ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0579.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Tolerance; Persistence; Cross-resistance; Toxin-antitoxin system; PemK/PemI; Klebsiella pneumoniae.
Online: 24 July 2020 (11:46:37 CEST)
Although the failure of antibiotic treatment is normally attributed to resistance, tolerance and persistence display a significant role in the lack of response to antibiotics. Due to the fact that several nosocomial pathogens show a high level of tolerance and/or resistance to chlorhexidine, in this study we analyzed the molecular mechanisms associated with chlorhexidine adaptation in two clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae by phenotypic and transcriptomic studies. These two strains belong to ST258-KPC3 (high-risk clone carrying β-lactamase KPC3) and ST846-OXA48 (low-risk clone carrying β-lactamase OXA48). Our results showed that K. pneumoniae ST258-KPC3CA and ST846-OXA48CA strains exhibited a different behavior under CHLX pressure, adapting to this biocide through resistance and tolerance mechanisms, respectively. Furthermore, the appearance of cross-resistance to colistin was observed in the ST846-OXA48CA strain (tolerant to CHLX), using the broth microdilution method. Interestingly, this ST846-OXA48CA isolate contained a plasmid that encodes a novel type II toxin/antitoxin (TA) system, PemK/PemI. We characterized this PemK/PemI TA system by cloning both genes into the IPTG-inducible pCA24N plasmid, and found their role in persistence and biofilm formation. Accordingly, the ST846-OXA48CA strain showed a persistence biphasic curve in the presence of a chlorhexidine-imipenem combination, and these results were confirmed by the enzymatic assay (WST-1).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0307.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: antioxidant activity; cross-tolerance; glycine max; heat stress; proteomics; water stress
Online: 31 October 2019 (05:23:35 CET)
Water stress (WS) and heat stress (HS) have a negative effect on soybean plant growth and crop productivity. During WS, soybean plants opt for survival through ion homeostasis and the conformations of proteins are disconcerted as plant cells lose water while HS leads to difficulties in flowering and fruiting. Some of these changes include oxidative stress leading to the destruction of photosynthetic apparatus, macromolecules within cells and the onset of complex signaling cascades. Changes in the physiological characteristics, proteome, and certain metabolites investigated on molecular and cellular functions were studied in two soybean cultivars exposed to different heat and water stress conditions independently and in combination. Leaf protein composition was studied using 2-DE and complemented with MALDI TOF mass spectrometry. While two cultivars displayed genetic variation in response to water and heat stress, thirty-nine proteins were significantly altered in their relative abundance in response to WS, HS and combined WS+HS in both cultivars; a majority of them involved in metabolism, response to heat and photosynthesis showing significant cross-tolerance mechanisms. Functional analysis revealing a majority of heat responsive-proteins were more abundant during HS and combined stress (WS+HS) whereas these proteins were low to WS in cultivar PI 471938 and heat shock proteins were in low abundance to water, heat and combined stresses in cultivar R95-1705. Most protein abundances were not correlated with their expression at mRNA levels in PI cultivar, however, in cultivar R 95, the expression levels of transcript follow their relative abundance in proteins. Our systems bioinformatics analyses revealed that MED37C, a probable mediator of RNA polymerase transcription II protein showed potential interacting partners in Arabidopsis and our studies signifies the marked impact of this protein in PI cultivar. Elevated activities in antioxidant enzymes indicate that the PI-371938 cultivar has the ability to restore the oxidation levels and sustain the plant during the stress. Our study hypothesizes the plant’s development of cross-stress tolerance which will help foster the ongoing ventures in genetic modifications in stress tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pathology & Pathobiology Keywords: cross-tolerance; acute kidney injury; miArray; miR-21a; miR-144-3p; miR-146a-5p; miR-451a; miR-762
Online: 4 January 2020 (04:55:30 CET)
Background: Pre-treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) protected the kidney against a later lethal ischemia. To reveal the mechanisms of renal cross-tolerance and septic acute kidney injury we investigated the effects of LPS on miRNA expression in the kidney. Methods: Male NMRI mice were injected with 40 and 10 mg/kg LPS ip. and sacrificed at 1.5 and 6 hours (early preconditioning, EP) and at 24 and 48 hours (late preconditioning, LP). The miRNA profile was established using miRCURY LNA™ microarray and confirmed with qPCR. Results: Plasma urea concentration peaked at 24 hours after LPS and decreased thereafter. Renal TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA were extremely elevated at all time-points. miRNome changes were mild at 1.5 hours, most miRNAs were altered at 6 and 24 hours and declined by 48 hours. Not all miRNAs could be assayed or validated by qPCR. In EP miR-762 was newly identified and validated and was the most elevated miRNA with both methods. In LP miR-21a-5p was the most influenced miRNA followed by miR-451a, miR-144-3p and miR-146a-5p. MiR-21a-3p increased significantly in both EP and LP. Conclusion: miR-762 might attenuate the LPS-induced immune response during EP and the miR-144/451 cluster is involved in LPS-induced renal preconditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: AmRosea1 gene; transcriptome analysis; drought tolerance; salt tolerance; rice
Online: 14 December 2016 (09:16:50 CET)
Ectopic expression of the MYB transcription factor of AmROSEA1 from Antirrhinum majus has been reported to change anthocyanin and other metabolites in several species. In this study, we found that overexpression of AmRosea1 significantly improved the tolerance of transgenic rice to drought and salinity stress. Transcriptome analysis revealed that a considerable amount of stress-related genes were affected by exogenous AmRosea1 during both drought and salinity stress treatments. These affected genes are involved in stress signal transduction, the hormone signal pathway, ion homeostasis and the enzymes that remove peroxides. This work suggests that the AmRosea1 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of crops.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0100.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Gastroenterology Keywords: obesity; diabetes; body weight; body composition; glucose tolerance; insulin tolerance; incretin; energy expenditure
Online: 12 February 2019 (10:37:42 CET)
Background/Goals: The gut hormone PYY secreted from intestinal L-cells has been implicated in the mechanisms of satiation via Y2-receptor (Y2R) signaling in the brain and periphery and is a major candidate for mediating the beneficial effects of bariatric surgery on appetite and body weight. Methods: Here we assessed the role of Y2R signaling in the response to low- and high-fat diets and its role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on body weight, body composition, food intake, energy expenditure and glucose handling, in global Y2R-deficient (Y2RKO) and wildtype mice made obese on high-fat diet. Results: Both male and female Y2RKO mice responded normally to low- and high-fat diet in terms of body weight, body composition, fasting levels of glucose and insulin, as well as glucose and insulin tolerance for up to 30 weeks of age. Contrary to expectations, obese Y2RKO mice also responded similarly to RYGB compared to WT mice for up to 20 weeks after surgery, with initial hypophagia, sustained body weight loss, and significant improvements in fasting insulin, glucose tolerance, HOMA-IR, and liver weight compared to sham-operated mice. Furthermore, non-surgical Y2RKO mice weight-matched to RYGB showed the same improvements in glycemic control as Y2RKO mice with RYGB that were similar to WT mice. Conclusions: PYY signaling through Y2R is not required for the normal appetite-suppressing and body weight-lowering effects of RYGB in this global knockout mouse model. Potential compensatory adaptations of PYY signaling through other receptor subtypes or other gut satiety hormones such as GLP-1 remain to be investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0195.v1
Online: 14 June 2022 (05:49:04 CEST)
Conflicts in Indonesia today indicate intolerance towards other religions and cultures. Several places such as Ambon, Papua, Kalimantan and Posso have experienced the increasing effects of intolerance. Conflicts caused by intolerance between groups in societies seem inevitable in various regions. This study tests the effectiveness of tolerance education model, based on local wisdom in the community of Tomohon City in North Sulawesi, Indonesia. The Research and Development (R&D), specifically ADDIE design, was used to test the effectiveness of tolerance education. Data was validated and analyzed using the triangulation of sources, techniques and theories and Miles Huberman model respectively. The results showed that tolerance education was portrayed through elements of mutual help, empathy andcooperation. Therefore, the developed education model increases tolerance significantly. This model is appropriate for people living outside Tomohon City due to different cultural and emotional settings. Tolerance education model can be more effective when using local values from the region to optimize potential and local social capital in society. The teaching material contains a combination of tolerance traits and local wisdom. Tolerance content is obtained from local wisdom values in the communities living in Tomohon City, North Sulawesi, si tou timou tumou tou, Mapalus and Torang Samua Basudara. Efforts to instill a tolerant attitude include education and practice to equip the community with understanding that background differences can trigger empathy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial & Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: inkjet; printer; topology; tolerance; machine
Online: 5 December 2018 (07:35:06 CET)
Machines for direct digital inkjet printing on cylindrical containers are a new technology out on the market. Their commercialization in the industrial sector has been affected by their high precision. This leads to the use of mechanisms with narrow manufacturing tolerances and to the search for topologies that have the least accumulated error without affecting quality. Machines with topologies to work on flat substrates have printing and productivity problems working on cylindrical substrates. This research paper presents the qualitative design of a direct digital inkjet printer working over cylindrical substrates comparing five mechanical topologies; three topologies with radial distribution and two topologies with parallel distribution. The aim of these topologies is to find the precision, quality and efficiency of the printer taking into account the restrictions present in its construction. Each topology has separate constitutive mechanisms, it is analyzed the tolerance ranges between the print head and the substrate whose cumulative error maximizes the inkjet print resolution to determine precision. From five Topologies, number 1, 2 and 5 meet the requirements. the topology 2 meets the requirements but it is not able to be developed due to current technological limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0366.v1
Online: 19 July 2018 (15:43:50 CEST)
This paper investigates how Islamic tolerance contributes to solve religious conflict today that has impacted on various aspects such as economic collapse, insecurity in life, lack of professional society, academic retrogressions, and so on. Knowledge of these issues has become an urgent to build a community that is full of peace, harmony and unity. The paper suggests that Quranic views on tolerance should be understood and practiced in order to avoid disunity in society which is due to failure to appreciate tolerance values in association. The paper concludes problems or misunderstandings always occur in different religious societies, since every religion has its own teachings and principles, as well as each of them is interpreted in different ways.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0415.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Drought tolerance index; Stress tolerance index; MLP; SVM; MLP-GA; SVM-GA; Genetic Algorithm
Online: 27 January 2022 (11:21:14 CET)
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays) is the staple food crop in the world. In this study, multi-layer perceptron (MLP), support vector machine (SVM), genetic algorithm-based multi-layer perceptron (MLP-GA), and genetic algorithm-based support vector machine (SVM-GA) hybrid artificial intelligence algorithms were used for the prediction of drought tolerance and stress tolerance indices in teosinte maize lines. Correspondingly, the gamma test technique was applied to determine efficient input and output vectors. The potential of developed models was evaluated based on statistical indices and graphical representation. Results of gamma test based on the least value of gamma and standard error indices show that day of anthesis (DOA), day of silking (DOS), yield index (YI), and gross yield per plant (GYP) information vector arrangements were determined as efficient information vector combination for drought-tolerant index (DTI) as well as the stress-tolerant index (STI). The results of MLP, SVM, MLP-GA, and SVM-GA algorithms were compared based on statistical indices and visual interpretation that have satisfactory for prediction of the drought-tolerant index and stress-tolerant index in maize crop. It has also seemed that genetic algorithm-based hybrid models (MLP-GA and SVM-GA) were found a better prediction of the drought-tolerant index and stress-tolerant index in maize crop. Similarly, the SVM-GA model has the highest potential to forecast the DTI and STI in maize crops as compared to MLP, SVM, MLP-GA models.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0515.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: inositol; inositol transporters; vacuole; stress tolerance
Online: 21 June 2021 (14:12:29 CEST)
Inositol transporter (INT) is reputed as the pivotal transporter for vital metabolites like lipids, minerals, and sugars particularly. These transporters play important role in transitional metabolism and various signaling pathways in plants through regulating the transduction of messages from hormones, neurotransmitters, and immunologic and growth factors. Extensive studies have been conducted on animal INT with promising outcomes. However, few recent studies have highlighted the importance and the complexity of INT genes in the regulation of plant physiology stages including growth and tolerance to stress conditions. The present review sum-up the most recent findings on the role of INT or inositol genes in plant metabolisms and the responsive mechanisms that cope with external stressors. Moreover, we highlighted the emerging role of vacuoles and vacuolar inositol transporters in plant molecular transition and their related roles in plant growth and development. Inositol transporters are the essential mediator for the inositol uptake and its intracellular broadcasting for various metabolic pathways where they play crucial roles. Also, so far characterized only in animals, we reported evidence on Na+/inositol transporters H+/inositol symporters and suggested their roles and operating mode in plants. Thus, understanding the INT functioning system, the coordinated movement of inositol, and the relation between inositol generation and other important plant signaling pathways would be an excellent asset for advancement in researches on plant stress adaptation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0253.v1
