ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0367.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: daily light integral (DLI) maps; LED grow lights; greenhouse integrated PV; adaptive lighting control; year-round cultivation; agrivoltaics
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:31:23 CEST)
High efficacy LED lamps combined with adaptive lighting control and greenhouse integrated photovoltaics (PV) could enable the concept of year-round cultivation and become a feasible option even in the harsh climate of the Nordic countries. Meteorological satellite data of this region was analyzed in a parametric study to evaluate the potential of these technologies. The generated maps showed monthly average temperatures fluctuating from -20°C to 20°C throughout the year. The natural photoperiod and light intensity also changed drastically, resulting in monthly average daily light integral (DLI) levels ranging from 45-50 mol·m-2·d-1 in summer and contrasting with 0-5 mol·m-2·d-1 during winter. To compensate, growth room cultivation independent from outdoor conditions could be used in winter. Depending on the efficacy of the lamps, the electricity required for sole-source lighting at 300 µmol·m-2·s-1 for 16 hours would be between 1.4 and 2.4 kWh·m-2·d-1. Greenhouses with supplementary lighting could help start the cultivation earlier in spring and extend it further into autumn. The energy required for lighting highly depends on several factors such as the natural light transmittance, the light threshold settings and the lighting control protocol, resulting in electric demands between 0.6 and 2.4 kWh·m-2·d-1. Integrating PV on the roof or wall structures of the greenhouse could offset some of this electricity, with specific energy yields ranging from 400 to 1120 kWh·kWp-2·yr-1 depending on the region and system design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0049.v1
Online: 10 April 2017 (06:10:20 CEST)
The aim of this study was to examine usual daily micronutrient intake of Chinese children based on data from the 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey. We analyzed data from 4 to 17-year-old participants, who provided dietary data on 3 consecutive days combined with the household weighing method in 2011. Usual daily intake of each nutrient was estimated using a mixed effects model based on the China Food Composition published in 2002 and 2004. The means, medians and percent below Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) were reported for selected micronutrients, including calcium, sodium, potassium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C. For sodium and potassium, means and the distribution of intakes were compared to the Adequate Intake (AI) level. The average usual daily intakes of all micronutrients increase with age and the intakes of boys higher than girls in the same age group. The average of calcium intakes increased from 272mg/d in 4-6y to 391mg/d in 14-17y, but the percentage of inadequate calcium intake remained very high (>96%). The prevalence of inadequacy of calcium was the highest among the mineral nutrients reported in this study. As the requirement of micronutrient increased with age, the percentage of subjects with inadequate intake increased in 11-17 age groups. Among the 14-17y, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of calcium, iron, zinc, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, riboflavin and vitamin C below the EAR were 96.8%, 18.8%, 37.6%, 72.8%, 36.8%, 91.8%. 85.9% and 75.5%, respectively. Among the 11-13y, the percentages of study participants with dietary intakes of iron, zinc and vitamin A below the EAR were 23.5%, 41.5%, and 41.6%, respectively. Thus, the micronutrients deficiency is a problem in Chinese Children. Nutrition education and intervention programs are needed to address the nutritional gaps.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0612.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Activities of daily living; Barthel index; SARS-COV-2
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:05:25 CEST)
Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the activities of daily living using the Barthel Index, before and after the infection by SARS-COV-2 and to see if the results vary according to sex. Methods: The activities of daily living of 68 cohabiting geriatric patients, 34 men and 34 women, in 2 nursing homes were measured before and after SARS-COV-2 infection using the Barthel index. Results: The Covid 19 infection affects the performance of daily life activities in institutionalized elderly in nursing homes, and it does so especially the older the subject, regardless of sex. Conclusions: The Covid 19 pandemic, in addition to having claimed some victims, especially in the elderly population, has reduced the ability of these people to carry out their activities of daily life, considerably worsening their quality of life despite have been able to overcome the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0315.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: current harmonics; stray losses; statistical inference; daily demand graphs
Online: 30 August 2019 (04:16:21 CEST)
Power Electronic development determines introduction of nonlinear devices in Electric Power Systems. Introduction of nonlinear devices increase current harmonics in Transmission and Distribution Power Systems. Distribution transformers and feeders increase power losses and their nominal parameters are reduced. Present work introduces a procedure to evaluate maximum permissible load in single phase distribution transformers with massive introduction of a new type of nonlinear load which changes daily demand graphs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Appeasing Pheromone; Bovine; Respiratory Infections; Immune Response; Average Daily Gain
Online: 3 May 2021 (09:15:45 CEST)
