container for designers to produce high-performance buildings. This study aimed to identify the performance-based building design factors applied by architect designers and engineers in high-rise residential building in Surabaya. As part of this study, primary data was collected based on surveys conducted through observation and questionnaire distributed to designers who had or were involved in the high-rise residential design process in Surabaya. A total of sixty-eight respondents were included in this study. Descriptive analysis through a mean and standard deviation scatter plot was used to rank the application of PBBD. Meanwhile, factor analysis was used in the analysis of PBBD application factors. From the results of the analysis, four factors were obtained for the application of PBBD in high-rise residential buildings in Surabaya, namely; the interests of occupants, the sustainability of building operations, the design collaboration process, and the risk of loss. Future research is the influence relationships and measure the success model of PBBD at a higher level into BIM (Building Information Modeling) interoperability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: methodology; exoskeleton; upper limb rehabilitation; design; digital twin
Online: 14 June 2020 (03:27:20 CEST)
This article presents a methodology for the design of rehabilitation devices that considers factors involved in a clinical environment. This methodology integrates different disciplines that work together. The methodology is composed by 3 phases and 13 stages with specific tasks, the first phase includes the clinical context considering the requirements of the patient and therapist during the rehabilitation, the second phase is focused in engineering based on the philosophy of digital twin, and in the third phase is evaluated the device. This article explains the characteristics of the methodology and how it was applied in the design of an exoskeleton for passive rehabilitation of the upper limb.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Electrophoretic deposition; design of experiment; hydroxyapatite; chitosan; antibacterial
Online: 15 May 2020 (10:01:20 CEST)
In this study, silver-strontium doped hydroxyapatite (AgSr-HA)/chitosan composite coatings were deposited on stainless steel (SS) substrate via electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique. The EPD parameters such as the concentration of Ag Sr-HA particles in the suspension, applied voltage and deposition time were optimized on by the Taguchi Design of Experiment (DoE) approach. DOE approach elucidated that the “best” coating was obtained at; the deposition voltage of 20V, deposition time of 7 minutes, and at 5 g/L of Ag Sr-HA particles in the suspension. The optimum coatings were characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy. SEM images confirmed the deposition of chitosan/Ag Sr-HA on the SS substrate. The wettability studies indicated the hydrophilic nature of the chitosan/Ag Sr-HA coatings, which confirmed the suitability of the developed coatings for orthopedic applications. The average surface roughness of the chitosan/Ag Sr-HA coatings was in a suitable range for the attachment of bone marrow stromal cells. Chitosan/Ag Sr-HA coatings showed a potent antibacterial effect against the Gram-Positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0072.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: census; survey design; household survey; LMIC; WorldPop; LandScan
Online: 19 April 2020 (08:09:23 CEST)
Objective: In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), household survey data are a main source of information for planning, evaluation, and decision-making. Standard surveys are based on censuses, however, for many LMICs it has been more than ten years since their last census and they face high urban growth rates. Over the last decade, survey designers have begun to use modelled gridded population estimates as sample frames. We summarize the state of the emerging field of gridded population survey sampling, focussing on LMICs. Methods: We performed a systematic review and identified 43 national and sub-national gridded population-based household surveys implemented across 29 LMICs. Findings: Gridded population surveys used automated and manual approaches to derive clusters from WorldPop and LandScan gridded population estimates. After sampling, many surveys interviewed all households in each cluster or segment, though some sampled households from larger clusters. Tools to select gridded population survey clusters include the GridSample R package, Geo-sampling tool, and GridSample.org. In the field, gridded population surveys generally relied on geographically accurate maps based on satellite imagery or OpenStreetMap, and a tablet or GPS technology for navigation. Conclusions: For gridded population survey sampling to be adopted more widely, several strategic questions need answering regarding cell-level accuracy and uncertainty of gridded population estimates, the methods used to group/split cells into sample frame units, design effects of new sample designs, and feasibility of tools and methods to implement surveys across diverse settings.
