ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0514.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cyclic loads; fatigue of rocks; S/N curves; number of cycles; stress-strain behaviour
Online: 22 July 2021 (11:40:20 CEST)
The cyclic load applied to civil and mining structures can lead to a reduction of the materials’ strength, different from that which would occur with a monotonous load. Numerous cases can be found where the decay of the rock parameters subjected to this type of stress leads to progressive or sudden collapse: among them, tunnel walls, pillars and slabs in mining operations, roads with a heavy vehicle transit, abutments of bridges and dams can be quoted. The topic can therefore be fundamental for a correct structural design, to avoid problems during the life of the structure. However, given the heterogeneity of the rock materials and the difficulty of their characterization under this aspect, an unequivocal analysis is hardly achievable. Then, the discussion initially develops through a general historical review of the concept of fatigue, with a synthetic collection of case histories. The laboratory tests on rock samples are then examined and the most important results obtained are discussed. Finally, a comparison between different types of tests is proposed. The experimental data are expressed through the Wӧhler diagram. The goal is to fill the lack of design codes or standards in the field of cyclic stresses applied to rock materials, the understanding of its effect being of great interest in order to apply suitable parameters in the design phase.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0542.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Cyclic voltammograms; Chronoamperometric; Cyclic ketones structure; Environment ecological aspects ferrocene; Ecological aspects
Online: 29 November 2021 (14:55:34 CET)
Ferrocene and its derivatives have ecologically effective antidetane properties. In this regard, ferrocene reacts with cyclic ketones and ferrosenylcarbinols are synthesized. It should be noted that ferrocene enters into electrophilic reactions and the process takes place in an acidic environment. In addition, the yield of the new product was small compared to the reactions of ferrocene with non-cyclic ketones. This is due to the spatial structures of molecules. The elemental analysis of obtained compounds was carried out; the structures were researched by cyclic voltammograms and Chronoamperometric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Cyclic indentation; Vickers hardness; inverse analysis; numerical simulations; cyclic material properties; fatigue life
Online: 5 June 2020 (14:17:27 CEST)
The application of instrumented indentation to assess material properties like Young’s modulus and micro-hardness has become a standard method. In recent developments, indentation experiments and simulations have been combined to inverse methods, from which further material parameters as yield strength, work hardening rate, and tensile strength can be determined. In this work, an inverse method is introduced by which material parameters for cyclic plasticity, i.e. kinematic hardening parameters, can be determined. To accomplish this, cyclic Vickers indentation experiments are combined with finite element simulations of the indentation with unknown material properties, which are then determined by inverse analysis. To validate the proposed method, these parameters are subsequently applied to predict the uniaxial stress-strain response of a material with success. The method has been validated successfully for a quenched and tempered martensitic steel and for technically pure copper, where an excellent agreement between measured and predicted cyclic stress-strain-curves has been achieved. Hence, the proposed inverse method based on cyclic nanoindentation, as a quasi-non-destructive method, could complement or even substitute the resource-intensive conventional fatigue testing in the future for some applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0492.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cyclic nucleotides; phosphodiesterases (PDEs); optogenetics; cAMP; cGMP
Online: 22 August 2020 (05:04:04 CEST)
Second messengers, cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cGMP) are playing important roles in many animal cells by regulating intracellular signaling pathways and modulating cell physiology. Environmental cues like temperature, light and chemical compounds can stimulate cell surface receptors and trigger the generation of second messengers and the following regulations. Spread of cAMP and cGMP is further shaped by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases (PDEs) for orchestration of intracellular microdomain signaling. However, localized intracellular cAMP and cGMP signaling requires further investigation. Optogenetic manipulation of cAMP and cGMP offers new opportunities of spatio-temporally precise study of their signaling mechanism. Light-gated nucleotide cyclases are well developed and applied for cAMP/cGMP manipulation. Recently discovered rhodopsin phosphodiesterase gene from protists established new and direct biological connection between light and PDEs. Light-regulated PDEs are under development and of demand to complete the toolkit of cAMP/cGMP manipulation. In this review, we summarize the state of the art, pros and cons of artificial and natural light-regulated PDEs and discuss potential new strategies of developing light-gated PDEs for optogenetic manipulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0522.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: RNA Nucleotides; Uracil; Intermolecular Binding; Cyclic Compounds
Online: 30 April 2020 (08:58:21 CEST)
Exogenous RNA comprises the genetic material associated with several diseases which require immediate treatment, and thus mechanisms to hinder intracellular translation and reproduction of RNA viral agents are of great importance. Applying recent developments from this lab in methods relating to the interaction of DNA with steroid hormones, cyclic compounds are presented for intermolecular binding to nucleic acids. The requirements to achieve binding with RNA nucleotide pairs are described, which involve at a minimum functional elements positioned to interact with the lateral phosphate groups for each of the RNA strands through coupling with a positively charged ion, such as Mg2+, Ca2+, or Zn2+ ions; and an intermolecular hydrogen bond with the oxygen element of uracil at the carbon two location. Additional features of the binding molecules are examined for enhancements and differentiation in binding capability and include aromatic groups that have both a structural role of steric hindrance and a functional role to stabilize the binding mechanisms. Several categories of cyclic compounds are associated to have specific binding capabilities, and the interaction of these structures with potential receptor molecules are evaluated for assessment in delivery and binding of the compound to nucleic acids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0129.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: recycled electrode; spent battery; spectroscopic method; cyclic voltammetry
Online: 8 July 2022 (03:31:38 CEST)
The novelty of this study consists in: i) synthesis and characterization of electrode materials recycled from a spent car battery and doped with MnO2 and CuO by the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Infrared (IR) and Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) data and ii) the investigation of electrochemical properties of prepared materials in view of new applications as electrode materials for battery. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) data indicate that the intensity of the resonance line corresponding to the Cu+2 ion was modified with the increase of the dopant content. The analysis of X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) data indicates that by increasing the dopant content there is a process of ordering the oxygen atoms around the lead similar to the PbO2 theoretical model. The electrochemical performances of the recycled and manganese-copper-doped materials are optimized for applications as new anodic electrode for the car battery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0107.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: alcohol oxidase (AOX); biosensor; halal products; cyclic voltammetry