Bovine respiratory disease is still a major concern in feedlots and has major economic impact. Another consequence of respiratory infections is the use of antimicrobial molecules to control bacterial pathogens. This can participate to the emergence and shedding of antimicrobial re-sistance that can threaten animal as well as human health. Appeasing pheromones with their capacity to reduce stress and thus their ability to preserve the functions of the immune system have been proposed to reduce the use of antimicrobial substances. In the current report we as-sessed the effect of appeasing pheromone administration on bovine health and performance during the fattening period. Zootechnical and health parameters as well as whole blood immune transcript expressions were measured over weeks in young bulls to determine the effect of the pheromone. We observed a reduction of clinical signs at day 30 in young bulls who received the pheromone and a higher expression of interleukin 8 transcripts in this group than in the control group. Our results are in line with previous reports in bovine and other mammals and ask for further studies to shed more light on the beneficial impact of appeasing pheromones and to de-cipher their exact mechanisms of action.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0147.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: activities of daily living; activity recognition; accelerometers; machine learning; sensors
Online: 19 March 2018 (08:42:39 CET)
This paper serves a survey and empirical evaluation of the state-of-the-art in activity recognition methods using accelerometers. We examine research that has focused on the selection of activities, the features that are extracted from the accelerometer data, the segmentation of the time-series data, the locations of accelerometers, the selection and configuration trade-offs, the test/retest reliability, and the generalisation performance. Furthermore, we study these questions from an experimental platform and show, somewhat surprisingly, that many disparate experimental configurations yield comparable predictive performance on testing data. Our understanding of these results is that the experimental setup directly and indirectly defines a pathway for context to be delivered to the classifier, and that, in some settings, certain configurations are more optimal than alternatives. We conclude by identifying how the main results of this work can be used in practice, specifically in experimental configurations in challenging experimental conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: hydrokinetic; energy assessment; unregulated river; daily water velocity estimation; daily water level estimation; IBM statistical package for social sciences (SPSS); regression analysis; east malaysia
Online: 27 April 2018 (08:39:22 CEST)
Electrification coverage in Sarawak is the lowest at 78.74%, compared to Peninsular Malaysia at 99.62% and Sabah at 82.51%. Kapit, Sarawak with its 88.4% populations located in rural areas and mostly situated along the main riverbanks has great potential to generate electrical energy by hydrokinetic system. Yearly water velocity data is the most significant parameter to perform hydrokinetic analysis study. Nevertheless, the data retrieved from local river databases are inadequate for river energy analysis, thus hindering its progression. Instead, flow rates and rainfall data had been utilised to estimate the water velocity data. This signifies no estimation of water velocity in an unregulated river by using water level data had been made. Therefore, a novel technique of estimating the daily average water velocity data in unregulated rivers is proposed. The modelling of regression equation for water velocity estimation was performed and two regression model equations were generated to estimate both water level and water velocity on-site and proven to be valid as the coefficient of determination values had been R2 = 87.4% and R2=87.9%, respectively. The combination of both regression model equations can be used to estimate long-term time series water velocity data for type-C unregulated river in remote areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0531.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Sars-CoV-2; confirmed daily infections; mathematical model
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:37:07 CET)
The developments of confirmed daily Sars-CoV-2 infections can be modeled a posteriori in a comparatively simple and satisfactory way by means of a special exponential function: its exponential coefficient varies exponentially with time itself. This property enables the function to directly simulate the „daily case“ curve fragments observed for the first waves of the current epidemics in a number of counties and countries. Linear combinations of two or more of the functions allow for the modeling of the complete curves observed in the vast majority of all regions for which case number developments have been tabulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0536.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: dementia; depression; loneliness; activities of daily living; social support; life satisfaction
Online: 27 October 2020 (07:55:52 CET)
As the number of older adults with dementia increases, early diagnosis and intervention are crucially important. The purpose of this study was to conduct dementia screening on older adults to determine whether there are differences in daily activities of living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction between older adults at high-risk for dementia compared with low-risk older adults. We hypothesized a negative relationship between high-risk older adults and these factors. This study also hypothesized a moderating effect for social support on the relationship between daily living activities and life satisfaction. This study used a cross-sectional design with survey data. Participants were recruited at 15 public community health centers in South Korea. A total of 609 older adults (male 208, female 401) living in the community were screened for early dementia, and 113 participants (18.9 %) were assigned to the high-risk group. As hypothesized, participants in the high-risk group showed significantly more negative results in terms of activities of daily living, depression, loneliness, social support, and life satisfaction compared with participants in the low-risk group. The findings of this study provide a theoretical basis for the importance of early screening for dementia and policies for effective dementia prevention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0015.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Metal oxide nanoparticles; Bioaccumulation; Recommended Dietary Allowances; Daily Values; Essential nutrients
