BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0658.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Candida; Candida auris; Culture; Emerging fungus; Isolation; Specific medium
Online: 26 April 2021 (11:06:41 CEST)
Candida auris is an emerging multidrug resistant yeast causing nosocomial infections and associated with high mortality in immunocompromised patients. Rapid identification and characterisation is necessary for its diagnosis and containing spread. In this study, we present a selective culture medium for all C. auris clades. This medium is sensitive with a limit of detection of 102 CFU/ml. The 100% specificity of SCA (Specific C. auris) medium is confirmed on a set of 134 Candida strains, 50 bacterial species and 200 human stool samples. Thus, this medium specifically selects for C. auris isolation from clinical samples, and allows studying its phenotypic profile.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0601.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Malassezia; selective culture medium; Rapamycin; isolation; polymicrobial samples.
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:29:17 CEST)
Malassezia species are fastidious and slow-growing yeasts whose isolation from polymicrobial samples is hampered by fast-growing microorganisms. Malassezia selective culture media are needed because Malassezia are resistant to cycloheximide, but some fungi, including the chief human commensal Candida albicans resist to this compound. This study aimed to test whether the macrolide rapamycin could be used in combination with cycloheximide to develop a Malassezia-selective culture medium. Rapamycin susceptibility testing was performed via microdilution assays in modified Dixon against M. furfur and five Candida spp. The MIC was the lowest concentration producing 90% growth inhibition. Rapamycin medium ± cycloheximide 500 mg/L was also added to FastFung solid and yeast suspensions were inoculated and incubated for 72h. Rapamycin MICs against Candida spp. ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg/L, except for C. krusei whose MIC was >32 mg/L. M. furfur stains were rapamycin resistant. Rapamycin and cycloheximide supplementation of the FastFung medium effectively inhibited the growth of non-Malassezia yeast, including the cycloheximide-resistant C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Based on our findings, we recommend using this “MalaSelect” medium for Malassezia isolation and culture from polymicrobial samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0643.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: processing waste; Atlantic cod; collagen; red king crab; enzyme preparation; collagen hydrolysate; culture medium
Online: 29 July 2021 (10:25:50 CEST)
The Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and red king crab (Paralithodes camtschaticus) processing wastes are massive and unutilized in the Murmansk region of Russia. The samples of skin-containing waste of Atlantic cod fillets production were hydrolyzed using enzyme preparations derived from red king crab hepatopancreases, porcine pancreases and Bacillus subtilis bacteria. The activity of enzymes from crab hepatopancreases was significantly higher than the activity of enzymes derived from other sources. The optimal conditions of the hydrolysis process have been figured out. The samples of cod processing waste hydrolysate were analyzed for amino acid composition and molecular weight distribution. The samples of hydrolysate were used as core components for bacterial culture medium samples. The efficiency of the medium samples was tested for Escherichia coli growth rate; the most efficient sample had efficiency 95.3% of that of a commercially available medium based on fish meal. Substitution of medium components with those derived from industrial by-products is one of the ways to decrease a cost of a culture medium in biopharmaceutical drug production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0461.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Rice; Fish; Culture; Efficiency; Environment; Rice-Fish Culture
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:04:49 CEST)
The efficiency of rice cum fish culture study was conducted in different areas of Tangail district with those farmers who cultivate rice and fish together at a time. The study was conducted along 60 farmers of different areas in Ghatail upazilla. The primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews and secondary data were collected through different reputed journals, newspapers, authentic portals and so on. Data collection was carried out during the period from November 2021 to May 2022. Both tabular and functional analyses were performed to achieve the specific objectives of the study. NPV, BCR and IRR method was used to estimate the profitability and a multiple regression model was used to find out the factors motivating farmers' decision on rice cum fish cultivation. SWOT analysis was done to find out the internal and external-positive and negative factors faced by the farmers in rice cum fish cultivation. About 40% of farmers are under the age of 30 and most of them got at least primary education. Agriculture was the main occupation of the respondents and fish cultivation was the secondary. The highest annual income among the sample growers came from the production of rice cum fish culture. The BCR of the production is upbeat and 2.09 which indicates that the cultivation is profitable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: spheroid culture; microfluidic cell culture; spheroids on-chip; tumor microenvironment; in vitro cell culture
Online: 1 June 2018 (09:58:58 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems can be regarded as suitable platforms to bridge the huge gap between animal studies and two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture to study chronic diseases such as cancer. In particular, the preclinical platforms for multicellular spheroid formation and culture can be regarded as ideal in vitro tumor models. The complex tumor microenvironment such as hypoxic region and necrotic core can be recapitulated in 3D spheroid configuration. Cells aggregated in spheroid structures can better illustrate the performance of anti-cancer drugs as well. Various methods have been proposed so far to create such 3D spheroid aggregations. Both conventional techniques and microfluidic methods can be used for generation of multicellular spheroids. In this review paper, we first discuss various spheroid formation phases. Then, the conventional spheroid formation techniques such as bioreactor flasks, liquid overlay and hanging droplet technique are explained. Next, a particular topic of the hydrogel in spheroid formation and culture is explored. This topic has received less attention in the literature. Hydrogels entail some advantages to the spheroid formation and culture such as size uniformity, the formation of porous spheroids or hetero-spheroids as well as chemosensitivity and invasion assays and protecting from shear stress. Finally, microfluidic methods for spheroid formation and culture are briefly reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0041.v1
Online: 4 August 2016 (10:19:55 CEST)
Taking into account the growing interest in microalgae to be used as raw material for biodiesel production, this research is aimed at analyzing the rheological behaviour of microalgae suspensions (Chlorella sp) at different culture times under eight different conditions (temperature, salinity and CO2, NO3 and PO4 levels) in order to estimate the energy demands of each step, with the purpose of optimizing a continuous feed tubular bioreactor construction. For each condition, it was calculated the biomass and oil yields, so as to correlate these results with rheological parameters. The suspension results indicated that the microalgae Chlorella sp is a non-Newtonian material with dilatant characteristics; the processing time hardly exerted an influence on the rheograms of the suspension of the microalgae Chlorella sp, except for the simultaneous conditions of low salinity and low CO2 content; NO3 and PO4 contents and the amount of supplements influenced the rheological parameters of the suspension of the microalgae Chlorella sp, when in low concentration of CO2 and low salinity levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: Safety Performance; Safety Culture; Resilience Culture; Paramedic; Training Institute; IPMA; PLS-SEM.
Online: 20 August 2021 (13:44:19 CEST)
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors' impact on safety performance is unclear, especially at the public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, the understanding of indicators for safety performance in every working sector in Malaysia is on the continuing progress. Hence, this study's contribution is to explore the influence of safety culture factors (i.e., management commitment and supervision in safety, safety system) and safety competence on safety performance in government paramedic training institutes. IPMA (importance-performance map analysis) is a technique used in Smart PLS to determine the significance and performance of each of these factors. The study was conducted via an online survey and involved 258 safety and health committee members in Ministry of Health paramedic training institute. As a matter of relevance, the IPMA's empirical data study revealed that management commitment and supervision in safety were the predominant factors in determining safety performance. Meanwhile, for performance, the findings showed that worker involvement, safety system, and safety competence perform well in determining the safety performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0503.v1
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:31:39 CEST)
Propagation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cultured cells results in genetic adaptations that confer improved growth in vitro and significant attenuation in vivo. Mutations in RL13 arise quickly during cell culture passage, while mutations in the UL128-131A locus emerge later during fibroblast passage and disrupt expression of a glycoprotein complex that is important for entry into epithelial and endothelial cells. As in vivo CMV replicates in the context of host antibodies, we reasoned that antibodies might mitigate the accumulation of adaptive mutations during cell culture passage. To test this, CMV in infant urine was used to infect replicate fibroblast cultures. One lineage was passaged in the absence of CMV-hyperimmuneglobulin (HIG) while the other was passaged with HIG in the culture medium. The former lost epithelial tropism and aquired mutations disrupting RL13 and UL131A expression, whereas the latter retained epithelial tropism and both gene loci remained intact after 22 passages. An epitheliotropic RL13+/ UL131A+ virus was isolated by limiting-dilution in the presence of HIG and expanded to produce a working stock sufficient to conduct cell tropism experiments. Thus, culture in the presence of antibodies may facilitate in vitro experiments using viruses that are genetically more authentic than has been previously possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0281.v1
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:56:45 CEST)
In modern times like today, technology and science are developing very fast. This has resulted in a condition known as globalization. This era has had a significant impact on every country globally, including in Indonesia, such as the spread of culture is solid. This flow has many benefits and advantages. However, this globalization can also have a negative impact. One of them is the erosion of native Indonesian culture compared to foreign cultures. Therefore, this research to find the origin, causes, and impacts of the influx of cultural globalization on the current culture of East Java because it is the province of origin of the researchers. Here the researchers asks about the impact of this modern culture and how influential culture is to the people of East Java. The method used by the researchers in making this paper is Literature Review using qualitative descriptive writing with quantitative data. The researchers findings as material in this paper amounted to 24 materials with the provisions of 20 journal article materials, 2 article materials online provided that they were published in the last three years, and 2 E-books for methods on this paper. This study's boundaries are a modern culture that the researchers takes about western culture (western) and South Korean culture (Hallyu). In addition, this study only discusses cultures originating in East Java, such as Javanese.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0424.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: culture; facial expressions; emotion; posed; spontaneous
Online: 15 April 2021 (16:45:31 CEST)
There is a growing consensus that culture influences the perception of facial expressions of emotion. However, little is known about whether and how culture shapes the production of emotional facial expressions, and even less so about whether culture differentially shapes the production of posed versus spontaneous expressions. Drawing on prior work on cultural differences in emotional communication, we tested the prediction that people from the Netherlands (a historically heterogeneous culture where people are prone to low-context communication) produce facial expressions that are more distinct across emotions compared to people from China (a historically homogeneous culture where people are prone to high-context communication). Furthermore, we examined whether the degree of distinctiveness varies across posed and spontaneous expressions. Dutch and Chinese participants were instructed to either pose facial expressions of anger and disgust, or to share autobiographical events that elicited spontaneous expressions of anger or disgust. Using the complementary approaches of supervised machine learning and information-theoretic analysis of facial muscle movements, we show that posed and spontaneous facial expressions of anger and disgust were more distinct when produced by Dutch compared to Chinese participants. These findings shed new light on the role of culture in emotional communication by demonstrating, for the first time, effects on the distinctiveness of production of facial expressions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0637.v1
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:44:40 CEST)
Malassezia is lipid-dependent commensal yeast of the human skin. The different culture media and skin sampling methods used to grow these fastidious yeasts are a source of heterogeneity in culture-based epidemiological study results. This study aimed to compare the performances of three methods of skin sampling, and two culture media for the detection of Malassezia yeasts by culture from the human skin. Three skin sampling methods, namely sterile gauze, dry swab and TranswabTM with transport medium, were applied on 10 healthy volunteers. Each sample was further inoculated onto either the novel FastFung medium or the reference Dixon agar for the detection of Malassezia spp. by culture. At least one colony of Malassezia spp. grew on 93/300 (31%) of the cultures, corresponding to 150 samplings. The positive culture rate was 67%, 18%, and 15% (P < 10-3), for samples collected with sterile gauze, TranswabTM, and dry swab, respectively. The positive culture rate was 62% and 38% (P < 0.003) by using the FastFung and the Dixon media, respectively. Our results showed that sterile gauze rubbing skin sampling followed by inoculation on FastFung medium should be implemented in the routine clinical laboratory procedure for Malassezia spp. cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0531.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: polystyrene; tissue culture; cell membrane stability
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:46:57 CEST)
Unanticipated errors in scientific research data can be attributed to the unwarranted assumption of uniformity in the polystyrene surface that is ubiquitously used in tissue culture flasks and dishes. We have shown that when adherent cells are subjected to fluid shear force, equivalent to rinsing the culture with a balanced salt solution, cells on some areas of the polystyrene surface will immediately rupture while still adherent on the surface. This heterogeneity on the polystyrene surface can cause unexpected variability in experimental results and in replicating experiments among labs. In this paper a novel quantitative method is described to measure the degree of heterogeneity on the polystyrene surface of tissue culture flasks. The results show significant variation among several brands of tissue culture flasks as well as large variability within the production lot of a manufacturer. The assay method involves loading the cells with a fluorescent marker that is released upon membrane rupture. Cell membrane rupture also causes the loss of marker proteins used in Westernblots. This novel assay method can be used to monitor the batch consistency and the manufacturing process of flasks and dishes. It may also be used to test new biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0329.v1
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:41:50 CEST)
Intersectional experiences, socio-cultural meanings, ethnic traditions and morals compound stigma-related stress (Jackson et al., 2020; Schmitz 2019). Sex workers are subject to various stigmatizing forces which can lead to secrecy, isolation and lack of social and cultural support (Koken 2012). Stigmatizing forces include structural humanitarian governance and aid interventions that conflate migration and sex work with insidious constraints and coercion. This study explored how migrant female sex workers from distinctive ethnic cultures manage their identity on a day to day basis in relation to the separation of work and home life. Methods: The perspectives of female sex workers were collected via a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were that the women had worked in sex work for over 18months, defined their involvement in sex work as voluntary, and were over 18yrs of age. The perspectives of seven women from South Asian (Pakistani), Brazilian, and British backgrounds were analyzed using Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Ethnicity was considered to explore how the women experienced stigma, how it impacted on the management of their identity, and how the process of change occurred. Results: The women used a variety of methods to maintain work and home life boundaries, processes they used switch into a role and all experienced stigma and tried to deal with it in ways such as concealment from friends and family. Two core categories and properties emerged from the data as participants felt guilt and/or shame but only the South Asian participants spoke of this with reference to their culture and religion. Conclusion: It was not migration per se but rather the relationship of migration to culture that was key to identity management. Participants reflected that as their country was considered collectivist country with interdependent thought, that any negativity felt could not only be reflected on the individual, but also the entire family. For these reasons Pakistani sex workers were subject to more complex stigmatizing forces, shame and guilt as regards risk and exposure. Discussion focusses on the processes and management strategies used to extend social and cultural support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0167.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Temperature, Culture, Cell, Chick, Embryo, Rotation
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:02:12 CEST)