Online: 25 October 2016 (09:46:35 CEST)
Determining halal product of fermented foods and bevearages becomes important for muslim consumers due to religious codification of halal. In order to help on site analysis, an alcohol biosensor was under development. The biosensor was constructed using bacteria producing alcohol oxidase (AOX). Bacteria from apple juice was isolated in advance to obtain pure bacteria. The bacteria was cultured in two solid media. Bacteria on the Acetobacter media had a resistance in a solution containing alcohol with a higher concentration. Acetobacter was cultured on solid and liquid media for measuring at various ethanol concentrations (0.01%-3%) with different absorbance value. Bacteria with absorbance value 0.500 had the highest oxidation current peak. Later, it was used as bioreceptor for measuring ethanol by cyclic voltammetry method. The linearity of measurement later was compared with spectrophotometric measurement. By using cyclic voltammetry the linearity had higher R2 value than spectrophotometric method. However, it only had stability for two days, there fore it needs more improvement for lasting its lifetime. Basically, electrochemical method has potency for further being improved fur as an alternative method of ethanol on-site measurement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: AlCrFeCoNi high-entropy alloy coating; APS deposition; Cyclic oxidation
Online: 21 February 2022 (12:01:36 CET)
Microcrystalline and near nanocrystalline AlCrFeCoNi high-entropy alloy (HEA) coatings were applied on Inconel 718 superalloy using air plasma spraying (APS) process. High-temperature oxidation behavior of the microcrystalline and near nanocrystalline AlCrFeCoNi HEA coated superalloy were examined at 110°C under the air atmosphere for 50 cycles under cyclic heating and cooling (1 h for each cycle). The oxidation kinetics of both nanocrystalline and microcrystalline coated superalloy was accordingly analyzed by weight change measurement. It was noticed that the uncoated and coated followed the parabolic rate law of the oxidation. X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS), and elemental mapping techniques were used to analyze the oxidized coated and uncoated samples. In the HEA coated superalloy, Fe, Ni, Co, and Al were oxidized in the inter-splat region, whereas the splats which consist mainly of Ni and Cr remained unoxidized. Because of the formation of compact and adhesive thin NiO, CoO oxides, and spinels together with the Al2O3 oxide scale on the surface of the coating during oxidation, the developed nanocrystalline HEA coating shows better oxidation resistance than the microcrystalline HEA coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0291.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: ferulic acid; UVA light; cyclic peptide; bovine serum albumin
Online: 13 August 2021 (08:48:39 CEST)
Ferulic acid (FA) is known for its excellent antioxidant properties that can provide a lot of health benefits. One of its drawbacks is being unstable under UVA light that limits its potency. In this study, new peptides LW2 (QNKRFYFRKNQ) and CW2 (a cyclic form of LW2) have been designed based on bovine serum albumin site ⅡA conformation. UVA irradiation experiment was performed to investigate the protective ability of these peptides towards FA against UVA damage. The percentage of FA remaining under UV irradiation by the protection of CW2 and LW2 was 83%, 76% respectively. The results showed the importance of the cationic residues and hydrophobic residues included in the peptide sequences. Moreover, the cyclic rigid structure showed more protecting ability over that of the linear counterpart.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0177.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Hydrochlorothiazide; Differential pulse voltammograms; Cyclic Voltammetry; Molybdenum; Modified electrode
Online: 14 June 2020 (14:40:00 CEST)
Molybdenum oxides is well-known electro-catalysts in fuel cells systems, they are usually used as anodic materials for the oxidation of low molecular weight alcohols. The utilization of Mo as catalysts in the pharmaceutical analysis is not common yet. In this study, bare glassy carbon electrodes were modified by the oxides by means of electrochemical deposition and the modified electrodes were used as catalysts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrochlorothiazide (HCT). Well-resolved anodic peaks were reported for the analyzed pharmaceuticals when the Mo/GCE was utilized for the analysis of HCT. Analytical performance of the modified electrodes was evaluated based on the following statistical parameters; linearity ranges, correlation coefficients, limits of detection and quantitation, and recovery values. The prepared electrodes were used for the determination of the active ingredients in their pharmaceutical formulations and the reported activity was correlated to influence of the utilized pH on both structures of the used electrodes and the detected analytes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0266.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Organic Chemistry Keywords: cyclic nucleotide monophosphate; bio-reversible protection; acyloxybenzyl phosphate ester
Online: 12 October 2018 (11:32:45 CEST)
Adenine nucleotide (AN) 2nd messengers such as 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are central elements of intracellular signaling, but many details of underlying processes remain still elusive. Like all nucleotides, cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) are net-negatively charged at physiologic pH which limits their applicability in cell-based settings. Thus, many cellular assays rely on sophisticated techniques like microinjection or electroporation. This setup is not feasible for medium- to high-throughput formats, and the mechanic stress that cells are exposed to raises the probability of interfering artefacts or false-positives. Here, we present a short and flexible chemical route yielding membrane-permeable, bio-reversibly masked cNMPs for which we employed the octanoyloxybenzyl (OB) group. We further show hydrolysis studies on chemical stability and enzymatic activation, and present results of real-time assays, where we used cAMP and Ca2+ live cell imaging to demonstrate high permeability and prompt intracellular conversion of some selected masked cNMPs. Consequently, our novel OB-masked cNMPs constitute valuable precursor-tools for non-invasive studies on intracellular signaling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: pack cementation; Ce-Si modified aluminide coating; cyclic oxidation resistance
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:57:31 CEST)
The synergistic effect of silicon and cerium addition on the oxidation resistance of pack cementation aluminide coating applied on Ni-based superalloy substrate was investigated. The effect of cerium and silicon on the scale morphology, oxidation behavior, and scale spallation tendency are discussed based on the experimental results, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses (EDX). In addition, the oxidation resistance was evaluated by measuring the weight of samples after each 16-hour cycle at 1100˚C for 50 cycles. The experiments indicated that silicon addition to aluminide coating improves the oxidation resistance through the formation of β-NiAl1-nSin and δ-Ni2Al3-nSin and δ-Ni2Si phases. Furthermore, the addition of 1% cerium to modified aluminide enhances the formation of the fine-grained microstructure of the β-NiAl and δ-Ni2Al3 and reduces the outward/inward diffusion of elements (so-called blocking effect) which significantly modifies the hot oxidation resistance. The addition of 2% cerium, owing to the distortion of the β-NiAl and δ-Ni2Al3 phases, strictly decreases the hot oxidation resistance and the coating is exfoliated after 450 h at 1100 °C. The cyclic oxidation tests showed that the samples containing 1% cerium and 6% silicon possess the highest hot oxidation resistance in which 2 mg/cm2 weight loss of Ce-Si-aluminide was reported after 800 h. This is attributed to the simultaneous effect of cerium and silicon during the deposition process which reduces the oxygen diffusion and reduces the growth rate of α-Al2O3 during oxidation tests. The α-Al2O3 oxidation layer morphology showed that finer grains are formed in samples containing optimum ratios of cerium and silicon which indicates that these elements improve the coating adhesion and oxidation resistance simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0206.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Nanobelts; PAH; polyaromatics; cyclic polymers; hydrogen loss; fullerenes; carbon chains
