ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0171.v2
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:07:54 CET)
Best Management Practices (BMPs) are commonly used to control pollution in the river basins. Prioritization of BMPs helps improve the efficiency and effectiveness of pollution reduction, especially in Critical Source Areas (CSAs) that produce the highest pollution loads. Recently, the Dez River in Khuzestan, Iran, has become highly eutrophic from the overuse of fertilizers and pesticides. In this basin, dry and irrigated farming produce 77.34% and 6.3% of the Total Nitrogen (TN) load, and 83.56% and 4.3% of the Total Phosphorus (TP) load, respectively. In addition, residential, pasture, and forest land uses together account for 16.36% of the TN and 12.14% of the TP load in this area. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was implemented to model the Dez River basin and evaluate the applicability of several BMPs, including point source elimination, filter strips, livestock grazing, and river channel management, in reducing the entry of pollution loads to the river. Sensitivity analysis and calibration/validation of the model was performed using the SUFI-2 algorithm in the SWAT Calibration Uncertainties Program (SWAT-CUP). The CSAs were identified using individual (sediment, TN, TP) and combined indices, based on the amount of pollution produced. Among the BMPs implemented, the 10 m filter strip was most effective in reducing TN load (42.61%), and TP load (39.57%).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0524.v1
Online: 21 June 2021 (15:46:22 CEST)
The article reviews Iranian sports in three periods: prehistoric, ancient, and modern. In prehistoric times, remaining cases have shown the existence of movement activities based on recreational and religious ceremonies. In the period of ancient history, documents such as Hasanlu Golden Cup and Arjan Cup, and in the continuation of architectures leftover from different eras, refer to the prosperity of sports activities with different approaches. Among all kinds of activities, Iranian zoorkhaneh sport has a significant cultural background and effect. Modern sports entered Iran through embassies, oil contractors, Western-educated students, and military representatives in other countries (in the modern era). Iran became a member of the International Olympic Committee in 1947 and won its first Olympic medal in 1948. Entering the 21st century, the sports industry in Iran began to grow and the number of clubs, sports careers, and sports science students in universities increased significantly. The growing dimension of attention and interest in sports among Iranians shows that sports will be one of the main areas in Iran's development in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0192.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: DEM resolution; runoff; sensitivity analysis; SWAT; SWAT-CUP; SUFI-2
Online: 20 January 2019 (09:38:28 CET)
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) are essential in watershed delineation, but the sensitivity of simulated runoff to DEM resolution is poorly understood. This study investigates the impact of DEM resolution on topological attributes and simulated runoff in the Mahabad Dam watershed, Iran. To delineate the watershed, DEMs with 12.5 m, 30 m, and 90 m resolutions were acquired from the ALOS PALSAR, Space Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and ASTER global DEM data source, respectively. Watershed and streamlines were delineated in ArcGIS, with hydrologic analyses performed using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Sensitivity analysis on parameters contributing to runoff was done using Sequential Uncertainties Fitting Ver-2 (SUFI-2) Algorithm, in SWAT Calibration and Uncertainty Procedures (SWAT-CUP) software. Results showed the watershed area, reach lengths, and elevations in the watershed varied due to DEM resolutions. Higher amounts of runoff were generated when DEMs with finer resolutions were implemented. The 12.5 m DEM generated 3.48% and 0.42% more runoff compared with 90 m and 30 m DEMs, respectively. SWAT-CUP results showed the sensitivity of parameters contributing to runoff changes under different DEM resolutions. Regardless of DEM resolution, surface properties, available water capacity, and moisture levels in the soil are the most sensitive parameters. As the distribution of slope changes in different DEM resolutions, surface parameters are most affected. The findings indicate to reduce computation time and speed up computation procedures, researchers may use DEMs with coarser resolutions at the expense of minor decreases in accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0014.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: rainwater; weather; windbreaker; cup anemometer; dry and wet bulb thermometers