Online: 2 August 2020 (11:18:19 CEST)
Understanding potential uptake and biodistribution of engineered nanoparticles in soil-grown plants is imperative for toxicity and risk assessment considering the oral exposure of edibles by humans. Herein, we assessed potential influence of particle size (25, 50, and 250 nm) and concentration (0, 50, 100, 200, and 500 mg/kg-soil) of Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuONPs) on: (1) the root system architecture, and the physicochemical attributes of soil at the soil-root interface, (2) leading to Cu transport and accumulation in root, stem, leaf and seed in soybean (Glycine max cv Kowsar) grown for entire lifecycle of 120 days, and compared with soluble Cu2+ ions and water-only controls, and (3) performed a comparative assessment of total seed Cu levels in soybean with other valuable food sources for Cu intake and discussed its human health implications. Our findings showed particle size- and concentration-dependent influence of CuONPs on Cu uptake and tissue distribution in root, stem, leaf and seed in soybean. Alterations in root architecture (root dry weight, root length, root volume, and root area) were dependent on the Cu compound type, Cu concentrations, and their interactions (p<0.05), except for root density. Concentration-response relationships for all three sized CuONPs, and Cu2+ ions, were linear. CuONPs and Cu2+ ions had inhibitory effects on root growth and development. Overall, soybean responses to smallest size CuONPs-25 nm were higher for all parameters investigated compared to two larger sized CuONPs (50 nm, 250 nm) or Cu2+ ions. Cu uptake/bioaccumulation differed among soybean tissues in the order: root > leaf > stem > seed. Despite reduced root architecture and seed yield, our smallest size CuONPs-25 nm led to increased total seed Cu uptake compared to the larger sized CuONPs and Cu2+ ions tested. Our findings also suggest that soil amendment by CuONPs, more so by the smallest size CuONPs-25 nm, could significantly improve nutritional Cu value in soybean seed as reflected by % Daily Values (DV), and are rated “Good” to “Very Good” according to the “World’s Healthiest Foods” rating. However, until the potential toxicity and risk from consumption of soybean seed is characterized in humans, caution should be exercised when the Cu fortified seeds are used for daily human consumption when addressing Cu deficiency and associated illnesses, globally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0186.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Gait; Pain; Back disorder; Outcome evaluations; Daily activity; Fear of pain
Online: 9 August 2018 (11:26:15 CEST)
Abstract: This study evaluates the effect of paravertebral spinal injection (PSI), utilizing both subjective and objective assessments in chronic low back pain (LBP) associated with facet joint arthrosis over a one-month duration. Subjective questionnaires included the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) for pain, Oswestry Disability Index, Health Survey SF-12, and the short Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I). Objective assessments included in-clinic gait and timed-up-and-go (TUG) tests using wearable sensors, as well as 48-hour daily physical activity (DPA) monitored using a chest-worn tri-axial accelerometer. Subjective and objective measures were performed prior to treatment, immediately after the treatment, and one-month afterthe treatment. Eight LBP patients were recruited for this study (mean age = 54±13 years, body mass index = 31.41±6.52 kg/m2, 50% males). Results show significant decrease in pain (~55%, p<0.05) and disability (Oswestry scores, ~21%, p<0.05). In-clinic gait and TUG were also significantly improved (~16% and ~18% faster walking and shorter TUG, p<0.05); however, DPA (including percentage of physical activities (walking and standing) and the number of steps) showed no significant change after PSI (p>0.25; effect size≤0.44). We hypothesize that DPA may continue to be truncated by conditioned fear-avoidance, a psychological state that may prevent increase in daily physical activity to avoid pain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: COVID-19; Lockdown; endocrine diseases; daily habits; food consumption; sleep disorders; anxiety
Online: 2 August 2020 (15:32:38 CEST)
In March 2020 the World Health Organization declared the “pandemic state” due to COVID-19 imposing strict confinement of the world population. People were forced to spend more time at home, changing some daily routines, including social interactions, the possibility to perform sports, and diet habits. These changes could exert a greater impact on patients suffering from chronic diseases, such as endocrine patients. This study aimed to assess the effects of Covid-19 induced quarantine on daily habits in a group of patients with endocrine disorders, focusing on food consumption, eating, and sleep habits during the confinement. Eighty-five endocrine patients were enrolled. A structured interview was administered investigating: socio-demographic information, general medical conditions and habits adopted during the quarantine. All patients underwent the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-Y1) to assess state anxiety. Subjects had mainly a sedentary lifestyle. We found a significant increase in the number of cigarettes in smokers, an increase of meals consumed during the confinement and a high rate of sleep disorder occurrence, especially insomnia. The changes of daily habits were, probably, due to the alterations of routine, that determined more bore and inactivity during the day.
