ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0204.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: logistics industry; sustainability; data envelopment analysis (DEA); grey forecasting
Online: 25 August 2016 (10:12:27 CEST)
Logistics plays an important role in globalized companies and contributes to the development of foreign trade. A large number of external conditions, such as recession and inflation, affect logistics. Therefore, managers should find ways to improve operational performance, enabling them to increase efficiency while considering environmental sustainability due to the industry’s large scale of energy consumption. Based on data collected from the financial reports of top global logistics companies, this study uses a DEA model to calculate corporate efficiency by implementing a Grey forecasting approach to forecast future sustainability values. Consequently, the study addresses the problem of how to enhance operational performance while accounting for the impact of external conditions. This research can help logistics companies develop operation strategies in the future that will enhance their competitiveness vis-à-vis rivals in a time of global economic volatility.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0663.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Big Data, Internet Data Sources (IDS), Internet of Things (IoT), Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Big data Technologies, Big data Challenges
Online: 27 May 2021 (10:31:03 CEST)
It is strongly believed that technology can reap the best only when it can be tamed by all stakeholders. Big data technology has no exception for this and even after a decade of emergence, the technology is still a herculean task and is in nascent stage with respect to applicability for many people. Having understood the gaps in the technology adoption for big data in the contemporary world, the present exploratory research work intended to highlight the possible prospects of big data technologies. It is also advocated as to how the challenges of various fields can be converted as opportunities with the shift in the perspective towards this evolving concept. Examples of apex organizations like (IMF and ITU) and their initiatives of big data technologies with respect to the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are also cited for a broader outlook. The intervention of the responsible organizations along with the respective governments is also much sought for encouraging the technology adoption across all the sections of the market players.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0330.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Data Privacy; Mobile devices; Environment Privacy; General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR).
Online: 15 July 2020 (09:30:42 CEST)
The mobile devices caused a constant struggle for the pursuit of data privacy. Nowadays, it appears that the number of mobile devices in the world is increasing. With this increase and technological evolution, thousands of data associated with everyone are generated and stored remotely. Thus, the topic of data privacy is highlighted in several areas. There is a need for control and management of data in circulation inherent to this theme. This article presents an approach of the interaction between the individual and the public environment, where this interaction will determine the access to information. This analysis was based on a data privacy management model in public environments created after reading and analyzing the current technologies. A mobile application based on location via Global Positioning System (GPS) was created to substantiate this model, which it considers the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) to control and manage access to the data of each individual.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: big data; data acquisition; data visualization; data exchange; dashboard; frequency stability; Grafana lab; Power Quality; GPS reference; frequency measurement.
Online: 18 October 2021 (18:07:43 CEST)
This article proposes a measurement solution designed to monitor instantaneous frequency in power systems. It uses a data acquisition module and a GPS receiver for time stamping. A program in Python takes care of receiving the data, calculating the frequency, and finally transferring the measurement results to a database. The frequency is calculated with two different methods, which are compared in the article. The stored data is visualized using the Grafana platform, thus demonstrating its potential for comparing scientific data. The system as a whole constitutes an efficient low cost solution as a data acquisition system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0094.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Cryptography; DApp; Health Data; Privacy.
Online: 7 September 2022 (03:06:09 CEST)
With the fast development of blockchain technology in latest years, its application in scenarios that require privacy, such as health area, became encouraged and widely discussed. This paper presents an architecture to ensure the privacy of health-related data, which are stored and shared within a blockchain network in a decentralized manner, through the use of encryption with the RSA, ECC and AES algorithms. Evaluation tests were performed to verify the impact of cryptography on the proposed architecture in terms of computational effort, memory usage and execution time. The results demonstrate an impact mainly on the execution time and on the increase in the computational effort for sending data to the blockchain, however, justifiable considering the privacy and security provided with the architecture and encryption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Machine learning; Dementia; Data-level fusion
Online: 15 March 2022 (12:31:40 CET)
According to the World Health Organization (WHO), dementia is the seventh leading reason of death among all illnesses and one of the leading causes of disability among the world’s elderly people. Day by day the number of Alzheimer’s patients is raising. Considering the increasing rate and the dangers, Alzheimer’s disease should be diagnosed carefully. Machine learning is a potential technique for Alzheimer’s diagnosis but general users do not trust machine learning models due to the black-box nature. Even, some of those models do not provide the best performance because of using only neuroimaging data. To solve these issues, this paper proposes a novel explainable Alzheimer’s disease prediction model using a multimodal dataset. This approach performs a data-level fusion using clinical data, Freesurfer MRI segmentation data, and psychological data. For Alzheimer’s disease vs cognitively normal prediction, the random forest classifier provides 100% accuracy. Furthermore, Alzheimer’s disease and non-Alzheimer’s dementia should be classified properly because their symptoms are similar. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to present a three-class classification on Alzheimer’s disease vs cognitively normal vs non-Alzheimer’s dementia and achieved 99.86% accuracy using an ensemble model. Besides, a novel Alzheimer’s patient management architecture is also proposed in this work..
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0205.v3
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Materials Science And Technology Keywords: characterisation; materials; ontology; data; metadata; nanoindentation
Online: 12 April 2019 (20:48:02 CEST)
This paper describes a novel methodology of data management in materials characterisation, which has as starting point the creation and usage of Data Management Plan (DMP) for scientific data in the field of materials science and engineering, followed by the development and exploitation of ontologies for the harnessing of data created through experimental techniques. The case study that is discussed here is nanoindentation, a widely used method for the determination and/or modelling of mechanical properties on a small scale.The same methodology can be applicable to a large number of techniques that produce big amount of raw data, while at the same time it can be invaluable tool for big data analysis and for the creation of an open innovation environment, where data can be accessed freely and efficiently.Aspects covered include the taxonomy and curation of data, the creation of ontology and classification about characterization techniques, the harnessing of data in open innovation environments via database construction along with the retrieval of information via algorithms. The issues of harmonization and standardization of such novel approaches are also critically discussed.Finally, the possible implications for nanomaterial design and the potential industrial impact of the new approach are described and a critical outlook is given.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0110.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: capital structure; firm’s performance; panel data; unit root analysis; Bangladesh
Online: 22 November 2016 (09:36:36 CET)
Capital structure decision plays an imperative role in firm’s performance. Recognizing the importance, there has been many studies inspected the rapport of capital structure with performance of firms and findings of those studies are inconclusive. In addition, there is relative deficiency of empirical studies examining the link of capital structure with performance of banks in Bangladesh. This paper attempted to fill this gap. Using panel data of 22 banks for the period of 2005-2014, this study empirically examined the impacts of capital structure on the performance of Bangladeshi banks assessed by return on equity, return on assets and earnings per share. Results from pooled ordinary least square analysis show that there are inverse impacts of capital structure on bank’s performance. Empirical findings of this study is of greater significance for the developing countries like Bangladesh because it will call upon concentration of the bank management and policy makers to pursue such policies to reduce reliance on debt and to accomplish optimal level capital structure. This research also contributes to empirical literatures by reconfirming (or otherwise) findings of previous studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1712.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: blockchain; IoT; hydrogen production; secure data-driven analysis; historical data management
Online: 26 September 2023 (05:24:51 CEST)
The rapid adoption of hydrogen as an eco-friendly energy source has necessitated the development of intelligent power management systems capable of efficiently utilizing hydrogen resources. However, guaranteeing the security and integrity of hydrogen-related data has become a significant challenge. This paper proposes a pioneering approach to ensure secure hydrogen data analysis through the integration of blockchain technology, enhancing trust, transparency, and privacy in handling hydrogen-related information. By combining blockchain with intelligent power management systems, the efficient utilization of hydrogen resources becomes feasible. The utilization of smart contracts and distributed ledger technology facilitates secure data analysis, real-time monitoring, prediction, and optimization of hydrogen-based power systems. The effectiveness and performance of the proposed approach are demonstrated through comprehensive case studies and simulations. Notably, our prediction models, including ABiLSTM, ALSTM, and ARNN, consistently delivered high accuracy with MAE values of approximately 0.154, 0.151, and 0.151, respectively, enhancing the security and efficiency of hydrogen consumption forecasts. The blockchain-based solution offers enhanced security, integrity, and privacy for hydrogen data analysis, thus contributing to the advancement of clean and sustainable energy systems. Additionally, the research identifies existing challenges and outlines potential future directions for further enhancing the proposed system. This study adds to the growing body of research on blockchain applications in the energy sector, with a specific focus on secure hydrogen data analysis and intelligent power management systems.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0335.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Cloud Computing; Data Protection; Secure Communication; Middleware; Protocols
Online: 30 January 2023 (09:24:01 CET)
In recent years, Cloud Computing and Big Data have been considered the most attractive areas that are revolutionizing the IT world. Cloud Computing paradigm has recently appeared that allows running proprietary or difficult portable applications outside their original software environment on one or more virtual hardware platforms. Therefore, we are to developing such techniques which make it possible to secure communication between the communicating Cloud entities. These techniques must take into account several factors due to the data transmitted in this type of environment is proprietary and of significant size. Conventional data security techniques are not suitable for today's cloud usage. Hence, the main research of this thesis is to define an adaptable architecture with the aim to propose a scalable system that supports cloud services. We will define feasible security solutions dedicated to the Cloud computing context in order to robustly protect data stored in the Cloud. We are more precisely looking for working on NoSQL databases. We also intend to propose a secure solution based on the blockchain that has powerful features like decentralization, autonomy, security, reliability, and transparency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1170.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: research data management; FAIR; file structure; file crawler; semantic data model
Online: 16 August 2023 (11:05:47 CEST)
Although other methods exist to store and manage data in modern information technology, the standard solution are file systems. Therefore keeping well-organized file structures and file system layouts can be key to a sustainable research data management infrastructure. However, file structures alone are lacking several important capabilities for FAIR data management: The two most striking are insufficient visualization of data and inadequate possibilities for searching and getting an overview. Research data management systems (RDMS) can fill this gap, but many do not support the simultaneous use of the file system and the RDMS. This simultaneous use can have many benefits, but keeping data in the RDMS in synchrony with the file structure is challenging. Here, we present concepts that allow to keep file structures and semantic data models (in RDMS) synchronous. Furthermore, we propose a specification in yaml-format that allows for a structured and extensible declaration and implementation of a mapping between the file system and data models used in semantic research data management. Implementing these concepts will facilitate the re-use of specifications for multiple use cases. Furthermore, the specification can serve as a machine-readable and, at the same time, human-readable documentation of specific file system structures. We demonstrate our work using the Open Source RDMS CaosDB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1613.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Smart Data Models; Remote sensing; Satellite Imagery; Flood Monitoring and Mapping; Flood Risk Assessment; Data Sharing; Interoperability; Water Data Management
Online: 24 November 2023 (15:08:26 CET)
The increasing rate of adoption of innovative technological achievements along with the penetration of the Next Generation Internet (NGI) technologies and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the water sector, are leading to a shift to a Water-Smart Society. New challenges have emerged in terms of data interoperability, sharing, and trustworthiness due to the rapidly increasing volume of heterogeneous data generated by multiple technologies. Hence, there is a need for efficient harmonisation and smart modeling of the data to foster advanced AI analytical processes which will lead to efficient water data management. The main objective of this work is to propose two Smart Data Models focusing on the modeling of the Satellite Imaginary data and the Flood Risk Assessment processes. The utilisation of those models reinforces the fusion and homogenisation of diverse information and data facilitating the adoption of AI technologies for flood mapping and monitoring. Furthermore, a holistic framework has been developed and evaluated via qualitative and quantitative performance indicators revealing the efficacy of the proposed models concerning the usage of the models in real cases. The framework is based on the well-known and compatible technologies on NGSI-LD standards which are customised and applicable easily to support the water data management processes effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0369.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: Data privacy; Ambient intelligence; COVID-19
Online: 17 July 2020 (08:17:07 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic plagues the whole world, bringing numerous challenges which need to be addressed. One of them is the privacy of patient data. There are several problems related to data privacy in IoT environments, the use of applications, devices, and functionalities in hospital processes. Therefore, we have compared works from the literature and developed a taxonomy consisting of the requirements necessary to control patient privacy data in a hospital setting in the current pandemic. Based on the studies, an application was modeled and implemented. According to the tests and comparisons drawn between the variables, the application yielded satisfactory results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0174.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: cloud computing; big data; fog computing; software-defined; networking; network management; resource management; topology.
Online: 26 February 2020 (15:34:25 CET)
Cloud infrastructure provides computing services where computing resources can be adjusted on-demand. However, the adoption of cloud infrastructures brings concerns like reliance on the service provider network, reliability, compliance for service level agreements (SLAs), etc. Software-defined networking (SDN) is a networking concept that suggests the segregation of a network’s data plane from the control plane. This concept improves networking behavior. In this paper, we present an SDN-enabled resource-aware topology framework. The proposed framework employs SLA compliance, Path Computation Element (PCE) and shares fair loading to achieve better topology features. We also present an evaluation, showcasing the potential of our framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0391.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: prognosis and health management, preprocessing data, feature extraction, feature selection.
