ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee; deformed wing virus; RNA virus vector; invertebrate virus; virus evolution; pollination; food security
Online: 23 February 2020 (12:15:14 CET)
We developed a honey bee RNA-virus vector based on the genome of a picorna-like Deformed wing virus (DWV), the main viral pathogen of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). To test the potential of DWV to be utilized as a vector, the 717 nt sequence coding for the enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP), flanked by the peptides targeted by viral protease, was inserted into an infectious cDNA clone of DWV in-frame between the leader protein and the virus structural protein VP2 genes. The in vitro RNA transcripts from egfp-tagged DWV cDNA clones were infectious when injected into honey bee pupae. Stable DWV particles containing genomic RNA of the recovered DWV with egfp inserts were produced, as evidenced by cesium chloride density gradient centrifugation. These particles were infectious to honey bee pupae when injected intra-abdominally. Fluorescent microscopy showed GFP expression in the infected cells and Western blot analysis demonstrated accumulation of free eGFP rather than its fusions with DWV LP and/or VP2 proteins. Analysis of the progeny egfp-tagged DWV showed gradual accumulation of genome deletions for egfp, providing estimates for the rate of loss of a non-essential gene an insect RNA virus genome during natural infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0181.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: honey bee virus; Hymenoptera; insect cell culture; cell lines; Apis mellifera; Deformed wing virus
Online: 12 February 2020 (09:06:34 CET)
With ongoing colony losses driven in part by the Varroa mite and the associated exacerbation of virus load, there is an urgent need to protect honey bees (Apis mellifera) from fatal levels of virus infection and from nontarget effects of insecticides used in agricultural settings. A continuously replicating cell line derived from the honey bee would provide a valuable tool for study of molecular mechanisms of virus – host interaction, for screening of antiviral agents for potential use within the hive, and for assessment of the risk of current and candidate insecticides to the honey bee. However, the establishment of a continuously replicating, honey bee cell line has proved challenging. Here we provide an overview of attempts to establish primary and continuously replicating hymenopteran cell lines, methods (including recent results) for establishing honey bee cell lines, challenges associated with the presence of latent viruses (especially Deformed wing virus), in established cell lines and methods to establish virus-free cell lines. We also describe the potential use of honey bee cell lines in conjunction with infectious clones of honey bee viruses for examination of fundamental virology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0543.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: Deformed theories of gravity; Noncommutative geometry; Curved spacetime; Relativity and gravitation; Deformed Spacetime Curvature
Online: 7 June 2023 (11:06:17 CEST)
When generalized noncommutative Heisenberg algebra accommodating impacts of finite gravitational fields as specified by loop quantum gravity, doubly–special relativity, and string theory, for instance, is thoughtfully applied to the eight-dimensional manifold (M8), the generalization of the Riemannian manifold becomes imminent. By constructing the deformed affine connections on a four-dimensional Riemannian manifold, we have determined the minimal length deformation of Riemann curvature tensor and its contractions, the Ricci curvature tensor, and Ricci scalar. Consequently, we have been able to construct the deformed Einstein tensor. As in Einstein’s classical theory of general relativity, we have proved that the covariant derivative of the deformed Einstein tensor vanishes, as well. We conclude that the minimal length correction suggests a correction to the spacetime curvature which is manifest in the additional curvature terms of the corrected Riemann tensor and its contractions. Accordingly, the spacetime curvature endows additional curvature and geometrical structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0102.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: virtual displacement principle; deformed object; constitutive relationship; analytical mechanics
Online: 1 June 2023 (14:02:19 CEST)
Analytical mechanics is the most basic discipline. The basic principles of analytical mechanics should also be applicable to general deformed objects. However, the virtual displacement principle proposed by analytical mechanics is only applicable to particle systems and rigid body systems, but not to general deformed objects. In this paper, the generalized virtual displacement principle of general deformed objects (such as, elastic objects, plastic objects, elasto-platic objects and flexible objects etc ) is derived by the method of analytical mechanics, which is also applicable to particle systems and rigid body systems. First of all, according to the method of analytical mechanics, the external force, internal force, constraint reaction force and elastic recovery force of the deformed object system under the equilibrium state are analyzed, and the concepts of virtual displacement, ideal constraint and virtual work are introduced, and the generalized virtual displacement principle (also called generalized virtual work principle) of deformed objects is proposed; secondly, vector form, coordinate component form and generalized coordinate form of generalized virtual displacement principle of deformed object are given; thirdly, as the application of the principle, the virtual displacement principle of deformed objects in plane polar coordinate system, space cylindrical coordinate system and spherical coordinate system is given; finally, a brief conclusion is drawn. This work unifies the virtual displacement principle of elastic object, plastic, elastoplastic etc deformed object systems and rigid object systems with the basic method of analytical mechanics. It is a basic principle for dealing with the static problems of deformed objects. This work also lays a foundation for the further study of the dynamics of deformed object systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0549.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Near-bank patch; Deformed bed topography; Flow adjustment; Hydrodynamics