Recently, some authors have developed a shell-less culture system for chick embryos by using a plastic lm as culture vessels. We will show that velocity of rotation of vessels in incubator and temperature have direct relations with growth of chick embryos. We also obtain a mathematical relation between velocity, temperature and rate of growth of chick embryo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0006.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: agrobiodiversity; environment; ecosystem; culture; farms; planning
Online: 9 May 2018 (07:37:48 CEST)
This document presents, from environmental thinking (ecosystem - culture relations), the concept of the Main Agroecological Structure of Agroecosystems (MAS, EAP, for its acronym in Spanish), considered as a dissipative cultural structure. It discusses its possible applications (resilience, production, diversity) both inside and outside the farms. The MAS can be useful in the land planning on the farms, based on the concept of potential MAS that allows the quantification of the management of internal and external corridors, including natural vegetation. At the same time, it can be useful in the context of landscape management because it shows a series of cultural relations (economic, social, symbolic and technological) hidden from the partial analysis of landscape ecology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0141.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Other Keywords: organizational culture; mission; consistency; involvement; adaptability
Online: 22 November 2017 (04:19:38 CET)
The main goal of this paper is to address how quickly and to what extent are international organizational cultures, brought by the world companies after the process of privatization, being implemented in a single monolithic culture. For this purpose was adopted and applied Denison model of organizational culture, which has been chosen because it emphasizes the need for balance between requirements for organization’s stability demands and its required flexibility. Considering that a different organizational culture reflects systematic change of an entire organization, this paper focuses on exploring the differences in culture dimensions among companies in domestic and foreign ownership in Serbia. A sample of 1000 employees was statistically processed. Changes in organizational culture tend to be relatively slow. The results confirm that organizational culture is a complex working environment, concerning organizational values, which represents a fundamental element of organizations. Given that the process of company ownership changes occurred fifteen years prior to the research implementation, obtained results show effects of interaction between national and organizational culture in this, relatively short, period of time. Obtained results can be generalized to countries that are passing or have recently passed a transition, and are similar in cultural characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0408.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: quality of work life; organizational culture; organizational support; self-efficacy; maritime workers; culture-work-health model
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:00:06 CEST)
Using the culture-work-health model, this study investigates the factors influencing the quality of life of maritime workers. This study conducted a survey of 320 maritime workers who have experience living and working on a ship for more than six months. This self-administered questionnaire included questions on organizational culture and support, self-efficacy, perceived fatigue, as well as the quality of work life. Organizational culture and self-efficacy were identified as factors affecting the quality of work life, while organizational support was found to have an indirect effect after passing through self-efficacy and perceived fatigue. The final model accounts for 63.1% of the variance in maritime workers’ quality of life. As such, this study shows that self-efficacy is important for the quality of life of maritime workers, having both direct and indirect effects. Moreover, organizational support may prove the primary intervention point for relieving perceived fatigue and enhancing self-efficacy, thus improving the quality of work life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0556.v1
Online: 30 November 2021 (10:47:20 CET)
Museums increasingly recognize the need to address advances in digital culture which impact the expectations and needs of their audiences. Museum collections of real objects need to be presented both on their own premises and digitally online, especially as social media becomes more and more influential in people’s everyday lives. We investigate these challenges magnified by advances in digital and computational media and culture looking particularly at recent and relevant reports on changes in the ways museums interact with the public. We find that the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated many of the changes driving museum transformation. We believe that museums must be more prepared than ever to adapt to unabated technological advances set in the midst of cultural and social revolution, now intrinsic to the digital landscape in which museums are inevitably connected and participating across the global digital ecosystem where they inevitably find themselves entrenched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: CTC, cell culture, liquid biopsy, breast cancer
Online: 16 April 2021 (13:29:37 CEST)
Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have relevance as prognostic markers in breast cancer. However, the functional properties of CTCs or their molecular characterization have not been well-studied. Experimental models indicate that only a few cells can survive in the circulation and eventually metastasize. Thus, it is essential to identify these surviving cells capable of forming such metastases. Methods: We isolated viable CTCs from 50 peripheral blood samples obtained from 35 patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer using RosetteSepTM for ex vivo culture. The CTCs were seeded and monitored on plates under low adherence conditions and with media supplemented with growth factors and Nanoemulsions. Phenotypic analysis was performed by immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis using RT-PCR and CTCs counting by Cellsearch® system. Results: We found that in 75% of samples the CTC cultures lasted more than 23 days, predicting a shorter Progression-Free Survival in these patients, independently of having ≥ 5 CTC by Cellsearch®. We also observed that CTCs before and after culture showed a different gene expression profile. Conclusions: the cultivability of CTCs is a predictive factor. Furthermore, the subset of cells capable of growing ex vivo show stem or mesenchymal features and may represent the CTC population with metastatic potential in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0135.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Skin; Cell culture; Stem cells; Differentiation; Camel
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:04:59 CEST)
Elite camels often suffer from massive injuries. Thus, there is a pivotal need for a cheap and readily available regenerative medicine source. We isolated novel stem-like cells from camel skin and investigated their multipotency and resistance against various stresses. Skin samples were isolated from ears of five camels. Fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors were extracted. After separation of different cell lines by trypsinization, all cell lines were exposed to heat shock. Then, fibroblasts and dermal cyst-forming cells were examined under cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells were evaluated for resistance against osmotic pressure. The results revealed that resistance periods against trypsin were 1.5, 4, and 7 minutes for fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors, respectively. Furthermore, complete recovery of different cell lines after heat shock along with the differentiation of spheroid progenitors into neurons was observed. Fibroblasts and spheroid progenitors retained cell proliferation after cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells regained their normal structure after collapsing by osmotic pressure. The spheroid progenitors incubated in the adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic media differentiated into the adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, we isolated different unique cellular differons and stem-like cells from the camel skin and examined their multipotency for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Ethics, Ethical Culture and Sustainability, Family Business
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:09:05 CET)
Building an ethical culture is challenging and a basic requirement of the companies to embed transparency in their systems, creating a positive image; serving the internal and external communities. This paper based on detailed interviews of 12 family owned businesses over a period of 16 months explores how these companies build the ethical culture, identifying the ethical culture sustainability triggers, challenges and role of religion in such practices. The values, culture, community and social norms are identified as major ingredients of a sustainable ethical culture development and implementation of the ethical policies and procedures require institutional and structural mechanisms for effectiveness in family owned businesses. The findings at numerous occasions are in contrast to the literature, whereas, in other instances are similar. The religion, society, family image, the entrepreneurs themselves and their family members play a vital role. Non-interference in private matters of the employees, whistle blowing, code of ethics, training and awareness creation and a number of other factors play a leading role in ethical culture development in family businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0239.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sustainability; Chinese culture; Moslem society; Malaysia; Indonesia
Online: 23 January 2019 (10:25:28 CET)
Abstract Sustainability of ethnic culture in Southeast Asia has made the dramatically growth of ethnic identity. The ethnic revivals already made the increasing of cultural events in public spaces. This research paper sought the cultural sustainability of Chinese in Moslem society of Southaest Asia. A multisited ethnography was conducted in Medan Municipal of North Sumatra and Georgetown Penang, Malaysia to observe the sustained Chinese culture as the symbol of ethnification of Chinese in Moslems society in Southeast Asia region. It found that after 2003 Indonesia already saw the attractive cultural performances of Chinese in public spaces as the continuation of sustainability. In our ethnographic investigation from 2014 -2017, the reshaping of the Chinese identity through sustainability of Chinese culture in Medan Municipality of North Sumatra, and Penang of Malaysia has the high public visibility. Research report showed the continuation of the Chinese rituals and festivals which were accompanied by music instruments of Chinese and theatrical performances. Those have been transformed from self commemorations to be more public; attractions already were moved to public places, not solely in temples or ethnic group surroundings as what commonly found in the past period. It concluded that the sustainability of Chinese culture in public spaces made the Southeast Asia connection among the Chinese groups solidify their identity in this region tightened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0377.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: risk culture; honourable merchant; decision-making; responsibility
Online: 25 June 2018 (10:21:18 CEST)
The current discussion about a “risk culture” in financial services was triggered by the recent series of crisis (from the US subprime mortgage crisis to the lock-in trap of central banks in the aftermath of the sovereign debt crisis). The last decade saw a long list of hybris, misconduct and criminal activities by human beings on a single or even a collective basis in banks, in the industry or in the whole economy. As a counter-reaction, financial authorities called for a guidance by a “new” risk culture in financial institutions based on a set of abstract, formal and normative governance processes. In the humanities, culture is a paraphrase for the behaviour in collectives and dynamics of organization found in human societies. Therefore, a “risk culture” should be a link between those normative guidelines and the positive “real-world” decision-making in financial services. This paper will focus on “risk culture” from the perspective of human beings interacting in dynamical and intertemporal commercial relations. In this context, “risk” is perceived by economic agents ex-ante as the consequence of the time-lag between the present and the uncertain future development (compared to a probability distribution calculated by observers ex-post). For all those individual decisions – to be made under uncertainty – future “risk” includes the so-called “normal accidents”, i.e. failures that will happen at some uncertain point in time but inevitable, and it is only the questions, when failure will happen and how to maintain function in the first line of defence. Finally, the sum of all decisions with individual responsibility for things to come is the positive economical context of a “risk culture” in the sense of the (rational) behaviour of an honourable merchant in long-term and repeated commercial relations in a merchant community, as this is a heritage of European business culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0129.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, History Keywords: history; museology; Israeli culture; Holocaust; Israeli society
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:43:31 CET)
Tiny by physical size, the State of Israel retains some of the world’s most important cultural treasures, along with many other great cultural institutions. Archeological treasures have yielded much information as far as biblical history and have been well adapted to a Zionist narrative by both the Jewish press and international news organizations, such as the New York Times whose archives are replete with reports of Jewish history being dug up by the Jewish people. Once the State of Israel gained independence in 1948, the course was set for the development of historical museums whose discourse would reflect the most significant events in Jewish history, most especially the Holocaust and the state of constant warfare that continues to imbue the cultural consciousness of its citizens. In this paper we outline, through categorization, the various historical museums, which are currently operating. Furthermore, this article hopes to shed some light upon the cultural sensibilities conveyed through these institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0326.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: cellular agriculture; cell-based seafood; fish tissue culture; bioreactor; serum-free media; ocean conservation; marine cell culture; aquaculture
Online: 25 January 2019 (11:36:58 CET)
Cellular agriculture is defined as the production of agricultural products from cell cultures rather than from whole plants or animals. With growing interest in cellular agriculture as a means to address the public health, environmental, and animal welfare challenges of animal agriculture, the concept of producing seafood from fish cell- and tissue-cultures is emerging as a means to address similar challenges with industrial aquaculture systems and marine capture. Cell-based seafood - as opposed to animal-based seafood - can combine developments in biomedical engineering with modern aquaculture techniques. Biomedical engineering developments such as closed-system bioreactor production of land animal cells create a basis for large scale production of marine animal cells. Aquaculture techniques such as genetic modification and closed system aquaculture have achieved marked gains in production that can pave the way for innovations in cell-based seafood production. Here, we present the current state of innovation relevant to the development of cell-based seafood across multiple species as well as specific opportunities and challenges that exist for advancing this science. The authors find that the physiological properties of fish cell- and tissue- culture may be uniquely suited to cultivation in vitro. These physiological properties, including hypoxia tolerance, high buffering capacity, and low-temperature growth conditions, make marine cell culture an attractive opportunity for scale production of cell-based seafood; perhaps even more so than mammalian and avian cell cultures for cell-based meats. This, coupled with the unique capabilities of crustacean tissue-friendly scaffolding such as chitosan, a common seafood waste product and mushroom derivative, presents great promise for cell-based seafood production via bioreactor cultivation. To become fully realized, cell-based seafood research will require more understanding of fish muscle culture and cultivation; more investigation into serum-free media formulations optimized for fish cell culture; and bioreactor designs tuned to the needs of fish cells for large scale production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: female reproductive tract; organoid; co-culture; crosstalk; blastocyst
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:19:56 CEST)
Hormones must be balanced and dynamically controlled for the Female Reproductive Tract (FRT) to function correctly during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and delivery. Gamete selection and successful transfer to the uterus, where it implants and pregnancy occurs, is supported by the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. Successful implantation and placentation in humans and other animals rely on complex interactions between the embryo and a receptive female reproductive system. The FRT's recent breakthroughs in three-dimensional (3D) organoid systems now provide critical experimental models that match the organ's physiological, functional, and anatomical characteristics in vitro. This article summarizes the current state of the art on organoids generated from various parts of the FRT. The current analysis examines recent developments in the creation of organoid models of reproductive organs, as well as their future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0682.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fed-batch fermentation; kefir grains; probiotic culture; whey
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:12:13 CEST)
Nowadays, probiotics has been proposed for substituting antibiotics in animal feed, since the European Union (EU) banned the latter compounds in 2006 to avoid their serious side effects on human health. Therefore, this work aimed to produce a probiotic product by fed-fermentation of whey with kefir grains for use in animal feed. The whey was fermented with a combination of kefir grains AGK1 and the free biomass present in whole milk fermented milk used to activate these kefir grains. The probiotic culture obtained was characterized with high levels of biomass, total viability and antibacterial activity. Some probiotic properties of the probiotic culture were investigated in vitro, including its survival at low pH values, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, after freezing in skim milk at − 20 ºC, and in the commercial feed during storage at room temperature. The viable cells of lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeasts exhibited higher tolerance to acidic pH and simulated gastrointestinal conditions when the cells were protected with skim milk and piglet feed, compared with washed cells. The results indicated the feasibility of producing a probiotic product at a low cost with a potential application in animal feed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0444.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: cyanobacteria; Phormidium; culture growth; light; salinity; phycocyanin; pigments