Online: 22 March 2023 (04:31:53 CET)
In the chemical processing industries, sensors for pumps are among the most commonly used machinery. Condition-based maintenance (CBM) and prognosis health management (PHM) determine the most cost-effective time to overhaul pumps. In order to determine the status of the pump, a signal-emitting accelerometer is employed. Stationarity-based feature extraction from amplitude signals is used to process the signal. Utilizing the time-domain function, multiple statistical results were produced. Eight fault codes were classified using support vector machine method. The enormous amount of data points necessitated the use of feature selection. In terms of accuracy, precision, recall, and F1 score, the Chi-square feature selection method exceeds other approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0232.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: mHealth; ODK scan; mobile health application; digitizing data collection; data management processes; paper-to-digital system; technology-assisted data management; treatment adherence
Online: 2 September 2016 (03:17:38 CEST)
The present grievous situation of the tuberculosis disease can be improved by efficient case management and timely follow-up evaluations. With the advent of digital technology this can be achieved by quick summarization of the patient-centric data. The aim of our study was to assess the effectiveness of the ODK Scan paper-to-digital system during testing period of three months. A sequential, explanatory mixed-method research approach was employed to elucidate technology use. Training, smartphones, application and 3G enabled SIMs were provided to the four field workers. At the beginning, baseline measures of the data management aspects were recorded and compared with endline measures to see the impact of ODK Scan. Additionally, at the end, users’ feedback was collected regarding app usability, user interface design and workflow changes. 122 patients’ records were retrieved from the server and analysed for quality. It was found that ODK Scan recognized 99.2% of multiple choice bubble responses and 79.4% of numerical digit responses correctly. However, the overall quality of the digital data was decreased in comparison to manually entered data. Using ODK Scan, a significant time reduction is observed in data aggregation and data transfer activities, however, data verification and form filling activities took more time. Interviews revealed that field workers saw value in using ODK Scan, however, they were more concerned about the time consuming aspects of the use of ODK Scan. Therefore, it is concluded that minimal disturbance in the existing workflow, continuous feedback and value additions are the important considerations for the implementing organization to ensure technology adoption and workflow improvements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0178.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Blockchain; Remote sensing data management; Distributed ledger technology; Trusted service; Security
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:43:07 CEST)
A large amount of raw data collected by satellites is processed by the production chain to obtain a large amount of product data, of which the secure exchange and storage is of interest to researchers in the field of remote sensing information science. Authentic, secure data is a critical foundation for data analysis and decision-making. And traditional centralized cloud computing systems are vulnerable to attacks, and once the central server is successfully attacked, all data will be lost. Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) is an innovative computer technology that can ensure information security, traceability and tamper-proof, and can be applied to the field of remote sensing. Although there are many advantages to using DLT in remote sensing applications, there are some obstacles and limitations to its application. Remote sensing data has the characteristics of large data volume, spatiotemporal nature, global and so on, and it is difficult to store and interconnect remote sensing data in the blockchain. To address these issues, this paper proposes a trustworthy and decentralized system using blockchain. The novelty of this paper is to propose a multi-level blockchain architecture in which the system collects remote sensing data and stores it in the Interplanetary File System (IPFS) network, after generating the IPFS hash, the network rehashes the value again and uploads it on the Ethereum chain for public query. Distributed data storage improves data security, supports the secure exchange of information, and improves the efficiency of data management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0449.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: IoV; MEC; Data Sharing; Reputation Management; Subjective Logic Trust Model; Blockchain
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:40:19 CEST)
With the rapid development of Internet of Vehicles (IoV), particularly the introduction of mobile edge computing (MEC), vehicles can efficiently share data with one another. However, edge computing nodes are vulnerable to various network attacks, posing security risks to data storage and sharing. Moreover, the presence of abnormal vehicles during the sharing process poses significant security threats to the entire network. To address these issues, this paper proposes a novel reputation management scheme, which proposes an improved multi-source multi-weight subjective logic algorithm. This algorithm fuses direct and indirect opinion feedback of nodes through the subjective logic trust model while considering factors such as event validity, familiarity, timeliness, and trajectory similarity. Vehicle reputation values are periodically updated, and abnormal vehicles are identified through reputation thresholds. Finally, blockchain technology is employed to ensure the security of data storage and sharing. By analyzing real vehicle trajectory datasets, the algorithm is proven to effectively improve the differentiation and detection rate of abnormal vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: natural language processing; risk management; transmission lines; unstructured data
Online: 4 April 2022 (11:26:15 CEST)
Risk management of electric power transmission lines requires knowledge from different areas such as environment, land, investors, regulations, and engineering. Despite the widespread availability of databases for most of those areas, integrating them into a single database or model is a challenging problem. Instead, in this paper, we use a single source, the Brazilian National Electric Energy Agency’s (ANEEL) weekly reports, which contains decisions about the electrical grid, comprising most of the areas. Since the data is unstructured (text), we employed NLP techniques such as stemming and tokenization to identify keywords related to common causes of risks provided by an expert group on energy transmission. Then, we used models to estimate the probability of each risk. Our results show that we were able to estimate the probability of 97 risks out of 233.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0693.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Product Data Management; Product Life Cycle Management; Concurrent Engineering; Validation of Design
Online: 31 August 2020 (04:17:05 CEST)
All departments in a business work separately, but for the same purpose.In this article, a system that allows not only the mechanical design department but also the manufacturing, storage, process planning, quality control, electrical design, purchasing departments, etc. to have access to the required information has been developed. Initially, current manufacturng result informations is collected from the project attandees. Secondly, a workflow is designed dependent on the current data flow. All the project stakeholders are introduced to join and use product data management system. In the absence of this kind of system, loss of time, scraps and loss of engineering time would be investigated. This allowed the company owners to be sure that no faulty revision of design will be produced after the system started. On the other hand automation of bill of materials generation provided the purchasing department correct and up to date information about outsourced parts. Allowing different engineering disciplines to work together provided more suitable environment. Gradually this conditions allowed all the departments work faster and market the new product much faster than before the system. Tracing the workflows for management purposes would be handled by the system. A ‘Validation of Design’ process is modelled for the company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0470.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: remote sensing; python; data management; landsat; open-source
Online: 31 May 2018 (11:12:27 CEST)
Many remote sensing analytical data products are most useful when they are in an appropriate regional or national projection, rather than globally based projections like Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) or geographic coordinates, i.e., latitude and longitude. Furthermore, leaving data in the global systems can create problems, either due to misprojection of imagery because of UTM zone boundaries, or because said projections are not optimised for local use. We developed the open-source Irish Earth Observation (IEO) Python module to maintain a local remote sensing data library for Ireland. This pure Python module, in conjunction with the IEOtools Python scripts, utilises the Geospatial Data Abstraction Library (GDAL) for its geoprocessing functionality. At present, the module supports only Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI/TIRS data that have been corrected to surface reflectance using the USGS/ESPA LEDAPS/ LaSRC Collection 1 architecture. This module and the IEOtools catalogue available Landsat data from the USGS/EROS archive, and includes functions for the importation of imagery into a defined local projection and calculation of cloud-free vegetation indices. While this module is distributed with default values and data for Ireland, it can be adapted for other regions with simple modifications to the configuration files and geospatial data sets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0767.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Data analytics; Cluster analysis; Disease mapping; Distance metrics; livestock Disease
Online: 12 June 2023 (05:10:55 CEST)
This study investigates how Electronic Livestock Health Recording Systems (ELHRs) facilitates the detection of disease burden and make cluster analysis by applying data analytics tools and techniques. A sample size of 18333 livestock disease cases reported from 2007-2015 by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Federal Democratic of Ethiopia was used for data collection. The results showed that ELHRs are important as livestock disease data preservers, saving costs, and facilitating the extraction of up-to-date and complete information. Euclidean and Manhattan distance performed well at 98%, while cosine distance measurement metrics performed poorly. Finally, with the application of the selected clustering techniques, metrics, tools, and dataset, it has been attempted to successfully detect an optimal number of disease clusters and meet the objectives of the study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0075.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: forest tending; group decision support system; process management; data integration
Online: 10 June 2019 (10:32:09 CEST)
In this study, the decision-making process management of forest tending in the forestry business is decentralized, and forest tending decision-making activities at different points in time are integrated by decision makers at different geographical locations. The decision-making process was analyzed and optimized from a system perspective. Based on the optimized decision-making process, a forest tending business group decision support system (FTGDSS) was established. We first reviewed and discussed the characteristics and development of the forest tending business and forestry decision support system. Business Process Modeling Notation was used to draw a current state flow chart of the forest tending business, to identify and discover important decision points in the process of tending decision-making. We also analyzed the content and attributes of each decision point, and described the system structure, functional framework, knowledge base structure, and reasoning algorithm of FTGDSS in detail. Finally, FTGDSS was evaluated from the two dimensions of the technology adoption model. FTGDSS integrates different levels of time-space decision-making activities, historical tending data, business plans, decision-makers' management tendencies into the decision-making process and automatically extracts decision-making data from the forest business process management enterprise resource planning system (Smartforest) that improves the ease of use of the decision support system (DSS). It also improves the quality of forest tending decisions, and enables the DSS to better support multi-target management strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0080.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: wind turbine; failure detection; SCADA data; feature extraction; mutual information; copula
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:21:58 CET)
More and more works are using machine learning techniques while adopting supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for wind turbine anomaly or failure detection. While parameter selection is important for modelling a wind turbine’s health condition, only a few papers have been published focusing on this issue and in those papers interconnections among sub-components in a wind turbine are used to address this problem. However, merely the interconnections for decision making sometimes is too general to provide a parameter list considering the differences of each SCADA dataset. In this paper, a method is proposed to provide more detailed suggestions on parameter selection based on mutual information. Moreover, after proving that Copula, a multivariate probability distribution for which the marginal probability distribution of each variable is uniform is capable of simplifying the estimation of mutual information, an empirical copula based mutual information estimation method (ECMI) is introduced for an application. After that, a real SCADA dataset is adopted to test the method, and the results show the effectiveness of the ECMI in providing parameter selection suggestions when physical knowledge is not accurate enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0130.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: internationalisation of SMEs; big data; market-oriented information; relational database; supply chain network; optimized database; trade condition; data visualization
Online: 14 January 2019 (10:04:03 CET)
There have been many discussions on the globalisation of SMEs, but it is true that there is not enough academic achievement after such the study of Born global (BG) ventures. The internationalisation of SMEs (Small and Medium Enterprises) is not easy because they lack resources or capabilities compared to multinational corporations. This study investigated the role of government in assisting the internationalisation of SMEs. In particular, SMEs lacked the ability to acquire market-oriented information, so we’ve established the scheme of efficient information support system for the internationalisation of SMEs. In other words, we proposed an information analysis system through the establishment of a relational database constructed for market-oriented information support. KISTI (Korea Institute of Science and Technology Information), which is one of the government-funded research institutes in the Republic of Korea, provided information support to the SMEs dealing with hydrazine related products. This study suggests this case for the market-oriented information support of the government in the internationalisation of SMEs. The research on information support of the government is meaningful in that it suggests a way to support SMEs in practical level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0413.v2
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: Consortium Blockchain; Ring signature; Blockchain privacy; Blockchain security; Access Control; Blockchain big data
Online: 25 June 2023 (04:01:48 CEST)