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:48:10 CEST)
Indonesia is an archipelago with diverse ethnicities, races, languages, cultures, beliefs, and customs. As Indonesians, with these differences, they should respect each other, or what is commonly known as tolerance. However, in the 21st century, tolerance between people in Indonesia is starting to fade. This is due to the development of the times accompanied by technology development, which causes globalization to enter quickly. The culture of tolerance typical of Indonesian society is starting to fade due to the influence of globalization. Based on these problems, this study aims to determine what causes the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century and answer what solutions can be given to prevent the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century. The research method used is descriptive-qualitative through literature review by analyzing data following the topic to be discussed. The data used are from 20 journal articles with a span of 2019-2021. The results of this study are in the form of a decline in intolerance that the Indonesian people own due to technological advances in the form of adverse use of social media. However, with the existence of moral education and the role of teachers and the government to overcome the decline intolerance, it is hoped that the Indonesian people will understand the meaning and importance of tolerance. This study also has limitations, namely only on the causes of the fading of tolerance in Indonesian society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: Glucose tolerance; pharmacokineti; , Kaempferia parviflora; methoxyflavone
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:25:03 CEST)
Kaempferia parviflora Wall. ex Baker (KP), Krachaidam in Thai or Thai ginseng, is an herbal medicine that has many potential pharmacological effects. This study focused on the oral glucose tolerance test and pharmacokinetic study in healthy volunteers administered with KP extract (90 and 180 mg/day, placebo). The oral glucose tolerance tests were performed at baselines and 28-days of administration. The pharmacokinetics were determined after a single dose administration of the tested products using 3,5,7,3,4-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF) and 5,7,4-trimethoxylfavone (TMF) as markers. The results showed that glucose metabolism via oral glucose tolerance test was not affected by KP extract. The results of pharmacokinetics study revealed that only TMF and PMF, but not DMF levels could be detected in human blood. The given doses of KP extract at 90 and 180 mg/day showed a linear dose-relationship of blood PMF concentration whereas blood TMF was detected only at high given dose (180 mg/day). The half-lives of PMF and TMF were 2–3 h. The Cmax, AUC and Tmax values of PMF and TMF estimated for the 180 mg/day dose were 85.3711.31, 73.2329.93 mg/ml; 291.8948.23, 412.20203.69 mg.h/ml; and 3.890.37, 4.500.96 h, respectively. PMF was quickly eliminated with higher Ke and Cl than TMF at the dose of 180 mg/day of KP extract. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that KP extract had no effect on glucose tolerance test. In addition, this is the first demonstration of the pharmacokinetic parameters of methoxyflavones of KP extract in healthy volunteers in a phase I study in drug development. The data suggest the safety of the KP extract and will be of benefit for further clinical trials using KP extract as food and sport supplements as well as a drug in health product development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0083.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought-tolerance characteristics; maize breeding; maize drought tolerance; molecular markers; phenotype; screening of drought-tolerant plants
Online: 7 April 2020 (10:28:30 CEST)
Drought is among the most important abiotic stressors influencing food-crop production worldwide. Currently, drought-tolerant maize materials are rarely used for actual breeding because corn production primarily focuses on heterosis to generate desired varieties. In this article, we reviewed current work on assessing maize drought tolerance. We suggested that the development of enhanced screening techniques must clearly consider the connection between theory and application. We strongly recommend that agricultural scientists focus on translating the results of laboratory experiments into practical methods for improving crop productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0216.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: CBF4; Transcription factors; Cold tolerance; overexpression; cotton
Online: 12 January 2021 (10:54:56 CET)
Low temperature is a common biological abiotic stress in major cotton growing areas. Cold stress significantly affects the growth, yield and yield quality of cotton. Therefore, it is important to develop a more robust and cold stress tolerant cotton germplasms. Climate change and erratic climatic condition, plants have evolved various survival mechanisms, one of which induction of various stress responsive transcriptome factors, such as the C-repeat binding factor GthCBF4, which have been found to enhance cold tolerance in various plants. In this study detailed evaluation of the cotton C-repeat binding factor has been carried out. A total of29, 28, 25, 21, 30, 26 and 15 proteins encoded by the C-repeat binding factor were identified in G. herbaceum, G. arboreum, G. thurberi, G. raimondii, G. turneri, G. longicalyx and G. australe, respectively. Phylogeny evaluation revealed that the proteins were grouped into seven clades, with clade 1 and 6 being the largest. Moreover, majority of the proteins encoded by the genes were predicted to be located within. the nucleus, while some are distributed in other parts of the cell. Based on the transcriptome and RT-qPCR analysis, Gthu17439 (GthCBF4) was highly upregulated and was further validated through forward genetics. The Gthu17439 (GthCBF4) overexpressed plants showed a significantly tolerance to cold stress, with higher growth vigour compared to the wild types. The results showed that the Gthu17439 (GthCBF4) could be playing a significant role in enhancing cold stress tolerance in cotton and can be further exploited in developing a more cold stress tolerance cotton germplasm
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0373.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Magnesium supplementation; Metformin; INSR; GLU4; glucose tolerance
Online: 13 November 2020 (12:32:43 CET)
Magnesium supplementation has recently attracted attention as effective in the management of diabetes and its related complications though its mechanisms of action is yet to be fully unraveled. This study was carried out to determine the effects of magnesium supplementation on body weight, fasting blood sugar, Oral glucose tolerance (OGTT 2 and OGTT 4), glucose transporter isoform 2 (GLUT2), GLUT4 and insulin receptor (INSR) mRNA expressions in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced diabetic Sprague dawley rats. A total of 24 Sprague dawley rats (Four groups of six rats each) were used for this study, and the treatment was for 28 days. Group 1: Normal control rats were given distilled water; Group 2: Metformin treated rats were given 100 mg/kg body weight; Group 3: Metformin + Magnesium treated rats were given 100 mg/kg and 1000 mg/kg body weight respectively; Group 4: Diabetic untreated rats given distilled water. Data were analyzed statistically using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and graphically by Graph pad prism. The GLUT4 and INSR gene expressions of Group 3 were significantly (p<0.05) upregulated when compared with Group 4. There was significant (p<0.05) decrease fasting blood sugar and GLUT2 mRNA level in the treated diabetic rats but the metformin-magnesium supplement treated group showed more decrease (p<0.05) when compared with the group treated with metformin only. This study demonstrates that magnesium may mediate effective metabolic control by stimulating insulin sensitivity, and upregulating mRNA levels of GLUT4, INSR as well as improving glucose tolerance in diabetic rats. Therefore, magnesium supplementation appears to have a beneficial role and improves glucose uptake by cells in those at high risks of diabetes. Magnesium supplementation, Metformin, INSR, GLU4, glucose tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fault injection; functional safety; automotive applications; fault tolerance
Online: 8 August 2022 (13:41:10 CEST)
A common requirement of embedded software in charge of safety tasks is to guarantee the identification of those Random Hardware Failures (RHFs) that can affect digital components. RHFs are unavoidable. For this reason, functional safety standards, like the ISO 26262 devoted to automotive applications, require embedded software designs able to detect and eventually mitigate them. For this purpose, various software-based error detection techniques have been proposed over the years, focusing mainly on detecting Control Flow Errors. Many Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms have been proposed to accomplish this task. However, applying these approaches can be difficult because their respective literature gives little guidance on the their practical implementation in high-level programming languages, and they have to be implemented in low-level code, e.g., assembly. Moreover, the current trend in the automotive industry is to adopt the so-called Model-Based Software Design approach, where an executable algorithm model is automatically translated into C or C++ source code. This paper presents two novelties: firstly, the compliance of the experimental data on the capabilities of Control Flow Checking (CFC) algorithms with the ISO 26262 automotive functional safety standard; Secondly, by the implementation of the CFC algorithm in the application behavioral model is automatically translated. There is no need to modify the code generator. The assessment was performed using a novel fault injection environment targeting a RISC-V (RV32I) microcontroller.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Bovine respiratory disease; Pasteurella multocida; resistance; tolerance; satP.
Online: 20 July 2021 (14:48:06 CEST)
Under the pressure of fluoroquinolones, Pasteurella multocida (PM) can easily develop resistance to fluoroquinolones mediated by QRDR target mutation. It is imperative to find new drug resistance inhibitor targets to combat the rapid development of drug resistance. In order to overcome these problems, we sequenced the transcriptome of PM with different levels of resistance to ENR(0.03 μg/mL; 8 μg/mL; 32μg/Ml, Enrofloxacin). The results showed that with the increase of resistance to fluoroquinolones, the expression of satP gene was significantly up-regulated. The satP gene deletion strain and replenishment strain were constructed, and their drug resistance and tolerance were determined. The results showed that the deletion of satP gene did not affect the resistance of PM to fluoroquinolones, rather affected the time when PM developed resistance to fluoroquinolones. After 10 generations of drug induction, the MIC (minimum inhibitory concentration) of fluoroquinolones for wild strain was 64 μg/mL, while the MIC for satP gene deletion strain was only 8 μg/mL. The MDK99 test (time to kill 99% bacteria),agar diffusion test and mutation frequency test showed that the tolerance of satP gene deletion strain was significantly lower than that of wild strain. At the same time, the virulence of gene deletion strain and wild strain was tested, and about 400 times decreased virulence was observed for satP gene deletion strain. The mouse infection model confirmed that mice infected with satP gene deletion strains were more likely to be treated with ENR than mice infected with wild-type bovine PM strains. The results show that satP has potential to be a target of fluoroquinolone resistance inhibitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0001.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Association mapping; chromosomes; drought tolerance; markers, structure; traits
Online: 1 October 2020 (08:40:47 CEST)
The objective of this study were to conduct association mapping for drought tolerance at the seedling stage and yield-related traits. 60 cowpea accessions were used in the study. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) discovered through genotyping by sequencing (GBS) were used for genotyping. Association mapping was conducted using single-marker regression (SMR) in Q Gene, and general linear model (GLM) and mixed linear model (MLM) built in TASSEL. The population of the cowpea accessions were analysed using STRUCTURE 2.3.4 and the peak of delta K in the greenhouse showed seven population types, whereas the peak of delta K in the glasshouse indicated the presence of six population types. One SNP marker, 14083649|F|0-9 was associated with NP with a p value <0.001. Fifty SNP markers were associated with PWT at p <0.001. Four SNP markers, 14074781|F|0-16, 100047392|F|0-36, 14083801|F|0-28 and 100051488|F|0-49 were associated with AVSPD at p <0.001. SNP markers, 14074781|F|0-16, 14083801|F|0-28 and 100051488|F|0-49 were associated with PL at P <0.001. Five SNP markers, 100047392|F|0-36, 14083801|F|0-28, 100072738|F|0-34, 14076881|F|0-49 and 14076881|F|0-49 were associated with PWDTH at p <0.001. The 65 SNP markers identified can be used in cowpea molecular breeding to select for AVSPD, NP, PL, PWDTH, PWT, and RR through marker assisted selection (MAS).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0309.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: UDP-glucuronosyltransferase; host adaptation; Myzus persicae; nicotine tolerance
Online: 30 June 2019 (09:31:43 CEST)
Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II detoxification enzymes involved in glycosylation of lipophilic endobiotics and xenobiotics, including phytoalexins. Nicotine, one of the most abundant secondary plant metabolites, is highly toxic to herbivorous insects. Plant-herbivore competition has been the major impetus for evolution of large superfamilies of UGTs and other detoxification enzymes. However, UGT functions in Myzus persicae adaptation have remained unknown. In this study, UGT inhibitors (sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil) significantly increased nicotine toxicity in M. persicae nicotianae, suggesting UGTs may be involved in nicotine tolerance. One hundred one UGT transcripts identified from the M. persicae genome/transcriptome were renamed according to UGT Nomenclature Committee guidelines and clustered into 11 families: UGT329, UGT330, UGT339, UGT341-UGT345, and UGT348-UGT350. UGT344 contained the most UGTs (fifty-seven). Ten UGTs (UGT330A3, UGT339A2, UGT341A6, UGT342B3, UGT343C3, UGT344D5, UGT344D8, UGT348A3, UGT349A3 and UGT350A3) were overexpressed in M. persicae nicotianae compared with M. persicae sensu stricto. UGT330A3/UGT344D5/UGT348A3/UGT349A3 knockdown significantly increased M. persicae nicotianae nicotine sensitivity, suggesting UGT upregulation in this subspecies may be associated with nicotine tolerance and thus host adaptation. This study reveals possible UGTs relevant to nicotine adaptation in tobacco-consuming M. persicae nicotianae and might facilitate further validation of the roles of these UGTs in nicotine tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0205.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: freshwater zooplankton; Moina; salinity tolerance; NaCl; fatty acid
