ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Organizational Economics & Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0110.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: blockchain; spatial crowdsourcing; task assignment; smart contract
Online: 9 May 2022 (09:09:49 CEST)
Spatial crowdsourcing emerges as a new computing paradigm that enables mobile users to accomplish spatio- temporal tasks in order to solve human-intrinsic problems. Existing crowdsourcing systems critically use centralized servers for interacting with workers and making task assignment decisions. These systems are hence susceptible to issues such as the single point of failure and the lack of operational transparency. Prior work, therefore, turns to blockchain-based decentralized crowdsourcing systems, yet still suffers from problems of lacking efficient task assignment scheme, requiring a deposit to an untrusted system, low block generation speed, and high transaction fees. To address these issues, we design a blockchain-based decentralized framework for spatial crowdsourcing, which we call SC-EOS. Our system does not rely on any trusted servers, while providing efficient and user-customizable task assignment, low monetary cost, and fast block generation. More importantly, it frees users from making a deposit into an untrusted system. Our framework can also be extended and applied to generic crowdsourcing systems. We implemented the proposed system on the EOS blockchain. Trace-driven evaluations involving real users show that our system attains the comparable task assignment performance against a clairvoyant scheme. It also achieves 10× cost savings than an Ethereum-based implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0467.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: crowdsourcing; organisational learning; paradigm; organisational learning paradigm
Online: 27 August 2018 (15:09:10 CEST)
Crowdsourcing is one of the new themes that has appeared in the last decade. Considering its potential, more and more organisations reach for it. It is perceived as an innovative method that can be used for problem solving, improving business processes, creating open innovations, building a competitive advantage, and increasing transparency and openness of the organisation. Crowdsourcing is also conceptualised as a source of a knowledge-based organisation. The importance of crowdsourcing for organisational learning is seen as one of the key themes in the latest literature in the field of crowdsourcing. Since 2008, there has been an increase in the interest of public organisations in crowdsourcing and including it in their activities. This article is a response to the recommendations in the subject literature, which states that crowdsourcing in public organisations is a new and exciting research area. The aim of the article is to present a new paradigm that combines crowdsourcing levels with the levels of learning. The research methodology is based on an analysis of the subject literature and exemplifications of organisations which introduce crowdsourcing. This article presents a cross-sectional study of four Polish municipal offices that use four types of crowdsourcing, according to the division by J. Howe: collective intelligence, crowd creation, crowd voting, and crowdfunding. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the management personnel of those municipal offices. The research results show that knowledge acquired from the virtual communities allows the public organisation to anticipate changes, expectations, and needs of citizens and to adapt to them. It can therefore be considered that crowdsourcing is a new and rapidly developing organisational learning paradigm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0271.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Micro-mobility; Ride-sharing; Agent-based modelling; Crowdsourcing
Online: 12 May 2021 (13:48:39 CEST)
Substantial research is required to ensure that micro-mobility ride sharing provides a better fulfillment of user needs. This study proposes a novel crowdsourcing model for the ride-sharing system where light vehicles such as scooters and bikes are crowdsourced. The proposed model consists of three entities: suppliers, customers, and a management party responsible for receiving, renting, booking, and demand matching with offered resources. It can allow suppliers to define the location of their private e-scooters/e-bikes and the period of time they are available for rent. Using a dataset of over 9 million e-scooter trips in Austin, Texas, we ran an agent-based simulation six times using three maximum battery ranges (i.e., 35, 45, and 60 km) and different numbers of e-scooters (e.g., 50 and 100) at each origin. Computational results show that the proposed model is promising and might be advantageous to shift the charging and maintenance efforts to a crowd of suppliers.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0116.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: DAPT; workflow; agent-based modeling; model exploration; crowdsourcing
Online: 10 May 2021 (09:47:54 CEST)
Modern agent-based models (ABM) and other simulation models require evaluation and testing of many different parameters. Managing that testing for large scale parameter sweeps (grid searches) as well as storing simulation data requires multiple, potentially customizable steps that may vary across simulations. Furthermore, parameter testing, processing, and analysis are slowed if simulation and processing jobs cannot be shared across teammates or computational resources. While high-performance computing (HPC) has become increasingly available, models can often be tested faster through the use of multiple computers and HPC resources. To address these issues, we created the Distributed Automated Parameter Testing (DAPT) Python package. By hosting parameters in an online (and often free) "database", multiple individuals can run parameter sets simultaneously in a distributed fashion, enabling ad hoc crowdsourcing of computational power. Combining this with a flexible, scriptable tool set, teams can evaluate models and assess their underlying hypotheses quickly. Here we describe DAPT and provide an example demonstrating its use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0355.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: social media; unemployment; crowdsourcing; natural language processing; mental health