Banking sectors commit modern working frameworks and models smooth development based on decentralization with keeping money confront in unused ranges and differing activities. Consortium Blockchain Privacy becomes a major concern and the challenge of Most of banking sectors.Development without being hampered being a major concern it can store confirmed, Data privacy includes assuring protection for both insider ad outsider threats therefore access control of Ring signature could help to secure Privacy of inside and outside threats by secure process by RSBAC using CIA triad privacy Confidentiality, Availability, Integrity.This paper proposes a ring signature-based on access control mechanism for determining who a user is and then regulating that person's access to and use of a system's resources. In a nutshell, access control restricts who has access to a system. It also restricts access to system resources to users who have been identified as having the necessary privileges and permissions. The proposed paradigm satisfies the needs of both workflow and non-workflow systems in an enterprise setting. The traits of the conditional purposes, roles, responsibilities, and policies provide the foundation for it. It ensures that internal risks such as database administrators are protected.Finally, it provides the necessary protection in the event that the data is published.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0216.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Construction, worker safety, safety helmet, three-axis accelerometer sensor, data mining
Online: 8 November 2018 (14:03:21 CET)
In the Korean construction industry, legal and institutional safety management improvements are continually being pursued. However, there was a 4.5% increase in the number of workers’ deaths at construction sites in 2017 compared to the previous year. Failure to wear safety helmets seems to be one of the major causes of the increase in accidents, and so it is necessary to develop technology to monitor whether or not safety helmets are being used. However, the approaches employed in existing technical studies on this issue have mainly involved the use of chinstrap sensors and have been limited to the problem of whether or not safety helmets are being worn. Meanwhile, improper wearing, such as when the chinstrap and harness fixing of the safety helmet are not properly tightened, has not been monitored. To remedy this shortcoming, a sensing safety helmet with a three-axis accelerometer sensor attached was developed in this study. Experiments were performed in which the sensing data were classified whether the safety helmet was being worn properly, not worn, or worn improperly during construction workers’ activities. The results verified that it is possible to differentiate among wearing status of the proposed safety helmet with a high accuracy of 97.0%
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0713.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Web application; climate data; weather station; ClimInonda
Online: 9 June 2023 (11:51:39 CEST)
Climate data are important in building a hydrological risk assessment model. The ClimInonda web application enables interactive and dynamic visualizations of different data collected from different weather stations in the study area on a single platform, allowing users to explore and analyze data in an easy way. This can assist decision-makers and stakeholders in understanding the current state of the environment and in identifying areas of flooding risk. Visualizations can include different types of data, such as satellite imagery, weather data, and terrain data, and can be displayed using various techniques, such as heat maps, contour maps, and 3D models by providing easy-to-understand visualizations. The different stations of the Gafsa and Kasserine governorates in the study area are included and other stations of the Algerian territory (Tebessa governorate) are incorporated. This web application also provides the capability to include each user's stations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0274.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: sUAS; drone; RPAS; UAV; Data; Management; FAIR; Community; standards; practices
Online: 22 May 2019 (11:42:08 CEST)
The use of small Unmanned Aircraft Systems (sUAS ) as platforms for data capture has rapidly increased in recent years. However, while there has been significant investment in improving the aircraft, sensors, operations, and legislation infrastructure for such, little attention has been paid to supporting the management of the complex data capture pipeline sUAS involve. This paper reports on the outcomes of a four-year-long community-engagement-based investigation into what tools, practices, and challenges currently exist for particularly researchers using sUAS as data capture platforms. The key results of this effort are: (1) sUAS captured data – as a set that is rapidly growing to include data in a wide range of Physical and Environmental Sciences, Engineering Disciplines, and many civil and commercial use cases – is characterised as both sharing many traits with traditional remote sensing data and also as exhibiting – as common across the spectrum of disciplines and use cases – novel characteristics that require novel data support infrastructure. And (2), given this characterization of sUAS data and its potential value in the identified wide variety of use case, we outline eight challenges that need to be addressed in order for the full value of sUAS captured data to be realized. We then conclude that there would be significant value gained and costs saved across both commercial and academic sectors if the global sUAS user and data management communities were to address these challenges in the immediate to near future, so as to extract the maximal value of sUAS captured data for the lowest long-term effort and monetary cost.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: disaster management; virtual operation support teams; privacy; data retention; hyperloglog; focus group discussion
Online: 1 October 2020 (13:58:16 CEST)
Social media data is heavily used to analyze and evaluate situations in times of disasters, and derive decisions for action from it. A cruicial part of the analysis is to avoid unnecessary data retention during that process, in order to prevent subsequent abuse, theft or public exposure of collected datasets and thus, protect the privacy of social media users. There are a number of technical approaches out to face the problem. One of them is using a cardinality estimation algorithm called HyperLogLog to store data in a privacy-aware structure, that can not be used for purposes other than the originally intended. In this case study, we developed and conducted a focus group discussion with teams of social media analysts, in which we identified challenges and opportunities of working with such a privacy-enhanced social media data structure in place of conventional techniques. Our findings show that, with the exception of training scenarios, deploying HyperLogLog in the data acquisiton process will not distract the data analysis process. Instead, it will improve working with huge datasets due to the improved characteristics of the resulting data structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: customer complaint process improvement; customer complaint service; big data analysis
Online: 7 September 2016 (11:38:33 CEST)
With the advances in industry and commerce, passengers have become more accepting of environmental sustainability issues; thus, more people now choose to travel by bus. Government administration constitutes an important part of bus transportation services as the government gives the right-of-way to transportation companies allowing them to provide services. When these services are of poor quality, passengers may lodge complaints. The increase in consumer awareness and developments in wireless communication technologies have made it possible for passengers to easily and immediately submit complaints about transportation companies to government institutions, which has brought drastic changes to the supply-demand chain comprised of the public sector, transportation companies, and passengers. This study proposed the use of big data analysis technology including systematized case assignment and data visualization to improve management processes in the public sector and optimize customer complaint services. Taichung City, Taiwan was selected as the research area. There, the customer complaint management process in public sector was improved, effectively solving such issues as station-skipping, allowing the public sector to fully grasp the service level of transportation companies, improving the sustainability of bus operations, and supporting the sustainable development of the public sector-transportation company-passenger supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Business excellence; information technology; implementation challenge; ISO 20000; big data management.
Online: 18 June 2019 (10:56:19 CEST)
This study contributes to the literature by exploring challenges to implementing ISO 20000-1 in an emerging economy context, and suggests ways to overcome these challenges. A survey-based methodology was adopted. The data were analyzed using principal component analysis. The results indicated that senior management support was the most significant challenge for the successful implementation of IT Service Management (ITSM) systems. Other significant challenges were the justification of significant investment, premium customer support, co-operation and co-ordination among IT support teams, proper documentation, and effective process design The findings help managers introduce IT service management system (ISO 20000-1:2011) as well as improving IT service delivery system in IT support organizations for managing big data in an emerging economy. In the future, cross-firm and cross-country studies on challenges to ISO 20000 can be conducted. Also, interpretive structural model (ISM) can be formulated to examine the interrelationships among the identified challenges to ISO 20000.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0295.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Data integration; Decision Support System; Information Systems; Infrastructure Asset Management; Water supply systems
Online: 16 November 2022 (03:31:31 CET)
This paper presents a new information technology platform specially tailored for infrastructure asset management of urban water systems operated by water utilities of lower digital maturity level, developed in the scope of DECIdE research project. This platform aims at the integration of different data from the water utilities with several information systems and the assessment of the system performance, in terms of water losses, energy efficiency and quality of service by using developed tools (i.e., water and energy balances and key performance indicators). This platform was tested with data from five small to medium size Portuguese water utilities with different maturity levels in terms of technological and human resources. Obtained results are very promising since the platform allows to assess the systems performance periodically which constitute an important part of the infrastructure asset management for small and medium-sized water utilities
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0482.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Smart Scenic; environmental disasters management; organization transformation; system design; Big Data; Internet of Things
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:19:35 CEST)
Abstract: Intensity of natural and man-made disasters is increasing day by day. Disaster is one of the major threats that affects the sustainable development of tourist attractions. Big data and Internet of Things(IoT) will greatly improve the disaster management. Based on the Big Data and IoT, a tourism attraction disaster management system is designed, divided into several stages namely pre-disaster early warning prevention, disaster mitigation, recovery and reconstruction after disaster and updating disaster planning. Then, the system flow is analysed, as well as the system structure is constructed. Additional, system function and its operation flow are introduced, including disaster warning, disaster relief, disaster assessment, real-time monitoring and supporting disaster planning functions. Finally, an application case is introduced. Research intends to improve tourism area disasters management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Data Analyzing; energy consumption; thermal comfort; inclusion; exclusion criteria; Delphi method
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:45:39 CEST)
This paper evaluates norms and assesses the level of knowledge in air conditioning project management within the construction industry. A total of 25 questions were distributed to multiple candidates, who were filtered based on pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-nine candidates were ultimately approved to participate in the survey. The questions were designed to address five hypotheses, with each set of five questions corresponding to one hypothesis. The results were obtained after pre-processing the data using Matlab software. The data was pre-processed using Matlab software, and the results were analyzed using the Delphi method. The analysis revealed that only two hypotheses were approved: No matter whether there are nationalized safety rules or not, the impact of data sciences and smart technologies, including air conditioning management systems, is critical for human life in the building business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0856.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: quality evaluation of school management; compulsory education stage; big data technology; visualization techniques; evaluation models
Online: 11 May 2023 (13:26:38 CEST)
With the spread of compulsory education emerged school management problems continued, and the quality of school management in compulsory education has attracted a great deal of attention in China. However, the application of information technology in the field is not yet detailed and wide, resulting in problems of heavy workload and high difficulty in the whole evaluation process. Accordingly, we use big data technologies such as Apache Spark, Apache Hive, and SPSS to carry out data cleaning, correlation analysis, dynamic factor analysis, principal component analysis, and visual display on 1760 sample data from 40 primary and secondary schools in Q Province in China, and constructs a model school management of quality evaluation in the compulsory education stage, which reduces the 22 management tasks required for previous evaluation to 5, greatly reducing the workload and difficulty of evaluation. It has improved the efficiency and accuracy of evaluation, and further promoted the simultaneous development of education of five domains and education equity in the compulsory education stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Data Management; Utilization and Analysis; Capacity Building; Health professionals; Workforce Development; Evidence Based
Online: 7 June 2018 (08:54:20 CEST)
The objective of the study was to investigate the gap between data and evidence-based decisions among healthcare professionals considering the enormous amount of individual and aggregate data collected. Our study assessed the capacity, skills, and knowledge of the Ministry of Health leadership staff to understand data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination. Three key components were assessed: 1) Knowledge through true/false questions, 2) Level of Skill (and Competency) using a Likert scale, and 3) Understanding of Key Concepts and Tools based on a Likert scale. The 183 study respondents were diverse healthcare professionals from Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Majority of respondents had not received any training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization techniques, further there was a significant difference between those who had received training versus those who had not(p=0.005). The respondents were competent in work-related experiences but lacked skills and knowledge on: data concepts and tools, study designs, and types of data analysis. These findings explain the gap between data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination among health professional’s cadre. To enhance service delivery and optimal provision of health care, it is imperative to have all health care professionals receive a well-designed training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: data sharing; data management; data science; big data; healthcare
Online: 8 March 2020 (16:46:20 CET)
In recent years, more and more health data are being generated. These data come not only from professional health systems, but also from wearable devices. All these data combined form ‘big data’ that can be utilized to optimize treatments for each unique patient (‘precision medicine’). To achieve this precision medicine, it is necessary that hospitals, academia and industry work together to bridge the ‘valley of death’ of translational medicine. However, hospitals and academia often have problems with sharing their data, even though the patient is actually the owner of his/her own health data, and the sharing of data is associated with increased citation rate. Academic hospitals usually invest a lot of time in setting up clinical trials and collecting data, and want to be the first ones to publish papers on this data. The idea that society benefits the most if the patient’s data are shared as soon as possible so that other researchers can work with it, has not taken root yet. There are some publicly available datasets, but these are usually only shared after studies are finished and/or publications have been written based on the data, which means a severe delay of months or even years before others can use the data for analysis. One solution is to incentivize the hospitals to share their data with (other) academic institutes and the industry. Here we discuss several aspects of data sharing in the medical domain: publisher requirements, data ownership, support for data sharing, data sharing initiatives and how the use of federated data might be a solution. We also discuss some potential future developments around data sharing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0320.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: data; reproducibility; FAIR; data reuse; public data; big data; analysis