Online: 21 June 2019 (08:12:15 CEST)
Salinity is a known factor which shapes population dynamics and community structure through direct and indirect effects towards aquatic ecosystems. The responses of Moina macrocopa (Cladocera) collected from Setiu Wetland lagoon (Terengganu) were evaluated through manipulative laboratory experiments to understand the ability of M. macrocopa to tolerate under high salinity stress. Specifically, the fatty acid composition, growth, survival and reproduction of this cladocerans species were examined. Sodium chloride (NaCl) were used in the treatments water with the concentration 0, 4, 6, 8, 12, and 15psu. Fatty acid levels were determined using Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrophotometry (GC-MS). Results clearly indicate that normal conditions give the highest content of fatty acid, especially the polyunsaturated fatty acid content like EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid), ALA (alpha-linoleic acid), ARA (arachidonic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Furthermore, M. macrocopa survival also was best at 0psu, with percentage reached 98%, whereas the opposite occurred at 15psu, with approximately 9% of viable animals survived. On other aspects, M. macrocopa also showed the highest reproduction rate at 0psu (e.g. average initial age of reproduction, 4.33±0.58 days) compared with other salinities level. Interestingly, the difference in terms of growth at different salinities was unapparent, an unexpected outcome when adverse effects such as osmoregulation pressure on the organism are considered. Based on the results, we conclude that M. macrocopa can only tolerate salinity below 8psu and, is unable to withstand stressful environmental condition engendered with salinities above 8psu.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0011.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: auxin herbicide; herbicide tolerance; wild germplasm; GR50; HR50; I50
Online: 1 December 2021 (11:57:04 CET)
A greenhouse dose-response study was conducted to determine the tolerance of three wild tomato accessions (TOM199, TOM198, TOM300) in comparison to a commercial cultivar (Better Boy) against the dicamba application at five rates (0, 70, 140, 210, and 280 g ae ha-1) at 14 and 28 days after treatment (DAT). Several physiological traits were evaluated at 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 DAT. Wild accessions and cultivar were killed at all rates above 70 g ae ha-1 at 14 and 28 DAT, which is why differences between accessions and cultivar were only evident at 70 g ae ha-1. The GR50 (the herbicide rate that causes 50% reduction in dry weight) of Better Boy was 4.4 g ae ha-1 at 28 DAT, and this cultivar was approximately 11-fold more sensitive than wild accessions. At 7 DAT, the levels of H2O2 for wild accessions were lower than Better Boy up to 5 at 70 g ae ha-1 of dicamba. Furthermore, wild accessions showed lower herbicide absorption than Better Boy at all dicamba doses at 1, 3, and 7 DAT. All the three wild accessions expressed tolerance to the dicamba application at the dose of 70 g ae ha-1. At the same time, Better Boy and wild accessions were susceptible to dicamba application at rates of 140, 210, and 280 g ae ha-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0548.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Failure Prediction; Fault-tolerance; Cloud Computing; Artificial Intelligence; Reliability
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:39:23 CET)
Identifying and anticipating potential failures in the cloud is an effective method for increasing cloud reliability and proactive failure management. Many studies have been conducted to predict potential failure, but none have combined SMART (Self-Monitoring, Analysis, and Reporting Technology) hard drive metrics with other system metrics such as CPU utilisation. Therefore, we propose a combined metrics approach for failure prediction based on Artificial Intelligence to improve reliability. We tested over 100 cloud servers’ data and four AI algorithms: Random Forest, Gradient Boosting, Long-Short-Term Memory, and Gated Recurrent Unit. Our experimental result shows the benefits of combining metrics, outperforming state-of-the-art.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0348.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: pepper; heat tolerance; photosynthesis; proline; electrical conductivity; fruit; yield
Online: 15 July 2021 (09:42:13 CEST)
Understanding the mechanism for heat tolerance is important for the hot pepper breeding program to develop heat-tolerant cultivars in changing climate. This study was conducted to investigate physiological and biochemical parameters related to heat tolerance and to determine leaf heat damage levels critical for selecting heat-tolerant genotypes. Seedlings of two commercial cultivars, heat-tolerant ‘NW Bigarim’ (NB) and susceptible ‘Chyung Yang’ (CY), were grown in 42 °C for ten days. Photosynthesis, electrolyte conductivity, proline content were measured among seedlings during heat treatment. Photosynthetic rate was significantly reduced in ‘CY’ but not in ‘NB’ seedlings in 42 °C. Stomatal conductivity and transpiration rate was significantly higher in ‘NB’ than ‘CY’. Proline content was also significantly higher in ‘NB’. After heat treatment, leaf heat damages were determined as 0, 25, 50 and 75% and plants with different leaf heat damages were moved to a glasshouse (30–32/22–24 °C in day/night). The growth and developmental parameters were investigated until 70 days. ‘NB’ was significantly affected by leaf heat damages only in fruit yield while ‘CY’ was in fruit set, number and yield. ‘NB’ showed fast recovery after heat stress compared to ‘CY’. These results suggest that constant photosynthetic rate via increased transpiration rate as well as high proline content in heat stress condition confer faster recovery from heat damage of heat-tolerant cultivars in seedlings stages.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: Kandelia obovata; mangrove; hydrogen sulfide; salt tolerance; comparative proteome
Online: 24 November 2019 (14:25:34 CET)
As a dominant mangrove species, Kandelia obovata is distributed in an intertidal marsh with an active H2S release. Whether H2S participates in the salt tolerance of mangrove plant is still ambiguous although increasing evidence have demonstrated that H2S functions in plant responses to multiple abiotic stresses. In this study, as an H2S donor, NaHS was used to investigate the regulatory mechanism of H2S on salt tolerance of K. obovata seedlings using a combined physiological and proteomic analysis. The results showed that the reduction in photosynthesis (Pn) caused by 400 mM NaCl was recovered by the addition of NaHS (200 μM). Furthermore, the application of H2S enhanced the quantum efficiency of PSII and the membrane lipid stability, implying that H2S is beneficial to the survival of K. obovata seedlings under high salinity. We further identified 37 differentially expressed proteins by proteomic approaches under salinity and NaHS treatment. Among them, the proteins related to photosynthesis, primary metabolism, stress response and hormone biosynthesis were primarily enriched. The physiological and proteomic results highlighted that exogenous H2S up-regulated photosynthesis and energy metabolism to help K. obovata to cope with high salinity. Specifically, H2S increased photosynthetic electron transfer, chlorophyll biosynthesis and carbon fixation in K. obovata leaves under salt stress. Furthermore, the abundances of other proteins related to metabolic pathway, such as antioxidation (APX, CSD2, PDX1), protein synthesis (HSP, Cpn 20), nitrogen metabolism (GS2, GS1:1), glycolysis (PGK, TPI), AsA-GSH cycle were increased by H2S under high salinity. These findings provide new insights into the roles of H2S in the adaptations of mangrove plant K. obovata to high salinity environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0364.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: ichthyofauna; trophic guilds; salinity-tolerance; connectivity; chetumal bay; Mexico
Online: 31 October 2019 (08:56:31 CET)
Increased connectivity between coastal lagoons and the sea is expected to entail a greater proportion of marine species in the former. Chetumal Bay, estuary of the Hondo river into the Caribbean, had a limited access to the sea until the opening of the Zaragoza Canal. We sought changes in the fish community from 1999-2001 (just after an expansion of the canal) to 2015-2018. The same fishing gear was used, in the same localities, during all seasons. Total fish abundance and mean local richness decreased, although total abundance increased in the polyhaline zone. Diversity was greater in the oligohaline zone in 1999-2001, but in the mesohaline zone in 2015-2018. Three guilds were absent in 2015-2018: medium-sized herbivores, large piscivores, and medium-sized planktivores. Abundance of small benthivores decreased by decade; medium-sized piscivores and small planktivores became more abundant in 2015-2018 in the polyhaline zone. These changes may be due to the opening of the channel, but illegal fishing outside the bay may explain the decrease in juveniles of large piscivores, and erosion in the innermost part may be destroying important habitats. Our findings can be a reference for similar situations, as coastal development and climate change interact and affect tropical estuaries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0306.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Candida glabrata, drug resistance, tolerance, FKS, MSH2, echinocandin, azole
Online: 17 August 2018 (12:43:43 CEST)
Candida glabrata has thoroughly adapted to successfully colonize human mucosal membranes and survive in vivo pressures prior to and during antifungal treatment. Out of all the medically relevant Candida species, C. glabrata has emerged as a leading cause of azole, echinocandin, and multidrug (MDR: azole + echinocandin) adaptive resistance. Neither mechanism of resistance is intrinsic to C. glabrata, since stable genetic resistance depends on mutation of drug target genes, FKS1 and FKS2 (echinocandin resistance), and a transcription factor, PDR1, which controls expression of major drug transporters, such as CDR1 (azole resistance). However, another hallmark of C. glabrata is the ability to withstand drug pressure both in vitro and in vivo prior to stable ‘genetic escape’. Additionally, these resistance events can arise within individual patients, which underscores the importance of understanding how this fungus is adapting to its environment and to drug exposure in vivo. Here, we explore the evolution of echinocandin resistance as a multistep model that includes general cell stress, drug adaptation (tolerance), and genetic escape. The extensive genetic diversity reported in C. glabrata will be highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0091.v1
Online: 8 July 2019 (08:16:23 CEST)
Texture has long been considered an important attribute for food acceptance. However, which specific textural characteristics contribute to overall acceptance of a food is not well understood. It has been suggested that texture contrasts and combinations are a universal feature in giving foods a desirable texture, yet this notion is largely based upon anecdotal data. This study uses multiple survey research methods to assess the importance of texture contrast and combinations across cultures (Poland, U.S.A., and Singapore). Participants (n = 288) completed a survey that included overt measures of food texture contrast importance as well as free response questions regarding texture. The overall importance of texture for food liking was not different across the populations. However, the participants from Singapore and Poland gave more importance to a desirable food having multiple textures than the U.S.A. cohort. When looking at free responses, participants were twice as likely to mention combinations (multiple textures) with a texture contrast when describing foods they liked, in comparison to foods they disliked. This was observed across all 3 cultures. However, the type and quantity of texture terms used within combinations were different among cultures. For instance, Asians enjoyed more texturally diverse food combinations than the other two cultures. These findings highlight the importance of texture contrasts and combinations in three distinct cultures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0061.v1
Online: 13 March 2017 (08:31:22 CET)
This paper presents a novel CNN-based architecture, referred to as Q-Net, to learn local feature descriptors that are useful for matching image patches from two different spectral bands. Given correctly matched and non-matching cross-spectral image pairs, a quadruplet network is trained to map input image patches to a common Euclidean space, regardless of the input spectral band. Our approach is inspired by the recent success of triplet networks in the visible spectrum, but adapted for cross-spectral scenarios, where for each matching pair there are always two possible non-matching patches; one for each spectrum. Experimental evaluations on a public cross-spectral VIS-NIR dataset shows that the proposed approach improves the state-of-the-art. Moreover, the proposed technique can also be used in mono-spectral settings, obtaining a similar performance to triplet network descriptors, but requiring less training data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0512.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Contact Mechanics; Cross-Country Skiing; Cross-Country Ski; Load Conditions; Ski-Camber Profile; Sports Equipment
Online: 31 August 2022 (02:26:22 CEST)
In cross-country skiing the time difference between a race winner and the person coming second is typically very small. Since much of the energy is spent on overcoming resistive forces, a relatively small reduction of these can have a significant impact on the results. The resistive forces come partly from the friction in the tribological interface, between the ski and the snow, and as with many tribological applications the characterisation of its origin, plays an important role in determining the frictional properties. Also in cross-country ski friction, there are several scales impacting the frictional performance, with the major contributors being the ski-camber profile and ski-base structure. Macro-scale measurements of the ski's camber profile under load, are often used to determine how adequate the ski is for a specific condition. The characteristic properties usually obtained are, the force required to collapse the ski to a certain camber height, the topography of the kick-wax zone, and by simple means a determined lengths of the frictional interface, i.e., the apparent contact length. To this date, there are some mathematical models, but there is no robust way of determining the macro-scale contact properties between a cross-country ski and a counter surface using simulations. In the present paper an Artificial neural networks (ANN) is trained to predict the ski-camber profile for various loads placed at different positions, and a well established deterministic approach is used to simulate the contact between the ANN-predicted ski-camber profile and a linearly elastic body with a flat surface, representing the snow. The results suggest that this method is feasible for the determination of the apparent contact characteristics of different skis. Moreover, we show that the apparent contact area does not linearly depend on the load, and that the elastic properties of the counter surface also has a large impact on the apparent contact area and the average apparent contact pressure.
