ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0237.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: religious fasting; daytime dry fasting; energy expenditure; body composition; microdialysis
Online: 14 December 2021 (13:06:26 CET)
Each year in March, adherents of the Bahá’í faith abstain from eating and drinking from sunrise to sunset for 19 days. Thus, Bahá’í fasting (BF) can be considered as a form of daytime dry fasting. We tested if BF decreases energy expenditure after a meal and improves anthropometric measures, and systemic and tissue-level metabolic parameters. This was a self-controlled cohort study with 11 healthy men. We measured anthropometric parameters, metabolic markers in venous blood, and pre- and postprandial energy metabolism at systemic (indirect calorimetry) and tissue (adipose tissue and skeletal muscle microdialysis) level, both before and during BF. During BF, we found reduced body weight, body mass index, body fat and blood glucose. Postprandial increase in energy expenditure was lower, diet-induced thermogenesis tended to be lower. In adipose tissue, perfusion, glucose supply and lipolysis were increased. In skeletal muscle, tissue perfusion did not change. Glucose supply and lipolysis were decreased. Glucose oxidation was increased, indicating an improved insulin sensitivity. BF may be a promising approach to losing weight and improving metabolism and health. However, outside the context of religiously-motivated fasting, skipping a meal rather in the evening (dinner cancelling) might be recommended, as metabolism appears to be reduced in the evening.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0484.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: excessive daytime sleepiness; socioeconomic position; sleep; systematic review; sleepiness; health disparities
Online: 18 March 2021 (13:02:59 CET)
Objective: (1) Describe the current literature on the relationship between EDS and SEP and (2) provide recommendations for consideration of SEP in sleep medicine and biomedical research. Methods: Databases Medline/Pubmed, Web of Science, Google scholar and Scopus were screened using PRISMA guidelines and 19 articles were included in the final synthesis. Results: All studies were cross-sectional. Among these studies, 21.05% (n = 4) are focused on children and adolescent and the lasting 88.95% (n = 15) focused on adults and old people. Age ranged between 8 and 17 years old for children/adolescent and ranged from 18 until 102 years old for adults. Main SEP measures presented in these studies were education, income, perceived socioeconomic status and employment. Sample size in these studies varied from N = 90 participants until N = 33865 participants. Overall, a lower educational level, a lower income and full-time employment were associated with EDS. EDS symptoms are prevalent in women, especially those with a low income or no job; and children and adolescents with difficult living conditions or people working part-time reported more sleep disturbances. Conclusions: SEP is already considered as an important determinant for many health outcomes, but if SEP is embedded in experimental design in psychosomatic research, biomedical research and clinical practice as a constant variable regardless of outcome; it will move forward future investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0472.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Developmental Psychology Keywords: adolescents; Internet addiction; game addiction; social media addiction; sleep problems; daytime sleepiness
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:07:14 CEST)
This study aims to establish a link between disturbances in the night sleep habitus, quality of sleep, and daytime sleepiness in adolescents with Internet addiction and different types of content consumed. Methods: This is a cross-sectional observational study of a school sample in three large cities in Central Siberia. 4,615 schoolchildren of 12–18 years old were examined. The Russian-language versions of the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, the Game Addiction Scale for Adolescents, and the Social Media Disorder Scale were used to identify Internet addiction. Questions from the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire were used to assess nighttime sleep. Daytime sleepiness was assessed using the Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale questionnaire. Results: Adolescents with Internet addiction go to bed and wake up late; they are characterized by a decrease in the duration of nighttime sleep, an increase in sleep onset latency, and frequent nighttime awakenings, as well as more pronounced daytime sleepiness. Among the sleep parameters studied, the indicators of daytime sleepiness and night awakening scales have the highest effect size in Internet-addicted adolescents, regardless of the media consumed. Conclusion: Internet-addicted adolescents are characterized by significant disturbances in the quality of nighttime sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness, which requires appropriate psychological correction.