Online: 17 August 2020 (08:29:47 CEST)
Social media, traditionally reserved for social exchanges on the net, has been increasingly used by researchers to gain insight into different facets of human life. Unemployment is an area that has gained attention by researchers in various fields. Medical practitioners especially in the area of mental health have traditionally monitored the effects of involuntary unemployment with great interest. In this work, we compare the feedback gathered from social media using crowdsourcing techniques to results obtained prior to the advent of Big Data. We find that the results are consistent in terms of 1) financial strain is the biggest stressor and concern, 2) onslaught of depression is typical and 3) possible interventions including reemployment and support from friends and family is crucial in minimizing the effects of involuntary unemployment. Lastly, we could not find enough evidence to study effects on physical health and somatization in this work.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0573.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen science; agriculture; street-view; in-situ; LUCAS; Copernicus
Online: 28 September 2018 (16:30:41 CEST)
New approaches to collect in-situ data are needed to complement the high spatial (10~m) and temporal (5-day) resolution of Copernicus Sentinel satellite observations. Making sense of Sentinel observations requires high quality and timely in-situ data for training and validation. Classical ground truth collection is expensive, lacks scale, fails to exploit opportunities for automation, and is prone to sampling error. Here we evaluate the potential contribution of opportunistically exploiting crowd-sourced street-level imagery to collect massive high-quality in-situ data in the context of crop monitoring. This study assesses this potential by answering two questions: 1) what is the spatial availability of these images across the European Union (EU)? and 2) can these images be transformed to useful data? To answer the first question, we evaluated the EU availability of street-level images on Mapillary - the largest open-access platform for such images - against the Land Use and land Cover Area frame Survey (LUCAS) 2018, a systematic surveyed sampling of 337031 points. For 37.78% of the LUCAS points a crowd-sourced image is available within a 2-km buffer, with a mean distance of 816.11 m. We estimate that 9.44% of the EU territory has a crowd-sourced image within 300-m from a LUCAS point, illustrating the huge potential of crowd-sourcing as a complementary sampling tool. After artificial and built up (63.14%), and inland water (43.67%) land cover classes, arable land has the highest availability at 40.78%. To answer the second question, we focus on identifying crops at parcel level using all 13.6 million Mapillary images collected in the Netherlands. Only 1.9% of the contributors generated 75.15% of the images. A procedure was developed to select and harvest the pictures potentially best suited to identify crops using the geometries of 785710 Dutch parcels and the pictures' meta-data such as camera orientation and focal length. Availability of crowd-sourced imagery looking at parcels was assessed for 8 different crop groups with the 2017 parcel level declarations. Parcel revisits during the growing season allowed to track crop growth. Examples illustrate the capacity to recognize crops and their phenological development on crowd-sourced street-level imagery. Consecutive images taken during the same capture track allow selecting the image with the best unobstructed view. In the future, dedicated crop capture tasks can improve image quality and expand coverage in rural areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0564.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: E-learning derived annotations; Pneumothorax; Artificial intelligence; Crowdsourcing; Educational data mining
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:23:12 CEST)
Development of supervised AI algorithms requires a large amount of labeled images. Image labelling is both time-consuming and expensive. Therefore, we explored the value of e-learning derived annotations for AI algorithm development in medical imaging. Methods We have developed an e-learning platform that involves image-based single click labelling as part of the educational learning process. Ten radiology residents, as part of their residency training, trained the recognition of pneumothorax on 1161 chest X-rays in posterior-anterior projection. Using this data, multiple AI algorithms for detecting pneumothorax were developed. Classification and localization performance of the models was tested on an independent internal testing dataset and on the public NIH ChestX-ray14 dataset. Results The AI models F1 scores on the internal and the NIH dataset were 0.87 and 0.44, respectively. Sensitivity was 0.85 and 0.80 for classification and specificity 0.96 and 0.48 for classification. F1 scores were 0.72 and 0.66, sensitivity 0.72 and 0.72. False positive rate was 0.36 and 0.32 for localisation. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that e-learning derived annotations are a valuable data source for algorithm development. Further work is needed to include additional parameters such as user performance, consensus of diagnosis, and quality control in the development pipeline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0536.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Big Data; Natural Language Processing; Social Media; Female Workplace Bullying, Crowdsourcing; Social Computing