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: allergy; regulatory T cells; IL-2; IL-4; Th2; tolerance
Online: 10 November 2022 (11:09:22 CET)
This manuscript provides a new integrated view of the development of allergen-specific TH2 and the lack of their associated Treg cells in a unified model, justifying the need for IL-2 to correct allergy conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0457.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: Latilactobacillus sakei; comparative genomics; carbohydrate utilization; antibiotic tolerance; CRISPR-Cas
Online: 20 July 2021 (15:02:42 CEST)
Increasing attention has been paid to the potential probiotic effects of Latilactobacillus sakei. To explore the genetic diversity of L. sakei, 14 strains isolated from different niches (feces, fermented kimchi and meat products) and 54 published strains were compared and analyzed. The results showed that the average genome size and GC content of L. sakei were 1.98Mb and 41.22%, respectively. Its core genome mainly encodes translation and transcription, amino acid synthesis, glucose metabolism and defense functions. L. sakei has an open pan-genomic characteristics, and its pan-gene curve shows an upward trend. L. sakei has open pan-genome feature, and its pan-genome curve is on the rise. The genetic diversity of L. sakei is mainly reflected in carbohydrate utilization, antibiotic tolerance, and immune/competition-related factors, such as clustering regular interval short palindromic repeat sequence (CRISPR)-Cas. The CRISPR system is mainly IIA type, and a few are IIC types. This work provides a basis for the study of this species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0347.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Ulmus pumila; salt stress; salt-tolerance; antioxidants; osmolytes; gas-exchange
Online: 17 February 2021 (09:22:23 CET)
Elevated salinity is one of the major environmental limitation factors of plant growth and development and salinity stress compromises the production and survival of plantation and urban forests and agricultural crops in the arid, semi-arid, and intertidal zones. Ulmus pumila, a salt- indigenous tree species in Asia and is widely deployed in salt-affected areas in China, and U.pumila is promising for multi-varietal forestry in plantation and urban forests. The comprehensive mechanism of the intraspecific salt tolerance is still not clear yet. Here, we investigated the physiological responses of the salinity stress based on the antioxidant enzyme activities, osmotic adjustments, and gas exchange among salt-tolerant U. pumila genotypes for 100 days under five different NaCl levels (0%, 0.3%, 0.5%, 0.7%, and 0.9% w/v) with natural surroundings and rain shade at age-2. Salt stress decreased height (HR), ground diameter (DR), and dry weight (biomass) were significantly different among genotypes. HR and performance indices were positively correlated with photosynthesis rate (Pn), apparent mesophyll conductance (AMC), and chlorophyll (CHLL) with (r= 0.7 - 0.8 ***), but were negatively related to the free proline, sugar, and protein accumulation (r=-0.5 ~ -0.7***). We found that high accumulation of sugars and more activities of SOD enzyme in leaf tissue contribute to the osmotic adjustment and ROS scavenging system under salinity treatment; the sugar content and SOD activity play key roles in U. pumila’s tolerance to salt stress, and are promising indicators for U. pumila species ex vitro selections. The ex vitro selection results align with the previous in vitro studies  and is promising for the MVF development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0295.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: Heat stress; durum wheat; yield; tolerance; fertility; climate change; resilience
Online: 28 June 2019 (11:51:31 CEST)
Heat stress occurring during the reproductive stage of wheat has a detrimental effect on productivity. A durum wheat core set was exposed to simulated terminal heat stress by applying plastic tunnels at the time of flowering over two seasons. Mean grain yield was reduced by 54% compared to control conditions, and grain number was the most critical trait for tolerance to this stress. The combined use of tolerance indices and grain yield identified five elites: Kunmiki, Berghouata1, Margherita2, IDON37-141, and Ourgh. The core set was also subjected to genome wide association study using 7,652 polymorphic SNPs markers. The most critical genomic regions were identified in association with spike fertility and tolerance indices on chromosome 1A, 5B and 6B. Haplotype analysis on a set of 208 elites confirmed that lines that carried the positive allele at all three QTLs resulted in a yield advantage of 8% when field tested under daily temperatures above 31° C. Two of the QTLs were successfully validated into KASP markers and explained >10% of the phenotypic variation for an independent elite germplasm set. These genomic regions can now be readily deployed via breeding to improve resilience to climate change and increase productivity in heat-stressed areas.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0129.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: biostimulation; stress tolerance; elicitors; corona; hormesis; nutritional quality; growth promoters
Online: 6 November 2018 (05:01:51 CET)
Biostimulants are materials that when applied in small amounts are capable of promoting plant growth. Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanomaterials (NMs) can be considered as biostimulants since, in specific ranges of concentration, generally in small levels, they increase the plant growth. Pristine NPs and NMS have a high density of surface charges capable of unspecific interactions with the surface charges of the cell walls and membranes of plant cells. In the same way, the functionalized NPs and NMS, and the NPs and NMs with a corona formed after the exposition to natural fluids such as water, soil solution, or the interior of organisms, presents a high density of surface charges that interact with specific charged groups in cell surfaces. The magnitude of the interaction will depend on the materials adhered to the corona, but the high-density charges located in a small volume causes an intense interaction capable of disturbing the density of surface charges of cell walls and membranes. The electrostatic disturbance can have an impact on the electrical potentials of the outer and inner surfaces, as well as on the transmembrane electrical potential, modifying the activity of the integral proteins of the membranes. The extension of the cellular response can range from biostimulation to cell death and will depend on the concentration, size, and the characteristics of the corona.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0027.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: cross-disciplinary; AI; blockchain; investment; protection
Online: 5 October 2022 (04:04:40 CEST)
This article presents the results of a cross-disciplinary applied study exploring investors’ protections in the context of distributed ledger technology (DLT) smart contracts. Fusing legal, business, and technical perspectives, we developed a framework for protection from non-commercial risks for stablecoins, taking advantage of DLT and AI. A key concept we propose is the monitoring of disinformation and fake news to prevent malicious parties from abusing our solution. Based on the similarities between central bank digital currencies (CBDCs) and stablecoins, we propose scaling up our results to all future internet investments performed without face-to-face contact between the investor and the company.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0063.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: XSS; Cross site scripting; Sql injection
Online: 2 December 2020 (13:04:51 CET)
The danger is still very large from cross site scripting attacks. When designing web applications We must follow as much as we can prevention rules and don’t leave any loophole to our programs. Experience is a great factor for programmers to know these attacks and for a trainee programmer is a difficult task to spot all the weak points. In this article we present a tutorial on launching an XSS attack and also we propose simple solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0092.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: synthetic aperture radar; cross-polarization; denoise
Online: 7 June 2020 (14:58:06 CEST)
Sentinel-1 (S1) extra-wide (EW) swath data in cross-polarization (horizontal-vertical, HV or vertical-horizontal, VH) are strongly affected by the scalloping effect and thermal noise, particularly over areas with weak backscattered signals, such as sea surfaces. Although noise vectors in both the azimuth and range directions are provided in the standard S1 EW data for subtraction, the residual thermal noise still significantly affects sea ice detection by the EW data. In this paper, we improve the denoising method developed in previous studies to remove the additive noise for the S1 EW data in cross-polarization. Furthermore, we propose a new method for eliminating the residual noise (i.e. multiplicative noise) at the sub-swath boundaries of the EW data, which cannot be well processed by simply subtracting the reconstructed 2-D noise field. The proposed method of removing both the additive and multiplicative noise was applied to EW HV-polarized images processed using different Instrument Processing Facility (IPF) versions. The results suggest that the proposed algorithm significantly improves the quality of EW HV-polarized images under various sea ice conditions and sea states in marginal ice zone (MIZ) of the Arctic. This is of great support for the utilization of cross-polarization SAR images in wide swaths for intensive sea ice monitoring in polar regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0270.v1
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:31:14 CET)
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an alphavirus that causes febrile illness punctuated by severe polyarthralgia. After the emergence of CHIKV in the Western Hemisphere, multiple reports of congenital infections were published that documented neurological complications, cardiac defects, respiratory distress, and miscarriage. The Western Hemisphere is endemic to several alphaviruses and whether antigenic cross-reactivity can impact the course of infection has not been explored. Recent advances in biomedical engineering have produced cell co-culture models that replicate the cellular interface at the maternal fetal axis. We employed a trans-well assay to determine if cross-reactive antibodies affected the movement and replication of CHIKV across placental cells and into an embryoid body. The data show that antibodies to Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) significantly reduced CHIKV viral load in embryoid bodies. The data highlight that viral pathogenesis can be cell-specific and that exploiting antigenic cross-reactivity could be an avenue for reducing the impact of congenital CHIKV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0348.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: phenotypic selection; preharvest sprouting tolerance; QTL mapping analysis; silicoDArT; SNP; wheat
Online: 21 December 2021 (14:13:40 CET)
The current and projected climate change that is represented by increasing temperatures, humidity levels and irregular rainfall patterns, promotes the occurrence of preharvest sprouting (PHS) in wheat. PHS results in significant economic losses, globally, which necessitates the need for high-yielding cultivars with increased PHS tolerance, hence this study was conducted. The current study evaluated two doubled-haploid (DH) wheat populations of Tugela-Dn × Elands and Elands × Flamink across six environments in the Free State Province of South Africa to select genotypes with increased PHS tolerance and further map the underlying loci. Significant effects of DH lines (194) and environments (6) were observed for PHS tolerance. The results of this study validate previous findings that PHS is only expressed when environmental conditions are conducive. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping using single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and silicoDArT markers revealed three additive QTL with major effects on chromosomes 5B and 7B, and these QTL were detected more than once, when conditions were favourable. These QTL explained a phenotypic variation (PVE) varying between 10.08% and 20.30% (LOD = 2.73 – 3.11). About 16.50% of DH lines performed to the level of Elands (the PHS-tolerant parent) and are recommended for further selection in a pre-breeding or breeding programme. The findings of the study are expected to facilitate the on-going breeding efforts for PHS tolerance in winter wheat.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0609.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: cold acclimation; vernalization; frost tolerance; dehydrins; COR14b; growth chambers; field trials
Online: 26 February 2021 (11:09:15 CET)
Low temperatures in the autumn induce enhanced expression/relative accumulation of several cold-inducible transcripts/proteins with protective functions from Late-embryogenesis-abundant (LEA) superfamily including dehydrins. Several studies dealing with plants grown under controlled conditions revealed a correlation (significant quantitative relationship) between dehydrin transcript/protein relative accumulation and plant frost tolerance. However, to apply these results in breeding, field experiments are necessary. The aim of the review is to provide a summary of the studies dealing with the relationships between plant acquired frost tolerance and COR/LEA transcripts/proteins relative accumulation in cereals grown in controlled and in the field conditions. The impacts of cold acclimation and vernalization processes on the ability of winter-type Triticeae to accumulate COR/LEA proteins are discussed. The factors determining dehydrin relative accumulation under controlled cold acclimation treatments versus field trials during winter seasons are discussed. In conclusion, it can be stated that dehydrins could be used as suitable indicators of winter surival in field-grown winter cereals but only in plant prior to the fullfilment of vernalization requirement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0044.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: halophyte; salt-tolerance; N-nutrition; Portulaca oleracea; oxalic acid; ammonium nutrition
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:21:14 CEST)
Halophytic plants are, by definition, well adapted to saline soils. However, even halophytes can face nutritional imbalance and accumulation of high levels of compounds such as oxalic acid (OA), and nitrate (NO3¯). These compounds compromise the potential nutritional health benefits associated with salt tolerant plants such as Portulaca oleracea. Thus, preventing the accumulation of non-nutritional compounds will allow plants to be grown in saline conditions as crops. To this end, two ecotypes (ET and RN) of Portulaca oleracea plants were grown under growth room conditions with two levels of salinity (0, 50 mM NaCl) and three ratios of nitrate: ammonium (0:100%; 33:66%; 25:75% NO3¯:NH4+). The results showed that both ecotypes exposed to elevated NO3¯, showed severe leaf chlorosis, high levels of OA, citric acid, and malic acid, while plants of ecotype ET exposed to elevated NH4+ concentrations (33% and 75%) and 50 mM NaCl displayed a marked reduction in OA content, increased total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents, crude protein content, total fatty acid (TFA) and α-Linolenic acid (ALA) thus enhancing leaf quality. This opens the potential to grow high biomass, low OA P. oleracae crops. Lastly, our experiments suggest that ecotype ET copes with saline conditions and elevated NH4+ through shifts in leaf metabolites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0014.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Piriformospora indica; Trichoderma viride; final disease severity; grain yield and tolerance
Online: 2 October 2019 (05:13:13 CEST)
In this study, we evaluated the potential of fungal endophytes to control yellow rust in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as endophytes are beneficial microbes and alternate to pesticides for confronting pathogens. The in-vitro efficacy of the fungal endophytes isolated from different desert plants was evaluated and the best four namely Colletotrichum lindemuthianum, Piriformospora indica, Acremonium lolii and Trichoderma viride were selected. Seeds of two susceptible wheat genotypes namely Fareed-06 and Shafaq-06 obtained from screening experiment were inoculated by dipping in four endophytic spore suspensions and were sown using randomized complete block design under factorial arrangement. Data concerning about area under disease progress curve, final disease severity percentage, coefficient of infection,1000- grains weight and grain yield were recorded. Results showed that endophyte P. indica showed significant decrease in final disease severity (FDS) and area under disease progress curve (AUDPC), resultantly 12.2% grain yield gain in rust susceptible wheat genotypes of Fareed-06 and Shafaq-06 followed by the endophytes T. viride, C. lindemuthianum and A. lolii with the grain yield gain of 10.6%, 06.2% and 04.2% respectively. In crux, fungal endophytes are valuable microbes which can be employed to induce tolerance against P. striiformis in yellow rust vulnerable areas for better and sustainable wheat production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC power converter; fault tolerance; multilevel converter; switched-capacitor network
Online: 11 April 2018 (14:18:54 CEST)
A modular switched-capacitor (SC) DC-DC converter (MSCC) is introduced in this paper. It is designed to boost a low input voltage to a high voltage level and can be applied for photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This topology has high extensibility for high voltage gain output. The merits of the converters also lie in the fault tolerance operation and the voltage regulation with a minimum change in the duty ratio. Those features are built in when designing the modules and then integrating these into the DC-DC converter. Converter performance including voltage gain, voltage and current stress are focused and tested. The converter is modelled analytically, and its control algorithm is analyzed in detailed. Both simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the topology under normal operation and fault mode operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0671.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Cross-Boundary Spatial Planning Systems and Practices
Online: 28 June 2021 (14:51:05 CEST)
This research has critically argued that a vigilant combination of flexibility and certainty in spatial planning can bring about the most optimum planning outcomes. Therefore, to reproachfully evaluate the core argument, this research has tried to empirically respond to the research question of which balance of government intervention and market freedom produces the optimal economic, social and spatial outcomes. This research question has been further translated into an associated central hypothesis i.e., a hybrid planning system with an optimal balance between discretionary and regulatory planning approach can bring about the desired economic, social, and spatial outcomes.
Online: 3 May 2020 (08:24:36 CEST)
Registry and survey data gave an opportunity to compare possible roles of social attitudes and social values in control and limit the COVID-19 pandemic. We analysed social values and time series of daily R0 (reproduction rate) estimates for 27 European countries. Embedded and affective autonomy are significantly negatively associated (p-Value<0.05) with controlled R0. It could mean that well interconnected societies with high attention to maximize utilities are more likely to couple with COVID-19. Hierarchy is significantly positively associated (p-Value<0.05) with controlled R0. Thus, hierarchical structures could inhibits control of COVID-19. The results emphasize the need to pay more attention to social values context in evaluating the effectiveness of mitigation strategies internationally.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0466.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: capital structure; leverage; SMEs; cross-regional variation
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:11:16 CEST)
There is tremendous interest, in the economic literature, for the determinants of firms’ capital structure decisions. A rich body of empirical works now exists that purports to identify firm- and country-level factors affecting firms’ financing patterns. In addition, more recently, a new stream of studies has emerged that investigates cross-regional variation in small firms’ capital structure. While small firms’ leverage does seem to vary across regions, at least in countries where significant regional differences in economic and financial development and in the quality of institutions exist, not much yet is known about variation in debt maturity, in debt in relation to equity, and between different types of small firms. The present paper aims to fill this gap through an empirical analysis of cross-regional variation in the capital structure of a sample of about 30,000 Italian small firms over a 13-year period, including the aftermath of the credit crunch that followed the 2007-8 global financial crisis. The findings confirm the view that small firms in underdeveloped regions are more financially constrained, but also amend some of the results shown in the literature, in particular by showing how small firms in Italy’s Southern regions have higher levels of equity and fixed assets than small firms in other regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0160.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nutrition Keywords: Intermittent fasting; glucose tolerance; hepatic steatosis; adipose tissue; reverse cholesterol transport; atherosclerosis.