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:57:33 CEST)
We explore the importance of curvature in carbonaceaous species transformation and stability, using laser-induced vaporisation to evaporate and ionise a source of curved polyaromatic hydrocarbons: carbon nanobelts. Collision impacts between species cause mass loss and the resultant ions are catalogued via mass-spectrometry. To interpret the mass spectra, we perform a series of “in-silico” simulated systematic hydrogen-loss studies using density functional theory (DFT) modelling, sequentially removing hydrogen atoms using thermodynamic stability as a selection for subsequent dehydrogenation. In an initial sequence of H2 removal, the rings are maintained through stable carbyne chain and pentagon-chain formation, giving rise to circular strained dehydrobenzoannulene species. The chains subsequently break, releasing CH and C2. While theoretical closed-cage routes are identified, they are not observed experimentally. The results can serve as a useful guide to high-energy impact conditions observed in some astrochemical environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0402.v2
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: electrical conductivity; volcanic tuff; cyclic voltammetry; conductivity nanoparticle; platinum electrode
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:00:10 CET)
This paper has experimentally measured volcanic tufa electrical conductance. The calculations are carried out in accordance with the potential of cyclic voltammetry in a constant state. The cyclic voltammograms nanoelectrode platinum prepared electrochemically were examined in the range -0.2 to 1.2 V vs. AgCl [Cl-]:1.0 M in the presence and absence of volcanic tuff in the aqueous solution of 1.0 M HCl. The cyclic voltammetry studies show that the Nano platinum film suffers degradation when the potential exceeds +0.85 V, and below this potential, it is quite stable. The redox reaction of the electrode is reversible. The nanoparticle platinum synthesized at low temperature and high acid concentration exhibits higher electronic conductivities. It has been observed that, relative to area under the peak aggregate tests, the use of volcanic concrete was showing a large increase in electrical conductivity. It was shown that with cyclic voltammetry, three well-defined anode peak could be achieved at a power of 0.0, 0.4 and 0.6 V versus Ag/AgCl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Maytenus procumbens; Erectile dysfunction; Phosphodiesterase-5; cyclic guanosine monophos-phate
Online: 12 February 2021 (12:15:08 CET)
Erectile dysfunction (ED) due to diabetes mellitus remains difficult to treat despite advances in pharmacotherapeutic approaches in the field. Therefore, this study investigated the erectogenic effect of the methanolic extract of Maytenus procumbens roots on type 2 diabetes in rats. The fructose-streptozotocin model was used to induce type 2 diabetes-linked ED in male rats. The sexually active male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into two major groups; normal group and high fructose fed group for 120 days. After 120 days, the high fructose fed group rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of a freshly prepared streptozotocin solution (30 mg/kg). The diabetic ED rats were orally administered with the extract at 250 mg/kg, daily for 28 days. The serum, brain and penile tissues were removed for biochemical analysis and protein expression. Increased testosterone level, mounting frequency, reduced blood glucose level and serum fructosamine content was observed after 28 days of treatment in diabetic rats. Methanolic extract also exhibited an inhibitory effect on arginase, AChE, and ACE activities. The crude extract further downregulated proteins PDE-5, RhoA and increased expression of eNOS in the diabetic ED treated rats. The results obtained indicate that the methanolic extract of Maytenus procumbens roots ameliorates erectile dysfunction in type 2 diabetes-induced erectile dysfunction in rats.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0116.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: solar cyclic variability; Canonical and Modoki ENSO; Indian summer monsoon
Online: 26 September 2017 (04:13:47 CEST)
A flow chart is presented depicting coupling in ocean-atmosphere system, initiated by solar decadal variability that involves El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Possible mechanisms for Canonic ENSO, Modoki ENSO and Canonic-Modoki ENSO are proposed considering their relevance to the decadal variation of Hadley, Walker circulation and mid-latitude jets. It also discusses subsequent teleconnections by ENSO on Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) with a special emphasis on later two decades of the last century. Possible mechanisms relating to a disruption of the usual ENSO-ISM teleconnection for those decades are emphasised; the role of volcanos and the change in the sun- NAO (North Atlantic Oscillation) connection were attended. The regional Hadley circulation, via the NAO in the northern hemisphere and Indian Ocean Dipole in the southern hemisphere, during that period, may have a role in the change in ISM behaviour- which though captured in observation but missed by models. The representation of flow chart helps to improve understanding of various types of ENSO in both temporal as well as spatial scale. The overall study subsequently can benefit the modelling community by not only improved the representation of ENSO in models but also better representation of ISM teleconnection via regional Hadley cell.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; lipopeptides; cyclic lipopeptides Staphylococcus aureus; biofilm; culture media
Online: 13 June 2017 (06:09:47 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the leading microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections as well as being the primary causative pathogen of skin and wound infections. Currently, the therapy of staphylococcal diseases faces many difficulties, due to a variety of mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Moreover, a number of infections caused by S. aureus is connected with biofilm formation that impairs effectiveness of the therapy. Short cationic lipopeptides that are designed on the basis of the structure of antimicrobial peptides structure are likely to provide a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Despite the fact that many research groups have proved a high antistaphylococcal potential of lipopeptides, the lack of unified protocols in determination of antimicrobial activity may be the reason of inconsistency of the results. The aim of this study was to learn how the use of various bacteriological media as well as solvents may affect activity of lipopeptides and their cyclic analogs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0331.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Ramsey theory; complete graph; vibrational spectrum; eigenfrequency; selection rule; cyclic molecule
Online: 22 September 2022 (03:33:14 CEST)