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:35:05 CEST)
A strain of the filamentous non N-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. isolated from the Messolonghi (W. Greece) saltworks, was cultured in the laboratory at 6 different combinations of salinity (20-40-60 ppt) and illumination (low-2000 lux and high-8000 lux). At salinities of 60 and 40 ppt and in high illumination (XL-8000 lux) the growth rate (μmax) presented the highest values (0.491 and 0.401 respectively) compared to the corresponding at 20 ppt (0.203). In general and at all salinities, the higher illumination (XL) gave the highest growth rates and shorter dublication time (tg) in comparison to the lower illumination (L). On the contrary, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin production was extremely increased in the lower illumination (L) in all salinities, from ~14fold at 40 and 60 ppt to 269fold at 20 ppt of those corresponding to higher illumination (XL). Similar analogies were also recorded for the other two billiproteins. Chlorophyll-a content was also higher in lower illumination at all salinities in contrast to total carotenoids that did not exhibit such a pattern. The high growth rate and high phycocyanin content along with the rapid sedimentation of its cultured biomass can set this marine Phormidium species as a promising canditate for mass culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0317.v1
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:54:41 CET)
Considered one of the finest first-generation Nigerian writers, John Pepper Clark-Bekederemo, who passed away on 13th October, 2020, had been categorised as a Eurocentric writer. This work assesses the authenticity or otherwise of this critics’ perception of Clark by critiquing his America, their America. By analysing this autobiography vis-à-vis the notion of self and other which is a theoretical concern in contemporary travel writing, it was established, among other things, that every culture has its dark sides which it must not feel too proud to change as time and situation demand; that Clark vehemently rejects the Americans’ claim of sophistication and superiority of their culture over African culture. The paper concludes that contemporary travel writing should be a rightful site for negotiating cultural, political and diplomatic compromises between the Self and the Other since the gulf may be difficult to close altogether.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0124.v1
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:29:39 CEST)
Most commercial Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) genotypes are short-day plants and cultivators typically use a 12.0 h uninterrupted dark period to induce flowering; however, scientific information is lacking to prove this is the optimal dark period for all genotypes, and cultivar specific photoperiods may increase productivity. Tissue culture can be used for research requiring multiple treatments, proper replication, and in a controlled environment on a smaller scale compared to greenhouse and indoor facilities. To determine whether cannabis explants can flower under varied photoperiods in vitro, explants were grown under one of six photoperiod treatments: 12.0, 13.2, 13.8, 14.4, 15.0, and 16.0 h for four weeks. The percentage of flowering explants was highest under 12.0 and 13.2 h treatments. There were no treatment effects on the fresh weight, final height, or growth index of the explants. The results suggest an uninterrupted dark period of at least 10.8 h (i.e. 13.2 h photoperiod) is needed to induce the flowering of this genotype. In vitro flowering could provide a unique and high throughput approach to study floral/seed development and secondary metabolism in cannabis under highly controlled conditions. Further research should determine if this response is the same on a whole plant level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0443.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: cell suspension culture; anti-inflammatory activity; phytochemical analysis
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:44:18 CEST)
Many species of the Asteraceae family are used in traditional Mexican medicine for possessing healing properties. Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) is a plant used for the treatment of gastric ulcers, deep wounds and for its antifungal effects. The aim of this study was to establish a cell suspension culture of A. pichinchensis, quantify the anti-inflammatory constituents 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and 3-epilupeol, to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and perform a phytochemical analysis. Cell suspension cultures were established in MS culture medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and 1.0 g L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) plus 0.1 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN). The ethyl acetate extracts of cell suspension cultures analyzed by GC revealed that the maximum production of compounds The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts exhibited significant inhibition of NO production. Furthermore, the phytochemical study of EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the biomass on day 20 led to the identification of 17 known compounds. The structures of compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and the remainder by GC-MS. This is the first report of the production of the (-)-Artemesinol, (-)-Artemesinol glucoside, Encecalin and 3,5-diprenyl-acetophenone compounds by a cell suspension cultures of A. pichinchensis.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: female dog; cell culture; mammary cancer; veterinary; oncology
Online: 15 April 2020 (07:59:18 CEST)
Mammary neoplasm affects a population of intact and elderly female dogs and 50% are malignant. In order to study this disease, cell culture is as a promising preclinical model, creating the opportunity to deposit cell lines at a cell bank, allowing a great reproducibility of the assays and making the validation of the results more reliable. Another important aspect is the possibility to establish models for better understanding tumour characteristics, such as vasculogenic mimicry. Due the importance of cancer cell lines in preclinical models, this study aimed to establish and characterize primary cell lines from canine mammary gland tumours according to immunophenotype and tumorigenicity, and with its ability to form vasculogenic mimicry-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures were evaluated for morphology, phenotype, vasculogenic mimicry and tumorigenicity abilities. We collected 17 primary mammary carcinoma and 3 metastasis and had a satisfactory result in 10 of them. All cell lines presented spindle shape or polygonal morphology and expressed concomitant pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8/18. Four cell lines had vasculogenic mimicry ability in vitro and two of them showed in vivo tumorigenic potential and forming VM in the xenotransplant tumour. Cell characterization of those lines will help to create a database for more knowledge of mammary carcinomas in dogs, including studies of tumour behaviour and new therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0430.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Co-culture; Reduced-serum; Wound bed; Fibroblasts; Keratinocytes
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:24:46 CET)
Contact-based co-culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes is important to study the structure and functions of the wound bed. Co-culture of these two cell types in direct contact with each other has been challenging, requiring high serum concentrations (up to 10%), feeder systems and a range of supplemental factors. These approaches are not only technically demanding, but also present scientific, cost and ethical limitations associated with high-serum concentrations. We have developed two reduced-serum approaches (1-2%) to support contact-based co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The two approaches include (1) Specialized cell culture media for each cell type mixed in a 1:1 ratio (KGM+FGM), and (2) Minimal media supplemented with cell-specific growth factors (MEM+GF). Co-culture could be successfully achieved by co-seeding (two cell types were introduced simultaneously), or in a layered fashion (keratinocytes seeded on top of confluent fibroblasts). With wound scratch assays, the co-cultured platforms could demonstrate cell proliferation, migration and wound closure. The reduced-serum conditions developed are simple, easy to formulate and adopt, and based on commonly-available media components. These contact-based co-culture approaches can be leveraged for wound and skin studies, and tissue bioengineering applications, potentially reducing concerns with high-serum formulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0266.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: historical individuals, extended evolutionary synthesis, evolutionary innovation, culture
Online: 24 April 2019 (11:20:29 CEST)
Since its inception, evolutionary theory has experienced a number of extensions. The most important of these took the forms of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis (MES), embracing genetics and population biology in the early 20th century, and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) of the last thirty years, embracing, among other factors, non-genetic forms of inheritance. While we appreciate the motivation for this recent extension, we argue that it does not go far enough, since it restricts itself to widening explanations of adaptation by adding mechanisms of inheritance and variation. A more thoroughgoing extension is needed, one that widens the explanatory scope of evolutionary theory. In addition to adaptation and its various mechanisms, evolutionary theory must recognize as a distinct intellectual challenge the origin of what we call “historical kinds.” Under historical kinds we include any process that acquires a quasi-independent and traceable lineage-history in biological and cultural evolution. We develop the notion of a historical kind in a series of paradigmatic exemplars, from genes and homologues to rituals and music, and we propose a preliminary characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0073.v1
Subject: Keywords: coffee culture, domestication, creolization, encapsulation, and middle class
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:48:50 CET)
This article is an anthropology study on how western-style coffee culture influences Indonesian coffee culture and eventually develops a new localized coffee culture. Immense development of such worldwide coffee franchise as Starbucks affects local community's coffee culture, particularly the middle class. This new wave is considered as an alternative lifestyle for those who are consumptive and seeking for leisure, dynamics, and identity. Broader than just the process of domestication or creolization, Indonesian new coffee culture has an element of “soft countering to” western coffee culture even though it still embraces some parts of the western styles. This phenomenon is referred to by the writer as the cultural encapsulation process or the process of substantial cultural resistance by drawing a line between the two coffee cultures with the intention of taking merely compatible elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Innovative talents; Innovation system; Innovation culture; Innovation environment
Online: 20 November 2018 (08:30:39 CET)
Based on the deployment of global innovation value chain, the article analyzes the existing independent innovation capability of Guangzhou, and analyzes in detail from innovative talents, innovation system, innovation culture and innovation environment. The role of the central city of Guangzhou has led to research on issues such as the common development of cities in Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta. Using the combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, we can find out the shortcomings of Guangzhou's independent innovation capability, explore the causes of problems, and seek solutions to the main problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0108.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: aeroponics; soilless culture; root growth; root/shoot ratio
Online: 6 September 2018 (04:20:00 CEST)
Aeroponics is a relatively new soilless culture technology, which may produce food in space limited cities or non-arable land with high water use efficiency. The shoot and root growth, root characteristics, mineral contents of two lettuce cultivars were measured in aeroponics, as compared with hydroponics and substrate culture. The results showed that aeroponics remarkably improved the root growth with a significant greater root biomass, root/shoot ratio, and several times higher total root length, root area and root volume. However, the greater root growth did not lead to a better shoot growth compared with hydroponics, due to the limited availability of nutrients and water. It can be concluded that aeroponics systems may be better for high value true root crops production. Further research is necessary to figure out the suitable pressure, droplet size, and misting interval in order to improve the continuously availability of nutrients and water in aeroponics, if it is used to grow crops like lettuce for harvesting above-ground parts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0151.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: 3D culture; multiple myeloma; STAT; bortezomib; CETSA; stattic
Online: 8 June 2018 (13:32:11 CEST)
Malignant cells cultured in three-dimensional (3D) models have been found to be phenotypically and biochemically different from their counterparts cultured conventionally. Since most of these studies employed solid tumor types, how 3D culture affects multiple myeloma (MM) cells is not well understood. Here, we compared MM cells (U266 and RPMI8226) in a 3D culture model with those in conventional culture. While the conventionally cultured cells were present in single cells or small clusters, MM-3D cells grew in large spheroids. We discovered that STAT3 was the pathway that was more activated in 3D in both cell lines. The active form of STAT3 (phospho-STAT3 or pSTAT3), which was absent in MM cells cultured conventionally, became detectable after 1-2 days in 3D culture. This elevated pSTAT3 level was dependent on the 3D environment, since it disappeared after transferring to conventional culture. STAT3 inhibition using a pharmacological agent, Stattic, significantly decreased the cell viability of MM cells and sensitized them to bortezomib in 3D culture. Using an oligonucleotide array, we found that 3D culture significantly increased the expression of several known STAT3 downstream genes implicated in oncogenesis. Since most primary MM tumors are naturally STAT3-active, studies of MM in 3D culture can generate results that are more representative of the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0081.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: empowerment; innovation culture; inclusive leadership; innovation capacity; school
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:07:23 CEST)
This paper has two objectives: the first, to analyze the mediating effect of teacher empowerment between innovation culture and innovation capacity, and between inclusive leadership and innovation capacity; the second, to analyze the moderating effects of the school context on the innovation capacity. Data were collected in a representative sample of secondary schools in Valencia, Spain. The research model adopted is structural equation modeling, using the partial least squares (PLS) technique. The model has confirmed that teacher empowerment mediates between innovation culture and innovation capacity and between inclusive leadership and the innovation capacity. It is found that the educational context does not moderate the relationships in the proposed analysis model. This paper emphasizes the role of teacher empowerment in educational innovation and extends the knowledge of culture and leadership in the school organization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0240.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: epoxyqinomicin; DHMEQ; metastasis; invasion; adhesion; 3D cell culture
Online: 25 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
We previously designed and synthesized dehydroxyepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) as an inhibitor of NF-κB based on the structure of microbial secondary metabolite epoxyquinomicin C. DHMEQ showed anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity in various in vivo disease models without toxicity. Cell detachment from the primary tumor and subsequent invasion are considered to be early phase of metastasis, while tumor cell attachment to the tissue and secondary tumor formation the late phase. The assay system for late phase was set up with intra-portal-vein injection of pancreatic cancer cells. Administration of DHMEQ was found to inhibit the liver metastasis possibly by decreasing the expression of MMP-9 and IL-8. Also when the pancreatic cancer cells treated with DHMEQ was inoculated into the peritoneal cavity of mice, the metastatic foci formation was inhibited. These results indicate that DHMEQ is likely to inhibit the late phase of metastasis. Meanwhile, we have recently employed three-dimensional (3D) culture of breast cancer cells for the model of early phase metastasis. DHMEQ inhibited the 3D invasion of breast cancer cells without toxicity. In this way, DHMEQ was shown to inhibit the late and early phases of metastasis. Thus, DHMEQ is likely to be useful for the suppression of cancer metastasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0137.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: cell culture; bioreactor; live cell imaging; tissue engineering
Online: 31 January 2017 (12:39:46 CET)
Here, we present a staged approach for an innovative repurposing of a portable infant humidicrib into a live cell growth, observation, and imaging system. Furthmore, humidicrib can support different variations of “umbilical” bioreactors, and can be used to conduct electrophysiology experiments and in situ immunohistochemistry. Modifications incorporate a closed loop carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration control system with umbilical CO2 and heating support for tailored bioreactors. The repurposing cost is inexpensive and allows for the continued observation and imaging of cells. This prototype unit has been used to continuously observe and image live primary neurons for up to 21 days. This demonstrates the repurposed units’ suitability for use in tissue culture based research, particularly where modifications to microscopes are required or where sensitive manipulation outside of a standard incubator is needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0122.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: green innovation; green organizational culture; sustainability; sustainability drivers
Online: 24 November 2016 (11:09:23 CET)
This study aims to examine Turkish companies from a sustainability and green innovation point of view. Through this purpose, this research’s objective is to find out relationship between sustainability drivers and green innovation and also to search for green organizational culture’s mediation effect in this relationship. Survey was carried in companies operating in Turkey which were listed among İstanbul Chamber of Industry (ICI) Top 500 companies for last 3 years successively and have ISO14001 Environmental Management Certificate. According to the survey results, it was manifested that factors directing companies to sustainability having a positive relationship with green organizational culture and green innovation. It is found that there is a partial mediation effect of green organizational culture between motivating factors for sustainability and green innovation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0041.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: uncertainty management; risk management; safety; ISO 31000:2009; ISO 31010:2009; risk management framework; risk-sentience; safety culture; risk culture; enterprise risk management