Online: 4 January 2017 (07:27:41 CET)
Agro-meteorology is the relationship between agriculture and weather. All farm activities are affected by weather. Therefore it is always necessary to monitor the weather as a forecast. The aim of the research was to monitor the weather and rainwater samples obtained at Federal College of Agriculture, Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria. For the eight months periods, results were obtained. The mean results for the physicochemical parameters were: TDS (12.25 mg/L), temp (28.13 oC), pH (6.63), EC (24.25µS/cm), Free CO2 (24.38mg/L), nitrate (0.16mg/L), phosphate (0.17mg/L), sulphate (0.18mg/L). The rainwater was colorless and had no odor. The mean meteorological data: The prevailing wind directions were from SE, mostly in May, June, July and November and NE. The dry and wet temperatures were 22-29 oC and 20-26 oC respectively. The maximum value was observed in the month of July. The correlation matrix showed that there were many strong correlations in the physicochemical properties. The months of May, June and July had the highest wind speed. In these months there would be a need to use a windbreaker around the crops planted to avoid soil erosion and damaging of plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0285.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: FIFA; World Cup; Socio-economic impacts; Non-host city resident; Chon Buri
Online: 15 December 2022 (14:59:17 CET)
Hosting FIFA World Cup obviously produce immense socio-economic impacts to a nation. Proximal non-host city perception to mega event was frequently explored, while distal non-host city perception has less investigated. This study assessed the socio-economic impacts of FIFA World Cup Qatar 2022 in Chon Buri Sports City residents. Participants were 422 Chon Buri Sports City residents from eleven districts. Perception on socio-economic impacts of hosting FWC Qatar 2022 was measured from the translated Scale of Perceived Social Impacts. Extracted seven dimensions by confirmatory factor analysis is consistent with empirical data. Positive impact dimensions are Community Development, Community Pride, Economic Benefits. Negative impact dimensions are Traffic Problems, Security Risks, Economic Costs, and Environmental Concerns. Chon Buri Sports City residents perceived fewer negative impacts than other non-host city residents. Positive impacts of hosting FWC Qatar 2022 has more influenced on Chon Buri Sports City residents’ perception than negative impacts. These findings advantage for sport stakeholders to deeper understand the impacts of mega event hosting.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0301.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Glaucoma; Intraocular Pressure(IOP); fundus images; early detection; Cup-to-Disk Ratio(CDR)
Online: 19 June 2018 (13:54:42 CEST)
Glaucoma is a disease associated with retina of eye. Presently, millions of human being is suffering from this disease. Early detection of these diseases can save the people from blindness. Therefore, various methods have been developed for its detection. In this paper, we have studied the reported methods and summarized their performance in terms of accuracy of detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0206.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Strip-mined land; bioenergy; biomass; energy crop; miscanthus; SWAT model; SWAT-CUP; runoff; nutrients; and water quality
Online: 21 January 2019 (10:57:36 CET)
Strip-mined land (SML) disturbed by coal-mining is the non-crop land resource that can be utilized to cultivate high-yielding energy crops such as miscanthus for bioenergy applications. However, the biomass yield potential, annual availability and environmental impacts on growing energy crops in SML are less understood. In this study, we estimated the yield potential of miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis) in SML and its environmental impacts on local streams using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). After calibration and validation of the SWAT model, the results demonstrated that miscanthus yield potentials were 2.6 (0.8−5.53), 10.0 (1.3−16.0) and 16.0 (1.34−26.0) Mg ha-1 with the fertilizer application rate of 0, 100, and 200 kg-N ha-1 respectively. Furthermore, cultivation of miscanthus in the SML has the potential to reduce sediment (~20%) and nitrate (2.5%−10.0 %) loads reaching to water streams with a marginal increase in phosphorus load. The available SML in the United States could produce about 10 to 16 dry Tg of biomass per year without negatively impacting the water quality. In conclusion, SML can provide a unique opportunity to produce biomass for bioenergy applications, while improving stream water quality in highly dense mining area (the Appalachian region) in the United States.