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: chiroptical systems; theoretical simulations, chiral design; sensing applications
Online: 30 January 2020 (12:28:25 CET)
Chiroptical responses have been an essential tool over the last decades for chemical structural elucidation due to their exceptional sensitivity to geometry and intermolecular interactions. In recent times, there has been an increasing interest for the search of more efficient sensing by the rational design of tailored chiroptical systems. In this Review article, advances on chiroptical systems towards their implementation in sensing applications are summarized. Strategies to generate chiroptical responses are illustrated. Theoretical approaches to assist in the design of these systems are discussed. Development of efficient chiroptical reporters in different states of matter, essential for the implementation in sensing devises, is reviewed. In the last part, remarkable examples of chiroptical sensing applications are highlighted.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Local Scour; Sediment; Bridge Design; Pier Geometry; ANN
Online: 2 September 2019 (10:29:42 CEST)
Scouring is the most common cause of bridge failure. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) in determining scour depth around composite bridge piers. The experimental data, attained in different conditions and various pile cap locations, were used to obtain the ANN model and to compare the results of the model with most well-known empirical, HEC-18 and FDOT, methods. The data were divided into training and evaluation sets. The ANN models were trained using the experimental data, and their efficiency was evaluated using statistical test. The results showed that to estimate scour at the composite piers, feedforward propagation network with three neurons in the hidden layer and hyperbolic sigmoid tangent transfer function was with the highest accuracy. The results also indicated a better estimation of the scour depth by the proposed ANN than the empirical methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0268.v1
Online: 28 February 2019 (11:30:13 CET)
The Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was isolated in 2012 and is well known to cause the respiratory syndrome. The orf1ab gene is known to mediate MERS-CoV replication. In this study, we have discussed the in silico prediction of potential siRNAs targeting MERS-CoV-orf1ab gene for antiviral therapeutics. To identify the potential siRNAs, various factors were considered. We have excluded the siRNAs with off-target effects and potential binding with human mRNAs. By using available softwares, total twenty-one functional, off-target reduced potential siRNA were selected from four hundred and sixty-two siRNAs based on greater potency and specificity. We have tested only seven siRNAs initially to evaluate their performance by reverse transfection approach by lipofectamine mediated delivery in Vero cells. The evaluation results showed no cytotoxicity at various concentrations of siRNAs used. The results obtained in this study provided preliminary information about the cytotoxicity which will help us to further evaluate siRNAs in other cell cultures to find out the replication inhibition efficiency of MERS-CoV. Finally, it is concluded that the in silico prediction and designing resulted in filtration and selection of potential siRNAs with high accuracy, efficiency, and strength which can be further utilized for the development of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Built Environment, Design Decisions, Vector Borne Diseases, Malaria
Online: 5 November 2018 (11:01:08 CET)
Although significant efforts have been made to combat the spread of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), they still account for more than 17% of all infectious diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there were 216 million estimated cases in 2016, which is a 9.3% decrease from the estimated cases reported one decade earlier. It is known that the built environment, through features such as openings, can propagate the spread of malaria. There have been some significant efforts directed at addressing this risk. This notwithstanding, there are some knowledge gaps that have resulted in a missed opportunity for synergistically tackling the problem of vectors through leveraging design decisions made by built environment professionals. This work assesses the extent to which design decisions in the built environment can have a positive impact on the efforts directed at mitigating the risk of malaria based on selected cases from East Africa. Secondary data derived from relevant urban health journals as well as repositories curated by leading health agencies such as WHO were synthesized and analyzed using a web of causation approach. The outcome of the analysis is a schema of primary and secondary source (risk) factors. The use of the web of causation approach revealed the existing factor-to-factor interactions that could have a reinforcing effect. This information was used to identify the critical linkages and interdependencies across different factors. The outcome of the analysis was mapped against risk factors that can be linked to decisions made during the six primary phases of the construction life cycle: preliminary phase, conceptual design, detailed design, construction, facilities management, and end of life/disuse. The findings of the research have established that 1) there is, in fact, a built environment–related opportunity that can be leveraged to advance the impact of malaria mitigation effort; 2) cross-disciplinary synergies are critical to managing the interdependencies and complexity of malaria risk factors that have a reinforcing effect; and 3) a knowledge-management framework that serves as a decision support tool would be valuable for sharing data under a push-and-pull mechanism, in which data shared in real time can address the timeliness of mitigating the spread of malaria at the earliest stages for the greatest impact. Based on the findings, a conceptual architecture for a decision support framework has been proposed. This will be developed into a knowledge-management platform in subsequent efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0086.v1
Online: 5 November 2018 (06:51:04 CET)