Online: 19 June 2018 (12:58:28 CEST)
The aim of this study was to develop, implement, and evaluate a new auxiliary enterprise risk management framework and process to serve as an enabler to the global ISO 31000 risk framework and ISO 31010 processes. This framework has been designed particularly for use within high-risk environments and those characterized by volatility, uncertainty, complexity, and ambiguity (VUCA). This paper proposes a methodology for optimization of structured sharing and grass-roots management of all available risk-sentience information with the assessed potential to develop into an identifiable risk in the future. The author introduces new risk terminology including risk-sentience, risk-sentience information, and risk-sentience management. The process involved the development of the Theory of Risk-Sentience (ToRS), Risk-Sentience Auxiliary Framework (RSAF) and a risk-sentience management process referred to as LUOMEAR (Learning from Uncertainties, Others Mistakes, Experiences and Anecdotal Reporting). Manchester Patient Safety Framework (MaPSaF), SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats) analysis, and a newly developed Risk-Sentience Fertility Checklist were used to conduct pre and post-trial evaluations. The findings include positive adjustments in safety culture, components of commitment to quality, communication and team-working around safety issues, access to evolving risk-information, and efficient sharing and management of recorded risk-information. Recommendations are made for more extensive application of both the proposed auxiliary risk framework and process within high-risk sectors to further explore its effectiveness and scope.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0497.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: oxygen; physioxia; hyperoxia; cell culture; transcriptomics; differential gene expression
Online: 29 August 2022 (14:46:44 CEST)
Standard cell culture is routinely performed at supraphysiological oxygen concentrations (~18% O2). Conversely, oxygen levels in most tissues range from 1%–6% (physioxia). Such hyperoxic conditions can alter reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, energy metabolism, mitochondrial network dynamics, and response to drugs and hormones. The aim of this project was to investigate the transcriptional response to different oxygen levels and whether it is similar across cell lines, or cell-line specific. Using RNA-seq, we performed differential gene expression and functional enrichment analyses in four human cancer cell lines, LNCaP, Huh-7, PC-3, and SH-SY5Y cultured at either 5% or 18% oxygen for 14 days. We found that oxygen levels affected transcript abundance of hundreds of genes, with the affected genes having little overlap between cell lines. Functional enrichment analysis also revealed different processes and pathways being affected in each cell line. Interestingly, we found that the top differentially expressed genes are involved in cancer biology. Further, we observed several hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) targets upregulated at 5% oxygen, suggesting a role of HIF at physiological oxygen conditions. Finally, oxygen strongly induced transcription of mitochondrial genes in most cell lines, in a cell-type specific manner too. We conclude that cellular response to oxygen is widely cell-type specific, emphasizing the importance of maintaining physioxia in cell culture.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0072.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: bamboo; tissue culture; growth regulators; hardening; carbon sequestration; climate
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:51:25 CEST)
Objectives: The promising specific growth regulators are employed tissue culture of the bamboo species. The specific natural hardening mixture supports the acclimatization and adaptation of the protected cultivation. The bamboo species contribute to the carbon sequestration and stabilization of the environment. Findings: The growth regulator 2, 4-D encourages callus induction and growth regulators NAA + TDZ, BAP + Kinetin + Gelrite, BAP + Kinetin + Coconut water + myo-inositol, NAA and TDZ impose plant regeneration in the Bambusa species. The growth regulator of 2,4-D, 2,4-D + Kinetin, 2,4-D + BA, 2,4-D + BAP and 2,4-D + NAA + BAP produces callus induction in the Dendrocalamus species. The growth regulator of TDZ, BA and IBA + Coumarin + Putrescine, BAP + GA3, NAA + Kinetin, BA + IBA, BA + Kinetin + NAA, NAA + Kinetin, Kinetin + IAA has facilitated shoot regeneration in the Dendrocalamus species with the specific period. The growth regulator of BA and TDZ; BAP + TDZ, IBA + Coumarin + Putrescine, BAP + GA3, NAA + Kinetin, BA + IBA, BA + Kinetin + NAA, NAA + Kinetin, Kinetin + IAA develops root regeneration with unambiguous time in the Dendrocalamus species. The growth regulator of BAP and Kinetin + BAP imposes shoot regeneration and IBA and IBA + Coumarin + sucrose conducts root regeneration in the edible bamboo. The natural hardening materials of cocopeat, vermicompost, perlite, cow dung, FYM, compost, soil & garden soil and humus soil, perlite, and FYM recommend in the acclimatization and adaptation of the Bambusa species and Dendrocalamus species respectively. Novelty: The standard growth regulators and hardening mixtures impose tissue culture, acclimatization and adaptation in the bamboo species. The bamboo species involves in managing carbon sequestration, biogeochemical cycle and the environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0334.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Nutrition; Hydration; Dementia: Eating; Drinking; Food; Ethnic minorities; Culture
Online: 25 March 2022 (02:47:59 CET)
Eating and drinking difficulties are common in dementia, but little is known about the experiences of ethnic minority groups managing these difficulties at home. We undertook qualitative semi-structured interviews, exploring the meaning of food, the impact of dementia on eating and drinking and carers’ experiences of support. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. We interviewed 17 carers and people with dementia from ethnic minority backgrounds, using reflexive thematic analysis to analyse data. Food/drink had strong links to identity, culture and emotions. Providing culturally familiar foods, celebrating traditional festivals and supporting previous food-related roles promoted reminiscence, which encouraged people with dementia to eat and drink, as did social interactions. However, these strategies sometimes led to distress in those with more advanced dementia. Food choices were also influenced by carer strain, generational differences and the impact of health conditions. Despite a strong sense of duty to care for relatives at home, there was low awareness of community support services. Carers expressed a need for culturally tailored support for managing dementia-related eating and drinking difficulties at home. Healthcare professionals must provide contextually relevant advice to carers, being mindful of how cultural backgrounds can affect dietary choices.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0162.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Mucorales; pulmonary mucormycosis; hematologic malignancy; transplantation; fungal culture; histopathology
Online: 11 March 2022 (07:59:01 CET)
Cultural recovery of Mucorales from hyphae-laden tissue is poor, and the clinical implications of culture positivity are scarcely studied. Therefore, we compared clinical and histological characteristics of culture-positive and culture-negative histology-proven pulmonary mucormycosis cases among cancer patients. Histology specimens were blindly reviewed by a Thoracic Pathologist and graded on four histopathologic features: hyphal quantity, tissue necrosis, tissue invasion, and vascular invasion. Twenty cases with a corresponding fungal culture were identified; five were culture-positive, and 15 culture-negative. Although no statistically significant differences were found, culture-positive patients were more likely to exhibit a high burden of necrosis and have a high burden of hyphae but tended to have less vascular invasion than culture-negative patients. In terms of clinical characteristics, culture-positive patients were more likely to have acute myeloid leukemia (60% vs. 27%, p=0.19), a history of hematopoietic cell transplant (80% vs. 53%, p=0.31), severe lymphopenia (absolute lymphocyte count ≤500/µL, 100% vs. 73%, p=0.36), and monocytopenia (absolute monocyte count ≤100/µL, 60% vs. 20%, p=0.11). Forty-two-day all-cause mortality was comparable between culture-positive and culture-negative patients (60% and 53%, p=0.80). This pilot study represents the first comprehensive histopathological scoring method to examine the relationship between histopathologic features, culture positivity, and clinical features of pulmonary mucormycosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0355.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: dark treatment; hybrid poplar; plant hormone; rooting; shoot culture
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:46:18 CET)
Phenotypic plasticity in response to adverse conditions determines plant productivity and survival. The aim of this study was to test if two highly productive Populus genotypes, characterized by different in vitro etiolation patterns, differ also in their responses to hormones gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA), and to a GA biosynthesis inhibitor paclobutrazol (PBZ). The experiments on shoot cultures of ‘Hybrida 275’ (abbr. H275; Populus maximowiczii × P. trichocarpa) and IBL 91/78 (Populus tremula × P. alba) were conducted either by modulating the physical in vitro environment or by adding specific chemicals to the nutrient medium. Our results show that there are significant differences between the studied genotypes in environmental and hormonal regulation of growth responses. The genotype H275, which responded to darkness with PBZ-inhibitable shoot elongation, was unable to recover its growth after treatment with ABA. In contrast, the genotype IBL 91/78, whose shoot elongation was not affected either by darkness or PBZ treatment, recovered so well after the ABA treatment that, when rooted subsequently, it developed longer shoots and roots than without ABA treatment. Our results indicate that GA catabolism and repressive signaling provide an important pathway to control growth and physiological adaptation in response to immediate or impending adverse conditions. These observations can help breeders define robust criteria for identifying genotypes with high resistance and productivity and highlight where genotypes exhibit susceptibility to stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: errors; culture; quality improvement; patient safety; management; clinics; outpatient
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:44:33 CEST)
As many as 20-25% of the population experiences harm in outpatient settings, yet these locations are underrepresented in the literature compared to hospitals. We examined results from the Medical Office Survey on Patient Safety Culture designed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. The survey administered in 2012 gathered perceptions from 23,679 individuals in 934 unique medical offices. We examined associations of organizational patient safety climate composites on frequency of safety and quality issues, overall quality score, and safety rating. We found organizational patient safety composites are all positively and significantly associated with a higher overall quality score and patient safety rating, and fewer safety and quality issues. Office processes and standardization appeared to have the most consistent influence on perceived quality outcomes. Our results indicate it may be advantageous for medical offices to improve on the factors that contribute to positive safety climate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0175.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Catholic education; Catholic schools; Religious Education; de-traditionalised culture
Online: 7 July 2021 (10:37:19 CEST)
Philip Phenix’s (1964) book Realms of meaning started the ever growing movement concerned with how school education might help young people in their search for meaning in times of rapid social change. Today, in globalised, digital, secularised, de-traditionalised culture, the importance and urgency of this role have never been greater. Cultural change has accelerated exponentially, and for many – including students in religious/Catholic schools – traditional religious sources of meaning are no longer prominent or plausible reference points. Catholic schools, whether independent or semi-state institutions because of government funding, can make a valuable contribution young people’s spiritual/moral education, no matter what their level of religious affiliation or practice. This article argues that such a contribution requires change to the discourse or narrative of Catholic school Religious Education, with corresponding adjustments to content and pedagogy. Its present trajectory, which is excessively concerned with promoting a Catholic identity in students, needs to be modified. Both the religious and non-religious students, especially in the senior classes, would derive greater spiritual and religious benefit from the inclusion of more life-relevant and issue-related content, together with a critical, research-oriented pedagogy. Such an approach proposes that the Catholic Church’s schools should offer unconditionally a meaningful spiritual/moral education that is relevant to all students, rather than a traditional one which seemed to presume that all students are, or should be practising Catholics. This does not minimise attention to the Catholic tradition, but it allows for a study of how people negotiate the task of constructing meaning and values in a complex culture. The article also looks at the ‘headwinds’ that hinder the implementation of this approach. The article is focused specifically on the Australian context where Catholic schools are semi-state institutions because they are funded by both state and federal governments. The issues are still likely to be pertinent to Catholic education in other countries, while taking into account significant contextual differences.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0251.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: endophyte; Trichoderma; fatty acid; antifeedant, myzus persicae; culture media
Online: 21 November 2019 (15:00:33 CET)
Increasing pesticide resistance in plant pathogens is major concern in agriculture production. Research on ecofriendly alternatives of chemical pesticides are more in demand in pesticide industry. In the current study, an ethyl acetate extract from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. EFI 671, isolated from the stem parts of the medicinal plant Laurus sp., was screened for bioactivity against plant pathogens (Fusarium graminearum, Rhizoctonia solani, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea), insect pests (Spodoptera littoralis, Myzus persicae, Rhopalosiphum padi) and plant parasites (Meloidogyne javanica). The bioactive components have been characterized following a bioassay-guided isolation against M. persicae. The chemical study of this bioactive extract resulted in the isolation of 1-oleoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-palmitoylglycerol (1), eburicol (2), (24R)-stigmast-4-ene-3-one or β-sitostenone (3), ergosterol (4) and ergosterol peroxide (5). The free fatty acids present in compound 1 (oleic, linoleic and palmitic) showed strong dose-dependent aphid antifeedant effects against M. persicae. Liquid (PDB, and SDB) and solid (corn, sorghum, pearl millet and rice) growth media were tested in order to optimize the yield and bioactivity of the fungal extracts. Pearl millet and corn gave the highest extract yields. All the extracts from these solid media had strong effects against M. persicae with sorghum being the most active. Corn increased the content in linolenic, pearl millet the oleic and stearic and sorghum oleic and linolenic acids compared to rice. Their antifeedant effects correlated with linoleic /oleic acids. The phytotoxic effects of these extracts against Lolium perenne and Lactuca sativa varied with culture media, with sorghum being the least toxic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0108.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: microalgae; cyanobacteria; biomass composition; culture optimization; growth on wastewaters
Online: 10 November 2019 (10:56:59 CET)
The purpose of this work is to define optimal growth conditions for batch culture of the cyanobacterium Arthrospira maxima and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris, Isochrysis galbana and Nannochloropsis gaditana. Thus, we study the effect of three variables on algae growth: i.e., inoculum:culture medium ratio, light:darkness photoperiod and type of culture medium, including both synthetic media and wastewaters. The results showed that the initial inoculum volume did not affect the amount of biomass at the end of the growth (14 days), whereas an excess (18 h) or defect (6 h) in the number of hours of light is determinant for its development. The contribution of nutrients from different culture media modified the growth of the different species. A. maxima was favoured in seawater enriched with Guillard's F/2 as well as C. vulgaris and N. gaditana but in fresh water medium. I. galbana had the greatest growth in the marine environment enriched with Walne’s media. Nitrate was the limiting growth reagent at the end of the exponential phase of growth for C. vulgaris and N. gaditana, while iron was for A. maxima and I. galbana. All species demonstrated their capability to grow in effluents from a wastewater treatment plant and they efficiently consume nitrogen, especially the three microalgae species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0102.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: microglia exosomes; 3D culture; proteomic study; glioma; neurites outgrowth
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:26:49 CEST)
Using a combination of pan proteomic platform associated with systemic biology analyses, we demonstrate that neonatal microglial cells derived from cortex and spinal cord expressed different phenotypes upon the physiological or pathological conditions. They also highlight great variability in protein production on both cellular and exosome levels. Bioinformatics data indicate for the cortical microglia anti-inflammatory and neurogenesis/tumorigenesis characteristics, while for the spinal cord microglia involvement in the inflammatory response. We confirmed these results by performing functional testing including neurite outgrowth assays in DRGs cell line, and glioma proliferation analysis in 3D spheroid cultures. Results from these in vitro assays indicate that the microglia located at different CNS areas reveal differential biological functions. While both microglia sources enhanced growth of DRGs axons, only the spinal microglia significantly attenuated glioma proliferation. Overall these findings are pointing to the fact that the origin of neonatal microglia affects the physio-pathological function, which may address the prevalence of the glioma in the brain in comparison with the spinal cord in adult.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: entrepreneurial culture, persistence, innovation capability, patent, high-tech industry
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:51:32 CEST)