Online: 25 August 2020 (04:13:59 CEST)
Motivated by the #Metoo movement, we explore in this paper people’s perception of female bullying at workplace. We looked at #workplacebullying and found that 1) people were split between identifying the prevalence of workplace bullying against female and the view that such bullying simply does not exist and is a nuisance, 2) The tweets also showed the existence of psychological effects of cyberbullying, and 3) the tweets showed many intervention techniques that can minimize the effects of such bullying. We further explored the top three recurring hashtags mentioned under the #workplacebullying and found that the three top hashtags were #sexism, #feminism and #equality. Our results showed that the above hashtags represent the positive and negative approach to workplace bullying i.e. #feminism hashtag was mostly used by people who denied that workplace bullying against females exist while # sexism was mentioned as the prime cause by people who agree that such bullying exist. #equality overwhelmingly comprises of techniques to minimize workplace bullying against females.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0270.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: VGI; Crowdsourcing; data quality; OSM; Volunteered geographic information; user participation; contribution pattern; OpenStreetMap
Online: 12 July 2020 (17:02:31 CEST)
Recent advancements in web-based geospatial software and smartphone technology have popularized the process of voluntary production and sharing of geospatial data by individual citizens. Through such Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) activities, people across the world participate in online mapping projects (such as OpenStreetMap) to insert their spatial information. The quality of data generated by such VGI activities has profound impacts on online mapping projects and their spatial database. In this study, we examine the VGI contribution pattern in OpenStreetMap through three case study neighborhoods located in three major cities: Tehran, London, and Los Angeles, and investigate how it might affect the process of quality assessment of VGI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0114.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: indoor localization; crowdsourcing; received signal strength; graph-based semi-supervised learning; linear regression; compressed sensing.
Online: 18 April 2017 (12:33:47 CEST)
Indoor positioning based on the received signal strength (RSS) of the WiFi signal has become the most popular solution for indoor localization. In order to realize the rapid deployment of indoor localization systems, solutions based on crowdsourcing have been proposed. However, compared to conventional methods, crowdsourced RSS values are more erroneous and can result in large localization errors. To mitigate the negative effect of the erroneous measurements, a graph-based semi-supervised learning (G-SSL) method is used to exploit the correlation between the RSS values at nearby locations to estimate an optimal RSS value at each location. Before using the G-SSL method, the Linear Regression (LR) algorithm is proposed to solve the device diversity problem in crowdsourcing system. Since the spatial distribution of the APs is sparse, the Compressed Sensing (CS) method is applied to precisely estimate the location of the APs. Based on the location of the APs and a simple signal propagation model, the RSS difference between different locations is calculated and used as an additional constraint to improve the performance of G-SSL. Furthermore, to exploit the sparsity of the weights used in the G-SSL, we use the CS method to reconstruct these weights more accurately and make a further improvement on the performance of the G-SSL. Experimental results show improved results in terms of the smoothness of the radio map and the localization accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0012.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: traffic-rules; traffic-regulations; crowdsourcing; GPS-trace; trajectories; classification; movement patterns; clustering; collective-behaviour; smart city
Online: 1 July 2022 (10:00:55 CEST)
In this paper, a new method is proposed to detect traffic regulations at intersections using GPS traces. The knowledge of traffic rules of regulated locations can help various location-based applications in the context of Smart Cities, such as the accurate estimation of travel time and fuel consumption from a starting point to a destination. Traffic regulations as map features, however, are surprisingly still largely absent from maps, although they do affect traffic flow which in turn affects vehicle idling time at intersections, fuel consumption, CO_2 emissions and arrival time. In addition, mapping them using surveying equipment is costly and any update process has severe time constraints. This fact is precisely the motivation for this study. Therefore, its objective is to propose an automatic, fast, scalable and inexpensive way to identify the type of intersection control (e.g. traffic lights, stop signs). A new method based on summarizing the collective behavior of vehicles crossing intersections is proposed. A modification of a well-known clustering algorithm for detecting stopping and decelerating events is presented. These detected events are then used to categorize vehicle crossing of intersections into four possible traffic categories (p1: free flow, p2: deceleration without stopping events, p3: only one stopping event, p4: more than one stopping event). The percentages of crossings of each class per junction arm, together with other speed/stop/deceleration features, extracted from trajectories, are then used as features to classify the junction arms according to their traffic control type dynamic model). The classification results of the dynamic model are compared with those of the static model, where the classification features are extracted from OpenStreetMap. Finally, a hybrid model is also tested, where a combination of dynamic and static features is used, which outperforms the other two models. For each of the three models, two variants of the feature vector are tested: one where only features associated with a single junction arm are used (one-arm model) and another where features also from neighbouring junction arms of the same junction are used to classify an arm (all-arm model). The methodology was tested on three datasets and the results show that all-arm models perform better than single-arm models with an accuracy of 94\% to 97\%.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: computational drug repositioning; drug repositioning; drug repurposing; machine learning; deep learning; crowdsourcing; open innovation; drug discovery