Online: 9 January 2023 (10:49:54 CET)
In humans and animal models, intermittent fasting (IF) interventions promote body weight loss, improve metabolic health, and are thought to lower cardiovascular disease risk. However, there is a paucity of reports on the relevancy of such nutritional interventions in the context of dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases. The present study assessed the metabolic and atheroprotective effects of intermittent fasting intervention (IF) in atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein E-deficient (Apoe-/-) mice. Groups of male and female Apoe-/- mice were fed a regular (chow) or atherogenic (high-fat, high-cholesterol, HFCD) diet for 4 months, either ad libitum or in an alternate-day fasting manner. The results show that IF intervention improved glucose and lipid metabolism independently of sex. However, IF only decreased body weight gain in males fed chow diet and differentially modulated adipose tissue parameters and liver steatosis in a diet composition-dependent manner. Finally, IF prevented spontaneous aortic atherosclerotic lesions formation in mice fed chow diet, irrespective of sex but failed to reduce HFCD-diet-induced atherosclerosis. Overall, the current work indicates that IF interventions can efficiently improve glucose homeostasis and treat atherogenic dyslipidemia, but a degree of caution is warranted with regard to the individual sex and the composition of the dietary regimen.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0428.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: ethanol stress; ethanol tolerance; industrial yeast strains; high-gravity fermentation; TRP1; MSN2
Online: 25 August 2022 (07:39:56 CEST)
The stress imposed by ethanol to Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells are one of the most challenging limiting factors in industrial fuel-ethanol production. Consequently, the toxicity and tolerance to high ethanol concentrations has been the subject of extensive research, allowing the identification of several genes important for increasing the tolerance to this stress factor. However, most studies were performed with well characterized laboratory strains, and how the results obtained with these strains work in industrial strains remains unknown. In the present work we have tested three different strategies known to increase ethanol tolerance by laboratory strains in an industrial fuel-ethanol producing strain: overexpression of the TRP1 or MSN2 genes, or overexpression of a truncated version of the MSN2 gene. Our results show that the industrial CAT-1 strain tolerates up to 14% ethanol, and indeed the three strategies increased its tolerance to ethanol. When these strains were subjected to fermentations with high sugar content and cell-recycle, simulating the industrial conditions used in Brazilian distilleries, only the strain with overexpression of the truncated MSN2 gene showed improved fermentation performance, allowing the production of 16% ethanol from 33% of total reducing sugars present in sugarcane molasses. Our results highlight the importance of testing genetic modifications in industrial yeast strains under industrial conditions in order to improve the production of industrial fuel ethanol by S. cerevisiae.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0364.v1
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: stress tolerance; biological mechanisms; biotic/Abiotic stress; hybrid priming; high-quality seeds
Online: 21 September 2021 (14:02:07 CEST)
Farmers and seed companies constantly require high-quality seeds with excellent agronomic performance. However, faced with environmental adversity, limited natural resources and increasing food demand around the globe, more attention has turned to improving crop plant production by implementing efficient strategies. Seed priming technology has shown promising biological improvements leading to suitable agronomic performance in crop plants under adverse environmental conditions. Seeds are subjected to controlled conditions that are conducive to complex physiological, biochemical, and molecular changes, conferring specific stress tolerance to subsequent germination and growth conditions. In this review paper, we aimed to study the recent approaches in the efficiency of hydropriming, osmopriming, chemopriming, hormopriming, nanopriming, matrix priming, biopriming, physical priming and hybrid priming procedures in the production of crop plants under environmental adversity, as well as their biological mechanism changes. All priming methods demonstrated relevant changes in the biological mechanism related to crop plant production by mitigating salinity effects, heavy metals, and flooding stress and enhancing chilling, heat, drought and phytopathogen tolerance. We strongly recommend that researchers combine multiple priming methods, known as hybrid priming, in their investigations to provide novel technologies and additional biological approaches to enhance the knowledge of crop plant science. Thus, the findings shed light on the use of seed priming technology as a key strategy to increase crop plant production under environmental adversity by acquiring stress tolerance and enhancing agronomic traits to meet the global food demand.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0734.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: abscisic acid; after-ripening; desiccation tolerance; dormancy; germination; gibberellins; LAFL; longevity; seeds
Online: 30 November 2020 (14:41:46 CET)
Desiccation tolerance appeared as the key adaptation feature of photoautotrophic organisms for survival in terrestrial habitats. During the further evolution, vascular plants developed complex anatomy structures and molecular mechanisms to maintain the hydrated state of cell environment, which essentially increased their ability to sustain water deficit and dehydration. However, the role of the genes encoding the mechanisms behind this adaptive feature in the higher vascular plants is restricted to the dehydration protection of spores, seeds and pollen, whereas the mature vegetative stages became sensitive to desiccation. During maturation, orthodox seeds lose up to 95% of their water and successfully enter dormancy. This feature allows seeds maintaining their viability even under strongly fluctuating environmental conditions. The mechanisms behind the desiccation tolerance are activated at the late seed maturation stage and are associated with the accumulation of late embryogenesis abundant proteins (LEA proteins), small heat shock proteins (sHSP), non-reducing oligosaccharides, and antioxidants of different chemical nature. The main regulators of maturation and desiccation tolerance onset are abscisic acid and protein DOG1, which control the network of transcription factors, among which are LEC1, LEC2, FUS3, ABI3, ABI5, AGL67, PLATZ1, PLATZ2. This network is complemented by epigenetic regulation of gene expression by methylation of DNA, post-translational modifications of histones and chromatin remodeling impact on seed desiccation tolerance and longevity. Moreover, orthodox seeds are able to maintain desiccation tolerance during germination up to the stage of radicle protrusion. This time point is critical in the process of seed development, as the seeds lose desiccation tolerance at this moment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Sport Sciences & Therapy Keywords: Bayesian; cardiovascular disease; CVD; cross-sectional; logistic regression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:55:06 CET)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been one of the leading causes of death and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide. Blood pressure, lipid, and cholesterol are good predictors of CVD risk and correspond upon age and physical fitness. However, few studies have explored the variation trend of CVD risk factors across different populations upon age and their muscle strength. Objective: to analysis the variation tendency of CVD risk factors in blood according to age and relative grip strength among different populations. Method: 25363 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study and 24709 were included in the analysis. A logistic regression and a Bayesian probabilistic analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modeling is conducted to build probability prediction models of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia according to age, relative grip strength, body weight conditions, and physical activity levels. Results: 1) age might be the main influence factor of hypertension, which is regarded as one of the primary CVD risk factors. However, although keeping a high level of physical activity might have positive effect on preventing hypertension because that individuals with normal body weight and higher physical activity shows a lower probability of being diagnosed with hypertension, it might could not prevent individuals from getting hypertension with age. 2) After 60, individuals of normal body weight seem more likely to have hyperlipidemia than those are overweight or obese. 3) Larger relative grip strength might not be able to offset the negative effects of obesity, overweight and physical inactivity on hyperlipidemia. 4) The probability of getting hypercholesterolemia varies less with age and relative grip strength. Conclusion: Body weight management and keeping high levels of physical activity are recommended at any age. It might benefit to increase some bodyweight after 60 years old.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0023.v1
Subject: Biology, Entomology Keywords: Malaria; Anopheles gambiae; vector control; neonicotinoids; cross-resistance
Online: 4 January 2022 (20:40:51 CET)
Background: New insecticides with novel modes of action such as neonicotinoids have recently been recommended for public health use by WHO. Resistance monitoring of such novel insecticides requires a robust protocol to monitor the development of resistance in natural populations. In this study, we comparatively used three different solvents to assess the susceptibility of malaria vectors to neonicotinoids across Africa.Methods: Mosquitoes were collected from May to July 2021 from three agricultural settings in Cameroon (Njombe-Penja, Nkolondom, and Mangoum), the Democratic Republic of Congo (Ndjili-Brasserie), Ghana (Atatam), and Uganda (Mayuge). Using the CDC bottle test, we compared the effect of three different solvents (ethanol, acetone, acetone+MERO) on the efficacy of neonicotinoids against Anopheles gambiae s.l. In addition, TaqMan assays were used to genotype key pyrethroid-resistant markers in An. gambiae and to evaluate potential cross-resistance between pyrethroids and clothianidin.Results: Lower mortalities were observed for all populations when using absolute ethanol or acetone alone as solvent (11.4- 51.9% mortality for Nkolondom, 31.7- 48.2% for Mangoum, 34.6- 56.1% for Mayuge, 39.4- 45.6% for Atatam, 83.7- 89.3% for Congo and 71.05- 95.9% for Njombe pendja) compared to acetone + MERO for which 100% mortality was observed for all the populations. Synergist assays (PBO, DEM and DEF) revealed a significant increase of mortality suggesting that metabolic resistance mechanisms are contributing to the reduced susceptibility. A negative association was observed between the L1014F-kdr mutation and clothianidin resistance with a greater frequency of homozygote resistant mosquitoes among the dead than among survivors (OR=0.5; P=0.02). However, the I114T-GSTe2 was in contrast significantly associated with a greater ability to survive clothianidin with a higher frequency of homozygote resistant among survivors than other genotypes (OR=2.10; P=0.013). Conclusions: This study revealed a contrasted susceptibility pattern depending on the solvents with ethanol/acetone resulting in lower mortality, thus possibly overestimating resistance, whereas the addition of MERO consistently increased the efficacy of neonicotinoids in terms of percentage mortalities and time to final mortality. The addition of MERO could however prevent the early detection of resistance development. We therefore recommend monitoring susceptibility using both acetone alone and acetone+MERO (8-10µg/ml for clothianidin) to capture the accurate resistance profile of the mosquito populations.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: positron; model potential; wavepacket propagation; vibrational cross section
Online: 7 September 2021 (12:00:07 CEST)
The vibrational excitation cross section of a diatomic molecule by positron impact is obtained using wavepacket propagation techniques. The dynamics was carried on a two-dimensional potential energy surface which couples a hydrogen-like harmonic oscillator to a positron via a spherically symmetric correlation polarization potential. The cross section for the excitation of the first vibrational mode is in good agreement with previous reports. Our model suggests that a positron couples to the target vibration by responding instantly to an interaction potential which depends on the target vibrational coordinate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0057.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: cross-curricular learning outcome; ethical responsibility; environmental responsibility
Online: 2 July 2021 (14:13:00 CEST)
This paper presents a study on the development of the cross-curricular learning outcome (CCLO) "Ethical, environmental and professional responsibility" by the students of different Bache-lor’sDegrees taught at Universitat Politècnica de València. The work and development of this learning outcome entails great complexity, given the double dimension of responsibility that it involves. At the end of their training at the university, students are expected to show ethical, en-vironmental, and professional responsibility towards themselves and others. Interviews have been conducted with lecturers who work and assess this outcome in their subjects, most/all of them related to science and engineering. The objective was to identify the learning approach used at the different subjects to guarantee the acquisition of this CCLO by the students. A focus group has also been carried out with students to determine the importance they give to this learning outcome, and to know their degree of satisfaction with the training received. The methodology used to obtain the data from lecturers and students and to process the information to get a precise diagnosis is fully described in the paper. Results are satisfactory to some extent: most of the lecturers carry out appropriate activities and most of students achieve the expected proficiency level. Finally, recommendations are given to improve the development of this cross-curricular learning outcome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0704.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: single nanowires; Symmetry breaking; rectangular cross-section; absorption
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:38:12 CET)
Light absorption in single nanowires (NWs) is one of the most crucial factors for photovoltaic applications. In this paper, we carried out a detailed investigation of light absorption in single rectangular NWs (RNWs). We show that the RNWs exhibit improved light absorption compared with the square NWs (SNWs), which can be attributed to the symmetry-breaking structure that can increase the light path length by increasing the vertical side and the enhanced leaky mode resonances (LMRs) by decreasing the horizontal side. We found that the light absorption in silicon RNWs can be enhanced by engineering the horizontal and vertical sides, the photocurrent is significantly increased by 276.5% or 82.9% compared with that of the SNWs with the same side length as the horizontal side of 100 nm or the vertical side of 1000 nm, respectively. This work provides an effective way for designing high-efficiency single NW photovoltaic devices based on the symmetry breaking from the SNWs to RNWs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0662.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Exercise; Health; Obesity; Northern Latitudes; Cross-country skiing
Online: 25 December 2020 (13:15:58 CET)
Background: Physical activity is recommended to mitigate the incidence of obesity, but delivery of community wide initiatives is cumbersome. The challenges met by such programs are magnified when implementation transpires in the remote villages of Alaska. To overcome the difficulty of this challenge in the Arctic, the Skiku/AK Nordic cross-country skiing program was developed. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether access to Skiku/AK Nordic program would promote physical activity levels that met the daily recommendations for physical activity in Alaska Native children. Methods: Eight children (4 females and 4 males; 10±2 years/age) were recruited from Kaktovik, Alaska for participation in this study. Expert coaches and staff provided one week of cross-country ski instruction and access to ski equipment. Physical activity was monitored using ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers. Data collected from the devices was then downloaded and analyzed using ActiLife software. Results: The participants expended ~586 calories/day devoted to physical activity. Light and moderate physical activity was 68±38 minutes/day and 447±248 minutes/day, respectively. Conclusions: Delivery of the Skiku/AK Nordic program promoted favorable levels of physical activity in Alaska Native children. Further research is needed to assess the longitudinal and seasonal effectiveness of the Skiku/AK Nordic program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0712.v2
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: silicon; single nanowires; elliptical cross-section; absorption; photocurrent
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:58:52 CEST)
Light trapping in single nanowires (NWs) are of vital importance for photovoltaic applications. However, circular NWs (CNWs) can limit its light-trapping ability due to high geometrical symmetry. In this work, we present a detailed study of light trapping in single NWs with an elliptical cross-section (ENWs). We demonstrate that the ENWs exhibit significantly enhanced light trapping compared with the CNWs, which can be ascribed to the symmetry-broken structure that can orthogonalize the direction of light illumination and the leaky mode resonances (LMRs). That is, the elliptical cross-section can simultaneously increase the light path length by increasing the vertical axis and reshape the LMR modes by decreasing the horizontal axis. We found that the light absorption can be engineered via tuning the horizontal and vertical axes, the photocurrent is significantly enhanced by 374.0% (150.3%, 74.1%) or 146.1% (61.0%, 35.3%) in comparison with that of the CNWs with the same diameter as the horizontal axis of 100 (200, 400) nm or the vertical axis of 1000 nm, respectively. This work advances our understanding of how to improve light trapping based on the symmetry breaking from the CNWs to ENWs and provides a rational way for designing high-efficiency single or self-assembled NW photovoltaic devices.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: NMDA receptors; P2X2 receptors; P2X4 receptors; cross-talk
Online: 4 August 2020 (07:32:07 CEST)
Purinergic receptors (P2X) are ATP-gated ion channels with an elusive role in the CNS. While the P2X2 and P2X4 subtypes are widely expressed in most neurons (i.e. at the edge of the postsynaptic densities of excitatory synapses), the direct contribution of P2X to synaptic transmission is uncertain. Several P2X have been shown to participate in receptor cross-talk: an interaction where one receptor (e.g. P2X2) influences the activity of another (e.g. GABA or AMPA receptors.) In this study, we tested for interactions between P2X2 or P2X4 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Using two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology experiments in X. laevis oocytes, we demonstrate that both P2X2 and P2X4 interact with NMDARs in an inhibitory manner. When investigating the molecular domains responsible for this phenomenon, we found that the P2X2 c-terminus (CT) could interfere with P2X2 and P2X4 interactions with NMDARs. We also report that 11 distal CT residues on the P2X4 facilitate the P2X4-NMDAR interaction, and that a peptide consisting of these P2X4 CT residues (11C) can disrupt the interaction between NMDARs and P2X2 or P2X4. Collectively, these results provide new evidence for the modulatory nature of P2X2 and P2X4, suggesting they might play a more nuanced role in the CNS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: motion parameters estimation, wideband LFM radar, cross-correlation.