Subject: Keywords: myocardial perfusion imaging; positron emission tomography; Rubidium-82 generator; daily quality assurance
Online: 22 April 2020 (07:32:27 CEST)
Introduction. Strontium-82/Rubidium-82 (82Sr/82Rb) generators are used widely for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of myocardial perfusion. In this study, the 82Rb isotope yield and production efficiency of two FDA-approved 82Sr/82Rb generators were compared.Methods. N=515 sequential daily quality assurance (QA) reports from 9 CardioGen-82® and 9 RUBY-FILL® generators were reviewed over a period of 2 years. A series of test elutions was performed at different flow-rates on the RUBY-FILL® system to determine an empirical correction-factor used to convert CardioGen-82® daily QA values of 82Rb activity (dose-calibrator ‘maximum’ of 50 mL elution at 50 mL/min) to RUBY-FILL® equivalent values (integrated ‘total’ of 35 mL elution at 20 mL/min). The generator yield (82Rb) and production efficiency (82Rb yield / 82Sr parent activity) were measured and compared after this conversion to a common scale. Results. At the start of clinical use, the system reported 82Rb activity from daily QA was lower for CardioGen-82® vs RUBY-FILL® (2.3 ± 0.2 vs 3.0 ± 0.2 GBq, p<0.001) despite having similar 82Sr activity. Dose-calibrator ‘maximum’ (CardioGen-82®) values were found to under-estimate the integrated ‘total’ (RUBY-FILL®) activity by ~24% at 50 mL/min. When these data were used to convert the CardioGen-82 values to a common measurement scale (integrated total activity) the CardioGen-82® efficiency remained slightly lower than the RUBY-FILL® system on average (88 ± 4% vs 95 ± 4%, p<0.001). The efficiency of 82Rb production improved for both systems over the respective periods of clinical use.Conclusions. 82Rb generator yield was significantly under-estimated using the CardioGen-82® vs RUBY-FILL® daily QA procedure. When generator yield was expressed as the integrated total activity for both systems, the estimated 82Rb production efficiency of the CardioGen-82® system was ~7% lower than RUBY-FILL® over the full period of clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0052.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: Vitamin E; GC-FID; Uncertainty; Cereal products; Reference daily value; Health claim
Online: 13 September 2017 (14:13:00 CEST)
A rapid, precise, accurate and low cost method for the determination of vitamin E (α-tocopherol) in cereal products and biscuits was developed. The uncertainty was calculated for the first time and the methods were performed in different cereal products and biscuits, characterized as “superfoods”. The limits of detection and quantification were calculated. Accuracy and precision were estimated using the certified reference material FAPAS T10112QC and the determined values were in good accordance with the certified values. The health claims according to the daily reference values for vitamin E were calculated and the results proved that the majority of the samples examined showed %daily value higher than 15%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2030060
Subject: Keywords: locomotion; machine learning; support vector machines; activity classification; activity of daily life (ADL)
Online: 18 July 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
Although Support Vector Machines (SVM) are widely used for classifying human motion patterns, their application in the automatic recognition of dynamic and static activities of daily life in the healthy older adults is limited. Using a body mounted wireless inertial measurement unit (IMU), this paper explores the use of SVM approach for classifying dynamic (walking) and static (sitting, standing and lying) activities of the older adults. Specifically, data formatting and feature extraction methods associated with IMU signals are discussed. To evaluate the performance of the SVM algorithm, the effects of two parameters involved in SVM algorithm—the soft margin constant C and the kernel function parameter
—are investigated. The changes associated with adding white-noise and pink-noise on these two parameters along with adding different sources of movement variations (i.e., localized muscle fatigue and mixed activities) are further discussed. The results indicate that the SVM algorithm is capable of keeping high overall accuracy by adjusting the two parameters for dynamic as well as static activities, and may be applied as a tool for automatically identifying dynamic and static activities of daily life in the older adults.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0136.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Bioconcentration Factor; Estimated Daily Intake; Nyabarongo river; Protopterus annectens; Rwanda; Target Hazard Quotient.