Online: 2 November 2022 (02:55:49 CET)
With an increasing amount of biological data available publicly, there is a need for a guide on how to successfully download and use this data. The Ten simple rules for using public biological data are: 1) use public data purposefully in your research, 2) evaluate data for your use case, 3) check data reuse requirements and embargoes, 4) be aware of ethics for data reuse, 5) plan for data storage and compute requirements, 6) know what you are downloading, 7) download programmatically and verify integrity, 8) properly cite data, 9) make reprocessed data and models Findable, Accessible, Interoperable, and Reusable (FAIR) and share, and 10) make pipelines and code FAIR and share. These rules are intended as a guide for researchers wanting to make use of available data and to increase data reuse and reproducibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: matching; data marketplace; data platform; data visualization; call for data
Online: 17 March 2020 (04:10:28 CET)
Improvements in web platforms for data exchange and trading are creating more opportunities for users to obtain data from data providers of different domains. However, the current data exchange platforms are limited to unilateral information provision from data providers to users. In contrast, there are insufficient means for data providers to learn what kinds of data users desire and for what purposes. In this paper, we propose and discuss the description items for sharing users’ call for data as data requests in the data marketplace. We also discuss structural differences in data requests and providable data using variables, as well as possibilities of data matching. In the study, we developed an interactive platform, treasuring every encounter of data affairs (TEEDA), to facilitate matching and interactions between data providers and users. The basic features of TEEDA are described in this paper. From experiments, we found the same distributions of the frequency of variables but different distributions of the number of variables in each piece of data, which are important factors to consider in the discussion of data matching in the data marketplace.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: Data, DWH, Data Warehouse, Architecture, Data Lake, Storage, Analysis, Data Mesh, Analytical, Architectural, Data Vault
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:28:55 CEST)
In the rapidly evolving field of data management, numerous terminologies, such as data warehouse, data lake, data lakehouse, and data mesh , have emerged, each representing a unique analytical data architecture. However, the distinctions and similarities among these paradigms often remain unclear. The present paper aimed to navigate the data architecture landscape by conducting a comparative analysis of these paradigms. The analysis a identified and elucidated the differences and similari- ties in features, capabilities, and limitations of these architectural constructs. The study outcome serves as a comprehensive guide, assisting practitioners in selecting the most suitable analytical data architecture for their specific applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0130.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: data; cooperatives; open data; data stewardship; data governance; digital commons; data sovereignty; open digital federation platform
Online: 7 April 2023 (14:14:02 CEST)
Network effects, economies of scale, and lock-in-effects increasingly lead to a concentration of digital resources and capabilities, hindering the free and equitable development of digital entrepreneurship (SDG9), new skills, and jobs (SDG8), especially in small communities (SDG11) and their small and medium-sized enterprises (“SMEs”). To ensure the affordability and accessibility of technologies, promote digital entrepreneurship and community well-being (SDG3), and protect digital rights, we propose data cooperatives [1,2] as a vehicle for secure, trusted, and sovereign data exchange [3,4]. In post-pandemic times, community/SME-led cooperatives can play a vital role by ensuring that supply chains to support digital commons are uninterrupted, resilient, and decentralized . Digital commons and data sovereignty provide communities with affordable and easy access to information and the ability to collectively negotiate data-related decisions. Moreover, cooperative commons (a) provide access to the infrastructure that underpins the modern economy, (b) preserve property rights, and (c) ensure that privatization and monopolization do not further erode self-determination, especially in a world increasingly mediated by AI. Thus, governance plays a significant role in accelerating communities’/SMEs’ digital transformation and addressing their challenges. Cooperatives thrive on digital governance and standards such as open trusted Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) that increase the efficiency, technological capabilities, and capacities of participants and, most importantly, integrate, enable, and accelerate the digital transformation of SMEs in the overall process. This policy paper presents and discusses several transformative use cases for cooperative data governance. The use cases demonstrate how platform/data-cooperatives, and their novel value creation can be leveraged to take digital commons and value chains to a new level of collaboration while addressing the most pressing community issues. The proposed framework for a digital federated and sovereign reference architecture will create a blueprint for sustainable development both in the Global South and North.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0104.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: OMOP; OHDSI; interoperability; data harmonization; clinical data; claims data
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:45:02 CET)
To gain insight into the real-life care of patients in the healthcare system, data from hospital information systems and insurance systems are required. Consequently, linking clinical data with claims data is necessary. To ensure their syntactic and semantic interoperability, the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) was chosen. However, there is no detailed guide that would allow researchers to follow a consistent process for data harmonization. Thus, the aim of this paper is to conceptualize a generic data harmonization process for OMOP CDM. For this purpose, we conducted a literature review focusing on publications that address the harmonization of clinical or claims data in OMOP CDM. Subsequently, the process steps used and their chronological order were extracted for each included publication. The results were then compared to derive a generic sequence of the process steps. From 23 publications included, a generic data harmonization process for OMOP CDM was conceptualized, consisting of nine process steps: dataset specification, data profiling, vocabulary identification, coverage analysis of vocabularies, semantic mapping, structural mapping, extract-transform-load-process, qualitative and quantitative data quality analysis. This process can be used as a step-by-step guide to assist other researchers in harmonizing source data in OMOP CDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1237.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: data mining; data extraction; data science; cost infrastructure projects
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:25:22 CEST)
Context: Despite the effort put into developing standards for structuring construction cost, and the strong interest into the field. Most construction companies still perform the process of data gathering and processing manually. That provokes inconsistencies, different criteria when classifying, misclassifications, and the process becomes very time-consuming, particularly on big projects. Additionally, the lack of standardization makes very difficult the cost estimation and comparison tasks. Objective: To create a method to extract and organize construction cost and quantity data into a consistent format and structure, to enable rapid and reliable digital comparison of the content. Method: The approach consists of a two-step method: Firstly, the system implements data mining to review the input document and determine how it is structured based on the position, format, sequence, and content of descriptive and quantitative data. Secondly, the extracted data is processed and classified with a combination of data science and experts’ knowledge to fit a common format. Results: A big variety of information coming from real historical projects has been successfully extracted and processed into a common format with 97.5% of accuracy, using a subset of 5770 assets located on 18 different files, building a solid base for analysis and comparison. Conclusion: A robust and accurate method was developed for extracting hierarchical project cost data to a common machine-readable format to enable rapid and reliable comparison and benchmarking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1378.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Data Generation; Anomaly Data; User Behavior Generation; Big Data
Online: 19 June 2023 (16:31:37 CEST)
The rising importance of Big Data in modern information analysis is supported by vast quantities of user data, but it is only possible to collect sufficient data for all tasks within certain data-gathering contexts. There are many cases where a domain is too novel, too niche, or too sparsely collected to adequately support Big Data tasks. To remedy this, we have created ADG Engine that allows for the generation of additional data that follows the trends and patterns of the data that’s already been collected. Using a database structure that tracks users across different activity types, ADG Engine can use all available information to maximize the authenticity of the generated data. Our efforts are particularly geared towards data analytics by identifying abnormalities in the data and allowing the user to generate normal and abnormal data at custom ratios. In situations where it would be impractical or impossible to expand the available dataset by collecting more data, it can still be possible to move forward with algorithmically expanded data datasets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0153.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: Open-science; big data; fMRI; data sharing; data management
Online: 8 July 2020 (11:53:33 CEST)
Large datasets that enable researchers to perform investigations with unprecedented rigor are growing increasingly common in neuroimaging. Due to the simultaneous increasing popularity of open science, these state-of-the-art datasets are more accessible than ever to researchers around the world. While analysis of these samples has pushed the field forward, they pose a new set of challenges that might cause difficulties for novice users. Here, we offer practical tips for working with large datasets from the end-user’s perspective. We cover all aspects of the data life cycle: from what to consider when downloading and storing the data, to tips on how to become acquainted with a dataset one did not collect, to what to share when communicating results. This manuscript serves as a practical guide one can use when working with large neuroimaging datasets, thus dissolving barriers to scientific discovery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0273.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: astroparticle physics, cosmic rays, data life cycle management, data curation, meta data, big data, deep learning, open data
Online: 12 October 2018 (14:48:32 CEST)
Modern experimental astroparticle physics features large-scale setups measuring different messengers, namely high-energy particles generated by cosmic accelerators (e.g. supernova remnants, active galactic nuclei, etc): cosmic and gamma rays, neutrinos and recently discovered gravitational waves. Ongoing and future experiments are distributed over the Earth including ground, underground/underwater setups as well as balloon payloads and spacecrafts. The data acquired by these experiments have different formats, storage concepts and publication policies. Such differences are a crucial issue in the era of big data and of multi-messenger analysis strategies in astroparticle physics. We propose a service ASTROPARTICLE.ONLINE in the frame of which we develop an open science system which enables to publish, store, search, select and analyse astroparticle physics data. The cosmic-ray experiments KASCADE-Grande and TAIGA were chosen as pilot experiments to be included in this framework. In the first step of our initiative we will develop and test the following components of the full data life cycle concept: (i) describing, storing and reusing of astroparticle data; (ii) software for performing multi-experiment and multi-messenger analyses like deep-learning methods; (iii) outreach including example applications and tutorial for students and scientists outside the specific research field. In the present paper we describe the concepts of our initiative, and in particular the plans toward a common, federated astroparticle data storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0589.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Game Ratings; Public Data; Game Data; Data analysis; GRAC(Korea)
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:32:32 CEST)
As of 2020, public data for game ratings provided by Game Ratings And Administration Committee(GRAC) are more limited than public data for movie and video ratings provided by Korea Media Ratings Board and do not provide data which allow us to see information on ratings clearly and in detail. To get information on game ratings, we need to find information by searching for specific target on homepage which is inconvenient for us. In order to improve such inconvenience and extend scope of provision in public data, the author of this paper intends to study public data API which has been extended based on information on video ratings. To draw items to be extended, this study analyzes data for ratings on homepage of GRAC and designs collection system to build database. This study intends to implement system that provides data collected based on extended public data items in a form which users want. This study is expected to provide information on ratings to GRAC which will strengthen fairness and satisfy game users and people’s rights to know and contribute to promotion and development of game industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0078.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: personalization; decision making; medical data; artificial intelligence; Data-driving; Big Data; Data Mining; Machine Learning
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:04:17 CEST)
The study was conducted on applying machine learning and data mining methods to personalizing the treatment. This allows investigating individual patient characteristics. Personalization is built on the clustering method and associative rules. It was suggested to determine the average distance between instances for optimal performance metrics finding. The formalization of the medical data pre-processing stage for finding personalized solutions based on current standards and pharmaceutical protocols is proposed. The model of patient data is built. The paper presents the novel approach to clustering built on ensemble of cluster algorithm with better than k-means algorithm Hopkins metrics. The personalized treatment usually is based on decision tree. Such approach requires a lot of computation time and cannot be paralyzed. Therefore, it is proposed to classify persons by conditions, to determine deviations of parameters from the normative parameters of the group, as well as the average parameters. This made it possible to create a personalized approach to treatment for each patient based on long-term monitoring. According to the results of the analysis, it becomes possible to predict the optimal conditions for a particular patient and to find the medicaments treatment according to personal characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0593.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Business Inteligence; Data Mining; Data Warehouse.
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:47:31 CET)
In the coming years, digital applications and services that continue to use the country's native cloud systems will be huge. By 2023, that will exceed 500 million, according to IDC. This corresponds to the sum of all applications developed in the last 40 years. If you are the one you answered, yes! This article is for you!