Online: 17 April 2017 (05:00:46 CEST)
In wideband radar systems, the performance of motion parameters estimation can significantly affect the performance of object detection and the quality of inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) imaging. Although the traditional motion parameters estimation methods can reduce the range migration (RM) and Doppler frequency migration (DFM) effects in ISAR imaging, the computational complexity is high. In this paper, we propose a new fast non-searching motion parameters estimation method based on cross-correlation of adjacent echoes (CCAE) for wideband LFM signals. A cross-correlation operation is carried out for two adjacent echo signals, then the motion parameters can be calculated by estimating the frequency of the correlation result. The proposed CCAE method can be applied directly to the stretching system, which is commonly adopted in wideband radar systems. Simulational results demonstrate that the new method can achieve better estimation performances, with much lower computational cost, compared with existing methods. The experimental results on real radar data sets are also evaluated to verify the effectiveness and superiority of the proposed method compared to the state-of-the-art existing methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0169.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: viroid; resistance; tolerance; RNA silencing; plant hormone; spray-induced gene silencing; genome editing
Online: 9 November 2022 (03:10:00 CET)
Viroids are known the smallest plant pathogens, and although their genome sequences do not encode proteins, they can cause disease in economically important crops. In order to control viroid diseases and mitigate their damage, genetic resources used for breeding of the viroid-resistant crop have been searched, but the practical resistant trait has not been found in almost all viroid-crop combinations, as well as the tolerant trait. Due to the difficulty in exploiting naturally occurring resistance or tolerance, various effective strategies have been devised to control viroid diseases using non-transforming or transforming techniques. Meanwhile, extensive findings related to viroid resistance and tolerance may lead to confer resistance or tolerance to viroid infection by combining with the recently emerged new technologies (e.g., spray-induced gene silencing and genome-editing technologies), which are believed to be more environmentally viable and acceptable to the general public than previously reported approaches. In particular, some genome-modified crops produced by the latter technology are already on the market. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the current status about investigation of naturally occurring genetic traits for viroid resistance and tolerance, accumulating knowledge about host factors involved in viroid pathogenicity, and various basic technologies developed to try to possible viroid disease control strategies. Furthermore, we discuss prospects and challenges for the achievement of more effective, practical, and sustainable disease control of viroid.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0117.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: abiotic stress tolerance; base editing; CRISPR/Cas9; crop production; gene editing; prime editing
Online: 8 September 2022 (03:31:39 CEST)
Abiotic stresses, including drought, salinity, cold, heat, and heavy metals, extensively reduce global agricultural production. Approaches such as conventional breeding and transgenic breeding have been widely used to cope with these environmental stresses. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat- Cas (CRISPR/Cas) based gene-editing tool has revolutionized due to its simplicity, accessibility, adaptability, flexibility, and wide applicability. This system has a great potential to build up crop varieties with enhanced tolerance against abiotic stresses. In this review, we summarize the most recent findings on understanding the mechanism of abiotic stress response in plants and the application of CRISPR/Cas mediated gene-editing system towards enhanced tolerance to drought, salinity, cold, heat, and heavy metals stresses. Furthermore, in this review, we highlighted the recent advancements in prime editing and base editing tools for crop improvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0474.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: CRISPR/Cas9; knockout; rescue; desiccation tolerance; anhydrobiosis; Polypedilum vanderplanki; HSF1; insect cell; Pv11
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:17:34 CEST)
Pv11, an insect cell line established from the midge Polypedilum vanderplanki, is capable of ametabolic desiccation tolerance, so-called anhydrobiosis. We previously discovered that heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) contributes to the acquisition of desiccation tolerance by Pv11 cells, but the mechanistic details have yet to be elucidated. Here, by analyzing the gene expression profiles of newly established HSF1-knockout and -rescue cell lines, we show that HSF1 has a genome-wide effect on gene regulation in Pv11. HSF1-knockout cells exhibit a reduced desiccation survival rate, but this is completely restored in HSF1-rescue cells. By comparing mRNA profiles of the two cell lines, we reveal that HSF1 induces anhydrobiosis-related genes, especially genes encoding late embryogenesis abundant proteins and thioredoxins, but represses a group of genes involved in basal cellular processes, thus promoting an ametabolic state in the cell. In addition, HSF1 binding motifs are enriched in the promoters of anhydrobiosis-related genes and we demonstrate binding of HSF1 to these promoters by ChIP-qPCR. Thus, HSF1 directly regulates the transcription of anhydrobiosis-related genes and consequently plays a pivotal role in the induction of anhydrobiotic ability in Pv11 cells.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0138.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: host resistance; tolerance; honey bee; Varroa destructor; marker assisted selection; host-parasite interactions
Online: 9 April 2020 (06:06:11 CEST)
The ectoparasitic mite Varroa destructor is the most significant pathological threat to the western honey bee, Apis mellifera, leading to the death of most colonies if left untreated. An alternative approach to chemical treatments is to selectively enhance heritable honey bee traits of resistance or tolerance to the mite through breeding programs, or select for naturally surviving untreated colonies. We conducted a literature review of all studies documenting traits of A. mellifera populations either selectively bred or naturally selected for resistance and tolerance to mite parasitism. This allowed us to conduct an analysis of the diversity, distribution and importance of the traits in different honey bee populations that can survive V. destructor throughout the globe. In a second analysis, we investigated the genetic bases of these different phenotypes by comparing ’omics studies (genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics) of A. mellifera resistance and tolerance to the parasite. Altogether, this review provides a detailed overview of the current state of the research projects and breeding efforts against the most devastating parasite of A. mellifera. By highlighting the most promising traits of varroa-surviving bees and our current knowledge on their genetic bases, this work will help direct future research efforts and selection programs to control this pest. Additionally, by comparing the diverse populations of honey bees that exhibit the traits, this review highlights the consequences of anthropogenic and natural selection on the interactions between hosts and parasites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0134.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV); viral infection; autoimmunity; molecular mimicry; bystander activation; immune tolerance
Online: 3 October 2019 (13:51:08 CEST)
Viral infections are a natural part of our existence. They can affect us in many ways that are the result of the interaction between the viral pathogen and our immune system. Most times the resulting immune response is beneficial for the host. The pathogen gets cleared thus protecting our vital organs with no other consequences. Conversely, the reaction of our immune system against the pathogen can cause organ damage (immunopathology) or lead to autoimmune disease. To date, there are several mechanisms for virus-induced autoimmune disease, including molecular mimicry and bystander activation, in support of the “fertile field” hypothesis, terms defined in our review. On the flip side, viral infections have been associated with protection from autoimmunity through mechanisms that include Treg invigoration and immune deviation, in support of the “hygiene hypothesis”, also defined here. Infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) is one of the prototypes showing that the interaction of our immune system with viruses can either accelerate or prevent autoimmunity. Studies using mouse models of LCMV have helped conceive and establish several concepts that we today know and explain how viruses can lead to autoimmune activation or induce tolerance. Some of the most important mechanisms established during the course LCMV are described in this short review.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0084.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: drought tolerance; roadside woody vegetation; Simpson diversity; site conditions; tree mortality; tree planting initiatives
Online: 4 March 2022 (17:04:27 CET)
Long-term, multi-decade research on planted tree survival in urban settings is sparse. One understudied urban environment is highway rights-of-way (ROW), lands adjacent to high-speed, unsignalized roadways. We conducted a re-inventory of tree planting cohort in northern Illinois, U.S. on a 48 km-long highway near Chicago which were 10-, 21-, and 30-years old to evaluate long-term patterns of survival and diversity. Using each randomly selected planting site along the highway as a unit of observation and analysis, we compared the number of trees documented in record drawing to the number of trees currently alive to determine percent survival. We evaluated 224 planting sites which originally contained 2,944 trees and collected data about the planting site location. For the oldest cohort, 26% of trees were still alive in 2018 (median survival by species = 16%, Q1 = 0%, Q3 = 48%), while 31% of the 21-year-old cohort (med. = 6%, Q1 = 0%, Q3 = 47%) and 86% of the 10-year-old cohort were still alive (med. = 85%, Q1 = 74%, Q3 = 96%). The survival of the 21- and 30-year-old cohort matches urban tree survival estimates by other researchers, while the 10-year-old survival is higher than expected. The only planting location characteristic that significantly affected survival was traffic islands (areas between the highway and entrance/exit ramps). Species with low drought tolerance were less likely to be alive for the 10-year-old cohort. Waterlogging tolerant species were more likely to be alive in the 10-year-old cohort. Since some species in the 21- and 30-year-old cohorts had very low survival, the tree species richness and diversity s in study areas declined between the initial record drawings and reinventory. This study demonstrates the challenges of maintaining long-term survival and diversity in the highway ROW and emphasizes the importance of species selection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0006.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Digital Twin; Blockchain; Proof-of-Work; Microservices; Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA); Byzantine Fault Tolerance
Online: 1 November 2021 (11:21:41 CET)
Blockchain technology has been recognized as a promising solution to enhance the security and privacy of Internet of Things (IoT) and Edge Computing scenarios. Taking advantage of the Proof-of-Work (PoW) consensus protocol, which solves a computation intensive hashing puzzle, Blockchain assures the security of the system by establishing a digital ledger. However, the computation intensive PoW favors members possessing more computing power. In the IoT paradigm, fairness in the highly heterogeneous network edge environments must consider devices with various constraints on computation power. Inspired by the advanced features of Digital Twins (DT), an emerging concept that mirrors the lifespan and operational characteristics of physical objects, we propose a novel Miner-Twins (MinT) architecture to enable a fair PoW consensus mechanism for blockchains in IoT environments. MinT adopts an edge-fog-cloud hierarchy. All physical miners of the blockchain are deployed as microservices on distributed edge devices, while fog/cloud servers maintain digital twins that periodically update miners’ running status. By timely monitoring miner’s footage that is mirrored by twins, a lightweight Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA) based detection achieves to identify individual misbehaved miners that violate fair mining. Moreover, we also design a novel Proof-of-Behavior (PoB) consensus algorithm to detect byzantine miners that collude to compromise a fair mining network. A preliminary study is conducted on a proof-of-concept prototype implementation, and experimental evaluation shows the feasibility and effectiveness of proposed MinT scheme under a distributed byzantine network environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0395.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: 2,4-D; upland cotton; chromosome substitution lines; herbicide tolerance; 2,4-D absorption and translocation
Online: 23 September 2021 (08:10:50 CEST)
Upland cotton is sensitive to 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and the identification of potentially 2,4-D tolerant cotton chromosome substitution (CS) lines and understanding tolerance mechanisms provide a significant step into the development and genetic improvement of upland cotton to reduce yield loss caused by 2,4-D herbicide effects including the drifts. Experiments were conducted to understand the possible mechanism of herbicide tolerance in CS-T04-15, CS-T07, and CS-B15sh, 2,4-D herbicide-tolerant cotton CS lines compared with TM-1, the 2,4-D herbicide susceptible recurrent parent of the CS line as control, using [14C]2,4-D. Percent absorption rate and translocation patterns of the 14C-labeled herbicide application at 5.17 kBq at 6 to 48 hours after treatment (HAT) were determined. The tolerant cotton CS lines showed 15-19% [14C]2,4-D uptake while TM-1 exhibited a reduced uptake of only 1.4% [14C]2,4-D at 24 HAT. Distribution of the absorbed [14C]2,4-D showed that 2-5% was translocated outside the treated leaf. In TM-1, 77% of the herbicide was translocated above and below the treated leaf, contrasting with the reduced translocation of 14C-labeled herbicide observed in the tolerant CS lines. Interestingly, CS-T04-15 showed a restricted movement of 14C below the treated leaf at 6 to 48 HAT, suggesting a novel mechanism of herbicide tolerance. This finding is the first report on upland cotton demonstrating a complex differential uptake and translocation associated with herbicide tolerance for [14C]2,4-D in cotton CS lines.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0072.v1
Subject: Keywords: Sporadic tasks; fault tolerance; scheduling; real time system; virtualized clouding; petri net; distributive systems
Online: 5 December 2019 (11:50:40 CET)