Currently the rapid growth of global economy has the competition among high-tech industries develop from regional to global, and the competition becomes fierce. In face of such fierce competition in global high-tech industry, it is realized that tangible assets could no longer be the differentiation basis, but intangible assets are regarded as the differentiation capital. An enterprise with sustainable innovation would dominate the world market and enhance the international competitiveness of domestic economy. When internal entrepreneurial culture is prevalent, an enterprise would naturally promote the innovation capability. Such a point of view also explains more popular of the innovative products or services of some enterprises than those with larger scales. Aiming at employees in high-tech industry in Guanxi Province, total 500 copies of questionnaire are randomly distributed, and 337 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 67%. The research results reveal significantly positive correlations between 1.entrepreneurial culture and sustainable innovation capability, 2.sustainable innovation capability and patent, and 3.entrepreneurial culture and patent. According to the results, suggestions are proposed, expecting to explain how a high-tech business outperforms in the changeable digital era and acquires the sustainable innovation capability and patent to grasp the opportunity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Moringa oleifera L., antioxidant activity, cell culture, irritant potential
Online: 26 September 2018 (13:16:14 CEST)
Extracts obtained from leaves of Moringa tree (Moringa oleifera) are a rich source of many bioactive compounds: flavonoids, phenolic acids or carotenoids. It also contains such components as, vitamins (A, C, niacin, pantothenic acid), alkaloids, tannins or saponins. Extracts and plant substances derived from the leaves of Moringa oleifera L. have a strong antioxidant, toning and anti-inflammatory effect. The work attempts to obtain a multifunctional plant extract derived from Moringa tree leaves. Obtained extracts was analyzed for their biochemical and physicochemical properties. The obtained results indicate on a strong antioxidative potential of the tested extracts. The further step was an attempt to apply the extracts in the model body wash cosmetic. The biological activity of extracts and model cosmetic formulation were assayed by in vitro analysis on two human cell lines: keratinocytes (HaCat,) and fibroblasts (BJ). The results showed that the tested extracts may affect on increasing of cell proliferation and reduce oxidative stress in cells. The addition of the tested extracts to the model cosmetic formulation, were contributed to the reduction of their ability to irritate the skin and improve the safety of use of the product.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0367.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: vulnerability; culture; religion; agency; adaptation; perceptions; climate change; dependency
Online: 25 May 2018 (12:06:03 CEST)
Semi-arid Namibia is marginal for agricultural production. Low soil fertility combined with low and variable rainfall restrict the livelihoods of smallholder farmers who often struggle to produce enough food. Although historically communities have adopted a number of coping mechanisms, climate change threatens to further reduce agricultural production. There are many additional options available to smallholder farmers to adapt to climate change, but they are not necessarily adopting these measures despite having noticed increasing temperatures and declining rainfall. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in three villages in Onesi constituency to examine what agricultural practices smallholder crop farmers use, perception of changes in their yields, their perspective on future yields and whether they are planning on changing their agricultural practices. The results suggest that to sustain the livelihoods of rural communities in north-central Namibia support is needed from local and regional authorities, as well as traditional and religious leaders to assist with enhancing access to information, enabling information sharing on adaptation options, and increasing awareness on climate change, it’s impacts and what can be done about it. In addition to this the implementation of adaptation action also requires demonstration sites and building capacity to enable the development of self-help groups.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: religion; culture; politics; differentiation; historical process; Western European countries
Online: 24 January 2018 (10:27:11 CET)
The societies of Western Europe, following the territorial delimitation of the corresponding State, have gone through different historical processes of internal homogenization. After the Peace of Westphalia (1648) the application of the principle cuius regio eius religio induced the religious homogenization of the population. Then, due to the ethnic diversity of its population, the State tried to homogenize it from the cultural point of view; it was the process of nationalization and democratization of the State. This process lead to the separation of religion from politics and from culture. After the two world wars, national reconstruction needed a foreign population: this need for labor was filled in the most developed countries by population of the countries that were least (Portuguese, Spanish, Italian ...) and also by population flows coming from the old colonies. The cultural and religious homogeneity of these countries began to lose force. With the oil crisis of the 1970s, a period of major economic fluctuations began in Europe. In those years, the second generation of the population of immigrant origin began to go to a job market that was not in good health. The religion and culture of their predecessors became autonomous resources for the reconstruction of their identity and to achieve a personal and social esteem. This process is necessarily leading States to rethink the relations between politics, culture and religion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0044.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: systems theory; economic systems; social structure; competition; strategy; culture
Online: 9 October 2017 (05:27:13 CEST)
This theoretical article reviews the model describing processes in social systems based on the analysis of their resource base. Application of the system theory can help to explain why some systems are aimed at prevention of type I errors, while other seek to decrease quantity of type II errors. Such differences are manifested in investment of resources either into deep interaction or into wide coverage. Some examples of such strategies in economic, market and production systems are provided in the article. The article introduces some provisions of the system theory in the context of the resource flows. The main indicators that are considered in this article are the characteristics of the sources of the exchanging flows of resources. Their relative frequency and quality are investigated, on the basis of which the most effective strategy of the system is derived, as a mechanism for redistributing resources. The rigor of the system's strategy depends on the magnitude of the difference in characteristics. It is explained how exactly it influences the exchange processes, that in reality systems do not interact simultaneously, and one of the opposite resource flows is always delayed. It is shown how the system strategy depends on the risks linked with interactions. Also, there are grounds for the need to accumulate resources, including in the situation of their surplus. The model helps also explain shift of economic centers throughout history. Additionally, there is an analogy between systems strategies and the competitive strategies described by M. Porter, and outsourcing versus integration.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis sativa; Germplasm preservation; Droplet vitrification; Conventional vitrification; Tissue culture
Online: 19 July 2021 (18:13:48 CEST)
Cannabis has developed into a multi-billion dollar industry that relies on clonal propagation of elite genetics with desirable agronomic and chemical phenotypes. While the goal of clonal propagation is to produce genetically uniform plants, somatic mutations can accumulate during growth and compromise long-term genetic fidelity. Cryopreservation is a process in which tissues are stored at cryogenic temperatures, halting cell division and metabolic processes to facilitate high fidelity germplasm preservation. In this study, a series of experiments were conducted to optimize various stages of cryopreservation and develop a protocol for long-term germplasm storage of Cannabis sativa. The resulting protocol uses a standard vitrification procedure to cryopreserve nodal explants from in vitro shoots as follows: Nodes were cultured for 17 hours in a pre-culture solution (PCS), followed by a 20 minute treatment in a loading solution (LS), and a 60 minute incubation in plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2). The nodes were then flash frozen in liquid nitrogen, re-warmed in an unloading solution at 40°C, and cultured on basal MS culture medium in the dark for 5 days followed by transfer to standard culture conditions. This protocol was tested across 13 genotypes to assess the genotypic variability. The protocol was successful across all 13 genotypes, but significant variation was observed in tissue survival (43.3-80%) and regrowth of shoots (26.7-66.7%). Plants grown from cryopreserved samples were morphologically and chemically similar to control plants for most major traits, but some differences were observed in the minor cannabinoid and terpene profiles. While further improvements are likely possible, this study provides a functional cryopreservation system that works across multiple commercial genotypes for long-term germplasm preservation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0577.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: Material culture, restitution, artefacts, antiquities, cultural objects, western museums, review
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:30:52 CEST)
Background: The saga of repatriating cultural artefacts continues as western museums face increasing pressure from claimants. Western museums that have been involved in the display of historical artefacts, most of which were acquired during the colonial period, have come under huge criticism. A heated discussion of late has been the legitimacy of retaining artefacts in western museums. This study aimed at investigating the ongoing debate regarding the restitution of artefacts. Objective: To investigate the arguments for and against the repatriation of artefacts in relation to diplomatic exchange, preservation, legitimacy and usefulness. Methods: Records will be searched in electronic databases including the University of Manchester Library for Social Anthropology, Scorpus and Project MUSE. Search terms will include "return of artefacts", “return of historical objects”, “return of cultural objects”, “western museums”, “restitution of artefacts”, “repatriation of artefacts”, “restitution of historical objects”, repatriation of historical objects”, “restitution of cultural objects”, “repatriation of cultural objects”, "material culture", "return of antiquities”, restitution of antiquities” and “repatriation of antiquities”. Coding and analysis will be done in SWIFT-Review. The deductive and inductive approaches will be used in synthesising results. Both tabular and graphical methods will be used to present results. Ethics and Results: This study did not need any ethical approval. Results on study characteristics, quality and risk of bias assessments as well as the synthesis of arguments for and against the restitution of artefacts will be presented. The review results will be reported according to appropriate guidelines and disseminated through publication in a relevant journal and presented to stakeholders where necessary. Conclusions: This review will be based on current protocols for systematic review and qualitative evidence synthesis. The study will be the first review that seeks to pull together claims for and against the return of cultural artefacts. The conclusions that will be drawn and recommendations will provide the basis for further research into the debate and the way forward. This study will also help identify the existing gaps regarding the subject matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0770.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library & Information Science Keywords: Wikipedia, knowledge equity, Wikimedia, open culture, visual arts, cultural bias
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:16:07 CEST)
We explore gaps in Wikipedia's coverage of the visual arts by comparing the representation of 100 artists and 100 artworks from the Western canon against corresponding sets of notable artists and artworks from non-Western cultures. We measure the coverage of these two sets of topics across Wikipedia as a whole and for its individual language versions. We also compare the coverage for Wikimedia Commons and Wikidata, sister-projects of Wikipedia that host digital media and structured data. We show that all these platforms strongly favour the Western canon, giving many times more coverage to Western art. We highlight specific examples of differing coverage of visual art inside and outside the Western canon. We find that European language versions of Wikipedia are generally more "Western" in their coverage and Asian languages more "global", with interesting exceptions. We suggest how both Wikipedia and the wider cultural sector can address this gap in content and thus give Wikipedia a truly global perspective on the visual arts.
Subject: Keywords: tendency of corruption; dark triad personality; organizational culture; religiosity; compensation
Online: 11 January 2021 (13:03:22 CET)
Internal and external factors influence the tendency of corruption. One of these internal factors is Dark Triad Personality, religiosity, and compensation, while the external factors are the organizational culture. This first study was conducted on 222 private employees and the second study 205 state employee in the East Java area. All subjects have worked at the company for at least 1 year and have a position as the staff, administrator, manager, and age range from 22 to 55. The results of the first study using regression analysis showed that: there was a significant correlation between dark triad personality, organization culture, and the tendency of corruption of private employee (F = 60,132; p = 0,000); there was a significant negative correlation between organizational culture and tendency of corruption (p = 0,000); there was a positive correlation between dark triad personality and the tendency of corruption (p = 0.05). The results of the second study using regression analysis showed that: there was a significant correlation between religiosity, compensation, and the tendency of corruption of state employee (F = 65.950; p = 0,000); there was a significant negative correlation between religiosity and tendency of corruption (p = 0,000); there was no correlation between compensation and tendency of corruption (p = 0.074). This research's practical implication is: the company or institution must always create a positive perception of organizational culture, minimize dark triad personality, and maximize religiosity to reduce the tendency of corruption among employees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0734.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: food culture; cultural regionalization; Chinese cuisines; machine learning; spatial struture
Online: 29 December 2020 (15:35:18 CET)
As a result of the influence of geographical environment and historical heritage, food preference has significant regional differentiation characteristics. However, the spatial structure of food culture represented by the cuisine culture at the regional level has not yet been explored from the perspective of geography. This study aims to explore such patterns by focusing on the restaurants of the eight most famous cuisines in Mainland China. Initially, the density based geospatial hotspot detector method is proposed to analyze and mapping the spatial quantitative characteristics of the eight major cuisines. A heuristic method for geographical regionalization based on machine learning was used to analyze spatial distribution patterns in accordance with the proportion of these cuisines in each prefecture-level city. Results show that some types of single-category cuisines have a stronger spatial concentration effect in the present, whereas others have a strong diffusion trend. In the comprehensive analysis of multicategory cuisines, the eight major cuisines formed a new structure of geographical regionalization of Chinese cuisine culture. This study is helpful to understand regional structure characteristics of food preference, and the density based hotspot detector proposed in this paper can also be used in the analysis of other type of POI data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0057.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Savings Propensity; Household Finance; Development; Tribals; Connectivity; Rural; Culture; India
Online: 2 December 2020 (10:53:39 CET)
Economic sustainability of rural areas is a concern given the increasing trend towards urbanization globally and in India. Self-reliant strategies, including increased savings and investment are more valuable in this regard than external interventions. This paper uses the results of a survey to examine the factors affecting saving in a rural part of Odisha populated primarily by tribals. Our tentative findings are that savings propensity is determined partly by the extent to which individuals feel connected to the broader economy, and partly by cultural factors. One implication of these findings is that connecting rural areas to other, possibly urban, locations could elicit greater saving and this could lead to greater development, employment possibilities, economic betterment and all the consequent social welfare implications. This paper relates savings propensity to new sociological population characteristics, such as perceived connectivity and food consumption patterns, and hence provides hitherto unexplored clues for policy initiatives to increase savings.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: AI; Machine Learning; ISE; Analog Signal Processing; Horticulture; Aqua Culture
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:51:23 CEST)
We suggest a deep learning based sensor signal processing method to remove chemical, kinetic and electrical artifacts from ion selective electrodes’ measured values. An ISE is used to investigate the concentration of a specific ion from aqueous solution, by measuring the Nernst potential along the glass membrane. However, application of ISE on a mixture of multiple ion has some problem. First problem is a chemical artifact which is called ion interference effect. Electrically charged particles interact with each other and flows through the glass membrane of different ISEs. Second problem is the kinetic artifact caused by the movement of the liquid. Water molecules collide with the glass membrane causing abnormal peak values of voltage. The last artifact is the interference of ISEs. When multiple ISEs are dipped into same solution, one electrode’s signal emission interference voltage measurement of other electrodes. Therefore, an ISE is recommended to be applied on single-ion solution, without any other sensors applied at the same time. Deep learning approach can remove both 3 artifacts at the same time. The proposed method used 5 layers of artificial neural networks to regress correct signal to remove complex artifacts with one-shot calculation. Its MAPE was less than 1.8% and R2 of regression was 0.997. A randomly chosen value of AI-processed data has MAPE less than 5% (p-value 0.016).