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0468.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate data; gridded product; data merging
Online: 18 December 2020 (13:29:38 CET)
This manuscript describes the construction and validation of high resolution daily gridded (0.05° × 0.05°) rainfall and maximum and minimum temperature data for Bangladesh : the Enhancing National Climate Services for Bangladesh Meteorological Department (ENACTS-BMD) dataset. The dataset was generated by merging data from weather stations, satellite products (for rainfall) and reanalysis (for temperature). ENACTS-BMD is the first high-resolution gridded surface meteorological dataset developed specifically for studies of surface climate processes in Bangladesh. Its record begins in January 1981 and is updated in real-time monthly and outputs have daily, decadal and monthly time resolution. The Climate Data Tools (CDT), developed by the International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), Columbia University, is used to generate the dataset. This data processing includes the collection of weather and gridded data, quality control of stations data, downscaling of the reanalysis for temperature, bias correction of both satellite rainfall and downscaled reanalysis of temperature, and the combination of station and bias-corrected gridded data. The ENACTS-BMD dataset is available as an open-access product at BMD’s official website, allowing the enhancement of the provision of services, overcoming the challenges of data quality, availability, and access, promoting at the same time the engagement and use by stakeholders.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0066.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: cohesion policy; data visualization; open data
Online: 8 January 2018 (11:11:47 CET)
The implementation of the European Cohesion Policy aiming at fostering regions competitiveness, economic growth and creation of new jobs is documented over the period 2014–2020 in the publicly available Open Data Portal for the European Structural and Investment funds. On the base of this source, this paper aims at describing the process of data mining and visualization for information production on regional programmes performace in achieving effective expenditure of resouces.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0047.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: MPox; big data; data analysis; data science; Twitter; natural language processing
Online: 1 September 2023 (10:23:41 CEST)
In the last decade and a half, the world has experienced the outbreak of a range of viruses such as COVID-19, H1N1, flu, Ebola, Zika Virus, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Measles, and West Nile Virus, just to name a few. During these virus outbreaks, the usage and effectiveness of social media platforms increased significantly as such platforms served as virtual communities, enabling their users to share and exchange information, news, perspectives, opinions, ideas, and comments related to the outbreaks. Analysis of this Big Data of conversations related to virus outbreaks using concepts of Natural Language Processing such as Topic Modeling has attracted the attention of researchers from different disciplines such as Healthcare, Epidemiology, Data Science, Medicine, and Computer Science. The recent outbreak of the MPox virus has resulted in a tremendous increase in the usage of Twitter. Prior works in this field have primarily focused on the sentiment analysis and content analysis of these Tweets, and the few works that have focused on topic modeling have multiple limitations. This paper aims to address this research gap and makes two scientific contributions to this field. First, it presents the results of performing Topic Modeling on 601,432 Tweets about the 2022 Mpox outbreak, which were posted on Twitter between May 7, 2022, and March 3, 2023. The results indicate that the conversations on Twitter related to Mpox during this time range may be broadly categorized into four distinct themes - Views and Perspectives about MPox, Updates on Cases and Investigations about Mpox, MPox and the LGBTQIA+ Community, and MPox and COVID-19. Second, the paper presents the findings from the analysis of these Tweets. The results show that the theme that was most popular on Twitter (in terms of the number of Tweets posted) during this time range was - Views and Perspectives about MPox. It is followed by the theme of MPox and the LGBTQIA+ Community, which is followed by the themes of MPox and COVID-19 and Updates on Cases and Investigations about Mpox, respectively. Finally, a comparison with prior works in this field is also presented to highlight the novelty and significance of this research work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0344.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Linked (open) Data; Semantic Interoperability; Data Mapping; Governmental Data; SPARQL; Ontologies
Online: 25 May 2022 (08:18:46 CEST)
In this paper, we present a method to map information regarding service activity provision residing in governmental portals across European Commission. In order to perform this, we used as a basis the enriched Greek e-GIF ontology, modeling concepts, and relations in one of the two data portals (i.e., Points of Single Contacts) examined, since relevant information on the second was not provided. Mapping consisted in transforming information appearing in governmental portals in RDF format (i.e., as Linked data), in order to be easily exchangeable. Mapping proved a tedious task, since description on how information is modeled in the second Point of Single Contact is not provided and must be extracted in a manual manner.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: data quality; OMOP CDM; EHDEN; healthcare data; real world data; RWD
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:12:54 CET)
Background: Observational health data has the potential to be a rich resource to inform clinical practice and regulatory decision making. However, the lack of standard data quality processes makes it difficult to know if these data are research ready. The EHDEN COVID-19 Rapid Col-laboration Call presented the opportunity to assess how the newly developed open-source tool Data Quality Dashboard (DQD) informs the quality of data in a federated network. Methods: 15 Data Partners (DPs) from 10 different countries worked with the EHDEN taskforce to map their data to the OMOP CDM. Throughout the process at least two DQD results were collected and compared for each DP. Results: All DPs showed an improvement in their data quality between the first and last run of the DQD. The DQD excelled at helping DPs identify and fix conformance is-sues but showed less of an impact on completeness and plausibility checks. Conclusions: This is the first study to apply the DQD on multiple, disparate databases across a network. While study-specific checks should still be run, we recommend that all data holders converting their data to the OMOP CDM use the DQD as it ensures conformance to the model specifications and that a database meets a baseline level of completeness and plausibility for use in research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0103.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Data Analytics; Analytics; Supply Chain Input; Supply Chain; Data Science; Data
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:38:42 CEST)
One of the most remarkable features in the 20th century was the digitalization of technical progress, which changed the output of companies worldwide and became a defining feature of the century. The growth of information technology systems and the implementation of new technical advances, which enhance the integrity, agility and long-term organizational performance of the supply chain, can distinguish a digital supply chain from other supply chains. For example, the Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled information exchange and Big Data analysis might be used to regulate the mismatch between supply and demand. In order to assess contemporary ideas and concepts in the field of data analysis in the context of supply chain management, this literary investigation has been decided. The research was conducted in the form of a comprehensive literature review. In the SLR investigation, a total of 71 papers from leading journals were used. SLR has found that data analytics integrate into supply chain management can have long-term benefits on supply chain management from the input side, i.e., improved strategic development, management and other areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1998.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Marburg virus; big data; data mining; data analysis; google trends; web behavior; data science; conspiracy theory
Online: 31 October 2023 (07:02:07 CET)
During virus outbreaks in the recent past web behavior mining, modeling, and analysis have served as means to examine, explore, interpret, assess, and forecast the worldwide perception, readiness, reactions, and response linked to these virus outbreaks. The recent outbreak of the Marburg Virus disease (MVD), the high fatality rate of MVD, and the conspiracy theory linking the FEMA alert signal in the United States on October 4, 2023, with MVD and a zombie outbreak, resulted in a diverse range of reactions in the general public which has transpired in a surge in web behavior in this context. This resulted in “Marburg Virus” featuring in the list of the top trending topics on Twitter on October 3, 2023, and “Emergency Alert System” and “Zombie” featuring in the list of top trending topics on Twitter on October 4, 2023. No prior work in this field has mined and analyzed the emerging trends in web behavior in this context. The work presented in this paper aims to address this research gap and makes multiple scientific contributions to this field. First, it presents the results of performing time series forecasting of the search interests related to MVD emerging from 216 different regions on a global scale using ARIMA, LSTM, and Autocorrelation. The results of this analysis present the optimal model for forecasting web behavior related to MVD in each of these regions. Second, the correlation between search interests related to MVD and search interests related to zombies (in the context of this conspiracy theory) was investigated. The findings show that there were several regions where there was a statistically significant correlation between MVD-related searches and zombie-related searches (in the context of this conspiracy theory) on Google on October 4, 2023. Finally, the correlation between zombie-related searches (in the context of this conspiracy theory) in the United States and other regions was investigated. This analysis helped to identify those regions where this correlation was statistically significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0442.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Thermometers; Temperature records; Early instrumental meteorological series; Data rescue; Data recovery; Data correction; Climate data analysis
Online: 7 August 2023 (03:01:24 CEST)
A distinction is made between data rescue (i.e., copying, digitizing and archiving) and data recovery that implies deciphering, interpreting and transforming early instrumental readings and their metadata to obtain high-quality datasets in modern units. This requires a multidisciplinary approach that includes: palaeography and knowledge of Latin and other languages to read the handwritten logs and additional documents; history of science to interpret the original text, data e metadata within the cultural frame of the 17th, 18th and early 19th century; physics and technology to recognize bias of early instruments or calibrations, or to correct for observational bias; astronomy to calculate and transform the original time in canonical hours that started from twilight. The liquid-in-glass thermometer was invented in 1641 and the earliest temperature records started in 1654. Since then, different types of thermometers were invented, based on the thermal expansion of air or selected thermometric liquids with deviation from linearity. Reference points, thermometric scales, calibration methodologies were not comparable, and not always adequately described. Thermometers had various locations and exposures, e.g., indoor, outdoor, on windows, gardens or roofs, facing different directions. Readings were made only one or a few times a day, not necessarily respecting a precise time schedule: this bias is analysed for the most popular combinations of reading times. The time was based on sundials and local Sun, but the hours were counted starting from twilight. In 1789-90 Italy changed system and all cities counted hours from their lower culmination (i.e., local midnight), so that every city had its local time; in 1866, all the Italian cities followed the local time of Rome; in 1893, the whole Italy adopted the present-day system, based on the Coordinated Universal Time and the time zones. In 1873, when the International Meteorological Committee (IMO) was founded, later transformed in World Meteorological Organization (WMO), a standardization of instruments and observational protocols was established, and all data became fully comparable. In the early instrumental period, from 1654 to 1873, the comparison, correction and homogenization of records is quite difficult, mainly because of the scarcity or even absence of metadata. This paper deals about this confused situation, discussing the main problems, but also the methodologies to recognize missing metadata, distinguish indoor from outdoor readings; correct and transform early datasets in unknown or arbitrary units into modern units; finally, in which cases it is possible to reach the quality level required by WMO. The focus is to explain the methodology needed to recover early instrumental records, i.e., the operations that should be performed to interpret, correct, and transform the original raw data into a high-quality dataset of temperature, usable for climate studies.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1701.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: disease X; big data; data science; data analysis; dataset development; database; google trends; data mining; healthcare; epidemiology
Online: 24 August 2023 (05:48:54 CEST)
The World Health Organization (WHO) added Disease X to their shortlist of blueprint priority diseases to represent a hypothetical, unknown pathogen that could cause a future epidemic. During different virus outbreaks of the past, such as COVID-19, Influenza, Lyme Disease, and Zika virus, researchers from various disciplines utilized Google Trends to mine multimodal components of web behavior to study, investigate, and analyze the global awareness, preparedness, and response associated with these respective virus outbreaks. As the world prepares for Disease X, a dataset on web behavior related to Disease X would be crucial to contribute towards the timely advancement of research in this field. Furthermore, none of the prior works in this field have focused on the development of a dataset to compile relevant web behavior data, which would help to prepare for Disease X. To address these research challenges, this work presents a dataset of web behavior related to Disease X, which emerged from different geographic regions of the world, between February 2018 to August 2023. Specifically, this dataset presents the search interests related to Disease X from 94 geographic regions. These regions were chosen for data mining as these regions recorded significant search interests related to Disease X during this timeframe. The dataset was developed by collecting data using Google Trends. The relevant search interests for all these regions for each month in this time range are available in this dataset. This paper also discusses the compliance of this dataset with the FAIR principles of scientific data management. Finally, a brief analysis of specific features of this dataset is presented to uphold the applicability, relevance, and usefulness of this dataset for the investigation of different research questions in the interrelated fields of Big Data, Data Mining, Healthcare, Epidemiology, and Data Analysis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0453.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: COVID-19; MPox; Twitter; Big Data; Data Mining; Data Analysis; Sentiment Analysis; Data Science; Social Media; Monkeypox
Online: 27 March 2023 (08:39:28 CEST)
Mining and analysis of the Big Data of Twitter conversations have been of significant interest to the scientific community in the fields of healthcare, epidemiology, big data, data science, computer science, and their related areas, as can be seen from several works in the last few years that focused on sentiment analysis and other forms of text analysis of Tweets related to Ebola, E-Coli, Dengue, Human papillomavirus (HPV), Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Measles, Zika virus, H1N1, influenza-like illness, swine flu, flu, Cholera, Listeriosis, cancer, Liver Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, kidney disease, lupus, Parkinson's, Diphtheria, and West Nile virus. The recent outbreaks of COVID-19 and MPox have served as "catalysts" for Twitter usage related to seeking and sharing information, views, opinions, and sentiments involving both these viruses. While there have been a few works published in the last few months that focused on performing sentiment analysis of Tweets related to either COVID-19 or MPox, none of the prior works in this field thus far involved analysis of Tweets focusing on both COVID-19 and MPox at the same time. With an aim to address this research gap, a total of 61,862 Tweets that focused on Mpox and COVID-19 simultaneously, posted between May 7, 2022, to March 3, 2023, were studied to perform sentiment analysis and text analysis. The findings of this study are manifold. First, the results of sentiment analysis show that almost half the Tweets (the actual percentage is 46.88%) had a negative sentiment. It was followed by Tweets that had a positive sentiment (31.97%) and Tweets that had a neutral sentiment (21.14%). Second, this paper presents the top 50 hashtags that were used in these Tweets. Third, it presents the top 100 most frequently used words that are featured in these Tweets. The findings of text analysis show that some of the commonly used words involved directly referring to either or both viruses. In addition to this, the presence of words such as "Polio", "Biden", "Ukraine", "HIV", "climate", and "Ebola" in the list of the top 100 most frequent words indicate that topics of conversations on Twitter in the context of COVID-19 and MPox also included a high level of interest related to other viruses, President Biden, and Ukraine. Finally, a comprehensive comparative study that involves a comparison of this work with 49 prior works in this field is presented to uphold the scientific contributions and relevance of the same.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Business Intelligence; Data warehouse; Data Marts; Architecture; Data; Information; cloud; Data Mining; evolution; technologic companies; tools; software
Online: 24 March 2021 (13:06:53 CET)