Ramsey theory influences the dynamics of mechanical systems, which may be described as abstract complete graphs. We address a mechanical system which is completely interconnected with the two kinds of ideal Hookean springs. The suggested system mechanically corresponds to the cyclic molecules, in which functional groups are interconnected with two kinds of chemical bonds, represented mechanically with two springs k1 and k2. In this paper, we consider a Cyclic system (molecule) built of six equal masses m and two kinds of springs. We pose the following question: what is the minimal number of masses in the such a system in which three masses are constrained to be connected with spring k1 or three masses to be connected with spring k2? The answer to this question is supplied by the Ramsey theory, and it is formally stated as follows: what is the minimal number R3,3? The result emerging from the Ramsey theory is R3,3=6. Thus, in the aforementioned interconnected mechanical system will be necessarily present the triangles (at least one triangle), built of masses and springs. This prediction constitutes the vibrational spectrum of the system. Thus, the Ramsey Theory supplies the selection rules for the vibrational spectra of the cyclic molecules. Symmetrical system built of six vibrating entities is addressed. The Ramsey approach works for 2D and 3D molecules, which may be described as abstract complete graphs.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: concrete; pore solution; silica; pozzolan; corrosion; cyclic voltammetry; silicate; corrosion inhibition
Online: 14 October 2020 (10:48:58 CEST)
Reinforcement corrosion due to chloride attack is of major economic significance for reinforced concrete structures. Pozzolans are known to inhibit corrosion initiation mainly by reducing concrete permeability. However, there is evidence in the literature that changes in the chemical environment in the concrete due to the pozzolans may be creating improved corrosion resistance, by themselves. In this study, the composition of a pore solution of mature hydrated cement paste containing silica-fume at different ratios was analyzed. The electrochemical behavior of reinforcing steel was studied in simulated pore solutions with silicate concentrations ranging from 0 to 35.6 mM, which are within the concentration range found by pore solution extraction to be up to 49 mM. Polished reinforcing steel specimens were used for cyclic voltammetry in simulated pore solutions with chloride concentrations of 10-20%. Better corrosion protection was found with increasing silicate concentration up to 3.56 mM. This was indicated by lower corrosion currents both in the passive state and after anodic activation. Anodic activation of steel in a 35.6 mM silicate solution with 20% NaCl yielded a higher potential than the anterior potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0060.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Clark-type oxygen sensor; mitochondrial respiration; amperometry; cyclic voltammetry; oocyte; embryo
Online: 11 December 2017 (07:18:46 CET)
Current commercially available instruments for monitoring mitochondrial respiration are incapable of single cell measurements. Therefore, we developed a three-electrode, Clark-type biosensor suitable for mitochondrial respirometry in single oocytes and embryos. The biosensor was embedded in a PMMA (polymethyl methacrylate) micro-chamber to allow investigation of single oocytes/embryos immersed in up to 100 µL of respiration buffer. The micro-chamber was completely sealed to avoid oxygen exchange between the inside of the chamber and the atmosphere, while being maintained at a temperature of 38.5 ˚C to preserve cell viability. Using amperometry, the oxygen consumption of cells inside the micro-chamber was measured as a change in output current and converted to femto-mol (fmol) oxygen consumed per second based on calibrations with known buffer oxygen concentrations. The sensor measured basal cell respiration supported by endogenous substrates, respiration associated with proton leak induced by inhibition of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase (complex V) with oligomycin, and the maximal non-coupled respiratory capacity revealed by Carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone (FCCP) titration. Some potential applications of this oxygen sensor system include evaluating effects of metabolic therapies on oocyte bioenergetics, and monitoring mitochondrial function throughout oocyte maturation and blastocyst development to predict embryo viability to compliment assisted reproductive technologies
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0121.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Quantum Space; Big Bang Cosmology; Cyclic Eternal Universe; Gravitational Force; Shrink Space
Online: 15 July 2022 (12:09:47 CEST)
We propose a cosmological model in which the Big Bang was not the beginning of space and time; there was a previous phase leading up to it, with multiple cycles of contraction and expansion that repeat indefinitely; from big bang to big crunch. The observed accelerated expansion, which relates the change in the space, to change in the stretching of shrink space for the new theory, is derived. As pressure of shrink space decreases, the expansion of space increases, that is although in general, decelerate in the pressure of shrink space leads to accelerate the stretching of space. (pressure of shrink space approaching zero at the end of accelerated expansion, or when all the shrinked space stretches), after that a period of slow contraction begins, thus bringing the universe back to contract to its initial state, ending in a Big Crunch. The universe will not always continue to expanding, no need however, for dark energy. The new definition of eternal space enables us to describe a sequence of events from the Big Bang to the Big Crunch.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0204.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: cyclic di-GMP; polyamine sensing; NspS-MbaA. S. meliloti; biofilm; exopolysaccharides; motility
Online: 14 July 2022 (03:59:01 CEST)
Biofilm formation is important in the free-living and symbiotic lifestyles of Sinorhizobium meliloti. Here we show that the S. meliloti NspS-MbaA system is homologous to the c-di-GMP modulating NspS-MbaA system described in Vibrio cholerae and modulates biofilm formation, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production and motility in S. meliloti in response to exogenous polyamines. Biofilm and EPS production in quorum sensing-deficient wild type strain 1021 decreased in cultures containing putrescine, 1,3-diaminopropane or spermine, but were unaffected in a 1021 nspS mutant (1021 nspS). Decreases in biofilm formation caused by these polyamines paralleled decreases in EPS production and increases in nspS transcription. Cell aggregation did not differ markedly between strain 1021 and 1021 nspS. The S. meliloti quorum sensing-proficient Rm8530 wild type strain and nspS mutant (Rm8530 nspS) produced similar levels of biofilm under control conditions and 3.2- and 2.2-fold more biofilm in cultures with norspermidine, but these changes did not correlate with EPS production. Rm8530 nspS aggregated up to several fold more than the wild type under most conditions. Changes caused by polyamines in swimming and swarming motility were not generally dependent on NspS-MbaA in either 1021 or Rm8530. We speculate that the S. meliloti NspS-MbaA system could modulate biofilm formation in response to environmental polyamines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0214.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: PCM; fiberglass; destruction; cyclic load; fatigue damage; AE; clusterization; fiber-optical sensors
Online: 13 December 2021 (16:08:21 CET)
The work is devoted to the study of the mechanisms of damage accumulation in a polymer composite material (PCM) during fatigue loading. Mechanical testing of a fiberglass sample was carried out by cyclic tension accompanied by registration of acoustic emission (AE). For the recorded AE signals, the Fourier spectra were calculated and used for clustering with Kohonen self-organizing map. Relations between clusters and types of damage in the PCM structure were established. The analysis of the peak frequencies of the Daubechies D14-wavelet components of AE signals was carried out. Obtained results has allows one to describe the processes of destruction in the PCM sample. It has been established that, on the base of local formation of microdamages in the matrix and the fracture of the fibers detected during recording of the AE data, it is possible to predict the destruction of the polymer composite material, while the beginning of a material destruction can be registered if the damage identified as an adhesion failure is observed. Perspectives of application of adaptive fiber-optic AE sensors for structural monitoring of PCMs on the base of preliminary experimental results are considered and discussed.