Online: 1 May 2018 (12:27:22 CEST)
Maximizing the indications potential and revenue from drugs that are already marketed offers a new take on the famous mantra of the Nobel Prize-winning pharmacologist, Sir James Black, “The most fruitful basis for the discovery of a new drug is to start with an old drug”. However, rational design of drug mixtures poses formidable challenges because of the lack of or limited information about in vivo cell regulation, mechanisms of genetic pathway activation, and in vivo pathway interactions. Most of the repositioned drugs therefore are the result of “serendipity” - based on late phase clinical studies of unexpected findings. One of the reasons that the connection between drug candidates and their potential adverse drug reactions or new applications could not be identified earlier is that the underlying mechanism associating them is either very intricate and unknown or dispersed and buried in a sea of information. Discovery of such multi-domain pharmacomodules - pharmacologically relevant sub-networks of biomolecules and/or pathways - from collection of databases by independent/simultaneous mining of multiple datasets is an active area of research. Here, while presenting some of the promising bioinformatics approaches and pipelines, we summarize and discuss the current and evolving landscape of computational drug repositioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0226.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen science; ecotourism; Facebook; Flickr; photo-elicitation; Instagram; photovoice; social media; social networking sites; Twitter; wildlife conservation
Online: 21 August 2019 (10:34:58 CEST)
The first two decades of the 21st-century have seen the emergence of the modern citizen science movement, increased demand for niche eco and wildlife tourism experiences, and the willingness of people to voluntarily share information and photographs online. To varying extents, the rapid growth of these three phenomena has been driven by the availability of portable smart devices, access to the Web 2.0 internet from almost anywhere on the planet, and the development of applications and services, including social media/networking sites (SNSs). In addition, the number of peer-reviewed publications that explore how text and images shared on SNSs can be data-mined for academic research has surged in recent years. This systematic quantitative review has two goals. The first goal is to provide an oversight of how the photographs that ecotourists share online are contributing to wildlife tourism research. The second goal is to promote the emerging photovoice technique as a theoretical context for social research based on the photographs and comments that ecotourists share on SNSs. From the perspectives of community benefits, conservation behaviours, and environmental education, there are many similarities between authentic ecotourism experiences and quality ecological citizen science programs. Much of the literature regarding the theory and practice of citizen science reports on the difficulties of attracting, training, motivating and retaining community members. The synthesis of this review is that crowdsourcing wildlife and tourism data from comments and photographs that ecotourists share on SNSs is a credible method of research that provides a self-replenishing pool of citizen scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0148.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Digital twin; centrifugal microfluidics; Lab-on-a-Disc; crowdsourcing; blockchain; decentralization; oracle; consensus; non-fungible token; NFT; decentralized science; DeSci
Online: 8 October 2021 (16:55:19 CEST)
Since its inception in the late 2000s, blockchain has emerged as a powerful tool for creating trust without intermediaries to incentivize global communities for working for a common goal, such as the improvement of its very ecosystem, its applications and community adoption. While first blockchains were mainly devised for confirming transactions of their innate cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, smart-contract blockchains like Ethereum can interface with the real-world through so-called “oracles”, which feed trustful off-chain information. This paper introduces digital twins of physical objects and processes as computational oracles to effectively unleash the tremendous opportunity offered by blockchain to the realm of fundamental science, research and technology development (RTD). The crowdsourcing concept is illustrated with the example of centrifugal flow control in microfluidic “Lab-on-a-Disc” (LoaD) systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0296.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: crowdsourcing; citizen science; Flickr; land cover/use; social media; volunteered geographic information; wildlife tourism; Borneo Pygmy Elephant; Sabah; Malaysia; SDGs
Online: 24 November 2019 (16:40:15 CET)