Online: 10 December 2019 (15:07:13 CET)
Water is an indispensable natural resource that is often prodigiously threatened by anthropomorphic activities. This study evaluated the physicochemical properties of water and selected heavy metals in edible muscles of a piscivorous fish (Protopterus annectens) from Nyabarongo and Nyabugogo rivers of Rwanda. Edibility health risk was evaluated using the target hazard quotient method. Water samples were taken in triplicate from Ruliba station and Kirinda bridge on Nyabarongo river and Giticyinyoni on Nyabugogo river. Fish samples were obtained from the sampling stations on Nyabarongo river. All samples were analyzed following standard methods and analytical results indicated that the average temperature, pH, total dissolved solids and electrolytic conductivity of water from the rivers were within WHO acceptable limits. The statistical mean concentrations of the ionic components of the water samples were 1.61 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.002, 0.24 ± 0.02 and 0.051 ± 0.01 mg/L for Fe, Mn, Cu and Pb respectively at Ruliba station and 0.63 ± 0.02, 0.02 ± 0.002, 0.09 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.002 and 0.75 ± 0.02 mg/L for Fe, Mn, Zn, Cr and Pb respectively at Kirinda bridge. Water from Giticyinyoni had 1.57 ± 0.02, 0.49 ± 0.03, 0.29 ± 0.058, 0.43 ± 0.058, 0.15 ± 0.00 and 0.59 ± 0.058 mg/L of Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb respectively. Zinc, Cu, Cr and Cd were below detection limits in samples from Ruliba station and Kirinda bridge (Nyabarongo river). Edible muscles of P. annectens from Nyabarongo river contained 272.8 ± 0.36, 292.2 ± 0.25, 8.8 ± 0.36, 135.2 ± 0.15, 148.0 ± 0.21 and 432. 0 ± 0.50 mgkg-1 for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb at Ruliba station and 336.0 ± 0.70, 302.6 ± 1.22, 6.4 ± 0.26, 44.7 ± 0.20, 138.2 ± 0.17 and 302.4 ± 1.50 mgkg-1 for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cr and Pb respectively at Kirinda bridge. Health risk assessment indicated that consumption of the edible muscles of P. annectens may lead to deleterious health effects as reflected by values of target hazard quotients being greater than one. Therefore, the Rwandese government should lay strategies to reduce pollution of the rivers. Further research should evaluate the heavy metal content of metabolically active organs of P. annectens from Nyabarongo river as well as the microbiological profile of water from the rivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0064.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microcystins; climatic factors; chronic liver disease and cirrhosis; daily sunlight; enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Online: 3 July 2019 (11:46:09 CEST)
Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) may rapidly propagate under favorable conditions, forming dense blooms. As water blooms deteriorate, blue-green algae can generate potent toxins, potentially harmful to companion animals, wildlife, and even humans. One widely recognized cyanobacterial toxin is microcystin. This algal toxin has been implicated in surface waters globally, increasing liver cancer and/or disease risk amongst those who depend on sources prone to microcystin contamination. Interestingly, no study looked at weather conditions when connecting liver health outcomes to freshwater cyanotoxins. The purpose of this study was to determine if climate was an important determinant of liver mortality and total microcystins at the ecological level. Secondary data was used to evaluate the proposed hypothesis. Environmental data (CDC WONDER) and toxin data (USEPA) were used in multivariate regression analysis. Mean daily sunlight and total microcystins were significant predictors of age-adjusted chronic liver disease and cirrhosis death rates. Mean annual precipitation and mean daily max temperature were non-significant predictors. This study demonstrated how microcystins in combination with climate may increase liver mortality. The results can prompt others to study environmental exposures of terminal liver diseases, guiding environmental health and the water industry of human survival needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0070.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: asian sand dust; in utero exposure; secondary sex ratio; male reproduction; daily sperm production
Online: 20 September 2016 (11:39:47 CEST)
In recent experimental studies, we reported the aggravating effects of Asian sand dust (ASD) on male reproductive function in mice. However, the effects of fetal ASD exposure on male reproductive function have not been investigated. The present study investigated the effects of fetal ASD exposure on reproductive function in male offspring. Using pregnant CD-1 mice, ASD was administered intratracheally on days 7 and 14 of gestation, and the reproductive function of male offspring was determined at 5, 10, and 15 weeks after birth. The secondary sex ratio was significantly lower in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. Histologic examination showed partial vacuolation of seminiferous tubules in immature mice. Moreover, daily sperm production (DSP) was significantly less in the fetal ASD-exposed mice than in the controls. DSP in the fetal ASD-exposed mice was approximately 10% less than the controls at both 5 and 10 weeks. However, both the histologic changes and the DSP decrease were reversed as the mice matured. These findings suggest that ASD exposure affects both the fetal development and the reproductive function of male offspring. In the future, it will be necessary to clarify the onset mechanisms of ASD-induced male fetus death and male reproductive disorders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0123.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; COPD; fall risk factor; gait; balance; cognition; daily activity; muscle dysfunction