Online: 27 October 2020 (11:39:40 CET)
Understanding how the deformed bed topography induced by near-bank vegetation impacts the hydrodynamics is significant for understanding the maintenance condition of bed morphology and further fluvial evolution. This issue has rarely been addressed by current studies. This study with a 2D hydro-morphological model investigates the hydrodynamics over flat and deformed beds with a near-bank vegetation patch. By varying the patch density, the generalized results show that the hydrodynamics for the deformed bed differs a lot from those for the flat bed. It is found that deformed bed topography leads to an apparent decrease in longitudinal velocity and bed shear stress in the open region and longitudinal surface gradient for the entire vegetated reach. However, the transverse flow motion and transverse surface gradient in the region of the leading edge and trailing edge is enhanced or maintained, suggesting the strengthening of secondary flows. Interestingly, the deformed bed topography tends to alleviate the turbulent effect caused by the junction-interface horizontal coherent vortices, indicating that the turbulence-induced flow mixing is highly inhibited by the deformed bed. Alternatively, the enhanced secondary flows might provide compensation for the flow mixing for the deformed bed, confirmed by a faster recovery of the redistributed water discharge for the vegetated and open regions to the normal value (50%). The interior flow adjustment through the patch for the deformed bed requires a shorter distance, which links the vegetative drag length with a logarithmic relation. The tilting bed topographic effect in the open region to accelerate the flow may account for the faster flow adjustment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0128.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal effect; in-plane switching
Online: 11 October 2019 (05:42:43 CEST)
In-plane electro-optical switching (IPS) is a natural feature of a conventional planar aligned display cell based on deformed helix ferroelectric liquid crystal effect (DHFLC-effect) with sub-wavelength helix pitch if the tilt angle close to 40 degrees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0427.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Theoretical Physics Keywords: deformed theories of gravity; Noncommutative geometry; Curved spacetime; Relativity and gravitation
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:33:57 CEST)
When the minimal length approach emerging from noncommutative Heisenberg algebra, generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), and thereby integrating gravitational fields to this fundamental theory of quantum mechanics (QM) is thoughtfully extended to Einstein field equations, the possible deformation of the metric tensor could be suggested. This is a complementary term combining the effects of QM and general relativity (GR) and comprising noncommutative algebra together with maximal spacelike four–acceleration. This deformation compiles with GR as curvature in relativistic eight–dimensional spacetime tangent bundle, generalization of Riemannian spacetime, is the recipe applied to derive the deformed metric tensor. This dictates how the affine connection on Riemannian manifold is straightforwardly deformed. We have discussed the symmetric property of deformed metric tensor and affine connection. Also, we have evaluated the dependence of a parallel transported tangent vector on the spacelike four–acceleration given in units of L, where L = rℏcG3 is a universal constant, c is speed of light, and ℏ is Planck constant, and G is Newton’s gravitational constant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0006.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Deformed cloacal region; Danio rerio; Live-Cell imaging; Salmonella infection; Immune response; Cloacitis
Online: 3 February 2017 (04:18:59 CET)
Pathogenic Salmonella strains have a set of virulence factors allowing them to generate systemic infections and damage in a variety of hosts. Among these factors, bacterial proteins secreted by specialized systems are used to penetrate the host’s intestinal mucosa, through the invasion and destruction of specialized epithelial M cells in the intestine. On the other hand, numerous studies have demonstrated that humans, as well as experimental animal hosts, respond to Salmonella infection by activating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Here, through live cell imaging of S. Typhimurium infection of zebrafish larvae, we showed that besides the intestinal colonization, a deformed cloacae region and a concomitant accumulation of S. Typhimurium cells was observed upon bacterial infection. The swelling led to a persistent inflammation of infected larvae, although the infection was non-lethal. The in vivo inflammation process was confirmed by the co-localization of GFP-tagged S. Typhimurium with mCherry-tagged neutrophils at 72 hours post exposition. Our live-cell analyses suggest that Salmonella Typhimurium induce cloacitis-like symptoms in zebrafish larvae. Typhimurium induce cloacitis-like symptoms in zebrafish larvae.