This pilot study explores the potential of using a citizen science approach for sourcing volunteered geographic information via social media to research wildlife tourism interactions with endangered Borneo Pygmy Elephants on the lower Kinabatangan River in Sabah, Malaysia. Such information is critical if the lower Kinabatangan region is to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals through a sustainable tourism industry based around viewing the pygmy elephants. Guests and guides from the Sukau Rainforest Lodge were encouraged to become close-range remote sensors by sharing geotagged photographs of pygmy elephant sightings on Flickr. A ten week on-ground trail generated 247 photographs shared by 17 individual contributors with approximately two-thirds (65%) of photographs being georeferenced for the time and location of the elephant sighting. Plotting those sighting to explore the vegetation matrix (i.e. remnant forest or oil palm plantation) showed almost three-quarter (73%) of the sightings occurred within 1 km of an oil palm plantation. Of greater concern is that one in two sightings (50%) along the river occurred within the 500 m of an oil palm planation, which is inside the riparian buffer that the Sabah Government recommended for conservation of the elephants in their Lower Kinabatangan range. This study therefore demonstrates proof of concept for this research method and its further application at the nexus of wildlife conservation and sustainable ecotourism research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0110.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geoinformatics Keywords: best practice; crop mapping; crowdsourcing; drought risk assessment; exposure; flood risk assessment; geospatial data; spaceborne remote sensing; unsupervised classification; rule-based classification
Online: 17 December 2017 (08:26:29 CET)
Cash crops are agricultural crops intended to be sold for profit as opposed to subsistence crops, meant to support the producer, or to support livestock. Since cash crops are intended for future sale, they translate into large financial value when considered on a wide geographical scale, so their production directly involves financial risk. At a national level, extreme weather events including destructive rain or hail, as well as drought, can have a significant impact on the overall economic balance. It is thus important to map such crops in order to set up insurance and mitigation strategies. Using locally generated data -such as municipality-level records of crop seeding- for mapping purposes implies facing a series of issues like data availability, quality, homogeneity etc. We thus opted for a different approach relying on global datasets. Global datasets ensure homogeneity and availability of data, although sometimes at the expense of precision and accuracy. A typical global approach makes use of spaceborne remote sensing, for which different land cover classification strategies are available in literature at different levels of cost and accuracy. We selected the optimal strategy in the perspective of a global processing chain. Thanks to a specifically developed strategy for fusing unsupervised classification results with environmental constraints and other geospatial inputs including ground-based data, we managed to obtain good classification results despite the constraints placed. The overall production process was composed using ``good-enough" algorithms at each step, ensuring that the precision, accuracy, and data-hunger of each algorithm was commensurate to the precision, accuracy, and amount of data available. This paper describes the tailored strategy developed on the occasion as a cooperation among different groups with diverse backgrounds, a strategy which is believed to be profitably reusable in other, similar contexts. The paper presents the problem, the constraints and the adopted solutions; it then summarizes the main findings including that efforts and costs can be saved on the side of Earth Observation data processing when additional ground-based data are available to support the mapping task.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0714.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Earthquake reconnaissance; damage assessment; data sources; data collection; fieldwork surveys; closed-circuit television videos (CCTV); remote sensing (RS); crowdsourcing platforms; social media (SM)
Online: 4 October 2021 (14:54:59 CEST)
Earthquakes are one of the most catastrophic natural phenomena. After an earthquake, earthquake reconnaissance enables effective recovery by collecting building damage data and other impacts. This paper aims to identify state-of-the-art data sources for building damage assessment and provide guidance for more efficient data collection. We have reviewed 38 articles that indicate the sources used by different authors to collect data related to damage and post-disaster recovery progress after earthquakes between 2014 and 2021. The current data collection methods have been grouped into seven categories: fieldwork or ground surveys, omnidirectional imagery (OD), terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), remote sensing (RS), crowdsourcing platforms, social media (SM) and closed-circuit television videos (CCTV). The selection of a particular data source or collection technique for earthquake reconnaissance includes different criteria depending on what questions are to be answered by this data. We conclude that modern reconnaissance missions can not rely on a single data source and that different data sources should complement each other, validate collected data, or systematically quantify the damage. The recent increase in the number of crowdsourcing and SM platforms used to source earthquake reconnaissance data demonstrates that this is likely to become an increasingly important source of data.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: geographic information fusion; data quality; data consistency checking; historic GIS; railway network; patrimonial data; crowdsourcing open data; volunteer geographic information VGI; wikipedia geo-spatial information extraction.