Online: 8 September 2022 (10:35:01 CEST)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is increasingly being recognized as a systemic disease rather than a mere disorder of the lungs. Central (respiratory) and peripheral (limb) muscle weakness are among the main pronounced systemic effects of COPD. While the disease primarily affects the lower limb muscles and contributes to gait impairment, COPD is also associated with an increasing risk of falls in patients (COPDp). Previous studies have reported higher rates of falls among COPDp (1.17 to 1.20 falls/person-year), amounting to four times higher than an age-matched healthy group. Potential fall risk factors include muscle weakness, impaired daily activities, cognitive dysfunction, and gait and balance impairment. Although COPDp often manifest many of these risk factors, there remains a gap in literature regarding falls during walking in this population. This study aimed to 1. analyze the literature to identify the risk factors of falling in COPDp, and 2. investigate the underlying mechanisms by which these risk factors can lead to increased prevalence of falling. The results suggest that in addition to the known risk factors of falling, low back pain and mental fatigue should also be considered as relevant risk factors in the treatment process of these patients. Moreover, respiratory problems, which are common in this population, have demonstrated pronounced effects on energy expenditure, gait, and other types of activities of daily living (ADLs), leading to reduced intensity, disrupted coordination of the trunk-pelvic structure with the lower limbs during gait, and altered motor control performance due to activation of muscles in an inefficient synergic manner. These problems potentially lead to the increased vulnerability of these patients to external disturbances and higher incidence risk of falls and injuries. Cognitive problems, which are typically due to reduced oxygen received by the brain, as well as general inflammation caused by COPD, also play a significant role in gait disruption and balance. Future research is warranted to determine the prevalence of falls in COPDp by examining the response of these patients to Medio-Lateral (ML) and Anterior-Posterior (AP) disturbances during gait in association with traditional and recommended fall risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0286.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: The Daily Port Emission Inventory; Vessel Selective Tariff; Haifa Port Emission Inventory; Ship Selective Tariff
Online: 16 September 2021 (13:41:26 CEST)
This research investigates Haifa ports emissions’ contribution to the existing daily emission inventory level in the area. This research based on developed full bottom-up model framework that looks at the single vessel daily voyage through its port call stages. The main data sources for vessels movements used in this research are the Israel Navy`s movements log and Israel Administration of Shipping and Ports’ (ASP) operational vessel movements and cargo log. The Fuel Consumption (FC) data and Sulfur Content (SC) levels are based on an official Israel ASP survey data. Observation years in this research are 2010 - 2018 with focus on the Ocean-Going Vessels (OGV) type only. The results show that the vessel fleet calling at Israel ports is mainly vessels that have a lower engine Tier grade (i.e., Tier 0 and 1) which is considered a heavy contributor to Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) pollutant. The study recommends on an additional cost charged (selective tariff) to reflect the external social cost linked to the single vessel air pollution combined with supportive technological infrastructure and economic incentive tools (e.g. electric subsidy) to attract or influence vessel owners to assign vessels equipped with new engine Tier grades for calls at Israeli ports.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: neurological wake-up test; multimodality monitoring; neurologic examination; daily-interruption of sedation; traumatic brain injury
Online: 7 December 2020 (12:41:39 CET)
Sedation is a ubiquitous practice in ICUs and NCCUs. It has the benefit of reducing cerebral energy demands, but also precludes an accurate neurologic assessment. Because of this, sedation is intermittently stopped for the purposes of a neurologic assessment, which is termed a neurologic wake-up test (NWT). NWTs are considered to be the gold-standard in continued assessment of brain-injured patients under sedation. NWTs also produce an acute stress response that is accompanied by elevations in blood pressure, respiratory rate, heart rate, and ICP. Utilization of cerebral microdialysis and brain tissue oxygen monitoring indicates that this is not mirrored by alterations in overall cerebral metabolism, and seldom affects oxygenation. The hard contraindications for the NWT are preexisting intracranial hypertension, barbiturate treatment, status epilepticus, and hyperthermia. However, hemodynamic instability, sedative use for primary ICP control, and sedative use for severe agitation or respiratory distress are considered significant safety concerns. Despite ubiquitous recommendation, it is not clear if additional clinically relevant information is gleaned through its use, especially with the contemporaneous utilization of multimodality monitoring. Various monitoring modalities provide unique and pertinent information about neurologic function, however, their role in improving patient outcomes and guiding treatment plans has not been fully elucidated. There is a paucity of information pertaining to the optimal frequency of NWTs, and if it differs based on type of injury. Only one concrete recommendation was found in the literature, exemplifying the uncertainty surrounding its utility. The most common sedative used and recommended is propofol because of its rapid onset, short duration, and reduction of cerebral energy requirements. Dexmedetomidine may be employed to facilitate serial NWTs, and should always be used in the non-intubated patient or if propofol infusion syndrome (PRIS) develops. Midazolam is not recommended due to tissue accumulation and residual sedation confounding a reliable NWT. Thus, NWTs are well tolerated in most patients and remain recommended as the gold-standard for continued neuromonitoring. Predicated upon one expert panel, they should be performed at least one time per day. Propofol or dexmedetomidine are the main sedative choices, both enabling a rapid awakening and consistent NWT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: hybrid forecast model; forecast horizon; daily global solar radiation clustering; fuzzy c-means; variability characterization