Information has been and will be a vital element for a person or department groups in an organization. That is why there are technologies that help us to give them the proper management of data; Business Intelligence is responsible for bringing technological solutions that correctly and effectively manage the entire volume of necessary and important information for companies. Among the solutions offered by Business Intelligence are Data Warehouses, Data Mining, among other business technologies that working together achieve the objectives proposed by an organization. It is important to highlight that these business technologies have been present since the 50's and have been evolving through time, improving processes, infrastructure, methodologies and implementing new technologies, which have helped to correct past mistakes based on information management for companies. There are questions about Business Intelligence. Could it be that in the not-too-distant future it will be used as an essential standard or norm in any organization for data management, since it provides many benefits and avoids failures at the time of classifying information. On the other hand, Cloud storage has been the best alternative to safeguard information and not depend on physical storage media, which are not 100% secure and are exposed to partial or total loss of information, by presenting hardware failures or security failures due to mishandling that can be given to such information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1570.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: cancer research; cancer; natural language processing; data mining; data warehouse; big data
Online: 26 November 2023 (05:13:14 CET)
Background: Real-world data (RWD) related to the health status and care of cancer patients reflect the ongoing medical practice, and their analysis yields essential real-world evidence. Advanced information technologies are vital for their collection, qualification, and reuse in research projects. Methods: UNICANCER, the French federation of comprehensive cancer centres, has innovated a unique research network : Consore. This potent federated tool enables the analysis of data from millions of cancer patients across eleven French hospitals. Results: Currently operational within eleven French cancer centres, Consore employs natural language processing to structure the therapeutic management data of approximately 1.3 million cancer patients. This data originates from their electronic medical records, encompassing about 65 millions of medical records. Thanks to the structured data, which is harmonized within a common data model, and its federated search tool, Consore can create patient cohorts based on patient or tumor characteristics, and treatment modalities. This ability to derive larger cohorts is particularly attractive when studying rare cancers. Conclusions: Consore serves as a tremendous data mining instrument that propels French cancer centres into the big data era. With its federated technical architecture and unique shared data model, Consore facilitates compliance to regulations and acceleration of cancer research projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0410.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Data compression; data hiding; psnr; mse; virtual data; public cloud; quantization error
Online: 22 November 2021 (15:17:12 CET)
Nowadays, information security is a challenge especially when transmitted or shared in public clouds. Many of researchers have been proposed technique which fails to provide data integrity, security, authentication and another issue related to sensitivity data. The most common techniques were used to protect data during transmission on public cloud are cryptography, steganography, and compression. The proposed scheme suggests an entirely new approach for data security on public cloud. Authors have suggested an entirely new approach that completely makes secret data invisible behind carrier object and it is not been detected with the image performance parameters like PSNR, MSE, entropy and others. The details of results are explain in result section of paper. Proposed technique have better outcome than any other existing technique as a security mechanism on a public cloud. Primary focus of suggested approach is to minimize integrity loss of public storage data due to unrestricted access rights by uses. To improve reusability of carrier even after data concealed is really a challenging task and achieved through suggested approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0350.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: big data; clustering; data mining; educational data mining; e-learning; profile learning
Online: 19 October 2018 (05:58:05 CEST)
Educational data-mining is an evolving discipline that focuses on the improvement of self-learning and adaptive methods. It is used for finding hidden patterns or intrinsic structures of educational data. In the arena of education, the heterogeneous data is involved and continuously growing in the paradigm of big-data. To extract meaningful information adaptively from big educational data, some specific data mining techniques are needed. This paper presents a clustering approach to partition students into different groups or clusters based on their learning behavior. Furthermore, personalized e-learning system architecture is also presented which detects and responds teaching contents according to the students’ learning capabilities. The primary objective includes the discovery of optimal settings, in which learners can improve their learning capabilities. Moreover, the administration can find essential hidden patterns to bring the effective reforms in the existing system. The clustering methods K-Means, K-Medoids, Density-based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise, Agglomerative Hierarchical Cluster Tree and Clustering by Fast Search and Finding of Density Peaks via Heat Diffusion (CFSFDP-HD) are analyzed using educational data mining. It is observed that more robust results can be achieved by the replacement of existing methods with CFSFDP-HD. The data mining techniques are equally effective to analyze the big data to make education systems vigorous.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0059.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: data normalization; data scaling; zero-sum; metabolic fingerprinting; NMR; statistical data analysis
Online: 3 July 2018 (16:22:31 CEST)
The aim of this article is to summarize recent bioinformatic and statistical developments applicable to NMR-based metabolomics. Extracting relevant information from large multivariate datasets by statistical data analysis strategies may be of considerable complexity. Typical tasks comprise for example classification of specimens, identification of differentially produced metabolites, and estimation of fold changes. In this context it is of prime importance to minimize contributions from unwanted biases and experimental variance prior to these analyses. This is the goal of data normalization. Therefore, special emphasize is given to different data normalization strategies. In the first part, we will discuss the requirements and the pros and cons for a variety of commonly applied strategies. In the second part, we will concentrate on possible solutions in case that the requirements for the standard strategies are not fulfilled. In the last part, very recent developments will be discussed that allow reliable estimation of metabolic signatures for sample classification without prior data normalization. In this contribution special emphasis will be given to techniques that have worked well in our hands.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: poverty; composite indicators; interval data; symbolic data
Online: 24 August 2021 (15:46:09 CEST)
The analysis and measurement of poverty is a crucial issue in the field of social science. Poverty is a multidimensional notion that can be measured using composite indicators relevant to synthesizing statistical indicators. Subjective choices could, however, affect these indicators. We propose interval-based composite indicators to avoid the problem, enabling us in this context to obtain robust and reliable measures. Based on a relevant conceptual model of poverty we have identified, we will consider all the various factors identified. Then, considering a different random configuration of the various factors, we will compute a different composite indicator. We can obtain a different interval for each region based on the distinct factor choices on the different assumptions for constructing the composite indicator. So we will create an interval-based composite indicator based on the results obtained by the Monte-Carlo simulation of all the different assumptions. The different intervals can be compared, and various rankings for poverty can be obtained. For their parameters, such as center, minimum, maximum, and range, the poverty interval composite indicator can be considered and compared. The results demonstrate a relevant and consistent measurement of the indicator and the shadow sector's relevant impact on the final measures.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: big data; data integration; EVMS; construction management
Online: 30 October 2020 (15:35:00 CET)
In the information age today, data are getting more and more important. While other industries achieve tangible improvement by applying cutting edge information technology, the construction industry is still far from being enough. Cost, schedule, and performance control are three major functions in the project execution phase. Along with their individual importance, cost-schedule integration has been a significant challenge over the past five decades in the construction industry. Although a lot of efforts have been put into this development, there is no method used in construction practice. The purpose of this study is to propose a new method to integrate cost and schedule data using big data technology. The proposed algorithm is designed to provide data integrity and flexibility in the integration process, considerable time reduction on building and changing database, and practical use in a construction site. It is expected that the proposed method can transform the current way that field engineers regard information management as one of the troublesome tasks in a data-friendly way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0090.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: transportation data; data interlinking; automatic schema matching
Online: 20 January 2017 (03:38:06 CET)
Multimodality requires integration of heterogeneous transportation data to construct a broad view of the transportation network. Many new transportation services are emerging with being isolated from previously existing networks. This lead them to publish their data sources to the web -- according to Linked Data Principles -- in order to gain visibility. Our interest is to use these data to construct an extended transportation network that links these new services to existing ones. The main problems we tackle in this article fall in the categories of automatic schema matching and data interlinking. We propose an approach that uses web services as mediators to help in automatically detect geospatial properties and map them between two different schemas. On the other hand, we propose a new interlinking approach that enables user to define rich semantic links between datasets in a flexible and customizable way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1391.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: data extraction; data mining; railway infrastructure costs; infrastructure costs data analysis; cost analysis
Online: 18 August 2023 (16:03:08 CEST)
The capability of extracting information and analyze it into a common format is essential for performing predictions, comparing projects through cost benchmarking, and for having a deeper understanding of the project costs. However, the lack of standardization and the manual inclusion of the data makes this process very time-consuming, unreliable, and inefficient. To tackle this problem, a novel approach with a big impact is presented combining the benefits of data mining, statistics, and machine learning to extract and analyze the information related to railway costs infrastructure data. To validate the suggested approach, data from 23 real historical projects from the client network rail was extracted, allowing their costs to be comparable. Finally, some machine learning and data analytics methods were implemented to identify the most relevant factors allowing for costs benchmarking. The presented method proves the benefits of data extraction being able to gather, analyze and benchmark each project in an efficient manner, and deeply understand the relationships and the relevant factors that matter in infrastructure costs.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Academic Analytics; data storage; education and big data; analysis of data; learning analytics
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:37:39 CEST)
Business Intelligence, defined by  as "the ability to understand the interrelations of the facts that are presented in such a way that it can guide the action towards achieving a desired goal", has been used since 1958 for the transformation of data into information, and of information into knowledge, to be used when making decisions in a business environment. But, what would happen if we took the same principles of business intelligence and applied them to the academic environment? The answer would be the creation of Academic Analytics, a term defined by  as the process of evaluating and analyzing organizational information from university systems for reporting and making decisions, whose characteristics allow it to be used more and more in institutions, since the information they accumulate about their students and teachers gathers data such as academic performance, student success, persistence, and retention . Academic Analytics enables an analysis of data that is very important for making decisions in the educational institutional environment, aggregating valuable information in the academic research activity and providing easy to use business intelligence tools. This article shows a proposal for creating an information system based on Academic Analytics, using ASP.Net technology and trusting storage in the database engine Microsoft SQL Server, designing a model that is supported by Academic Analytics for the collection and analysis of data from the information systems of educational institutions. The idea that was conceived proposes a system that is capable of displaying statistics on the historical data of students and teachers taken over academic periods, without having direct access to institutional databases, with the purpose of gathering the information that the director, the teacher, and finally the student need for making decisions. The model was validated with information taken from students and teachers during the last five years, and the export format of the data was pdf, csv, and xls files. The findings allow us to state that it is extremely important to analyze the data that is in the information systems of the educational institutions for making decisions. After the validation of the model, it was established that it is a must for students to know the reports of their academic performance in order to carry out a process of self-evaluation, as well as for teachers to be able to see the results of the data obtained in order to carry out processes of self-evaluation, and adaptation of content and dynamics in the classrooms, and finally for the head of the program to make decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0071.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: data governance; data sovereignty; urban data spaces; ICT reference architecture; open urban platform
Online: 6 December 2018 (05:09:54 CET)
This paper presents the results of a recent study that was conducted with a number of German municipalities/cities. Based on the obtained and briefly presented recommendations emerging from the study, the authors propose the concept of an Urban Data Space (UDS), which facilitates an eco-system for data exchange and added value creation thereby utilizing the various types of data within a smart city/municipality. Looking at an Urban Data Space from within a German context and considering the current situation and developments in German municipalities, this paper proposes a reasonable classification of urban data that allows to relate the various data types to legal aspects and to conduct solid considerations regarding technical implementation designs and decisions. Furthermore, the Urban Data Space is described/analyzed in detail, and relevant stakeholders are identified, as well as corresponding technical artifacts are introduced. The authors propose to setup Urban Data Spaces based on emerging standards from the area of ICT reference architectures for Smart Cities, such as DIN SPEC 91357 “Open Urban Platform” and EIP SCC. Thereby, the paper walks the reader through the construction of an UDS based on the above mentioned architectures and outlines all the goals, recommendations and potentials, which an Urban Data Space can reveal to a municipality/city.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: smart meter data; household survey; EPC; energy data; energy demand; energy consumption; longitudinal; energy modelling; electricity data; gas data
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:16:05 CEST)
The Smart Energy Research Lab (SERL) Observatory dataset described here comprises half-hourly and daily electricity and gas data, SERL survey data, Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) input data and 24 local hourly climate reanalysis variables from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for over 13,000 households in Great Britain (GB). Participants were recruited in September 2019, September 2020 and January 2021 and their smart meter data are collected from up to one year prior to sign up. Data collection will continue until at least August 2022, and longer if funding allows. Survey data relating to the dwelling, appliances, household demographics and attitudes was collected at sign up. Data are linked at the household level and UK-based academic researchers can apply for access within a secure virtual environment for research projects in the public interest. This is a data descriptor paper describing how the data was collected, the variables available and the representativeness of the sample compared to national estimates. It is intended as a guide for researchers working with or considering using the SERL Observatory dataset, or simply looking to learn more about it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0243.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: internet of things (IoT); low-power wide area network (LPWAN); mixed integer linear programming (milp); lorawan; lora simulator (lorasim); open-source; optimization; quality-of-service (qos); data extraction rate; packet collision rate; energy consumption; energy efficiency; network performance; protocol overhead; performance evaluation; performance improvement
Online: 6 November 2019 (03:57:34 CET)
Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) enable a growing number of Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications with large geographical coverage, low bit-rate, and long lifetime requirements. LoRa (Long Range) is a well-known LPWAN technology that uses a proprietary Chirp Spread Spectrum (CSS) physical layer, while the upper layers are defined by an open standard - LoRaWAN. In this paper, we propose a simple yet effective method to improve the Quality-of-Service (QoS) of LoRa networks by fine-tuning specific radio parameters. Through a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) problem formulation, we find optimal settings for the Spreading Factor (SF) and Carrier Frequency (CF) radio parameters, considering the network traffic specifications as a whole, to improve the Data Extraction Rate (DER) and to reduce the packet collision rate and the energy consumption in LoRa networks. The effectiveness of the optimization procedure is demonstrated by simulations, using LoRaSim for different network scales. In relation to the traditional LoRa radio parameter assignment policies, our solution leads to an average increase of 6% in DER, and a number of collisions 13 times smaller. In comparison to networks with dynamic radio parameter assignment policies, there is an increase of 5%, 2.8%, and 2% of DER, and a number of collisions 11, 7.8 and 2.5 times smaller than equal-distribution, Tiurlikova's (SoTa), and random distribution, respectively. Regarding the network energy consumption metric, the proposed optimization obtained an average consumption similar to Tiurlikova's, and 2.8 times lower than the equal-distribution and random dynamic allocation policies. Furthermore, we approach the practical aspects of how to implement and integrate the optimization mechanism proposed in LoRa, guaranteeing backward compatibility with the standard protocol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0038.v1