Scheduling of real time tasks are very important aspect in systems as processes should complete its task at a specific time. There is a need of high energy efficiency and low response time in large data stream so for this energy efficient resources and optimized frameworks are needed. Both hard real time and mixed critically systems are targeted. Soft deadline can be handled while hard deadlines are difficult to cater. Different algorithms are used to schedule tasks like rate monotonic, earliest deadline first, deadline monotonic etc.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0145.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: drought stress; drought models; drought tolerance; oxidative stress; phytohormones; polyethylene glycol (PEG); stress markers
Online: 12 December 2018 (12:19:35 CET)
Drought is one of the major stress factors affecting growth and development of plants. In this context, drought-related losses of crop plant productivity impede sustainable agriculture all over the world. In general, plants responses to water deficit by multiple physiological and metabolic adaptations at the molecular, cellular and organism levels. To understand the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance, adequate stress models and arrays of reliable stress markers are required. Therefore, in this review we comprehensively address currently available models of drought stress, based on culturing plants in soil, hydroponic or agar culture. These experimental setups give access to different aspects of plant response to drought, like decrease of tissue water potential, reduction of stomata conductance and photosynthesis efficiency, accumulation of low-molecular weight solutes (metabolic adjustment) and drought protective proteins. Till now, this pattern of markers was successfully extended to the methods of enzyme chemistry, molecular biology and omics techniques. Thus, conventional tests can be efficiently complemented by determination of phytohormone and reactive oxygen species (ROS) contents, activities of antioxidant enzymes, as well as comprehensive profiling of transcriptome, proteome and metabolome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0206.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: storage and retrieval processes; load-balancing; fault tolerance; energy efficiency; memory efficiency; data loss
Online: 11 July 2018 (14:47:31 CEST)
Load balancing, energy efficiency and fault tolerance are among the most important data dissemination issues in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). In order to successfully cope with the mentioned issues, two main approaches (namely, Data-centric Storage and Distributed Data Storage) have been proposed in the literature. Both approaches suffer from data loss due to memory and/or energy depletion in the storage nodes. Even though several techniques have been proposed so far to overcome the mentioned problems, the proposed solutions typically focus on one issue at a time. In this paper, we integrate the Data-centric Storage (DCS) features into Distributed Data Storage (DDS) mechanisms and present a novel approach, denoted as Collaborative Memory and Energy Management (CoMEM), to overcome both problems and bring memory and energy efficiency to the data loss mechanism of WSNs. We also propose analytical and simulation frameworks for performance evaluation. Our results show that the proposed method outperforms existing approaches in various WSN scenarios.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0101.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: spleen; islet transplantation; transplant site; immunity; tolerance; regeneration; diabetes mellitus; mesenchymal stem cell; Sjogren’s syndrome; HOX
Online: 2 April 2018 (11:05:40 CEST)
In this review, we show the unique potential of spleen as an optimal site for islet transplantation and a source of mesenchymal stem cells. Islet transplantation is a cellular replacement therapy to treat severe diabetes mellitus, but its clinical outcome is unsatisfactory at present. One factor in clinical success of this therapy is selection of the most appropriate transplantation site. The spleen has been studied for a long time as a candidate site for islet transplantation. Its advantages include physiological insulin drainage and regulation of immunity. Recently it has also been shown that the spleen contributes to the regeneration of transplanted islets. The efficacy of transplantation is not as high as that obtained with intraportal transplantation, which is the current representative method of clinical islet transplantation. Safer and more effective methods of islet transplantation need to be established before the spleen can be effectively used in the clinic. Spleen also has an interesting aspect as a mesenchymal stem cell reservoir. The splenic mesenchymal stem cells contribute to tissue repair in damaged tissue, and thus, the infusion can be a promising therapy for autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes mellitus and Sjogren’s syndrome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0029.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: financial ratios; cross section; oil and gas trading industry
Online: 2 December 2022 (01:51:17 CET)
This research was conducted with the aim of knowing how to compare the financial performance of the oil and gas trading industry with cross-sectional analysis techniques. The type of research conducted in this research is qualitative research with research objects at several companies, namely PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk, PT Elnusa Tbk, PT AKR Corporindo Tbk, and PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk. The data used in this study comes from secondary data, namely the internet in the form of company financial reports for the 2019-2021 period obtained from the Indonesia Stock Exchange. The results of this study indicate that PT Radiant Utama Interinsco Tbk has the best financial performance on inventory turnover ratio and average age, PT Elnusa Tbk has good inventory performance on current ratio, quick ratio, DAR, and DER., PT AKR. Corporindo Tbk has performed well on the ratios of TIE, FCC, Dividend Payout, Dividend Yield, and PER. PT Aneka Gas Industri Tbk has performed well on the ratio of Receivables Turnover Ratio and Average Age of Receivables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0138.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: COVID-19; vaccination; government; cross-sectional survey; perceived risk
Online: 11 October 2022 (04:21:45 CEST)
Introduction: This study explores exposure to misinformation, COVID-19 risk perception, and confidence towards the government as predictors to negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out from 30 June to 30 August 2021 involving 775 respondents. The survey instrument for the questionnaire is an adaptation from various different studies consisting of five main variables: 1) misinformation about vaccination; 2) risk perception toward COVID-19; 3) attitudes toward the vaccination programme; 4) intention to get vaccinated; and 5) public confidence in the government in executing the vaccination programme. Results: The results of this study indicate that higher exposure to misinformation led to higher levels of negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. When the perceived risk of COVID-19 infection was high, mistrust of vaccine benefits was low but there were also higher worries about the future effects of the vaccine. Confidence in government was associated with lower negative attitudes toward the COVID-19 vaccine. Conclusion: The results of this study may help develop an understanding of negative attitudes toward vaccinations in Malaysia and its contributing factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0132.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: cross country skiing; IMU; wearable sensors; LSTM; neural network
Online: 11 October 2022 (03:04:09 CEST)
Objective: The aim of this study was to provide a new machine learning method to determine temporal events and inner-cycle parameters (e.g., cycle, poles and skis contact and swing time) in cross-country roller ski skating on the field, using a single deported inertial measurement unit (IMU). Methods: The developed method is based on long short-term memory neural networks to detect poles and skis initial and final contact with the ground during the cyclic movements. Eleven athletes skied four laps of 2.5 km at low and high intensity using skis with two different rolling coefficients. They were equipped with IMUs attached to the upper back, lower back and to the sternum. Data from force insoles and force poles were used as reference system. Results: The IMU placed on the upper back provided the best results, as the LSTM network was able to determine the temporal events with an accuracy ranging from 49 to 55 ms and the corresponding inner-cycles parameters were calculated with a precision of 63 to 68 ms. The method detected 95% of the events for the poles and 87% of the events for the skis. Conclusion: The proposed LSTM method provides a promising tool for assessing temporal events and inner-cycle phases in roller ski skating showing the potential of using a deported IMU to estimate different spatio-temporal parameters of human locomotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0524.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography Keywords: Vietnam; China; Vietnam - China border; tourism; cross-border tourism
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:32:48 CEST)
This article aims to identify the current development of cross-border tourism between Vietnam and China. The paper analyzes the perception and strategy of cross-border tourism development in the two countries, especially in the context of China’s implementation of the “Belt and Road Initiative” (BRI). The article emphasizes that Vietnam and China have recently made efforts to promote cross-border tourism development. At the same time, Vietnam and China see cross-border tourism development as a significant part of comprehensive border cooperation between the two countries. However, the development plans for cross-border tourism between the two countries are still mainly on the desk, not yet implemented effectively. Thus, its achievements are relatively modest. Besides, the article emphasizes that the interests of the people living in the border area, especially the Vietnam side, are almost “forgotten” in the development of cross-border travel between the two countries. Besides, the article also analyzes the challenges that the two sides are facing, especially the Vietnam side, in promoting the development of cross-border tourism between the two countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: anti DENV IgM; IgG; Antibody-dependent enhancement; Cross-immunity
Online: 14 July 2022 (11:41:25 CEST)
Background: Dengue is the most common arthropod-borne sickness worldwide, impacting at least 50 million people each year. The dengue virus has four primary serotypes. Infection with one serotype confers homotypic immunity but not heterologous immunity, and secondary infections may be more severe. Although blood transfusions and organ donations have also been observed, the Aedes aegypti mosquito is the primary vector for the transmission of dengue. Infection causes a continuum of clinical illness, from asymptomatic infection to dengue fever, DHF, and dengue shock syndrome (DSS).Aim: To assess the presence of anti DENV IgG and anti DENV IgM antibodies specific to the four dengue serotypes in blood donor service donors and the importance of pre-donation screening in routine blood collection procedures.Method: 3 mL of peripheral venous blood from 507 blood donors was collected in tubes with BD vacutainer gel tube for serum separation after epidemiological records were reviewed. After that, serum was separated and tests were performed by SD Bioline Dengue Duo. Participants in the study completed a social and epidemiological questionnaire that contained information such as age, gender, and dengue diagnosis.Result: Out of the 507 blood samples that were taken, 473 (93.3%) came from male blood donors, while the remaining 34 (6.7%) belonged to female blood donors. The ratio of males to females is 13.91 to 1. The age range is 18–60 years, and the mean and standard deviation are both 27.7 and 6.5. 183 of the 507 samples produced anti DENV IgG positivity, while 324 did not. The ratio of positive to negative was 1.25:2.Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, quantitative methods for determining the presence of anti-dengue antibodies or detecting the dengue virus in blood donors in endemic areas should be devised in order to ensure the quality of blood transfusions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: medical fear; children; psychometric properties; cross-cultural adaptation; Spanish
Online: 8 November 2021 (14:33:48 CET)
Having valid and reliable tools that help health professionals to assess fear in children undergoing medical procedures is essential to offer humanized and quality of care in the paediatric population. The aim of this study was to develop the cross-cultural adaptation and the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the “Child Medical Fear Scale” in its shortened version (CMFS-R). The design consisted of two phases, first of cross-cultural adaptation and second of the psychometric validation of the CMFS-R with a sample of 262 children from Spain. Confirmatory factor analysis was conducted to assess construct validity and the Cronbach alpha and the adjusted item-total score correlation coefficients were performed to study reliability. The results confirmed internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the CMFS-R, indicating that the scale has an acceptable level of validity and reliability. Therefore, this study brings a new version of the scale to assess fear related to medical procedures for use in the Spanish paediatric population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: cross-laminated timber; hygrothermal; energy; moisture; durability; tropical; passivhaus
Online: 10 September 2021 (11:21:01 CEST)
The uptake of buildings employing cross-laminated timber (CLT) assemblies and designed to Passivhaus standard has accelerated internationally over the past two decades due to several factors including design responses to the climate crisis by decarbonising the building stock. Structural CLT technology and the voluntary Passivhaus certification both show measurable benefits in reducing energy consumption, while contributing to durability and indoor comfort. However, there is a general lack of evidence to support a fast uptake of these technologies in Australia. This paper responds to the compelling need of providing quantitative data and adoption strategies, it explores their combined application as a potential pathway for climate-appropriate design of energy-efficient and durable mass timber envelope solutions for subtropical and tropical Australian climates. Hygrothermal risk assessments of interstitial condensation and mould growth of CLT wall assemblies inform best-practice design of mass timber buildings in hot and humid climates. This research found that the durability of mass timber buildings located in hot and humid climates may benefit from implementing the Passivhaus standard to manage interior conditions. The findings also suggested that climate-specific design of the wall assembly is critical for mass timber buildings, in conjunction with excellent stormwater management practices during construction and corrosion protection for metallic fasteners.