Online: 5 September 2018 (06:22:35 CEST)
In this paper, the forecast horizon and solar variability influences on MHFM model based on multiscale decomposition, AR and NN models, are studied. This article follows the works published in  showing the performance of the MHFM using 3 multiscale decomposition methods and a forecast horizon equal to 1 hour. Several forecast horizon strategies and his influence on the MHFM performances are investigated. We show that the best strategy for a rRMSE variying from $4.43\%$ to $10.24\%$ is obtained for forecast horizons from $5$ minutes to $6$ hours. In a second part, the solar variability influence on the MHFM is studied. A classification based on a shows that the best performance of MHFM is obtained for clear sky days with a rRMSE of $2.91\%$ and worst for cloudy sky days with a rRMSE of $6.73\%$.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0205.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: chlorpyrifos; cypermethrin; daily intake; home environment; Monte Carlo simulation; non-dietary ingestion; SHEDS model; Taiwan
Online: 15 May 2018 (06:30:06 CEST)
We estimated the daily intakes of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin via ingestion of indoor dust and outdoor soils using the Stochastic Human Exposure and Dose Simulation Model on a probabilistic approach for Taiwan’s homes. Variable information for the daily intake estimation, such as concentration, ingestion rate, body weight, was adopted from previous studies. Monte Carlo simulation was performed with 1,000,000 iterations to simulate a single daily intake, which was shown in terms of percentage of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of either insecticide. The daily intakes were minimal with a 99% probability; at 99.9th percentile, however, the total intakes leaped to 13.1% and 20.0% of the respective ADIs of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. The sensitivity analysis indicated that concentration was the most determinant variable. Compared to the data of daily intakes via dietary ingestion of vegetables derived from a previous study, the estimated intakes by this study were considerable at the highest percentile, which referred to insecticide residues few days after insecticide application. Consequently, the non-dietary ingestion exposure to either insecticide was negligible in most cases; nevertheless, for those with indoor insecticide applications, the daily intakes for young children could be of concern. Frequently home cleaning is recommended to reduce the exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0425.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: Covid-19; fractal analysis; epidemic curves; box-counting dimension; reproduction rate; global radiation; daily mean temperature
Online: 24 September 2021 (11:19:52 CEST)
The present paper proposes a fractal analysis of the Covid-19 dynamics in 45 European countries. We introduce a new idea of using the box-counting dimension of the epidemiologic curves as a means of classifying the Covid-19 pandemic in the countries taken into consideration. The classification can be a useful tool in deciding upon the quality and accuracy of the data available. We also investigated the reproduction rate, which proves to have significant fractal features, thus enabling another perspective on this epidemic characteristic. Moreover, we studied the correlation between two meteorological parameters: global radiation and daily mean temperature and two Covid-19 indicators: daily new cases and reproduction rate. The fractal dimension differences between the analysed time series graphs could represent a preliminary analysis criterion, increasing research efficiency. Daily global radiation was found to be stronger linked with Covid-19 new cases than air temperature (with a greater correlation coefficient -0.386, as compared with -0.318), and consequently it is recommended as the first-choice meteorological variable for prediction models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0263.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial; antimicrobial use; antimicrobial resistance; antibiotic utilization; Tanzania; defined daily dose, Anatomical Therapeutic and Chemical Classification
Online: 11 August 2021 (14:42:57 CEST)
Antimicrobial use (AMU) is one of the major drivers of emerging antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Surveillance of AMU, a pillar of AMR stewardship (AMS), helps devise strategies to mitigate AMR. This descriptive, longitudinal retrospective study quantified the trends in human antibiotic utilization between 2010 and 2016 using data on all antibiotics imported for systemic human use into Tanzania's mainland. Regression and time series analyses were used to establish trends in antibiotics use. A total of 12,073 records for antibiotics were retrieved, totaling 154.51Daily Defined Doses per 1,000 inhabitants per day (DID) with a mean (± standard deviation) of 22.07 (±48.85) DID. The private sector contributed 93.76%% of utilized antibiotics. The top-ranking antibiotics were amoxicillin, metronidazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin and cefalexin. The DDIs and percentage contribution of these antibiotics were 53.78 (34.81%), 23.86 (15.44), 20.53 (13.29), 9.27 (6.0) and 6.94 (4.49), respectively. The time series model predicted significant increase in utilization(p-value =0.002). The model forecasted that by 2022, the total antibiotics consumed would reach 89.6 DIDs, corresponding to a 13-fold increase compared to 2010. Government intervention to curb inappropriate antibiotic utilization to mitigate the rising threat of antibiotic resistance should focus on implementing AMS programs in pharmacies and hospitals in Tanzania.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: recovery; mental illness; mental health; psychiatry; social inclusion; occupational therapy; occupations; time use; activities of daily living; work.