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: desmoglein; desmosome; adherens junction; YAP; Phospho-YAP; keratinocyte; cyclic strain; substrate stiffness
Online: 10 November 2019 (10:28:11 CET)
Desmoglein 3 (Dsg3) plays a crucial role in cell-cell adhesion and tissue integrity. Increasing evidence suggests that Dsg3 acts as a regulator of cellular mechanotransduction, but little is known about its direct role in mechanical force transmission. The present study investigated the impact of cyclic strain and substrate stiffness on Dsg3 expression and its role in mechanotransduction in keratinocytes. A direct comparison was made with E-cadherin, a well-characterized mechanosensor. Exposure of oral and skin keratinocytes to equiaxial cyclic strain promoted changes in expression and localization of junction assembly proteins. Knockdown of Dsg3 by siRNA blocked strain-induced junctional remodeling of E-cadherin and Myosin IIa. Importantly, the study demonstrated that Dsg3 regulates the expression and localization of YAP, a mechanosensor and an effector of the Hippo pathway. Furthermore, we showed that Dsg3 forms a complex with phospho-YAP and sequestered it to the plasma membrane, while Dsg3 depletion had an impact on both YAP and phospho-YAP in their response to mechanical forces, increasing the sensitivity of keratinocytes to strain- or substrate rigidity-induced nuclear relocation of YAP and phospho-YAP. PKP1 seemed to be crucial in recruiting the complex containing Dsg3/phospho-YAP to the cell surface since its silencing affected both Dsg3 junctional assembly with concomitant loss of phospho-YAP at cell periphery. Finally, we demonstrated that this Dsg3/YAP pathway has an influence on the expression of YAP1 target genes and cell proliferation. Together, these findings provide evidence of a novel role for Dsg3 in keratinocyte mechanotransduction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: thermoplastic; micromodel; cyclic olefin copolymer; UV/Ozone bonding; residual trapping; flow visualization
Online: 25 January 2017 (11:31:41 CET)
In the past few years, micromodels have become a useful tool for visualizing flow phenomena in porous media with pore structures, e.g., the multifluid dynamics in soils or rocks with fractures in natural geomaterials. Micromodels fabricated using glass or silicon substrates incur high material cost; in particular, the microfabrication-facility cost for making a glass or silicon-based micromold is usually high. This may be an obstacle for researchers investigating the two-phase-flow behavior of porous media. A rigid thermoplastic material is a preferable polymer material for microfluidic models because of its high resistance to infiltration and deformation. In this study, cyclic olefin copolymer (COC) was selected as the substrate for the micromodel because of its excellent chemical, optical, and mechanical properties. A delicate micromodel with a complex pore geometry that represents a two-dimensional (2D) cross-section profile of a fractured rock in a natural oil or groundwater reservoir was developed for two-phase-flow experiments. Using an optical visualization system, we visualized the flow behavior in the micromodel during the processes of imbibition and drainage. The results show that the flow resistance in the main channel (fracture) with a large radius was higher than that in the surrounding area with small pore channels when the injection or extraction rates were low. When we increased the flow rates, the extraction efficiency of the water and oil in the mainstream channel (fracture) did not increase monotonically because of the complex two-phase-flow dynamics. These findings provide a new mechanism of residual trapping in porous media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0059.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: open-cyclic tautomers; molecular switching; decay-associated spectra; warfarin; excited-state lifetime; cyclodextrins
Online: 21 July 2017 (04:56:54 CEST)
The excited-state lifetimes of the anticoagulant drug warfarin (W) in water and in the absence and presence of methyl-β-cyclodextrins (Me-β-CD) were recorded using time-resolved fluorescence measurements. Selective excitation of the open and cyclic protonated isomers of W were acquired with laser emitting diodes (LED) producing 320 and 280 nm excitation pulses, respectively. Formation of the inclusion complex was checked by UV–visible absorption spectroscopy, and the values of binding constants (2.9 × 103 M–1 and 4.2 × 102 M–1 for protonated and deprotonated forms, respectively) were extracted from the spectrophotometric data. Both absorption and time-resolved fluorescence results established that the interior of the macromolecular host binds preferentially the open protonated form, red shifts the maximum of its absorption of light at ~305 nm, extends its excited-state lifetime, and decreases its emission quantum yield (ФF). Collectively, sequestration of the open guest molecules decreases markedly their radiative rate constants (kr), likely due to formation of hydrogen-bonded complexes in both the ground and excited states. Due to lack of interactions, no change was observed in the excited-state lifetime of the cyclic form in the presence of Me-β-CD. The host also increases the excited-state lifetime and ФF of the drug deprotonated form (W¯). These later findings could be attributed to the increased rigidity inside the cavity of Me-β-CD. The pKa values extracted from the variations of the UV–visible absorption spectra of W versus the pH of aqueous solution showed that the open isomer is more acidic in both ground and excited states. The positive shifts in pKa values induced by three derivatives of cyclodextrins: HE-β-CD, Ac-β-CD, and Me-β-CD supported the preferential binding of these hosts to open isomers over cyclic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0016.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hybrid ADC; sigma-delta ADC; cyclic ADC; pseudo-differential OTA; X-ray sensor
Online: 2 March 2017 (08:37:48 CET)
This paper presents a two-stage ADC based on pseudo-differential operational transconductance amplifier (OTA), which is designed for the readout circuit of X-ray linear array sensor. This hybrid ADC employs an incremental sigma-delta ADC and a cyclic ADC, achieving a good trade-off between accuracy and conversion speed. The two stages share the same hardware to reduce power consumption and die area. A common-mood feedback module is used to suppress the influence of charge injection, and the effectiveness is demonstrated by detailed theoretical analysis. A test chip of 14-bit ADC is fabricated in 0.35μm CMOS technology. The measured root mean square (RMS) value of DNL is 0.254 LSB, and the maximum value of INL is -0.776/+1.56 LSB. The measured effective number of bits (ENOB) is 13.43 bits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0019.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: Quantum Space; spaceons; cosmic evolution; Friedmann equation; cyclic eternal universe; gravitational force; space force
Online: 4 April 2022 (14:39:11 CEST)
We present a Quantum Space Model (QSM) of cosmic evolution based on the theory that space consists of energy quanta which participates in the evolution of the universe. It shows that Dark Energy is the energy of space which causes its accelerating expansion. We used the Friedmann equations to trace the history of the cosmos from a time before the Big Bang to its ultimate end. The universe started from a quantum size volume of space with high energy density.Quantum fluctuations triggered the release of energy in a Big Bang at very high temperature and pressure. It then expanded and cooled undergoing phase transitions to radiation, fundamental particles, and matter. Matter grew into galaxies, and was further consolidated by gravity into Dark Energy Stars/Black Holes, ending in a Big Crunch at about 1.380 trillion years, thus bringing the universe back to its initial state. It can stay in a Deep Feeeze inside a Black Hole and through fluctuations or other mechanism may start a new cycle in its life with a new Bang. If the Law of Conservation of Energy is universal, then the cosmos is eternal. Space and energy are equivalent just as matter and energy are. This is well founded in Planck’s energy equation. They are the two most fundamental quantities in the universe that govern cosmic evolution. The two principal long range forces are the gravitational force and the space force.The latter could be the fifth force in the universe. They may provide the clockwork mechanism that operates our eternal cyclic universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0374.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: STAT3 as a drug target; cyclic STAT3 decoy; oligodeoxynucleotide inhibitor; head and neck cancer