Online: 3 July 2018 (11:25:13 CEST)
The rich emission and absorption line spectra of Fe I may be used to extract crucial information on astrophysical plasmas, such as stellar metallicities. There is currently a lack, in quality and quantity, of accurate level-resolved effective electron-impact collision strengths and oscillator strengths for radiative transitions. Here, we discuss the challenges in obtaining a sufficiently good structure for neutral iron and compare our theoretical fine-structure energy levels with observation for several increasingly large models. Radiative data is presented for several transitions for which the atomic data is accurately known.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1016.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Imbalanced data; Data preprocessing; Sampling; Tomek Links; DTW
Online: 14 September 2023 (14:00:42 CEST)
Purpose To alleviate the data imbalance problem caused by subjective and objective reasons, scholars have developed different data preprocessing algorithms, among which undersampling algorithms are widely used because of their fast and efficient performance. However, when the number of samples of some categories in a multi-classification dataset is too small to be processed by sampling, or the number of minority class samples is only 1 to 2, the traditional undersampling algorithms will be weakened. Methods This study selects 9 multi-classification time series datasets with extremely few samples as the objects, fully considers the characteristics of time series data, and uses a three-stage algorithm to alleviate the data imbalance problem. Stage one: Random oversampling with disturbance items increases the number of sample points; Stage two: On this basis, SMOTE (Synthetic Minority Oversampling Technique) oversampling; Stage three: Using dynamic time warping distance to calculate the distance between sample points, identify the sample points of Tomek Links at the boundary, and clean up the boundary noise.Results This study proposes a new sampling algorithm. In the 9 multi-classification time series datasets with extremely few samples, the new sampling algorithm is compared with four classic undersampling algorithms, ENN (Edited Nearest Neighbours), NCR (Neighborhood Cleaning Rule), OSS (One Side Selection) and RENN (Repeated Edited Nearest Neighbours), based on macro accuracy, recall rate and F1-score evaluation indicators. The results show that: In the 9 datasets selected, the dataset with the most categories and the least number of minority class samples, FiftyWords, the accuracy of the new sampling algorithm is 0.7156, far beyond ENN, RENN, OSS and NCR; its recall rate is also better than the four undersampling algorithms used for comparison, at 0.7261; its F1-score is increased by 200.71%, 188.74%, 155.29% and 85.61%, respectively, relative to ENN, RENN, OSS, and NCR; In the other 8 datasets, this new sampling algorithm also shows good indicator scores.Conclusion The new algorithm proposed in this study can effectively alleviate the data imbalance problem of multi-classification time series datasets with many categories and few minority class samples, and at the same time clean up the boundary noise data between classes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1117.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: history; endowments; query model; digital data; physical data
Online: 17 July 2023 (15:11:18 CEST)
Historical and Endowment Properties are different from Heritage and cultural Properties, as Historical and Endowment properties are governed by a unique set of laws that Waqf recipients must abide by. Property that is entrusted is usually in the form of buildings, land or valuables which in preservation is not limited to time as long as the property can be utilized. Reliable information technology is needed to ensure data security both digitally and physically, while the rapid development of information technology demands information openness and this will be a challenge in itself. The objectives of this study include examining the collection of historical databases and endowments, the relationship between digital data and physical data and management organizations. The method of how to design a query model to display data is then analyzed whether the data conforms to the rules in waqf management. The results are expected to bring up accurate data between digital data and physical data and if there are differences into findings for the next analysis.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Womens Health; Data Science; Data Methods; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:48:58 CEST)
Abstract ObjectivesThe aim of this perspective is to report the use of synthetic data as a viable method in women’s health given the current challenges linked to obtaining life-course data within a short period of time and accessing electronic healthcare data. Methods We used a 3-point perspective method to report an overview of data science, common applications, and ethical implications. Results There are several ethical challenges linked to using real-world data, consequently, generating synthetic data provides an alternative method to conduct comprehensive research when used effectively. The use of clinical characteristics to develop synthetic data is a useful method to consider. Aligning this data as closely as possible to the clinical phenotype would enable researchers to provide data that is very similar to that of the real-world. Discussion Population diversity and disease characterisation is important to optimally use data science. There are several artificial intelligence techniques that can be used to develop synthetic data. ConclusionSynthetic data demonstrates promise and versatility when used efficiently aligned to clinical problems. Therefore, exploring this option as a viable method in women’s health, in particular for epidemiology may be useful.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0335.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: metadata; contextual data; harmonization; genomic surveillance; data management
Online: 24 June 2022 (08:46:04 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0471.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big data; Health prevention; Machine learning; Medical data
Online: 24 August 2021 (14:00:12 CEST)
CVDs are a leading cause of death globally. In CVDs, the heart is unable to deliver enough blood to other body regions. Since effective and accurate diagnosis of CVDs is essential for CVD prevention and treatment, machine learning (ML) techniques can be effectively and reliably used to discern patients suffering from a CVD from those who do not suffer from any heart condition. Namely, machine learning algorithms (MLAs) play a key role in the diagnosis of CVDs through predictive models that allow us to identify the main risks factors influencing CVD development. In this study, we analyze the performance of ten MLAs on two datasets for CVD prediction and two for CVD diagnosis. Algorithm performance is analyzed on top-two and top-four dataset attributes/features with respect to five performance metrics –accuracy, precision, recall, f1-score, and roc-auc – using the train-test split technique and k-fold cross-validation. Our study identifies the top two and four attributes from each CVD diagnosis/prediction dataset. As our main findings, the ten MLAs exhibited appropriate diagnosis and predictive performance; hence, they can be successfully implemented for improving current CVD diagnosis efforts and help patients around the world, especially in regions where medical staff is lacking.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0738.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: time series; homogenization; ACMANT; observed data; data accuracy
Online: 30 June 2021 (13:08:39 CEST)
The removal of non-climatic biases, so-called inhomogeneities, from long climatic records needs sophistically developed statistical methods. One principle is that usually the differences between a candidate series and its neighbour series are analysed instead of directly the candidate series, in order to neutralize the possible impacts of regionally common natural climate variation on the detection of inhomogeneities. In most homogenization methods, two main kinds of time series comparisons are applied, i.e. composite reference series or pairwise comparisons. In composite reference series the inhomogeneities of neighbour series are attenuated by averaging the individual series, and the accuracy of homogenization can be improved by the iterative improvement of composite reference series. By contrast, pairwise comparisons have the advantage that coincidental inhomogeneities affecting several station series in a similar way can be identified with higher certainty than with composite reference series. In addition, homogenization with pairwise comparisons tends to facilitate the most accurate regional trend estimations. A new time series comparison method is presented here, which combines the use of pairwise comparisons and composite reference series in a way that their advantages are unified. This time series comparison method is embedded into the ACMANT homogenization method, and tested in large, commonly available monthly temperature test datasets.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Data Structures, Algorithms And Complexity Keywords: GAN; ECG; anonymization; healthcare data; sensors; data transformation
Online: 3 September 2020 (05:26:01 CEST)
In personalized healthcare, an ecosystem for the manipulation of reliable and safe private data should be orchestrated. This paper describes a first approach for the generation of fake electrocardiograms (ECGs) based on Generative Adversarial Networks (GANs) with the objective of anonymizing users’ information for privacy issues. This is intended to create valuable data that can be used both, in educational and research areas, while avoiding the risk of a sensitive data leakage. As GANs are mainly exploited on images and video frames, we are proposing general raw data processing after transformation into an image, so it can be managed through a GAN, then decoded back to the original data domain. The feasibility of our transformation and processing hypothesis is primarily demonstrated. Next, from the proposed procedure, main drawbacks for each step in the procedure are addressed for the particular case of ECGs. Hence, a novel research pathway on health data anonymization using GANs is opened and further straightforward developments are expected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0419.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: social business intelligence; data streaming models; linked data
Online: 26 June 2018 (12:48:17 CEST)
Social Business Intelligence (SBI) enables companies to capture strategic information from public social networks. Contrary to traditional Business Intelligence (BI), SBI has to face the high dynamicity of both the social network contents and the company analytical requests, as well as the enormous amount of noisy data. Effective exploitation of these continuous sources of data requires efficient processing of the streamed data to be semantically shaped into insightful facts. In this paper, we propose a multidimensional formalism to represent and evaluate social indicators directly from fact streams derived in turn from social network data. This formalism relies on two main aspects: the semantic representation of facts via Linked Open Data and the support of OLAP-like multidimensional analysis models. Contrary to traditional BI formalisms, we start the process by modeling the required social indicators according to the strategic goals of the company. From these specifications, all the required fact streams are modeled and deployed to trace the indicators. The main advantages of this approach are the easy definition of on-demand social indicators, and the treatment of changing dimensions and metrics through streamed facts. We demonstrate its usefulness by introducing a real scenario user case in the automotive sector.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0054.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: data feature selection; data clustering; travel time prediction
Online: 7 March 2018 (13:30:06 CET)
In recent years, governments applied intelligent transportation system (ITS) technique to provide several convenience services (e.g., garbage truck app) for residents. This study proposes a garbage truck fleet management system (GTFMS) and data feature selection and data clustering methods for travel time prediction. A GTFMS includes mobile devices (MD), on-board units, fleet management server, and data analysis server (DAS). When user uses MD to request the arrival time of garbage truck, DAS can perform the procedure of data feature selection and data clustering methods to analyses travel time of garbage truck. The proposed methods can cluster the records of travel time and reduce variation for the improvement of travel time prediction. After predicting travel time and arrival time, the predicted information can be sent to user’s MD. In experimental environment, the results showed that the accuracies of previous method and proposed method are 16.73% and 85.97%, respectively. Therefore, the proposed data feature selection and data clustering methods can be used to predict stop-to-stop travel time of garbage truck.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0172.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Monkeypox; monkey pox; Twitter; Dataset; Tweets; Social Media; Big Data; Data Mining; Data Science
Online: 25 July 2022 (09:41:19 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0518.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: data fusion; multi-sensor; data visualization; data treatment; participant reports; air quality; exposure assessment
Online: 30 September 2021 (14:13:52 CEST)
Use of a multi-sensor approach can provide citizens a holistic insight in the air quality in their immediate surroundings and assessment of personal exposure to urban stressors. Our work, as part of the ICARUS H2020 project, which included over 600 participants from 7 European cities, discusses data fusion and harmonization on a diverse set of multi-sensor data streams to provide a comprehensive and understandable report for participants, and offers possible solutions and improvements. Harmonizing the data streams identified issues with the used devices and protocols, such as non-uniform timestamps, data gaps, difficult data retrieval from commercial devices, and coarse activity data logging. Our process of data fusion and harmonization allowed us to automate the process of generating visualizations and reports and consequently provide each participant with a detailed individualized report. Results showed that a key solution was to streamline the code and speed up the process, which necessitated certain compromises in visualizing the data. A thought-out process of data fusion and harmonization on a diverse set of multi-sensor data streams considerably improved the quality and quantity of data that a research participant receives. Though automatization accelerated the production of the reports considerably, manual structured double checks are strongly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0185.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: mHealth; mobile data collection; data quality; data quality assessment framework; Tuberculosis control; developing countries
Online: 12 June 2018 (10:34:33 CEST)
Background Increasingly, healthcare organizations are using technology for the efficient management of data. The aim of this study was to compare the data quality of digital records with the quality of the corresponding paper-based records by using data quality assessment framework. Methodology We conducted a desk review of paper-based and digital records over the study duration from April 2016 to July 2016 at six enrolled TB clinics. We input all data fields of the patient treatment (TB01) card into a spreadsheet-based template to undertake a field-to-field comparison of the shared fields between TB01 and digital data. Findings A total of 117 TB01 cards were prepared at six enrolled sites, whereas just 50% of the records (n=59; 59 out of 117 TB01 cards) were digitized. There were 1,239 comparable data fields, out of which 65% (n=803) were correctly matched between paper based and digital records. However, 35% of the data fields (n=436) had anomalies, either in paper-based records or in digital records. 1.9 data quality issues were calculated per digital patient record, whereas it was 2.1 issues per record for paper-based record. Based on the analysis of valid data quality issues, it was found that there were more data quality issues in paper-based records (n=123) than in digital records (n=110). Conclusion There were fewer data quality issues in digital records as compared to the corresponding paper-based records. Greater use of mobile data capture and continued use of the data quality assessment framework can deliver more meaningful information for decision making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: digital object; data infrastructure; research infrastructure; data management; data science; FAIR data; open science; European Open Science Cloud; EOSC; persistent identifier
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:30:06 CET)
Data science is facing the following major challenges: (1) developing scalable cross-disciplinary capabilities, (2) dealing with the increasing data volumes and their inherent complexity, (3) building tools that help to build trust, (4) creating mechanisms to efficiently operate in the domain of scientific assertions, (5) turning data into actionable knowledge units and (6) promoting data interoperability. As a way to overcome these challenges, we further develop the proposals by early Internet pioneers for Digital Objects as encapsulations of data and metadata made accessible by persistent identifiers. In the past decade, this concept was revisited by various groups within the Research Data Alliance and put in the context of the FAIR Guiding Principles for findable, accessible, interoperable and reusable data. The basic components of a FAIR Digital Object (FDO) as a self-contained, typed, machine-actionable data package are explained. A survey of use cases has indicated the growing interest of research communities in FDO solutions. We conclude that the FDO concept has the potential to act as the interoperable federative core of a hyperinfrastructure initiative such as the European Open Science Cloud (EOSC).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0244.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: NASA-POWER platform; empirical equations; reanalysis data; meteorological data
Online: 4 July 2023 (13:59:00 CEST)