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: metabolic engineering; biohydrogen production; microbes; co-culture; metabolic network analysis
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:43:36 CEST)
Hydrogen is useful as a fuel and could be produced by a variety of means. One approach uses artificial photosynthesis where energy from sunlight powers the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. But, biological methods for producing hydrogen has emerged strongly over the past decades. In particular, specific microorganisms could use different substrates to produce hydrogen at differing yields. Such fundamental discoveries with industrial applications thus motivated the use of metabolic engineering approaches and methodologies in enhancing biological hydrogen production through a series of enzyme over-expression, pathway debottlenecking, and gene deletion. However, such approaches heavily rely on the selection of an appropriate microbial chassis for biohydrogen production. With the proper strain in hand, use of alternative substrates may engender greater hydrogen productivities. But learning from the bioprocessing field, co-culture of two compatible microorganisms have been sought after for improving biohydrogen production. In addition, thermophilic microbes may also be useful candidates for exploiting hydrogen production from composting. Future outlook in the field looks into filling our gaps in understanding of the metabolic network that feeds into hydrogen production in different organisms. But, more importantly, problems such as reduced growth rate in engineered microbes point to fundamental issues with using genetically engineered microorganisms for improved biohydrogen production, to which clever bioprocess engineering may yield solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0384.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: quality; just culture; patient safety; nurses; hospital; measuring instrument validation
Online: 26 March 2020 (07:24:55 CET)
Purpose: "Just culture" is an element of safety culture, and in a broader sense – a part of quality culture. It is the subject of studies, especially in healthcare. This phenomenon is almost unknown in Polish medical facilities. For this reason, the aim of the article is to present the essence and significance of "just culture" in healthcare. The other aim of the research is to present the results of the validation of "just culture" assessment instrument used to recognize the "just culture" maturity level and evaluate the nurses’ beliefs and behaviours in the light of "just culture" criteria. Methodology/Approach: The verified questionnaire consisted of 28 statements in relation to which respondents expressed their opinion on a 5-point Likert scale. The questionnaire was distributed among nurses in one of the largest hospitals in Pomorskie Voivodeship, in Poland. The results based on 68 responses were statistically processed with Statistica 13.1 software. Findings: The obtained results allowed to confirm the reliability of the assessment tool, to recognize the level of „just culture” as wisdom (68%) and to indicate strengths and weaknesses of observed beliefs and behaviours. On this basis, improvement actions were proposed. Originality/Value: We use the original, own prepared questionnaire. This is the first study on "just culture" in healthcare in Poland. There are only few studies devoted to patient safety culture in Poland and no research addressed to "just culture" phenomenon, as well in Poland as in Central Europe. The results in this area allow to recommend the assessment tool for other hospitals and seem to help in understanding the essence of "just culture" implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0164.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; co-culture; Staphylococcus aureus; SaOS-2; biomaterials; implanted devices
Online: 12 December 2019 (05:24:29 CET)
Biofilm-mediated infection is a major cause of bone prosthesis failure. The lack of molecules able to act in biofilms has driven research aimed at identifying new anti-biofilm agents via chemical screens. However, to be able to accommodate a large number of compounds, the testing conditions of these screenings end up being typically far from the clinical scenario. In this study, we assess the potential applicability of three anti-biofilm compounds (based on natural compounds) as part of implanted medical devices by testing them on in vitro systems that more faithfully resemble the clinical scenario. To that end, we used a competition model based on the co-culture of SaOS-2 mammalian cells and Staphylococcus aureus (collection and clinical strains) on a titanium surface. Additionally, we studied whether these derivatives of natural compounds enhance the previously proven protective effect of pre-incubating the titanium surface with SaOS-2 cells. Out of the three tested leads, one showed the highest potential, and can be regarded as a promising agent for incorporation into bone implants. This study emphasizes and demonstrates the importance of using meaningful experimental models, where potential antimicrobials ought to be tested for protection of biomaterials in translational applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0097.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: cyclodextrins; bryophyllum in vitro culture; inclusion complexes; kalanchoe; antioxidants; gallates.
Online: 9 October 2019 (10:22:37 CEST)
The rates of production of secondary metabolites obtained by employing conventional plant breeding may be low for practical purposes. Thus, innovative approaches for increasing their rates of production are being developed. Here, we propose the use of elicited suspension plant cultured cells (PSCC) with cyclodextrins (CDs) as an alternative method for the production of bioactive compounds from Bryophyllum species. For the purpose, we analyzed the effects of methyl--cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl--cyclodextrin on cell culture growth and on the intra- and extracellular production of phenols and flavonoids. Results clearly show that CDs enhance the biosynthesis of polyphenols by PSCC favoring their accumulation outside the cells. CDs shift the homeostatic equilibrium by complexing extracellular phenolics, causing stress in cells that respond by increasing the production of intracellular phenolics. We also analyzed the radical scavenging activity of the culture medium extracts against DPPH• radical, which increased with respect to the control samples (no added CDs). Our results suggest that both the increase in the production of polyphenols and their radical scavenging activity are a consequence of their inclusion in the CD cavities. Overall, based on our findings, CDs can be employed as hosts for increasing the production of polyphenols from Bryophyllum species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: diet composition; food culture; mayan community; type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Online: 14 July 2019 (17:29:13 CEST)
Aim: To perform a descriptive analysis of eating patterns and biophysical conditions of previously diagnosed and currently under treatment individuals from a semi-urban Mayan community of Yucatan, and to contrast them with T2DM therapeutic guidelines. Methods: The present study is derived from a randomized clinical trial conducted at Komchen, Yucatan. Participants’ diagnosed with T2DM were included. A 24-hour dietary recall, anthropometric parameters (weight, visceral fat, height, and waist circumference), biochemical (HbA1c) and clinical (blood pressure) variables were evaluated and compared via hypothesis test with T2DM treatment cut-off points (based on World Health Organization criteria). Results: Anthropometric characteristics differ significantly from the ideal criteria. Obesity prevalence within women with T2DM was 92.9%. Only 21% of the participants were under T2DM control (≤7%). Energy and carbohydrates consumption, significantly exceed therapeutic guidelines, whereas protein, fat, and fiber intake were lower than the recommendations. Conclusions: Komchen’s diet, concomitantly with food characteristics, could be related to glycemic decontrol. There is a disproportion in macronutrients consumption in favor of carbohydrates, probably associated with socioeconomic limitations, food availability, and price. Developing nutritional assistance programs which contemplate cultural and economic factors in this Mayan population must be taken into consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0005.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: multicellular spheroids; 3D culture; gas-permeable plate; hydrogel beads; methylcellulose
Online: 3 May 2019 (14:20:44 CEST)
Culture systems for 3-dimensional tissues, such as multicellular spheroids, are indispensable for high-throughput screening of primary or patient-derived xenograft (PDX)-expanded cancer tissues. Oxygen supply to the center of such spheroids is particularly critical for maintaining cellular functions as well as avoiding the development of a necrotic core. In this study, we evaluated 2 methods to enhance oxygen supply: (1) using culture plate with gas-permeable polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membrane at its bottom and (2) embedding hydrogel beads in the spheroids. Culturing spheroids on PDMS increased cell growth and affected glucose/lactate metabolism and CYP3A4 mRNA expression and subsequent enzyme activity. The spheroids comprised 5000 Hep G2 cells and 5000 20 µm-diameter hydrogel beads did not develop a necrotic core for 9 days when cultured on a gas-permeable sheet. In contrast, central necrosis in spheroids lacking hydrogel beads was observed after day 3 of culture, even when using PDMS. These results indicate that the combination of gas-permeable culture equipment and embedded hydrogel beads improves culture 3D spheroids produced from primary or PDX-expanded tumor cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0052.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Festival; guitar; culture; Spain; SEM; AMOS; latent variables; observed variables.
Online: 4 December 2018 (09:47:34 CET)
The Cordoba Guitar Festival is one of the most important cultural events in Spain. This article analyses the musical preferences, satisfaction, attitudinal loyalty and behavioural loyalty of spectators who attended the 36th festival held in July 2016, as well as the festival’s economic impact on the city. To achieve this aim, a structural equation model (SEM) was used. The results show the goodness-of-fit of the model and indicate that the observed data fit the expected dataset.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0697.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: glioma; glioblastoma; pre-clinical drug development; 3D culture systems; radiotherapy
Online: 30 October 2018 (03:38:28 CET)
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, remains one of the least treatable cancers. Current standard of care—combining surgical resection, radiation, and alkylating chemotherapy—results in a median survival of only 15 months. Despite decades of investment and research into the development of new therapies, most candidate anti-glioma compounds fail to translate into effective treatments in clinical trials. One key issue underlying this failure of therapies that work in pre-clinical models to generate meaningful improvement in human patients is the profound mismatch between drug discovery systems—cell cultures and mouse models—and the actual tumors they are supposed to imitate. Indeed, current strategies that evaluate the effects of novel treatments on GBM cells in vitro fail to account for a wide range of factors known to influence tumor growth. These include secreted factors, the brain’s unique extracellular matrix, circulatory structures, the presence of non-tumor brain cells, and nutrient sources available for tumor metabolism. While mouse models provide a more realistic testing ground for potential therapies, they still fail to account for the full complexity of tumor-microenvironment interactions, as well as the role of the immune system. Based on the limitations of current models, researchers have begun to develop and implement novel culture systems that better recapitulate the complex reality of brain tumors growing in situ. A rise in the use of patient derived cells, creative combinations of added growth factors and supplements, may provide a more effective proving ground for the development of novel therapies. This review will summarize and analyze these exciting developments in 3D culturing systems. Special attention will be paid to how they enhance the design and identification of compounds that increase the efficacy of radiotherapy, a bedrock of GBM treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0590.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biofortification; antioxidants; soilless culture; nutraceutical quality; enzymatic activity; plant resistance
Online: 25 October 2018 (05:22:51 CEST)
Selenium (Se) is an essential element of the human diet. Therefore, it is necessary to implement Se in agricultural fertilization, although it is not considered as an essential element for plants, Se provides benefits at the level of redox metabolism, increasing the resistance of plants to various stress factors. The increase of the availability of selenium with the use of biopolymer complexes was sought in Great Lakes lettuce grown in substrate pots treated with SeO2 (5 mg L Se), Cs-PAA + Se (5 mg L Se), and Cs-PAA. The redox metabolism was modified by increasing the enzymatic activity of glutathione peroxidase. The use of Cs-PAA + Se biopolymer complexes increase selenium up to 24 mg/Kg dry weight (DW) in plant tissues.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0183.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, General Humanities Keywords: death; bodies; human rights; burial; ethics; tourism; heritage; culture; memory
Online: 14 May 2018 (05:32:40 CEST)
In The Work of the Dead: A Cultural History of Mortal Remains, Thomas Laqueur argues that the work of the dead is carried out through the living and through those who remember, honour, and mourn the dead. Further, he maintains that the brutal or careless disposal of the corpse “is an attack of extreme violence”. To treat the dead body as if it does not matter or as if it were ordinary organic matter would be to deny its humanity. From Laqueur’s point of view it is inferred that the dead are believed to have rights and dignities that are upheld through rituals, practices, and beliefs of the living. Drawing on dark tourism scholarship and cultural memory theory, this paper examines the display of human bones at Sedlec Ossuary, Czech Republic and the tourist culture that has built up around the site. Primarily, my writing calls into question the commoditization of burial places as a conceivable violation of the human rights of the dead. My research is driven by a number of questions: What is it that draws tourists to burial grounds and how do heritage sites negotiate visitor experiences? What are the ethical boundaries when a final resting place with bodies on display is also marketed as a tourist site? Do the dead have human rights and how are the living responsible for preserving those rights?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0062.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; Tickborne disease; Chronic infection; Spirochete culture
Online: 8 March 2018 (07:08:02 CET)
Introduction: Lyme disease is a tickborne illness that generates controversy among medical providers and researchers. One of the key topics of debate is the existence of persistent infection with the Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, in patients who have been treated with recommended doses of antibiotics yet remain symptomatic. Persistent spirochetal infection despite antibiotic therapy has recently been demonstrated in non-human primates. We present evidence of persistent Borrelia infection despite antibiotic therapy in patients with ongoing Lyme disease symptoms. Materials & Methods: In this pilot study, culture of body fluids and tissues was performed in a randomly selected group of 12 patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms who had been treated or who were being treated with antibiotics. Cultures were also performed on a group of 10 control subjects without Lyme disease. The cultures were subjected to corroborative microscopic, histopathological and molecular testing for Borrelia organisms in four independent laboratories in a blinded manner. Results: Motile spirochetes identified histopathologically as Borrelia were detected in culture specimens, and these spirochetes were genetically identified as Borrelia burgdorferi by three distinct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Spirochetes identified as Borrelia burgdorferi were cultured from the blood of seven subjects, from the genital secretions of ten subjects, and from a skin lesion of one subject. Cultures from control subjects without Lyme disease were negative for Borrelia using these methods. Conclusions: Using multiple corroborative detection methods, we showed that patients with persistent Lyme disease symptoms may have ongoing spirochetal infection despite antibiotic treatment, similar to findings in non-human primates. The optimal treatment for persistent Borrelia infection remains to be determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0057.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial peptides; lipopeptides; cyclic lipopeptides Staphylococcus aureus; biofilm; culture media
Online: 13 June 2017 (06:09:47 CEST)
Staphylococcus aureus bacteria are one of the leading microorganisms responsible for nosocomial infections as well as being the primary causative pathogen of skin and wound infections. Currently, the therapy of staphylococcal diseases faces many difficulties, due to a variety of mechanisms of resistance and virulence factors. Moreover, a number of infections caused by S. aureus is connected with biofilm formation that impairs effectiveness of the therapy. Short cationic lipopeptides that are designed on the basis of the structure of antimicrobial peptides structure are likely to provide a promising alternative to conventional antibiotics. Despite the fact that many research groups have proved a high antistaphylococcal potential of lipopeptides, the lack of unified protocols in determination of antimicrobial activity may be the reason of inconsistency of the results. The aim of this study was to learn how the use of various bacteriological media as well as solvents may affect activity of lipopeptides and their cyclic analogs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0333.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: hPSCs derived-organoids; Culture strategy; Disease modeling; Drug screening; Regenerative therapy
Online: 24 June 2022 (08:11:15 CEST)
Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have become a powerful tool to generate various kinds of cell types comprising the human body. Recently, organoid technology emerged as a platform to build a physiologically relevant tissue-like structure from the PSCs, which provides a more relevant three-dimensional microenvironment to the actual human body than the conventional monolayer culture system for transplantation, disease modeling, and drug development. Although it holds so many advantages, the organoid culture system still has various problems related to culture methods, which became a challenge to get similar physiological properties to their original tissue counterparts. Here, we discuss the current development of organoid culture methods, including the problem that may arise from the currently available culture systems as well as the possible approach to overcoming the current limitation and improving their optimum utilization for translational application purposes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0410.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: mugwort; perennial cropping; conventional rotations; sustainable agri-culture; soil microbial community
Online: 31 May 2022 (05:20:06 CEST)
Perennial cropping play vital roles in regulating soil carbon sequestration and thus mitigating climate change. However, how perennial cropping affects soil microbial community remains elusive. Using a field investigation, this study was conducted to examine the effects of mugwort cropping along a chronosequence (that is, wheat-maize rotation, 3-year, 6-year, and 20-year mugwort cropping) on soil microbial community in temperate regions of Northern China. The results showed that the highest total, actinomycetes, and fungi PLFAs were found in the 3-year mugwort cropping soils. All PLFAs of microbial groups were lowest in the 20-year mugwort cropping soils. All of the three cropping years of mugwort increased network complexity of soil microbial community. Changes in total nitrogen and phosphorus content as well as the ratio of ammonium nitrogen to nitrate nitrogen could be primarily explain the variations in soil microbial community along the mugwort cropping chronosequence. Our observations highlight the contrasting impacts of soil microbial community to short-term and long-term mugwort cropping compared to conventional rotations and would have critical implications for sustainable agricultural management under perennial cropping in temperate regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0207.v2