Online: 29 April 2018 (10:10:00 CEST)
Cyclic STAT3 decoy (CS3D) is a second-generation, double-stranded oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) that mimics a genomic response element for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), an oncogenic transcription factor. CS3D competitively inhibits STAT3 binding to target gene promoters, resulting in decreased expression of proteins that promote cellular proliferation and survival. Previous studies have demonstrated antitumor activity of CS3D in preclinical models of solid tumors. However, prior to entering human clinical trials, the efficiency of generating the CS3D molecule and its stability in biological fluids should be determined. CS3D is synthesized as a single-stranded ODN and must have its free ends ligated to generate the final cyclic form. In this study, we report a ligation efficiency of nearly 95 percent. The ligated CS3D demonstrated a half-life of 7.9 hours in human serum, indicating adequate stability for intravenous delivery. These results provide requisite biochemical characterization of CS3D that will inform upcoming clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0244.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Electrochemistry Keywords: proton-coupled electron transfer; superoxide radical anion; antioxidants; cyclic voltammetry; electron spin resonance spectrum; pyrogallol
Online: 17 January 2022 (16:14:58 CET)
Abstract: Scavenging of electrogenerated superoxide radical anion (O2•−) by pyrogallol (PyH3) was investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolytic electron spin resonance spectrum in N,N-dimethylformamide with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Quasi-reversible dioxygen/O2•− redox coupe was modified by the presence of PyH3, suggesting that O2•− was scavenged by PyH3 through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) involving two proton transfer and one electron transfer. The DFT calculation suggested that the formation of hydrogen bond (HB) complex and the subsequent concerted-two-proton coupled electron transfer (2PCET) characterized by catechol moiety in PyH3 is plausible mechanism which embodies the superior kinetics of the O2•− scavenging by PyH3 as shown in the electrochemical results. Furthermore, it was clarified that three hydroxyl groups of PyH3 promote the formation of prereactive HB complex, in comparative analyses using related compounds, resulting the promotion of the O2•− scavenging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0058.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Food Chemistry Keywords: proton-coupled electron transfer; superoxide radical anion; antioxidants; cyclic voltammetry; electron spin resonance spectrum; tocopherol
Online: 3 December 2021 (15:01:26 CET)
Abstract: Elimination of superoxide radical anion (O2•−) by tocopherols (TOH), and related compounds was investigated on the basis of cyclic voltammetry and in situ electrolytic electron spin resonance spectral measurements in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Quasi-reversible O2/O2•− redox was modified by the presence of TOHs, suggesting that the electrogenerated O2•− was eliminated by α-, β-, γ-TOH through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), but not by δ-TOH. The structure–activity correlation of α-, β-, γ-, and δ-TOH characterized by methyl group on the 6-chromanol ring was experimentally confirmed, where the methyl group promotes the PCET mechanism. Furthermore, comparative analyses using some related chemical analogues suggested that methoxyl group of the 6-chromanol ring is required for a successful electron transfer (ET) to O2•− through the PCET. The electrochemical and DFT results in dehydrated DMF suggested that the PCET mechanism involves preceding proton transfer (PT) forming hydroperoxyl radical followed by a concerted PCET (ET–PT). The O2•− elimination by TOH proceeds efficiently along the net PCET mechanism involving one ET and two PTs.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: proton-coupled electron transfer; superoxide radical anion; mesalazine; cyclic voltammetry; electron spin resonance; ulcerative colitis
Online: 29 December 2020 (08:44:37 CET)
The elimination of superoxide radical anions (O2•−) by 5-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (mesalazine, 5-ASA), 4-amino-2-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-ASA), and related compounds used for ulcerative colitis treatment was investigated using cyclic voltammetry and electron spin resonance (ESR) analyses aided by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Quasi-reversible O2/O2•− redox was found to be modified by the compounds, suggesting that an acid-base reaction in which a hydroperoxyl radical (HO2•) is formed from O2•− occurs. However, the deprotonated 5-ASA anion can eliminate O2•− through proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET), forming a radical product. This electron transfer (ET) was confirmed by ESR analysis. The 4-aminophenol moiety in 5-ASA plays an important role in the PCET involving two proton transfers and one ET based on -conjugation. The electrochemical and DFT results indicated that O2•− elimination by 5-ASA proceeds efficiently viathrough the PCET mechanism after deprotonation of the 1-carboxyl group. Thus, 5-ASA may act as an anti-inflammatory agent in the alkali intestine through PCET-based O2•− elimination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0209.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: anode maturation time; microbial fuel cell (MFC); linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) polarization; cyclic voltammetry (CV)
Online: 17 June 2020 (08:10:59 CEST)
To obtain an accurate and reproducible experimental results in microbial fuel cell (MFC), it is important to know ‘anode maturation biofilm’ to produce a stable and maximum performance. For this purpose, four single chamber MFCs were tested in this study. The linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) polarization tests illustrated that maximum power densities of three MFCs became stable after 9 weeks. Although there were variations afterwards, such variations were negligible. Average maximum power densities from the 9th to the 17th week were 2,990 mW/m2 (MFC-4), 2,983 mW/m2 (MFC-2), 2,368 mW/m2 (MFC-3) and 837 mW/m2 (MFC-1). Polarization resistance shows that MFC-1 had much larger anode resistance (36.6-85.4 Ω) than the other MFCs (1.7-11.6 Ω). Anodic cyclic voltammetry (CV) shows that current production increased over time and MFC-1 had much smaller current production (24.4 mA) than the other MFCs (31.0-34.9 mA) at 17th week. The increased current production indicates anode biofilm became more mature over time, but overall cell performance did not increased accordingly. Possibly due to the bad inoculation, MFC-1 showed the lowest performance. However, its performance was restored to the initial performance and anode resistance was reduced by 47% at 17th week. This study shows that the optimum anode maturation time is 9 weeks and that bioanode performance is a key factor for MFC performance. This study also shows than LSV polarization and CV tests are accurate and non-destructive measurement methods for diagnosing anode performance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: IGF-1; MT; Blackcurrant extracts; Oxidative stress; Mecp2; Speech therapy; Neurostimulation; cyclic glycine-proline; GPE.
