ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0821.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: antioxidant; cryopreservation; dog; resveratrol; sperm
Online: 31 December 2020 (15:31:06 CET)
Antioxidants have multiple protective roles in cells and can be used as a supplement to protect cells against cryopreservation-induced detrimental effects, including protecting sperm fertility quality. The antioxidant resveratrol (3,5,4-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene; RSV) has been shown to be a protective supplement for the cryopreservation of animal sperm, including human sperm. In this study, we assessed the effect of RSV supplementation on canine sperm cryopreservation. Semen was collected from four dogs and the effect of different concentrations of RSV (0, 100, 200, and 400 µM) on post-thaw quality of sperm was examined. After thawing, sperm motility was assessed using computer aided sperm analysis, and the structural integrity of the plasma membrane, acrosome, and chromatin were examined, as well as mitochondrial activity and gene expression were assessed. Dog sperm cryopreserved with 200 µM RSV showed significant improvement in motility and viability following thawing compared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, RSV-supplemented samples showed significantly higher numbers of sperm with an intact plasma membrane, active mitochondria, and structural integrity of acrosomes and chromatin than that of control samples (p < 0.05). Furthermore, gene expression showed that RSV supplemented samples showed lower expression of pro-apoptotic (BAX) oxidative stress-related (ROMO1) and oxidative induced DNA damage repair (OGG1) whereas higher expression levels of anti‐apoptotic (BCL2) protamine-2 (PRM2), protamine-3 (PRM3) and sperm acrosome‐associated (SPACA3) genes than control. Our results suggest that RSV, at its optimum concentration, can be efficiently used as an alternative antioxidant in the cryopreservation of dog sperm.
Online: 2 September 2020 (11:00:41 CEST)
Nanowater (NW-water declusterized in the cold plasma generator) can potentially ameliorate ram semen quality after freezing. Eighteen ejaculates from six Olkuska rams were divided into six equal portions each, and then diluted (800 × 106 spermatozoa/ml) and frozen in the fructose-skimmed milk-egg yolk Kareta extender containing 3% or 7% of glycerol (C3% and C7%) and diluted in deionized water (DW) or NW declusterized for 15 min (NW15)’ or 30 min (NW30’). All frozen-thawed semen samples were subjected to standard evaluation. In addition, ex situ survival time of spermatozoa was measured, and the proportions of apoptotic, necrotic and live sperm were determined by flow cytometry. The percentage of spermatozoa with mid-piece defects was lower (p < 0.05) in NW15’-3% compared with C3%. The mean survival time of spermatozoa was greater (p < 0.05) in NW30’ extenders compared with their respective controls. The proportion of necrotic spermatozoa 1 h after thawing was greater (p < 0.05) in C7% compared with NW30’-7%, whereas the proportion of live cells detected immediately and 1 h after thawing were greater (p < 0.05) in NW30’-7% than in C7%. NW enhanced cryoprotective effects of glycerol-containing extenders with an overall increase in sperm survivability being greater with 7% than 3% of glycerol.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0437.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Semen; hesperidin; cryopreservation; oxidative stress; antioxidant; ram
Online: 28 September 2022 (09:35:03 CEST)
We conducted this study to determine the potential cryopreservative effects of different hesperidin (vitamin P; HSP) doses on ram semen after freeze-thawing. Semen samples were obtained from Sönmez rams by an artificial vagina. The samples were divided into six groups: control, 10, 50, 100, 250, and 500 µg/mL HSP (C, HSP10, HSP50, HSP100, HSP250, and HSP500, respectively). At the end of the study, sperm motility and kinetic parameters, plasma membrane acrosome integrity (PMAI), high mitochondrial membrane potential (HMMP), viability, lipid peroxidation levels (LPL), chromatin damage, oxidant parameters, and antioxidant parameters were assayed. None of the doses of HSP added to the semen extender showed any enhancing effect on progressive motility compared to C (p>0.05). In fact, HSP500 had negative effects (p<0.05). Moreover, PMI activities were the highest at the HSP10 dose, while LPL values were the lowest (p<0.05). The doses of HSP10 and HSP50 added to the Tris extender medium showed positive effects on spermatozoon chromatin damage. Consequently, we can say that HSP doses used in this study are not effective on semen progressive motility, but the HSP10 dose is effective on PMAI and chromatin damage by reducing LPL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0221.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: ring necked-pheasant; ascorbic acid; semen cryopreservation; semen quality
Online: 17 May 2022 (05:19:30 CEST)
Ring necked-pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) is bird of order Galliformes. Ring necked-pheasant is also known as gallinaceous bird and game bird. It looks like chicken bird. It is national bird of South Dakota. It is mostly found in wild areas but in Pakistan it exists as Domestic bird. It has high proteins and low fat in its meat. The present study was conducted to check the effect of ascorbic acid on sperm Motility, sperm cytoplasmic membrane integrity, sperm livability and acrosome integrity of Ring-necked pheasant at different concentrations of ascorbic acid (0mM, 1mM, 2mM, 3mM and 4mM) were used. Semen was collected by abdominal massage technique. Motility of sperm was greater than 70%.Then it was processed further. The cryopreservation of semen was checked at various stages like Post Dilution, Post Cooling, Post Equilibration and Post Thawing. Semen was cooled from post-dilution stage (370 C) to post-cooling (200C).Then it further cooled gradually to get post-equilibration stage (40 C) within 24 hours. After that 10% glycerol was added to the sample. Then it was transferred to liquid nitrogen (LN2) cylinder for 24 hours. After thawing stage sample was removed from LN2 cylinders and placed in water bath for 4 hours to achieve post-thawing. Then performed sperm quality assays at each stage of cryopreservation. Sperm motility was assessed by Neubauer Chamber Hemocytometer. Plasma Membrane Integrity was checked by using Hypo Osmotic Swelling Test with the help to 2% Eosin. Sperm livability was assessed by Lake’s glutamate solution and sperm Acrosome Integrity was checked by dual staining technique by using Formal citrate solution and Giemsa stain. The better results were seen at 3mM treatment of ascorbic acid. Sperm motility percentage was significantly different (P < 0.05) on 3mM treatment on all the stages of cryopreservation rather than other treatments. Plasma membrane integrity assay also showed good results at same concentration (P < 0.05) on all the stages of cryopreservation rather than other treatments. At the sperm livability stage 3mM treatment showed significantly difference (P < 0.05) on all the stages of cryopreservation rather than other treatments. The sperm acrosome integrity showed highest percentage on 3mM treatment (P < 0.05) on all stages of cryopreservation rather than other treatments. Effect of ascorbic acid on all the quality parameters (sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity, livability and acrosome integrity) was showed significant difference (P < 0.05) at 3mM treatment of ascorbic acid as compare to control as well as remaining treatments. It was seen that by increasing the concentration of ascorbic acid from 3mM concentration to onward it shows negative results on its cryopreservation. Now this cryopreserved semen can be transfer from one place to another place to obtain good varieties as well as better genetic characteristics of this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0083.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Antioxidants; Opuntia ficus indica; Opuntia dillenii; sperm quality; cryopreservation.