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Aquaculture; Climate change; Davao Oriental; FishVool; Management; Mati City; Shrimp culture
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:58:39 CET)
The impacts of climate change on shrimp aquaculture can vary widely and can have environmental and socioeconomic consequences. This study assessed the vulnerability to climate change impacts of selected small-scale shrimp farms of Penaeus vannamei and shrimpfish market vendors in Davao region, Philippines using a modified Fisheries Vulnerability Assessment Tool (FishVool). Shrimp farmers and vendors were interviewed using two separate semi-structured questionnaires. A total of thirty-nine (N=39) shrimp farmers and forty-eight (N=48) market vendors from various market areas within the region were interviewed. Data regarding exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and adaptive capacity (AC) were collected following the FishVool parameters with modifications. Results revealed that overall climate change vulnerability of the shrimp farmers was medium (M), where both exposure and adaptive capacity were low (L) while sensitivity was medium (M). In addition, the shrimp market vulnerability of the various sites examined revealed medium (M) scores for markets in Pantukan, Mabini, Tagum, Maco, Lupon, Davao City, and Digos. But high (H) vulnerability scores for the markets in Panabo and Sta Cruz. Overall, the study provided a better understanding about shrimp farming in relation to climate change impacts and vulnerability and provided information for future shrimp farm management, marketing and climate change adapation in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0442.v1
Subject: Engineering, Biomedical & Chemical Engineering Keywords: Modeling process; SuperPro Designer®; Cell Culture; Public health; Developing countries
Online: 28 October 2021 (15:16:38 CEST)
The production of vaccines of biological origin presents a tremendous challenge for researchers. In this context, animal cell cultures are an excellent alternative for the isolation and production of biologicals against several viruses since they have an affinity with viruses and a great capacity for their replicability. Different variables have been studied to know the system's ideal parameters, allowing it to obtain profitable and competitive products. Consequently, this work focuses its efforts on evaluating an alternative for producing an anti-influenza biological from MDCK cells using SuperPro Designer v8.0 software. The process uses the DMEN culture medium supplemented with nutrients as raw material for cell development; the MDCK cells were obtained from a potential scale-up with a final working volume of 500 L, four days of residence time, inoculum volume of 10%, and continuous working mode with up to a total of 7400 h/Yr of work. The scheme has the necessary equipment for the vaccine's production, infection, and manufacture with yields of up to 416,698 units/h. In addition, it was estimated to be economically viable to produce recombinant vaccines with competitive prices of up to 0.31 USD/unit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0484.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: cyanobacteria; metabolomics; high-resolution mass spectrometry; secondary metabolite induction; culture conditions
Online: 25 August 2021 (10:48:20 CEST)
Cyanobacteria are microorganisms able to adapt to a wide variety of environmental conditions and abiotic stresses. They produce a very large number of metabolites that can participate in the adaptation of cyanobacteria to a large range of resources such as light, temperature, or nutrient. The metabolites variation is one way to understand the physiological status and adaptation of cells. In this study, we aim to understand how the diversity and the dynamics of the whole metabolome is dependent of the growth phases and under control of abiotic factors (e.g. light intensity and temperature). The cyanobacteria Aliinostoc sp. PMC 882.14 was selected for its large number of biosynthetic gene clusters. Metabolomes were analyzed by using mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS/MS) combined with untargeted analysis to investigate the metabolite dynamics. Significant variations were characterized between exponential and stationary phases, whatever the culture conditions (“control”, “higher light”, or “higher temperature”). ”Higher light” and “higher temperature” favored the synthesis of metabolites belonging to the same molecular families. Among highly regulated metabolites, we observe the presence of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs), and various variants of somamides, microginins, and microviridins. Through Aliinostoc sp. PMC 882.14, this study shows the importance of knowing the physiological state of cyanobacteria for comparative global metabolomics and questions the regulation processes involve into metabolite families production. Our results also open up new perspectives in the context of the production of targeted bioactive metabolites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0471.v2
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: Alzheimer’s Disease; microfluidics; lab-on-chip; 3D culture; organ-on-chip
Online: 23 August 2021 (13:38:28 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a significant health concern worldwide with enormous social and economic impact globally. The gradual deterioration of cognitive functions and irreversible neuronal losses are primary features of the disease. Even after decades of research, most therapeutic options are merely symptomatic, and drugs in clinical practice present numerous side effects. Lack of effective diagnostic techniques prevents the early prognosis of disease, resulting in a gradual deterioration in the quality of life. Furthermore, the mechanism of cognitive impairment and AD pathophysiology is poorly understood. Microfluidics exploits different microscale properties of fluids to mimic environments on microfluidic chip-like devices. These miniature multichambered devices can be used to grow cells and 3D tissues in vitro, analyze cell-to-cell communication, decipher the roles of neural cells like microglia, and gain insights into AD pathophysiology. This review focuses on the applications and impact of microfluidics on AD research. We discuss the technical challenges and possible solutions provided by this new cutting-edge technique to understand disease-associated pathways and mechanisms.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: culture; co-evolution; meme; altruism; natural selection; competitive equilibrium; Fermi Paradox: memetics; genetics
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:31:42 CET)
Abstract. Background: This paper investigates the propagation of behaviorally transmitted traits with negative effect on host fitness. Methods: We analyze equilibrium between genetically transmitted and behaviorally transmitted competing propagators and consider whether a behavioral propagator is linked to reproduction (e.g. vertical culture transmission), or not. We employ combined genetic and behavior-induced fitness components for hosts, while behavioral propagators have replication factors to distinguish from what’s good for the host (fitness). Results: A trait which spreads faster than its marginal host fitness contribution reduces population will establish itself. The often transient nature of laterally transmitted traits may be a defense against accumulation of deleterious traits. Laterally transmitted traits with high spreading rate often do not equalize with genetic traits, spreading outside natural selection of the hosts. Vertical transmission reduces replication rate and allows group selection against deleterious behaviorally transmitted traits. Competing mutually exclusive propagators contribute to inequality and altruism, but compete through adverse fitness since exclusivity assumes low conversion. Conclusion: Behaviorally transmitted traits, in some cases a tremendous advantage, may also be a significant problem in the development of societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0141.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Wolbachia; tick cell line; Ctenocephalides; flea; Malaysia; in vitro culture; phylogeny
Online: 12 June 2020 (04:51:00 CEST)
Wolbachia are intracellular endosymbionts of several invertebrate taxa, including insects and nematodes. Although Wolbachia DNA has been detected in ticks, its presence is generally associated with parasitism by insects. To determine whether or not Wolbachia can infect and grow in tick cells, cell lines from three tick species, Ixodes scapularis, Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus microplus, were inoculated with Wolbachia strains wStri and wAlbB isolated from mosquito cell lines. Homogenates prepared from fleas collected from cats in Malaysia were inoculated into an I. scapularis cell line. Bacterial growth and identity were monitored by microscopy and PCR amplification and sequencing of fragments of Wolbachia genes. The wStri strain infected Ixodes spp. cells and was maintained through 29 passages. The wAlbB strain successfully infected Ixodes spp. and R. microplus cells and was maintained through 2-5 passages. A novel strain of Wolbachia belonging to the supergroup F, designated wCfeF, was isolated in I. scapularis cells from a pool of Ctenocephalides sp. cat fleas and maintained in vitro through two passages over nine months. This is the first confirmed isolation of a Wolbachia strain from a flea and the first isolation of any Wolbachia strain outside the “pandemic” A and B supergroups. The study demonstrates that tick cells can host multiple Wolbachia strains, and can be added to panels of insect cell lines to improve success rates in isolation of field strains of Wolbachia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0163.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; pulsoximeter; Internet of Things; maker culture; medically underserved area
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:55:48 CEST)
Family doctors can have an active role in identifying significant population needs and solutions. During COVID-19 epidemic, patient home monitoring with pulse oximetry has been a key aspect of care of patients. However, pandemics bring shortage medical equipment such as pulse oximetry. Through the local maker community in a matter of days four “smart” pulsoximeters were created and built. Following Internet of Things principles, the pulsoximeters were programmed to transmit recorded data through Wi-Fi, in real time, directly to the doctors. Each protype pulsoximeter served a family doctor during the pandemic. Building instructions were shared in maker-oriented websites, potentially leading to additional small-scale productions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: marketing concept; cultural institutions; sustainable development; cultural offer diversity; culture consumer
Online: 28 April 2019 (11:39:21 CEST)
Development of both marketing and culture sector has a multi-directional nature showing relationships with the concept of sustainable development that should be considered on various levels of management of cultural sector, i.e. on the level of cultural policy of the state or region, and on micro-scale – in cultural institutions. This is because not only natural environment, economy and technology, but also society and culture constitute the area of sustainable development. Considering the assumptions of sustainable development by cultural institutions is related to implementing in this sphere the marketing concepts that are the expression of adoption of market orientation (on culture participant). The objective of the paper is to show the role of marketing in cultural institutions in the context of assumptions of sustainable development concept. The paper is based on literature studies and results of empirical research of quantitative character, which was conducted on a sample of 451 people managing cultural institutions in Poland. The research included general managers, managers and artistic directors, managers of marketing, promotion and sales departments, as well as owners of cultural institutions. Analysis of research results shows that culture participant has the highest position among groups of consumers of actions conducted by cultural institutions and development of offer diversity, comprised in the concept of sustainable development, emerges as factor stimulating development of culture market that is closely related to growth of the quality of cultural institution offer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0227.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: coal fly ash; leachates; chemical species; pot culture experiments; translocation; bioconcentration
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:12:39 CET)
This study evaluated the physicochemical, mineralogical properties, mobile chemical species’ bioavailability and translocation in Brassica juncea and Spinacea oleracea L plants of a South African coal fired power utility. Coal fly ash (CFA) disposal is associated with various environmental and health risks including air, soil, surface and ground water pollution due to the leaching of toxic chemical species; these ends up in food webs affecting human health, while repeated inhalation causes bronchitis, silicosis, hair loss and lung cancer. The morphology, chemical, and mineralogical composition of CFA were determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray Diffraction, respectively. In pot culture experiments, S. oleracea L and B. juncea plants were grown in three sets of pots containing CFA (set 1), soil (set 2) and a mixture of CFA plus soil at ratio 1:1 (50% CFA: 50% soil) (set 3), while no plants were grown in set 4 as a control for the leachate samples. SEM showed that surface morphology of CFA has a lower degree of sphericity with irregular agglomerations of many particles. The XRF results revealed that CFA contains 43.65%, 22.68% and 10.89% of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 respectively which indicate that the CFA is an alumino-silicate material. While XRD showed that the coal CFA contains mullite as a major phase followed by quartz mineral phases. Chemical species such as Fe, Mn, B, Ba and Zn were accumulated highly in most parts of the plant species. However, B. juncea showed higher potential to accumulate chemical species as compared to S. oleracea L. The bioconcentration and translocation factors (BF and TF) showed that B. juncea was the most effective in terms of bioconcentration and translocation of most of the chemical species. This indicates that B. juncea has potential in application for phytoremediation of CFA dumps and could contribute to remediation of CFA dumps and reduction of potential health and environmental impacts associated with CFA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0242.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: hydrogel; 3D-culture; Imaging; Cell-matrix; proteases; matrix metalloproteinases; actin polymerization; contractility
Online: 12 August 2022 (12:55:21 CEST)
Cancer invasion through basement membranes represents the initial step of tumor dissemination and metastasis. However, little is known about how human cancer cells breach basement membranes. Here, we used a 3-dimensional in vitro invasion model consisting of cancer spheroids encapsulated by a basement membrane and embedded in 3D collagen gels to visualize the early events of cancer invasion by confocal microscopy and live-cell imaging. Human breast cancer cells generated large numbers of basement membrane perforations, or holes, of varying sizes that expanded over time during cell invasion. We used a wide variety of small molecule inhibitors to probe the mechanisms of basement membrane perforation and hole expansion. Protease inhibitor treatment (BB94), led to a 63% decrease in perforation size. After myosin II inhibition (blebbistatin), basement membrane perforation area decreased by only 15%. These treatments produced correspondingly decreased cellular breaching events. Interestingly, inhibition of actin polymerization dramatically decreased basement membrane perforation by 80% and blocked invasion. Our findings suggest that human cancer cells can primarily use proteolysis and actin polymerization to perforate the BM and to expand perforations for basement membrane breaching, with a relatively small contribution from myosin II contractility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0437.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: cyanobacteria; Phormidium; Cyanothece; culture growth; light; chlorophyll; carotenoids; phycocyanin; phycoerythrin; allophycocyanin; phycobiliproteins
Online: 28 January 2022 (12:21:12 CET)
Cyanobacteria are extensively studied and cultured because they can produce many value-added substances among which are pigments, mainly the phycobiliproteins phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE), allophycocyanin (APC) and chlorophyll-a and carotenoids as well. As numerous cyanobacterial species await optimization for maximizing pigment production, we examined here two local marine species, Phormidium sp. and Cyanothece sp. batch cultured under 18-19.5 oC, at 40 ppt salinity with Walne’s nutrient medium, using white LED light of low (2000 lux) and high (8000 lux) intensity and additionally blue, green and red LED light. Significant differences were found among the intensities and colors of light used. Maximum growth was induced by high white light in both species (2.15 g dw/L in Phormidium and 1.47 g/L in Cyanothece). Next to them was green light (1.25 g/L) in Cyanothece and low white and green (1.26 – 1.33 g/L) in Phormidium. Green light maximized phycocyanin content in Phormidium (0.45 mg/mL), while phycoerythrin was maximized (0.17 mg/mL) by blue light and allophycocyanin by all colors (~0.80 mg/mL). All colors maximized phycocyanin in Cyanothece (~0.32 mg/mL) while phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin were maximized under green light (~0.138 and 0.38 mg/mL respectively). In Phormidium maximization of chlorophyll-a (9.3 μg/mL) was induced by green light while total carotenoids and b-carotene (3.05 and 0.89 μg/mL respectively) by high white light. In Cyanothece both white light intensities along with green light maximized chlorophyll-a content (~9 μg/mL) while high white light and green maximized total carotenoids (2.6-3.0 μg/mL).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0178.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: hydrogel dressing; full-thickness skin regeneration; 3D cell culture; VE-cadherin; FGF
Online: 10 December 2021 (13:10:47 CET)
The process of full-thickness skin regeneration is complex and has many parameters involved, which makes it difficult to use a single dressing to meet the various requirements of the complete regeneration at the same time. Therefore, developing hydrogel dressings with multifunction, including tunable rheological properties and aperture, hemostatic, antibacterial and super cytocompatibility, is a desirable candidate in wound healing. In this study, a series of complex hydrogels were developed via the hydrogen bond and covalent bond between chitosan (CS) and alginate (SA). These hydrogels exhibited suitable pore size and tunable rheological properties for cell adhesion. Chitosan endowed hemostatic, antibacterial properties and great cytocompatibility and thus solved two primary problems in the early stage of the wound healing process. Moreover, the sustained cytocompatibility of the hydrogels was further investigated after adding FGF and VE-cadherin via the co-culture of L929 and EC for 12 days. The confocal 3D fluorescent images showed that the cells were spherical and tended to form multicellular spheroids, which distributed in about 40-60μm thick hydrogels. Furthermore, the hydrogel dressings significantly accelerate defected skin turn to normal skin with proper epithelial thickness and new blood vessels and hair follicles through the histological analysis of in vivo wound healing. The findings mentioned above demonstrated that the CS/SA hydrogels with growth factors have tremendous potential as multifunctional hydrogel dressings for full-thickness skin regeneration incorporated with hemostatic, antibacterial, sustained cytocompatibility for 3D cell culture and normal skin repairing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0769.v1
Subject: Keywords: Indigenous peoples, Latin American, Covid 19, indigenous rights, health culture, government agencies.