Online: 22 May 2018 (11:25:58 CEST)
1) This study describes the good evolution of a 6-year-old girl genetically diagnosed with Rett syndrome (RTT), after having been treated with IGF-1, MT (MT), blackcurrant extracts (BC), and rehabilitation during 6 months. 2) The patient stopped her normal development from the first year of age. The patient showed low weight and height and met the main criteria for typical RTT. Curiously, there was pubic hair (Tanner II), very high plasma testosterone, despite low gonadotropins. No adrenal enzymatic deficits existed, and ultrasound abdominal studies were normal. Treatment consisted in IGF-1 (0.04 mg/kg/day, 5/week, sc) during 3-months and then 15-days resting, MT (50 mg/day, orally, uninterruptedly) and neurorehabilitation. The new blood tests were absolutely normal and the pubic hair disappeared. Then, a new treatment with IGF-1, MT, and BC started for another 3 months. After it, pubic Tanner stage increased to III, without a known cause. 3) The treatment followed led to clear improvements in most of the initial impairments, perhaps because of the effect of IGF-I, the antioxidant effects of MT and BC, and the increase in cyclic-glycine-proline (cGP) after BC administration. 4) A continuous treatment with IGF-1, MT and BC may recover most of the neurologic disabilities that occur in RTT.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0335.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Pseudomonadaceae; long-read sequencing; hybrid assembly; Taxonomy; Phylogeny; Non-Ribosomal Peptide Synthetases (NRPS); Cyclic Lipopeptides (CLPs).
Online: 14 July 2021 (13:11:32 CEST)
The genus Pseudomonas hosts an extensive genetic diversity and is one of the largest genera among Gram-negative bacteria. Type strains of Pseudomonas are well-known to represent only a small fraction of this diversity and the number of available Pseudomonas genome sequences is increasing rapidly. Consequently, new Pseudomonas species are regularly reported and the number of species within the genus is in constant evolution. In this study, whole genome se-quencing enabled us to define 43 new Pseudomonas species and to provide an update of the Pseu-domonas evolutionary and taxonomic relationships. Phylogenies based on the rpoD gene and whole genome sequences, including 316 and 313 type strains of Pseudomonas, respectively, re-vealed sixteen groups of Pseudomonas and justified the partitioning of the P. putida group into fifteen subgroups. Pairwise average nucleotide identities were calculated between type strains and a selection of 60 genomes of non-type strains of Pseudomonas. Forty-one strains were incor-rectly assigned at the species level and among those, 19 strains were shown to represent an addi-tional 13 new Pseudomonas species that remain to be formally classified. This work pinpoints the importance of correct taxonomic assignment and phylogenetic classification in order to perform integrative studies linking genetic diversity, lifestyle and metabolic potential of Pseudomonas spp.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Big Bounce Model, Closed Universe, Cosmological Curvature, Big Crunch, Cyclic Universe, Heat Engine Model for Universe
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:41:49 CET)
Assuming a geometrically closed universe, we predict a value for the cosmic curvature, , a value within current observational bounds. We also propose a thermodynamic heat engine model for the universe, which bypasses the need for an inflaton field. Our model is based on a Carnot Cycle where we have isothermal expansion, followed by adiabatic expansion, followed by isothermal contraction, followed by adiabatic contraction, bringing us back to our original starting point. For the working substance, we focus specifically on the CMB radiation filling the collective voids in the universe. Using this construct, we identify cosmic inflation as the isothermal expansion phase, which lasts just under, . The collective CMB volume we see today only increases by a factor of 5.65 times during this process, and homogeneity and perturbations in the CMB are explained. The singularity problem is avoided and we have a clear mechanism for the work done by the cosmos in causing expansion, and later contraction. For scaling laws with respect to the density parameters in Friedmann’s equations, we will assume a susceptibility model for space, where, , the smeared cosmic susceptibility, decreases with increasing cosmic scale parameter, . Within this framework, we can predict a maximum Hubble volume with minimum CMB temperature for the voids before contraction begins, as well as a minimum volume with maximum CMB temperature when expansion starts. The thermodynamic heat cycle deviates from efficiency in converting heat energy into mechanical energy (expansion) by a minuscule amount, namely, . The significance of this number is not known.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0043.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors; cyclic voltammetry; electrochemical sensors; extracellular electron transfer; extracellular polymeric substances; growth curve; microbial growth phases
Online: 5 January 2020 (16:23:51 CET)
Microbial growth has been of prime importance to the researchers in health and biotechnology industries. It has been known to be closely associated to the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances that help in the formation of colonies. Inter-microbial communication happens within such colonies by means of extracellular electron transfer mediated by the aforementioned polymeric substances. Conventionally, different phases of microbial growth are monitored with the aid of a traditional UV-Visible spectrophotometer by measuring the optical density of the liquid medium at 280 nm. In this paper, we have developed an alternative novel way to sense different growth phases employing electrochemical means i.e. two-terminal cyclic voltammetry. This cyclic voltammetry relies on the extracellular electron transfer mechanism taking place via the polymeric substances secreted by the microorganisms, measured by the temporal area changes in the current-voltage hysteresis curves in the inoculated nutrient broth. This work paves a new way to detect the biological activity in the medium, which can be directly correlated to the population of microorganisms. It would be of immense interest to scientists and researchers working in the field of microbiology as well as in development of biosensors, electrochemical sensors etc. which would be helpful in absence of traditional spectrophotometers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0169.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Split-intein circular ligation of peptides and proteins (SICLOPPS); cyclic peptide libraries; protein–protein interactions; drug; gateway cloning
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:19:49 CEST)
The pharmaceutical market consists mainly of chemical and biological drugs. These drugs act on different types of targets and have distinct pharmacological properties. Generally, chemical drugs bind to the active site of target enzymes and easily penetrate the cell membrane owing to their small size; however, biological drugs can bind to the protein–protein interaction site but are less stable due to their protein properties. Cyclic peptides possess the pharmacological merits of both chemical and biological drugs, such as the ability to bind to the protein–protein interaction site and penetrate cell membranes. In this study, we developed a simple two-step system to generate a cyclic peptide library using the split intein of Npu DnaE and Gateway cloning. The first step is the PCR of Ready-to-use(R) template DNA having the coding sequences of random cyclic peptides between two split intein elements NpuC and NpuN and the recombination recognition site of Gateway cloning. The second step is the transformation of the PCR products via Gateway cloning to produce colonies with expression vectors to produce cyclic peptides comprising random amino acid sequences. The expression vectors in randomly chosen transformed colonies were confirmed to have random cyclic peptide sequences and all the clones, except ones having a stop codon in the cyclic peptide coding region, showed the expected protein splicing result. This simple two-step system for bacterial expression systems may be modified to suit various expression systems for cell-based assays.