Online: 17 August 2020 (14:51:04 CEST)
Transportation of goods is as old as human civilizations : past networks and their evolution shed light on long term trends. Transportation impact on climate change is measured as major, as well as the impact on spreading a pandemic. These two reasons motivate the importance of providing relevant and reliable historical geographic datasets of these networks. This paper focuses on reconstructing the railway network in France at its maximal extent, a century ago. The active stations and lines are well documented by the French SNCF, in open public data. However, that information ignores past stations (ante 1980), which represent probably more than what is recorded in public data. Additional open data, individual or collaborative (eg. Wikipedia) are particularly valuable, but they are not always geo-coded, and two more sources are necessary to completing that geo-coding: ancient maps and aerial photography. Therefore, remote sensing and volunteer geographic information are the two pillars of past railway reconstruction. The methods developed are adapted to the extraction of information from these sources: automated parsing of Wikipedia Infoboxes, data extraction from simple tables, even from simple text. That series of sparse procedures can be merged into a comprehensive computer-assisted process. Beyond this, a huge effort in quality control is necessary when merging these data: automated wherever possible, or finally visually controlled by observation of remote sensing information. The main output is a reliable dataset, under ODbl, of more than 9100 stations, which can be combined with the information about the 35000 communes of France, for a large variety of studies. This work demonstrates two thesis: (a) it is possible to reconstruct transport network data from the past, and generic computer assisted methods can be developed; (b) the value of remote sensing and volunteered geo info is considerable (what archeologists already know).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: digitization; virtualization; digital twin; blockchain; crowdsourcing; decentralization; non-fungible token; NFT; smart contract; oracle; tokenization; digital ownership; consensus; governance; trust; incentivization; staking; reputation systems; reproducibility crisis; exponentiality; digital twin; metaverse; DeSci; decentralized science; citizen science; open science; distributed ledger; digital scarcity
Online: 17 May 2022 (05:50:03 CEST)
Fundamental science and applied research and technology development (RTD) are facing significant challenges that particularly compound to the notorious credibility, reproducibility, funding and sustainability crises. The underlying, serious shortcomings are substantially amplified by a metrics-obsessed publication culture, and a growing cohort of academics fishing for fairly stagnant (public) funding budgets. This work presents, for the first time, a groundbreaking strategy to successfully address these severe issues; the novel strategy proposed here leverages the distributed ledger technology (DLT) “blockchain” to capitalize on cryptoeconomic mechanisms, such as tokenization, consensus, crowdsourcing, smart contracts, reputation systems as well as staking, reward and slashing mechanisms. This powerful toolbox, which is so far widely unfamiliar to traditional scientific and RTD communities (“TradSci”), is synergistically combined with the exponentially growing computing capabilities for virtualizing experiments through digital twin methods in a future scientific “metaverse”. Project contributions, such as hypotheses, methods, experimental data, modelling, simulation, assessment, predictions and directions are crowdsourced using blockchain, and captured by so-called non-fungible tokens (“NFTs”). The so enabled, highly integrative approach, termed decentralized science (“DeSci”), is destined to move research out of its present silos, and to markedly enhance quality, credibility, efficiency, transparency, inclusiveness, sustainability, impact, and sustainability of a wide spectrum of academic and commercial research initiatives.