Reference evapotranspiration (ET0) is the first step in calculating crop irrigation demand, and numerous methods have been proposed to estimate this parameter. FAO-56 Penman-Monteith (PM) is the only standard method for defining and calculating ET0. However, it requires radiation, air temperature, atmospheric humidity, and wind speed data, limiting its application in regions where these data are unavailable; therefore, new alternatives are required. This study compared the accuracy of ET0 calculated with the Blaney-Criddle (BC) and Hargreaves-Samani (HS) methods versus PM using information from an automated weather station (AWS) and the NASA-POWER platform (NP) for different periods of time. The information collected corresponding at Module XII of the Lagunera Region Irrigation District 017, a semi-arid region in the North of Mexico. The HS method underestimated by 5.5 % the reference evapotranspiration (ET0) compared to the PM method during the period from March to August, and yielded the best fit in the different evaluation periods: daily, average, and 5-day cumulative; the latter showed the best values of inferential parameters. The information about maximum and minimum temperatures from the NP platform was suitable for estimating ET0 using the HS equation. This data source is a timely alternative, particularly in semi-arid regions where no data from weather stations are available.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0722.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Anomaly detection; Malaria data; Machine learning; big data; epidemic
Online: 10 May 2023 (09:34:36 CEST)
Disease surveillance is critical to monitor ongoing control activities, detect early outbreaks and to inform intervention priorities and policies. Unfortunately, most data from disease surveillance remain under-utilised to support decision-making in real-time. Using the Brazilian Amazon malaria surveillance data as a case study, we explore unsupervised anomaly detection machine learning techniques to analyse and discover potential anomalies. We found that our models are able to detect early outbreaks, peak of outbreaks as well as change points in the proportion of positive malaria cases. Specifically, the sustained rise in malaria in the Brazilian Amazon in 2016 was flagged by several models. We also found that no single model detects all the anomalies across all health regions. The approaches using Clustering-based local outlier algorithm ranked first before Principal component analysis and Stochastic outlier selection in maximising the number of anomalies detected in local health regions. Because of this, we also provide the minimum number of machine learning models (top-k models) to maximise the number of anomalies detected across different health regions. We discovered that the top-3 models that maximise the coverage of the number and types of anomalies detected across the 13 health regions are: Principal component analysis, Stochastic outlier selection and Multi-covariance determinant. Anomaly detection approaches provide interesting solutions to discover patterns of epidemiological importance when confronted with a large volume of data across space and time. Our exploratory approach can be replicated for other diseases and locations to inform timely interventions and actions toward endemic disease control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0420.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: conversational commerce; data protection; law of obligations of data
Online: 24 August 2022 (10:55:06 CEST)
The possibilities and reach of social networks are increasing, the designs are becoming more diverse, and the ideas more visionary. Most recently, the former company “Facebook” announced the creation of a metaverse. With these technical possibilities, however, the danger of fraudsters is also growing. Using social bots, consumers are increasingly influenced on such platforms and business transactions are brought about through communication, i.e. conversational commerce. Minors or the elderly are particularly susceptible. This technical development is accompanied by a legal one: it is permitted by the Digital Services Directive and the Sale of Goods Directive to demand the provision of data as consideration for the sale of digital products. This raises legal problems at the level of the law of obligations and data protection law, whose regulations are intended to protect the aforementioned groups of individuals. This protection becomes even more important the more manipulative consumers are influenced by communicative bots. We show that there is a lack of knowledge about what objective data value can have in business transactions. Sufficient transparency of an objective data value can maintain legal protection, especially of vulnerable groups, and ensure the purpose of the laws.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0224.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: VR-XGBoost; K-VDTE; ETC data; ESAs; data mining
Online: 12 August 2022 (03:53:23 CEST)
To scientifically and effectively evaluate the service capacity of expressway service areas (ESAs) and improve the management level of ESAs, we propose a method for the recognition of vehicles entering ESAs (VeESAs) and estimation of vehicle dwell times using ETC data. First, the ETC data and their advantages are described in detail, and then the cleaning rules are designed according to the characteristics of the ETC data. Second, we established feature engineering according to the characteristics of VeESA, and proposed the XGBoost-based VeESA recognition (VR-XGBoost) model. Studied the driving rules in depth, we constructed a kinematics-based vehicle dwell time estimation (K-VDTE) model. The field validation in Part A/B of Yangli ESA using real ETC transaction data demonstrates that the effectiveness of our proposal outperforms the current state of the art. Specifically, in Part A and Part B, the recognition accuracies of VR-XGBoost are 95.9% and 97.4%, respectively, the mean absolute errors (MAEs) of dwell time are 52 s and 14 s, respectively, and the root mean square errors (RMSEs) are 69 s and 22 s, respectively. In addition, the confidence level of controlling the MAE of dwell time within 2 minutes is more than 97%. This work can effectively identify the VeESA, and accurately estimate the dwell time, which can provide a reference idea and theoretical basis for the service capacity evaluation and layout optimization of the ESA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0083.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Ratios; Financial Crisis; Covid-19; Big Data; Accounting Data
Online: 3 August 2022 (10:42:06 CEST)
The effects of the 2008 financial crisis undoubtedly caused problems not only to the banking sector but also to the real economy of the developed and the developing countries in almost all around the globe. Besides, as is widely known, every banking crisis entails the corresponding cost to the economy of each country affected by it, which results from the shakeout and the restructuring of its financial system. The purpose of this research is to investigate the consequences of the financial crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis and how these affected the course of the four systemic banks (Eurobank, Alpha Bank, National Bank, Piraeus Bank) through the analysis of ratios for the period of 2015-2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0331.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social media ethics; Social media; data misuse; data integrity
Online: 12 March 2021 (08:05:09 CET)
The present high-tech landscape has allowed institutes to undergo digital transformation in addition to the storing of exceptional bulks of information from several resources, such as mobile phones, debit cards, GPS, transactions, online logs, and e-records. With the growth of technology, big data has grown to be a huge resource for several corporations that helped in encouraging enhanced strategies and innovative enterprise prospects. This advancement has also offered the expansion of linkable data resources. One of the famous data sources is social media platforms. Ideas and different types of content are being posted by thousands of people via social networking sites. These sites have provided a modern method for operating companies efficiently. However, some studies showed that social media platforms can be a source for misinformation at which some users tend to misuse social media data. In this work, the ethical concerns and conduct in online communities has been reviewed in order to see how social media data from different platforms has been misused, and to highlight some of the ways to avoid the misuse of social media data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0258.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Conservation laws; Data inference; Data discovery; Dimensionless form; PINN
Online: 30 September 2020 (03:51:25 CEST)
Deep learning has achieved remarkable success in diverse computer science applications, however, its use in other traditional engineering fields has emerged only recently. In this project, we solved several mechanics problems governed by differential equations, using physics informed neural networks (PINN). The PINN embeds the differential equations into the loss of the neural network using automatic differentiation. We present our developments in the context of solving two main classes of problems: data-driven solutions and data-driven discoveries, and we compare the results with either analytical solutions or numerical solutions using the finite element method. The remarkable achievements of the PINN model shown in this report suggest the bright prospect of the physics-informed surrogate models that are fully differentiable with respect to all input coordinates and free parameters. More broadly, this study shows that PINN provides an attractive alternative to solve traditional engineering problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0051.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: COVID-19; WHO; database; systematic review; data quality
Online: 2 August 2020 (17:43:38 CEST)
Introduction: A large number of COVID-19 publications has created a need to collect all research-related material in practical and reliable centralized databases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the functionality and quality of the compiled World Health Organisation COVID-19 database and compare it to Pubmed and Scopus. Methods: Article metadata for COVID-19 articles and articles on 8 specific topics related to COVID-19 was exported from the WHO global research database, Scopus and Pubmed. The analysis was conducted in R to investigate the number and overlapping of the articles between the databases and the missingness of values in the metadata. Results: The WHO database contains the largest number of COVID-19 related articles overall but retrieved the same number of articles on 8 specific topics as Scopus and Pubmed. Despite having the smallest number of exclusive articles overall, the highest number of exclusive articles on specific COVID-19 related topics was retrieved from the Scopus database. Further investigation revealed that PubMed and Scopus have more comprehensive structure than the WHO database, and less missing values in the categories searched by the information retrieval systems. Discussion: This study suggests that the WHO COVID-19 database, even though it is compiled from multiple databases, has a very simple and limited structure, and significant problems with data quality. As a consequence, relying on this database as a source of articles for systematic reviews or bibliometric analyses is undesirable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0158.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: blockchain; biomedical data managing; DWT; keyword search; data sharing.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:30:37 CEST)
A crucial role is played by personal biomedical data when it comes to maintaining proficient access to health records by patients as well as health professionals. However, it is difficult to get a unified view pertaining to health data that have been scattered across various health center/hospital sections. To be specific, health records are distributed across many places and cannot be found integrated easily. In recent years, blockchain is regarded as a promising explanation that helps to achieve individual biomedical information sharing in a secured way along with privacy preservation, because of its benefit of immutability. This research work put forwards a blockchain-based managing scheme that helps to establish interpretation improvements pertaining to electronic biomedical systems. In this scheme, two blockchain were employed to construct the base of it, where the second blockchain algorithm is used to generate a secure sequence for the hash key that generated in first blockchain algorithm. The adaptively feature enable the algorithm to use multiple data types and combine between various biomedical images and text records as well. All the data, including keywords, digital records as well as the identity of patients are private key encrypted along with keyword searching capability so as to maintain data privacy preservation, access control and protected search. The obtained results which show the low latency (less than 750 ms) at 400 requests / second indicate the ability to use it within several health care units such as hospitals and clinics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0219.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Big data technology; Business intelligence; Data integration; System virtualization.
Online: 13 June 2018 (16:19:48 CEST)
Big Data warehouses are a new class of databases that largely use unstructured and volatile data for analytical purpose. Examples of this kind of data sources are those coming from the Web, such as social networks and blogs, or from sensor networks, where huge amounts of data may be available only for short intervals of time. In order to manage massive data sources, a strategy must be adopted to define multidimensional schemas in presence of fast-changing situations or even undefined business requirements. In the paper, we propose a design methodology that adopts agile and automatic approaches, in order to reduce the time necessary to integrate new data sources and to include new business requirements on the fly. The data are immediately available for analyses, since the underlying architecture is based on a virtual data warehouse that does not require the importing phase. Examples of application of the methodology are presented along the paper in order to show the validity of this approach compared to a traditional one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0326.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Data analysis; Artificial Intelligence; Machine Learning; Knowledge Engineering; Computers and information processing, Data analysis; Data Processing.
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:33:53 CET)
The copper mining industry is increasingly using artificial intelligence methods to improve cop-per production processes. Recent studies reveal the use of algorithms such as Artificial Neural Network, Support Vector Machine, and Random Forest, among others, to develop models for predicting product quality. Other studies compare the predictive models developed with these machine learning algorithms in the mining industry, as a whole. However, not many copper mining studies published compare the results of machine learning techniques for copper recovery prediction. This study makes a detailed comparison between three models for predicting copper recovery by leaching, using four datasets resulting from mining operations in northern Chile. The algorithms used for developing the models were Random Forest, Support Vector Machine, and Artificial Neural Network. To validate these models, four indicators or values of merit were used: accuracy (acc), precision (p), recall (r), and Matthew’s correlation coefficient (mcc). This paper describes dataset preparation and the refinement of the threshold values used for the predictive variable most influential on the class (the copper recovery). Results show both a precision over 98.50% and also the model with the best behavior between the predicted and the real. Finally, the models obtained show the following mean values: acc=94.32, p=88.47, r=99.59, and mcc=2.31. These values are highly competitive as compared with those obtained in similar studies using other approaches in the context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0254.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: feature selection; k-means; silhouette measure; clustering; big data; fault classification; sensor data; time-series data
Online: 11 August 2020 (06:26:43 CEST)
Feature selection is a crucial step to overcome the curse of dimensionality problem in data mining. This work proposes Recursive k-means Silhouette Elimination (RkSE) as a new unsupervised feature selection algorithm to reduce dimensionality in univariate and multivariate time-series datasets. Where k-means clustering is applied recursively to select the cluster representative features, following a unique application of silhouette measure for each cluster and a user-defined threshold as the feature selection or elimination criteria. The proposed method is evaluated on a hydraulic test rig, multi sensor readings in two different fashions: (1) Reduce the dimensionality in a multivariate classification problem using various classifiers of different functionalities. (2) Classification of univariate data in a sliding window scenario, where RkSE is used as a window compression method, to reduce the window dimensionality by selecting the best time points in a sliding window. Moreover, the results are validated using 10-fold cross validation technique. As well as, compared to the results when the classification is pulled directly with no feature selection applied. Additionally, a new taxonomy for k-means based feature selection methods is proposed. The experimental results and observations in the two comprehensive experiments demonstrated in this work reveal the capabilities and accuracy of the proposed method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0303.v2
Online: 19 November 2021 (08:38:42 CET)
Science continues to become more interdisciplinary and to involve increasingly complex data sets. Many projects in the biomedical and health-related sciences follow or aim to follow the principles of FAIR data sharing, which has been demonstrated to foster collaboration, to lead to better research outcomes, and to help ensure reproducibility of results. Data generated in the course of biomedical and health research present specific challenges for FAIR sharing in the sense that they are heterogeneous and highly sensitive to context and the needs of protection and privacy. Data sharing must respect these features without impeding timely dissemination of results, so that they can contribute to time-critical advances in medical therapy and treatment. Modeling and simulation of biomedical processes have become established tools, and a global community has been developing algorithms, methodologies, and standards for applying biomedical simulation models in clinical research. However, it can be difficult for clinician scientists to follow the specific rules and recommendations for FAIR data sharing within this domain. We seek to clarify the standard workflow for sharing experimental and clinical data with the simulation modeling community. By following these recommendations, data sharing will be improved, collaborations will become more effective, and the FAIR publication and subsequent reuse of data will become possible at the level of quality necessary to support biomedical and health-related sciences.