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: ultrasonic cyclic testing; frequency effect; strain rate effect; 50CrMo4; SAE 4150; High Cycle Fatigue; Very High Cycle Fatigue
Online: 21 October 2020 (15:18:48 CEST)
In this study, we investigate the influence of control type and strain rate on the lifetime of specimens manufactured from 50CrMo4. This influence is described by a strain rate dependent method that uses cyclic stress strain curves to correct displacement controlled cyclic test results. The objective of this correction is to eliminate the stress related differences between displacement controlled cyclic test results and force controlled cyclic test results. The method is applied to the results of ultrasonic fatigue tests of six different combinations of heat treatment, specimen geometry (notch factor) and atmosphere. The corrected results show an improved agreement with test results obtained on conventional fatigue testing equipment with similar specimens: the standard deviation in combined data sets is significantly reduced (p=4.1%). We discuss the literature on intrinsic and extrinsic strain rate effects in carbon steels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0185.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Endocrinology & Metabolomics Keywords: eel luteinizing hormone receptor; constitutively activating mutation; inactivating mutation; cyclic adenosine monophosphate response; cell surface loss of receptor
Online: 8 September 2020 (10:56:48 CEST)
We analyzed signal transduction of three constitutively activating mutants (M410T, L469R, and D590Y) and two inactivating mutants (D417N and Y558F) of the eel luteinizing hormone receptor (eel LHR), known to occur in human LHR. The objective of this study was to assess the functional effects of these mutations in signal transduction and cell surface loss of receptor. Mutant receptors were transiently expressed in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. Eel LH-stimulated accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was measured by homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence (HTRF) assays. The loss of receptors from the cells surface was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells. The cAMP response in cells expressing the wild type eel LHR was increased in a dose-dependent manner using eel LH ligand stimulation. Compared with the wild type, cells expressing the activating mutants (M410T, L469R, and D590Y), exhibited a 4.0-, 19.1-, and 7.8-fold increase in basal cAMP response without agonist stimulation, respectively. Their maximal responses to agonist stimulation were approximately 65%, 52%, and 98%, respectively, of those of the wild type. The inactivating mutants (D417N and Y558F) did not completely impair signal transduction, and their maximal responses were only 33% and25 % of those of wild type. These data clearly showed that the eel LHR-L469R and D590Y, activating mutants enhanced the rate of the loss of cell surface receptors following treatment with eel LH. Thus, the loss of cell surface receptors in cells expressing mutant eel LHRs was consistent with the eel LH agonist-induced production of cAMP. Our results suggested that the activation of the eel LHR requires appropriate loss of LHR-ligand complexes from the cell surface.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0343.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: reinforced-concrete moment-resisting frame; steel damper column; seismic sequence; peak response; cumulative response; cyclic degradation; passive control structure; momentary energy input
Online: 25 February 2022 (09:33:07 CET)
The steel damper column is an energy-dissipating member that is suitable for reinforced concrete (RC) buildings, and those used for multistory housing in particular. However, the effectiveness of steel damper columns may be affected by the behavior of surrounding members, and this effect can be severe in the case of seismic sequences. This article investigates the nonlinear response of building models having an RC moment-resisting frame (MRF) with and without steel damper columns under seismic sequences. The applicability of the concept of the momentary energy input to the prediction of the peak response of RC MRFs with damper columns under seismic sequences is also investigated. The main findings of the study are summarized as follows. (1) The peak response of RC MRFs with damper columns subjected to sequential accelerations is similar to the peak response obtained considering only the mainshock, whereas the cumulative strain energy of RC MRFs accumulates more for sequential accelerations. (2) The steel damper column is effective in reducing the peak and cumulative responses of RC MRFs in the case of sequential seismic input. (3) The relation of the hysteretic dissipated energy during a half cycle of the structural response and the peak displacement of the first modal response can be properly evaluated using the simple model proposed in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0224.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: dressed photon; dressed photon constant; natural units; Heisenberg cut; de Sitter space; dark energy; dark matter; cosmological constant; twin universes; conformal cyclic cosmology
Online: 8 February 2021 (22:23:29 CET)
As an important follow-up report on the latest study of the first author (H.S.) on an off-shell quantum field causing a dressed photon and dark energy, we further discuss a couple of intriguing subjects based on our new theory. One is the dressed photon constant. If we use it, in addition to h¯ and c, as the third component of natural units, then it is defined as the geometric mean of the smallest and the largest lengths: Planck length and that relating to the cosmological constant. Interestingly, this length (≈ 50 nanometers) seems to give a rough measure of the Heisenberg cut for electromagnetic phenomena. The other is a new perspective on cosmology that combines two original notions, i.e., twin universes and conformal cyclic cosmology, proposed respectively by Petit and Penrose, into one novel picture where universes expand self-similarly. We show the possibility that twin universes having a dual structure of [matter with (dark energy & matter)] vs. corresponding anti-entities, separated by an event horizon embedded in the geometric structure of de Sitter space, undergo endless cyclic processes of birth and death, as in the case of the pair creation and annihilation of elementary particles through the intervention of a conformal light field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0399.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: natural product; actinobacteria; quorum sensing inhibition (QSI); biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs); global natural product social networking (GNPS); cyclic dipeptides (2,5-diketopiperazines, DKPs); LC-HRMS
Online: 31 December 2019 (02:59:59 CET)
Streptomyces, being one of the most promising genera due to its ability to synthesize a variety of bioactive secondary metabolites of pharmaceutical interest, here studied in relation to its genomic and metabolomic potential. Coinciding with the increase in sequenced data, mining of bacterial genomes for biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) has become a routine component of natural product discovery. Herein, we describe the isolation and characterization of a Streptomyces tendae VITAKN with quorum sensing inhibitory activity (QSI) that was isolated from southern coastal parts of India. The nearly complete genome consists of 8,621,231bp with a GC content of 72.2%. Utilizing the BiG-SCAPE-CORASON platform, a sequence similarity network predicted from this strain was evaluated through sequence similarity analysis with the MIBiG database and existing 3,365 BGCs predicted by antiSMASH analysis of publicly available complete Streptomyces genomes. Crude extract analyzed on LC-HRMS/MS and Global Natural Product Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) online workflow using dereplication resulted in the identification of cyclic dipeptides (2,5-diketopiperazines, DKPs) in the extract, which are known to possess QSI activity. Our results highlight the potential use of genomic mining coupled with LC-HRMS/MS and bionformatic tools (GNPS) as a potent approach for metabolome studies in discovering novel QSI lead compounds. This study also provides the biosynthetic diversity of these BGCs and an assessment of the predicted chemical space yet to be discovered.