Online: 21 March 2022 (08:56:09 CET)
Research has consistently found that people with mental illness (known as consumers) experience lower levels of participation in meaningful activities, which can limit their opportunities for recovery support. The aim of this study was to describe the outcomes of participation in a group program designed to address all stages of activity participation, known as Pathways to Participation (P2P). A descriptive longitudinal design was utilized, collecting data at three time points. Outcomes were measured by the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal (CANSAS), Recovery Assessment Scale – Domains and Stages (RAS-DS), Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale (BASIS-24), Living in the Community Questionnaire (LCQ) and time use diaries. All data was analysed using descriptive statistics, and Chi square analyses. Seventeen consumers completed baseline data, eleven contributed post program data and eight provided follow up data. Most were female (63.64%) and had been living with mental illness for 11.50 (± 7.74) years on average. Reductions in unmet needs and improvements in self-rated recovery scores were re-ported, but no changes were identified in either time use or psychosocial health. The findings indicate the P2P program may enable consumers to achieve positive activity and participation out-comes as part of their personal recovery.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0299.v3
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: elderly; aging population; ambient intelligence; fall detection; indoor localization; real-world implementation; sensors; activities of daily living; assisted living
Online: 21 July 2022 (10:46:08 CEST)
Falls, highly common in the constantly increasing global aging population, can have a variety of negative effects on their health, well-being, and quality of life, including restricting their capabilities to conduct Activities of Daily Living (ADLs), which are crucial for one’s sustenance. Timely assistance during falls is highly necessary, which involves tracking the indoor location of the elderly during their diverse navigational patterns associated with ADLs to detect the precise location of a fall. With the decreasing caregiver population on a global scale, it is important that the future of intelligent living environments can detect falls during ADL.s while being able to track the indoor location of the elderly in the real world. Prior works in these fields have several limitations, such as – the lack of functionalities to detect both falls and indoor locations, high cost of implementation, complicated design, the requirement of multiple hardware components for deployment, and the necessity to develop new hardware for implementation, which make the wide-scale deployment of such technologies challenging. To address these challenges, this work proposes a cost-effective and simplistic design paradigm for an Ambient Assisted Living system that can capture multimodal components of user behaviors during ADLs that are necessary for performing fall detection and indoor localization in a simultaneous manner in the real world. Proof of concept results from real-world experiments are presented to uphold the effective working of the system. The findings from two comparison studies with prior works in this field are also presented to uphold the novelty of this work. The first comparison study shows how the proposed system outperforms prior works in the areas of indoor localization and fall detection in terms of the effectiveness of its software design and hardware design. The second comparison study shows that the cost for the development of this system is the least as compared to prior works in these fields, which involved real-world development of the underlining systems, thereby upholding its cost-effective nature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0068.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Activities of Daily Living (ADL); environment; sensors; mobile devices, framework; data acquisition; data processing; data fusion; pattern recognition; machine learning
Online: 8 January 2018 (11:34:36 CET)
Sensors available on mobile devices allow the automatic identification of Activities of Daily Living (ADL). This paper describes an approach for the creation of a framework for the identification of ADL, taking in account several concepts, including data acquisition, data processing, data fusion, pattern recognition, and machine learning. These concepts can be mapped in a module of the framework, including the use and creation of several algorithms. For the development of a framework that works in several conditions, e.g., without Internet connection, these algorithms should take in account the hardware and software limitations of the mobile devices to run all main tasks locally. The main purpose of this paper is related to the presentation the sensors, algorithms, and architecture of the proposed approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0009.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart home care (SHC); monitoring; prediction; trend detection; artificial neural network (ANN), Bayesian regulation method (BRM), wavelet transformation (WT), SPSS (statistical package for the social sciences) IBM; IoT (internet of things), activities of daily living (ADL)
Online: 3 December 2018 (07:05:04 CET)
This article describes the use of the PI ProcessBook software tool for visualization and indirect monitoring of occupancy of SHC rooms from the measured operational and technical quantities for monitoring of daily living activities for support of independent life of elderly persons. The proposed method for data processing (predicting the CO2 course using neural networks from the measured temperature indoor Ti (°C), temperature outdoor To (°C) and the relative humidity indoor rHi (%)) was implemented, verified and compared in MATLAB SW tool and IBM SPSS SW tool with IoT platform connectivity. Within the proposed method, the Stationary Wavelet Transform de noising algorithm was used to remove the noise of the resulting predicted course. In order to verify the method, two long-term experiments were performed, (specifically from February 8 to February 15, 2015, from June 8 to June 15, 2015) and two short-term experiments (from February 8, 2015 and from June 8, 2015). For the best results of the trained ANN BRM within the prediction of CO2, the correlation coefficient R for the proposed method was up to 90%. The verification of the proposed method confirmed the possibility to use the presence of persons of the monitored SHC premises for rooms ADL monitoring.