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:52:51 CEST)
Opuntia sp. contain antioxidant phytochemicals resistant to ROS damage, whose excess negatively affect fertilization. We investigate the activity of fruit extracts of O. dillenii and O. ficus indica (cv red and yellow) on sperm quality and cryopreservation. In the first experiment, we exposed the samples to extracts (50 µl) for 1 hour to then evaluate semen parameters (vitality, motility, acrosome reaction, DNA fragmentation and oxidative stress). The results showed a significant increase in the motility (86%±0.19 for OFI cv yellow, 82%±0.15 for OFI cv red and 90%±0.08 for O. dillenii) compared to the control (80%±0.17). Moreover, we noted a reduction of DNA fragmentation on treated (3%±0.03 in OFI cv yellow, 7%±0.09 in OFI cv red and 5%±0.07 in O. dillenii) than the control (40%±0.14). Furthermore, the oxidative stress was reduced after exposure to solutions (3.15mV in the control and 2.94mV in the treated). In the second experiment, 50 µl of solutions were added to the Freezing medium. After thawing, we observed an improvement in vitality and the number of intact acrosomes. Our results suggest that Opuntia sp. fruit extracts improve sperm quality, both before and after cryopreservation, optimizing the potential of fertilization of sperm cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0520.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: Cryopreservation; Nitrogen vapor; Buffalo semen; Bangladeshi buffalo; Diluents and extenders.
Online: 29 November 2022 (01:25:56 CET)
Cryopreservation has been used extensively for cattle in Bangladesh, albeit no study was conducted on the cryopreservation techniques of buffalo. This study compares two freezing methods and the effects of diluters on the semen quality of buffalo. In the first freezing protocol, semen was frozen in two-step: from 37 °C to 5 °C for 30 minutes in a BLRI-developed equilibration chamber and from 5 oC to -120 oC in a Styrofoam box using liquid nitrogen vapor from different distances (0.5, 1.5, 1.6, 2 and 3 inches). At the same time semen was frozen in a programmable freezer in three steps. The semen samples were then evaluated for motility and morphological quality by CASA. In another experiment, the efficacy of one locally developed diluter-Tris-fructose-egg yolk-based (TFE) and three commercial diluters (Andromed, Triladyl and Steridyl) were evaluated. The highest number of motile sperms (62.67±1.12; P< 0.01) and progressive motility (38.97±1.10; P < 0.001) was observed at 1.6 inches above liquid nitrogen. There was no significant difference in overall motility, progressive and slow motility between semen cryopreserved in the cheap nitrogen vapor technique (57.49±5.67, 38.70± 4.04 and 3.83± 0.63, respectively) and expensive automated technique (65.94±4.65, 45.54 ± 3.64 and 2.43± 0.36, respectively). The highest recovery rate and conception rate were observed in semen diluted with TFE (82.4% and 80%, respectively). Hence, the cryopreservation technique using nitrogen vapor and TFE diluent is cost-effective and suitable for freezing buffalo semen that would produce superior semen for artificial insemination.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0003.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: polyphenols; reproduction; phytoestrogens; ovary function; sirtuin; testis function; spermatozoa; cryopreservation; sperm quality; oocyte quality
Online: 1 September 2020 (09:55:01 CEST)
Resveratrol is one of the most investigated natural polyphenolic compounds and is contained in more than 70 types of plants and in red wine. The widespread interest in this polyphenol derives from its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-aging properties. Several studies have established that resveratrol regulates animal reproduction. However, the mechanisms of action and the potential therapeutic effects are still unclear. This review aims to clarify the role of resveratrol in the male and female reproductive functions, with a focus on animals of veterinary interest. In the female, resveratrol has been considered a phytoestrogen due to its capacity to modulate ovarian function and steroidogenesis via sirtuins, SIRT1, in particular. Resveratrol has also been used to enhance aged oocyte quality, and as a gametes cryo-protectant with mainly antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic effects. In the male, resveratrol enhanced testes function and spermatogenesis through activation of AMPK pathway. Furthermore, resveratrol has been supplemented to semen extenders improving the preservation of sperm quality. In conclusion, resveratrol has potentially beneficial effects for ameliorating ovarian and testes function. However, due to unclear data, further studies are necessary to consolidate these findings.