Objective: This paper aims to build an Effort Estimation Model for design, coding and testing Web Applications Based Fuzzy and Practical Models, which will help in optimizing the efforts in software development. Methods/Analysis: Soft computing approach is adopted and applied in the effort estimation and then compared with practical efforts in the development process with interpreting the historical data available for the existing functionalities. Findings: The effort estimation model presented in this paper focuses on the first level estimates published by Project Managers and the second level estimates presented by Project Leaders or Developers for any new requirement or enhancement for a web application built on 3-tier architecture using Microsoft technologies. The model considers the classification of each task as either Low or Medium or High complexity. These tasks pertain to the lowest level parts in bottom-up estimation. Efforts are estimated for designing, coding and unit testing of these tasks and the efforts are summed up to get the effort estimation for the higher level which is a feature to be implemented. Novelty/Improvement: The paper also discusses about the application of the effort estimation model by taking a new requirement as a case study. The first level estimates calculated using the effort estimation model has a variance of about 25% when compared with the actual effort. This variance is very much acceptable considering the fact that the first level estimates can be tolerable up to 35%. The proposed effort estimation tool would help the project managers to efficiently control the project, manage the resources effectively, and improve the software development process and also trade off analyses among schedule, performance, quality and functionality. Fuzzy logic is used to verify the claims made in efforts estimation. It is proposed a new relation between the number of data and efforts value membership for actual data. And converts it into crisp value in the range [0…1] which helps to classify the complexity of the task and subtask in the design, coding and testing phases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0220.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: metabolic strain design; heuristic optimization; constraint-based modeling
Online: 27 March 2018 (05:55:32 CEST)
To date, several independent methods and algorithms exist exploiting constraint-based stoichiometric models to find metabolic engineering strategies that optimize microbial production performance. Optimization procedures based on metaheuristics facilitate a straightforward adaption and expansion of engineering objectives as well as fitness functions, while being particularly suited for solving problems of high complexity. With the increasing interest in multi-scale models and a need for solving advanced engineering problems, we strive to advance genetic algorithms, which stand out due to their intuitive optimization principles and proven usefulness in this field of research. A drawback of genetic algorithms is that premature convergence to sub-optimal solutions easily occurs if the optimization parameters are not adapted to the specific problem. Here, we conducted comprehensive parameter sensitivity analyses to study their impact on finding optimal strain designs. We further demonstrate the capability of genetic algorithms to simultaneously handle (i) multiple, non-linear engineering objectives, (ii) the identification of gene target-sets according to logical gene-protein-reaction associations, (iii) minimization of the number of network perturbations, and (iv) the insertion of non-native reactions, while employing genome-scale metabolic models. This framework adds a level of sophistication in terms of strain design robustness, which is exemplarily tested on succinate overproduction in Escherichia coli.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0167.v1
Online: 26 February 2018 (12:07:42 CET)
Planning, development and design policies influence sense of safety of people touse the City centre or Central Business District (CBD) and therefore city centres can becomeactive and vibrant during the day and night. This paper reviews past and present planningpolicies relevant for feeling of personal safety in the context of housing, retail, amenities,street infrastructure, building design and transportation aspects. The past development trendsshow that insignificant attention has been paid to people's sense of safety when using publicspaces, particularly at night, a factor identified important in creating attractive city centressince 1960s. Local plans primarily refer to safety in relation to roads, accessibility andworkability. Local policies also show the dominance of CCTV since the 1990s has becomeubiquitous, but changes to sense of safety in urban spaces now may actually be a betterreflection of planning and design decisions made over the past 20 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0004.v1
Online: 1 September 2017 (18:01:32 CEST)
Museums and Science Centres are informal education environments that intend to engage the visitors with their exhibits. We present an efficient design process that allows an improved working relationship between museum practitioners, exhibition designers, and visitors. We present the principles and a graphical representation based on the Engagement Profile from previous work. Elements of the design process are evaluated using a learning game at the science centre Engineerium. The evaluation is based on a study with over five hundred visitors to the science centre.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Band-gap voltage reference; voltage reference; circuit design
Online: 29 December 2016 (15:47:33 CET)
By using 0.35-um CMOS process, this work achieves a design of analogous band-gap reference voltage circuit with low temperature coefficient. The proposed circuit operates at 3V and generates a reference current of 44 uA. The HSPICE simulation results show the temperature coefficient of this circuit is 23 ppm/℃ at range of -10 ℃ to 100 ℃, and the line regulation (the ratio of output current variation to supply voltage variation) is estimated as 1.95 uA/V from supply voltage variation of 3 V to 5 V. The experimental chip is fabricated and measured. The circuit provides adjustable capability for output voltage among temperature variation of -10 - 100 ℃. The chip area is 534 × 695 um^2. In this new design, the operational amplifier is not necessary. The chip design effort can be great reduced.