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:15:25 CEST)
Background: and objectives: Covid-19 is a global pandemic that requires a culturally integrated response in all Latin American government systems. In this study, we investigate the multidimensional associations of actions in Latin American indigenous peoples against Covid-19 Methods: We performed a data mining analysis of scientific literature records from 19 academic journals, using the topics Covid-19, mortality, indigenous peoples, and future measures, rights and actions. The literature is analyzed in a multidimensional way, either isolated or combined. It uses switchable statistical methods, the R Studio, worddj, Gephi, and Iramuteq for both textual and multidimensional analysis. Results and Conclusions: In this analysis, the literature is classified into 4 linked groups which are the indigenous people, the rights of territorial protection, the indigenous health culture, the Covid-19 pandemic with its protection efforts. Taking the indigenous peoples as an axis, we observe that the covid pandemic and the protection of their territories do not have the same force in the current context, the indigenous people are more linked to the protection of their territory. Indigenous peoples have a link of cultural strength in traditional health independent of Covid treatment. It should be noted that government agencies are taking measures regarding the covid pandemic with an effort not marked within the health culture of indigenous peoples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0051.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: clinical instructor, clinical education, transcultural, intercultural communication, socio-culture and millennial generation
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:20:50 CEST)
Clinical education is a method that is applied to formal nurse education as a step to provide real and direct learning experiences in the nursing environment correctly and effectively. The success of education in a clinical setting certainly requires the support of teaching nurses (clinical instructors) who have credibility and competence in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills and are actively involved in professional activities. The diversity of backgrounds of nurses and students, including patients, certainly contributes to a shift in paradigms and perspectives for the nursing environment both in education and in clinical settings in health services. Responding to this cultural diversity, it is important to prepare knowledge and understanding related to transcultural nursing issues, intercultural communication and clinical education which explores the socio-cultural elements in the implementation of staff, students and patients. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review is to identify the extent to which nurse educators play a role by including socio-cultural and transcultural aspects in efforts to develop the quality of education in clinical practice environments in the millennium era. Method: The method of writing this article uses 11 literature review, the publication year period 2019,2020 and 2021 with sources from 4 databases such as science Direct, Scopus, ProQues and Elsevier. The review guidelines used are based on Prisma and the Joanna Briggs Institutute. The level of eligibility is identified through the title, abstract, research methodology as well as the type of scholarly journal and full text. Results: The results of the reviews found are presented in a narrative form. The results of the review study found that there were 11 articles explaining the competence of clinical education based on the socio-cultural approach, which is an educational strategy in the clinical area that integrates transcultural elements of nursing, intercultural communication, collaboration, self-directed with the principles of openness, honesty, and mutual respect in the implementation of team interaction and collaboration. The development of interpersonal relationships is also an important role that educators must have in helping to introduce the nurse orientation process to the organizational environment and other professional teams so that the achievement of satisfaction with clinical education is able to improve the performance of nurses and students perfectly. Conclusion: Clinical education which is supported by the competence of nurse educators (clinical instructors) who have individual and professional competences has a role to play in improving clinical learning outcomes by both students and nurses with a socio-cultural and transcultural strategic approach that will create satisfaction with the achievement of clinical competence and performance effectively.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0432.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: entrepreneurial programs; pedagogical interventions; educational interventions; entrepreneurship education; entrepreneurial culture; effectiveness; globalization
Online: 16 April 2021 (10:33:48 CEST)
The number of entrepreneurship education programs (EEP) has increased exponentially over the past two decades. However, a systematic review has not yet been carried out to confirm the effectiveness of EEPs and their presence in the current global world. The main objective of this study was to provide a systematic synthesis of EEP, exploring their characteristics and effectiveness. The search was carried out in the following databases: Scopus, Web of Science, ProQuest and ERIC. Twenty-nine articles were included, with programs developed mainly in European (n=15), Asian (n=6) and American (n=5) countries. The programs were mainly aimed at higher education students (n=17), addressing the development of business plans and entrepreneurial skills. However, greater attention is paid to the entrepreneurial skills in both basic and secondary education. The development of the programs under analysis varied between one week and two years. The results of the studies showed the effectiveness of most of these programs in promoting entrepreneurial skills at all levels of education. In turn, there was not a verified increase in the intention to start a business, since this intention is determined by predisposition, namely socio-cultural and family aspects. This systematic review of the EEP points to the need for this type of program to be preferentially developed since the early school years, since it is at that time that predispositions are created for the development of entrepreneurial skills and intentions. This condition is corroborated by the global geography of the EEP, which demonstrates that, where there is currently an entrepreneurial culture, countries have made a long educational journey, with strategic options from the perspective of educational policies defending entrepreneurship among the younger generations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0766.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Cannabis; marijuana; marihuana; tissue culture; review; regeneration; floral reversion; micropropagation; TDZ; DKW
Online: 30 December 2020 (17:24:27 CET)
The recent legalization of Cannabis sativa L. in many regions has revealed a need for effective propagation and biotechnologies for the species. Micropropagation affords researchers and producers methods to rapidly propagate insect/disease/virus free clonal plants, store germplasm, and forms the basis for other biotechnologies. Despite this need, research in the area is limited due to the long history or prohibitions and restrictions. Existing literature has multiple limitation: many publications use hemp as a proxy for drug-type Cannabis when it is well established that there is significant genotype specificity, studies using drug-type cultivars are predominantly op-timized using a single cultivar, most protocols have not been replicated by independent groups, and some attempts demonstrate a lack of reproducibility across genotypes. Due to culture decline and other problems the multiplication phase of micropropagation (stage 2) has not been fully developed in many reports. This review will provide a brief background on the history and botany of Cannabis as well as a comprehensive and critical summary of Cannabis tissue culture. Special attention will be paid to current challenges faced by researchers, the limitations of existing Cannabis micropropagation studies, and recent developments and future directions of Cannabis tissue culture technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0167.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: plant in vitro culture; plant extracts; gas chromatography; hexadecanoic acid, antifungal activity
Online: 3 November 2020 (15:26:36 CET)
Eysenhardtia platycarpa (Fabaceae) is a medicinal plant used in México and it lacks biotechnological studies for its use. The aim of this work was to establish a cell suspension cultures (CSC) of E. platycarpa, determine the phytochemical profile, and evaluate its antifungal activity. Friable callus and CSC were established with 2 mg/L 1-naphthaleneacetic acid plus 0.1 mg/L kinetin. The highest total phenolics of CSC was 15.6 mg GAE/g dry weight and the total flavonoids content ranged from 56.2 to 104.1 µg QE/g dry weight. CG‒MS analysis showed that the dichloromethane extracts of CSC, sapwood and heartwood have a high amount of hexadecanoic acid (22.3 ‒ 35.3 %) and steroids (13.5 ‒ 14.7%). Heartwood and sapwood defatted hexane extracts have the highest amount of stigmasterol (≈ 23.4%) and β-sitosterol (≈ 43%), and leaf extracts presented β-amyrin (16.3%). Methanolic leaves extracts showed mostly sugars and some polyols, mainly D-pinitol (74.3%). Dichloromethane and fatty hexane extracts of CSC exhibited the percentages inhibition higher for Sclerotium cepivorum with 71.5 and 62.0%, respectively. The maximum inhibition for Rhizoctonia solani was with fatty hexane extracts of the sapwood (51.4%). Our study suggest that CSC extracts could be used as a possible complementary alternative to synthetic fungicides.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0114.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: International development, urban planning culture, social maladies, local authority, Chipata District, Zambia
Online: 9 April 2019 (12:53:50 CEST)
Since the public inauguration of the URP (Urban and Regional Planning) Bill in 2009, which is now law (The Urban and Regional Planning Act No. 3 of 2015), urban planning in Zambia has undergone changes. In partnership with the Volunteer Service Overseas (VSO) Federation, the Zambian parliament put into effect pilot urban planning assistance programs to assist districts around the country, including Chipata District in 2011, transition to a more decentralized, integrated and locally-defined approach to urban planning. However, the presence of discrimination, corruption, and negative attitudes towards urban planning engagement, social maladies prominently displayed in Zambian society, pose challenges to implementing the ideal goals of the 2009 URP Bill. The extreme, widespread poverty in Zambia merely exacerbates the propensity towards corrupt and discriminatory behavior, and influences poor attitudes toward urban planning engagement. This paper describes the projects undertaken by the VSO volunteer from the USA between 2011 and 2012 in the light of the specific urban problems facing Chipata District, and discusses the ways the social maladies play out in Zambian society to pose challenges to implementing the recommended changes to the planning system scribed in the 2009 URP Bill.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0017.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Euroregion; city divided by a border; cross-border market, culture, sustainable development
Online: 4 March 2019 (08:39:55 CET)
The article discusses the issue of the sustainable development of the cross-border market for cultural services in a city divided by the state border. The article uses the example of Cieszyn and Český Těšín, a city divided following the decision of the Council of Ambassadors in 1920. The research carried out so far indicates the main constraints in the harmonious functioning of the cross-border market for cultural services in this city, such as: different cultural policies implemented on both sides of the city, language barriers as well as legal and administrative differences. Therefore, the authors undertook research aimed at recognising the role of Euroregional structures in stimulating the sustainable development of this region. On the basis of the analysis of the Cieszyn Silesia Euroregion's documentation and the results of qualitative and quantitative research, the article describes the role of the Euroregion in building a cross-border market for cultural services. Recommendations were also prepared that could constitute the principles of a common cultural policy not only for Cieszyn and Český Těšín, but also for other European cities in the Schengen Area, which, like Cieszyn and Český Těšín, have been divided by a state border.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0319.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: culture, ageing, pain, idioms of distress, somatisation, cultural concepts of distress, stoicism
Online: 24 April 2018 (17:13:05 CEST)
In this paper, the authors seek to discuss some of the complexities involved in cross-cultural working in relation to the communication and management of pain in older people. Specifically, the paper addresses the culture construction of ageing and how pain is often constructed as a natural part of ageing. The authors also suggests that with the rise of the ideology of active-ageing many older people who are disabled or living in chronic pain, may feel a moral imperative to hide pain and ill-health. The discussion extends into looking at the impact of culture and the communication of pain, including specific idioms of distress, somaticize and the lay-management of pain through stoicism.