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Azolium MOFs; Dye adsorption; Post modification; Cross-coupling reactions
Online: 30 November 2020 (14:14:52 CET)
Two ligands, 1, 3-bis(4-carboxyphenyl)imidazolium chloride and 4, 4՛-bipyridine, were employed to prepare nickel and zinc azolium based MOFs, 1 and 2 by the mixed ligand solvothermal approach. The positively charged azolium moieties in the imidazolium linker resulted in a charged environment in the as-synthesized frameworks. As a result, 1 and 2 demonstrated preferential adsorption of CO2 over methane molecules in the gas phase adsorption due to the higher quadruple moment of CO2, which interacts more with the positively charged frameworks. Besides, in aqueous media, 1 and 2 exhibited incredible adsorption efficiency for anionic dyes. In the following, MOF 1 was metallated at the carbene site of the azolium linker to generate the novel heterogeneous catalyst 1-Pd, which was successfully applied for Sonogashira and Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reactions without losing its activity after three cycles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0194.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hydrogel; e-beam cross-linking; swelling; ibuprofen; network parameters
Online: 4 November 2020 (12:41:17 CET)
We report on the successful preparation of wet dressings hydrogels based on Chitosan-Poly(N-Vinyl-Pyrrolidone)-Poly(ethylene glycol)-Poly(acrylic acid) and Poly(ethylene oxide) by e-beam cross-linking in weakly acidic media, to be used for rapid healing and pain release of infected skin wounds. The structure and compositions of hydrogels investigated according to sol-gel and swelling studies, network parameters, as well as FTIR and XPS analyses showed the efficient interaction of the hydrogel components upon irradiation, maintaining the bonding environment while the cross-linking degree increasing with the irradiation dose and the formation of a structure with the mesh size in the range 11-67 nm. Hydrogels with gel fraction above 85% and the best-swelling properties in different pH solutions were obtained for hydrogels produced with 15 kGy. The hydrogels are stable in the simulated physiological condition of an infected wound and show appropriate moisture retention capability and the water vapor transmission rate up to 272.67 g m-2 day-1, to ensure fast healing. The hydrogels proved to have a significant loading capacity of ibuprofen (IBU), being able to incorporate a therapeutic dose for the treatment of severe pains. Simultaneously, IBU was released up to 25% in the first 2h, having a release maximum after 8h.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0178.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: COVID-19; pandemics; quarantine; psychological distress; cross-sectional studies
Online: 8 October 2020 (13:14:13 CEST)
Mass crises are disruptive to people's mental health. The study aimed to explore mental distress during COVID-19 quarantine in a sample of university workers in Brazil. The survey included sets of questions about demographics, health, and support, an open question about major concerns, and the Clinical Outcome Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM), a measure of mental distress. 407 professionals participated in the study: mean age of 40 years (SD = 11.2), mostly female (67.8%), married (64.8%) and fulfilling social distancing to avoid COVID-19 infection (99%). Using the Consensual Qualitative Research for simple qualitative data (CQR-M) the main areas of concern were grouped into six domains, as follows: Work, Health, Isolation, Personal life and routine, Social environment, and Future. Many responses were multiple. They form categories indicating specific concerns within these domains. Quantitative data were analyzed by identifying the simple effects of potential predictors of mental distress. The results indicated medium effects of help with household chores, psychiatric treatment, age and physical exercise. Having someone available to listen was the only variable with a large effect in reducing mental suffering. The hybrid approach showed that the psychological experience during the pandemic is quite multifaceted and complex pointing new clues for public mental health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Reference evapotranspiration; agro-meteorological; multifractal; scaling; cross-correlations; persistence
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:17:39 CEST)
This paper examined the multifractal properties of six acknowledged agro-meteorological parameters, such as reference evapotranspiration (ET0), wind speed (U), incoming solar radiation (SR), air temperature (T), air pressure (P), and relative air humidity (RH) of five stations in California, USA. The investigation of multifractality of datasets from stations with differing terrain conditions: Dagget, Bakersfield, Santa Maria, Los Angeles and San Diego using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis showed the existence of a long term persistence and multifractality irrespective of the location. The scaling exponents of SR and ET0 time series are found to be higher for stations with higher altitudes. Subsequently, this study proposed using the novel multifractal cross correlation (MFCCA) method to examine the multiscale-multifractal correlations properties between ET0 and other investigated variables. MFCCA could successfully capture the scale dependent association of different variables and the dynamics in the nature of their associations from seasonal to multi-annual time scale. The multifractal exponents of pressure and relative air humidity are consistently lower than the exponents of ET0, irrespective of station location. This study found that joint scaling exponent was nearly the average of scaling exponents of individual series in different pairs of variables. Additionally, the α-values of joint multifractal spectrum were lower than the α values of both of the individual spectra, validating two universal properties in the mutifractal cross correlation studies for agro-meteorological time series. The temporal evolution of cross-correlation showed similar pattern for all pair-wise associations involving ET0, except for the RH-ET0 link.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0082.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: exploratory analysis; model selection; MLR; K fold cross validation
Online: 5 October 2020 (12:16:38 CEST)
In this project, we use a statistical multiple regression to study the impact of eight various predictors (relative compactness, surface area, wall area, roof area, overall height, orientation, glazing area, glazing area distribution) to estimate the cooling load energy efficiency of residential buildings. We try to analyze and visualize the effect of each predictor with each of the response variable using different classical statistical analysis tools used in describing linear models, in such a way so that we can find out the most strongly related predictor variables. Before starting all of this, we use the idea of model selection by stepwise regression technique and compare the AIC of these models and identified a better model between all of them. Then, we compare a classical linear regression approach by simulations on 768 diverse residential buildings show that we can predict CL with low mean absolute error. By using ANOVA we determine variation in the different residuals. Also, we use non constant variance test to verify it. Furthermore, we check leverage and influence points as well as outliers as well as determined cook distance for influential points. By taking box cox transformation and weights, we also introduce WLS technique to fit the model for better results and did all type of important analysis to understand the energy efficiency. Finally, we show 5-fold cross validation to verify our model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0416.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: adversarial learning; deep cross-modal hashing; self-attention mechanism
Online: 18 September 2020 (04:16:58 CEST)
Recently deep cross-modal hashing networks have received increasing interests due to its superior query efficiency and low storage cost. However, most of existing methods concentrate less on hash representations learning part, which means the semantic information of data cannot be fully used. Furthermore, they may neglect the high-ranking relevance and consistency of hash codes. To solve these problems, we propose a Self-Attention and Adversary Guided Hashing Network (SAAGHN). Specifically, it employs self-attention mechanism in hash representations learning part to extract rich semantic relevance information. Meanwhile, in order to keep invariability of hash codes, adversarial learning is adopted in the hash codes learning part. In addition, to generate higher-ranking hash codes and avoid local minima early, a new batch semi-hard cosine triplet loss and a cosine quantization loss are proposed. Extensive experiments on two benchmark datasets have shown that SAAGHN outperforms other baselines and achieves the state-of-the-art performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika; Yellow fever; cross reactive; flavivirus; congenital infection; enhancement
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:12:58 CEST)
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that originated in Africa but emerged in Latin America in 2015. In this region, other flaviviruses such as Dengue (DENV), West Nile, and Yellow Fever Virus (YFV) also circulate, allowing for possible antigenic cross-reactivity to impact viral infections and immune responses. Studies have found antibody mediated enhancement between DENV and ZIKV, but the impact of YFV antibodies on ZIKV infection has not been fully explored. ZIKV infections cause congenital syndromes, such as microcephaly, necessitating further research into ZIKV vertical transmission through the placental barrier. Recent advancements in biomedical engineering have generated co-culture methods that allow for in vitro recapitulation of the maternal: fetal interface. This study utilized a transwell assay, which is a co-culture model utilizing human placental syncytiotrophoblasts, fetal umbilical cells, and a differentiating embryoid body to replicate the maternal: fetal axis. To determine if cross reactive YFV vaccine antibodies impact the pathogenesis of ZIKV across the maternal fetal axis, maternal syncytiotrophoblasts were inoculated with ZIKV or ZIKV incubated with YFV vaccine anti-sera, and viral load was measured 72 hours post inoculation. The data show that the impact of YFV on ZIKV replication is cell line dependent. In differentiating embryoids, the presence of YFV antibodies enhanced ZIKV infection. Since viral pathogenesis, and the impact of antigenic cross-reactive antibodies, is cell line specific at the maternal-fetal axis, this suggests there may be discreet mechanisms that impact congenital ZIKV infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0362.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cross-sectional survey; antibiotic use; antimicrobial resistance; knowledge; brunei
Online: 23 May 2020 (05:54:43 CEST)
Background: Public misconception and demand for the indication of antibiotics could lead to inappropriate prescribing and consumption. Successful treatment can only be achieved when the public and industrial users have knowledge on antibiotic use and resistance. This survey is aimed to assess antibiotic usage and knowledge regarding antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) among undergraduate students of Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD), public university located in Brunei Darussalam. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire was adapted from the World Health Organization (WHO) Antibiotic Resistance, Multi-country public awareness survey distributed online. Students at UBD were invited to participate in the online survey through internal email. The questionnaire consisted of 5 sections: demographic information, antibiotic usage, knowledge on antibiotics, antibiotic resistance (AMR) and use of antibiotics in agriculture. Data were analyzed descriptively and appropriate inferential statistics was used accordingly. Cronbach’s alpha was also done to determine the internal consistency. The section on antibiotic use and knowledge showed good internal consistency of Cronbach’s alpha 0.66 and 0.86 respectively. Research ethics approval was obtained from the PAPRSB Institute of Health Sciences, Universiti Brunei Darussalam (UBD). Results: A total of 145 students returned the complete questionnaire. The result of the study found that 50% of the students had good level of knowledge of antibiotic and antimicrobial resistance with a mean total knowledge score of 11.4 out of 14. Respondents reported the use of antibiotic in the past (69%). Many of the students could identify the use of antibiotics for the treatment of bacterial infection. However, there were also students who incorrectly thought that antibiotics can be used for cold and flu (43%) and fever (41%). Moreover, 76% of the respondents mistakenly believed that antibiotic resistance is the result of the body becoming resistant to antibiotics. Only 12% of the respondents were found to have poor knowledge in the study. Conclusions: Misconceptions in regards to the use of antibiotics for conditions related to viral illnesses was noticed among the respondents in our study. Thus, improving knowledge on antibiotics is crucial to address those beliefs.
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; companion animals; cross-infection
Online: 17 May 2020 (15:27:24 CEST)
Since the COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 break out in Wuhan China from Dec. 2019, it has spread to hundreds of countries up to now. Scientists from all over the world have paid tremendous efforts to research and try to control the disease. Previous studies suggested that some of the wild animals could be intermediate hosts between humans and origination of SARS-CoV-2, and some companion animals of humans can be infected by SARS-CoV-2, which raised our curiosity about cross-infection of SARS-CoV-2 between animals and humans. Thus, we select some kinds of animals that might have contact with humans to estimate the susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 in different animals by evolutionary analysis of their receptors for SARS-CoV-2. The results show that some companion animals of the Felidae family like the cat has a higher infection possibility while the species of the Rodent family like the rat and mouse having close contact with humans show an opposite result, which consist with recent animal experiments and researches. These should raise concerns about cross-infection between human and companion animals or animals having close contact with humans which might turn animals into depositaries of the coronavirus even after control of SARS-CoV-2 spreading and cause second or more waves of infections after social reopening. Another side of our results stands by the opinion that bioinformatic analysis can be consistent with experiments in some respects so that we can prevent unnecessary sacrifice of laboratory animals in future experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0288.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Cross-modal retrieval; Adversarial learning; Semantic correlation; Deep learning
Online: 24 January 2020 (15:03:34 CET)
With the rapid development of Internet and the widely usage of smart devices, massive multimedia data are generated, collected, stored and shared on the Internet. This trend makes cross-modal retrieval problem become a hot issue in this years. Many existing works pay attentions on correlation learning to generate a common subspace for cross-modal correlation measurement, and others uses adversarial learning technique to abate the heterogeneity of multi-modal data. However, very few works combine correlation learning and adversarial learning to bridge the inter-modal semantic gap and diminish cross-modal heterogeneity. This paper propose a novel cross-modal retrieval method, named ALSCOR, which is an end-to-end framework to integrate cross-modal representation learning, correlation learning and adversarial. CCA model, accompanied by two representation model, VisNet and TxtNet is proposed to capture non-linear correlation. Beside, intra-modal classifier and modality classifier are used to learn intra-modal discrimination and minimize the inter-modal heterogeneity. Comprehensive experiments are conducted on three benchmark datasets. The results demonstrate that the proposed ALSCOR has better performance than the state-of-the-arts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0160.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Siamese neural network, appearance model, contrastive loss, cross entropy.
Online: 13 May 2019 (13:32:25 CEST)
An appearance model plays a crucial rule in multi-target tracking. In traditional approaches, the two steps of appearance modeling i.e visual representation and statistically similarity measure are modeled separately. Visual representation is achieved either through hand-crafted features or deep features and statically similarity is measure through a cross entropy loss function. A loss function based on cross-entropy (KL-divergence, mutual information) find closely related probability distribution for the targets. However, if the targets have similar visual representation, it ends up mixing the targets. To tackle this problem, we come up with a synergetic appearance model named Single Shot Appearance Model based on Siamese neural network. The network is trained with a contrastive loss function for finding the similarity between different targets in a single shot. The input to the network is two target patches and based on their similarity, a contrastive score is output by the network. The proposed model is evaluated on accumulative dissimilarity metric on three datasets. Quantitatively, promising results are achieved against three baseline methods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0118.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: Receptor-specific antibodies; targeting; nanoparticles; dendritic cells; cross-presentation
Online: 10 April 2019 (07:46:18 CEST)
Abstract Optimal targeting of nanoparticles (NP) to dendritic cells (DCs) receptors to deliver cancer-specific antigens is key to an efficient induction of anti-tumor immune responses. Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles containing tètanus toxoid and gp100 melanoma-associated antigen, toll-like receptor adjuvants were targeted to the DC-SIGN receptor in DCs by specific humanized antibodies or by ICAM3-Fc fusion proteins mimicking natural ligand. Despite higher binding and uptake efficacy of anti-DC-SIGN antibody-targeted NP vaccines than ICAM3-Fc ligand, no difference were observed in DC activation markers CD80, CD83, CD86 and CCR7 induced. DCs loaded with NP coated with ICAM3-Fc appeared more potent in activating T cells via cross-presentation than antibody-coated NP vaccines. This fact could be very crucial in the design of new cancer vaccines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0461.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: multi-task; Gaussian processes; cross convolution; spectral mixture; dependency
Online: 22 October 2018 (04:19:00 CEST)
Multi-task Gaussian processes (MTGPs) are a powerful approach for modeling structured dependencies among multiple tasks. Researchers on MTGPs have contributed to enhance this approach in various ways. Current MTGP methods, however, cannot model nonlinear task correlations in a general way. In this paper we address this problem. We focus on spectral mixture (SM) based kernels and propose an enhancement of this type of kernels, called multi-task generalized convolution spectral mixture (MT-GCSM) kernel. The MT-GCSM kernel can model nonlinear task correlations and mixtures dependency, including time and phase delay, not only between different tasks but also within a task at the spectral mixture level. Each task in MT-GCSM has its own generalized convolution spectral mixture kernel (GCSM) with a different number of convolution structures and all spectral mixtures from different tasks are dependent. Furthermore, the proposed kernel uses inner and outer full cross convolution between base spectral mixtures, so that the base spectral mixtures in the tasks are not necessarily aligned. Extensive experiments on synthetic and real-life datasets illustrate the difference between MT-GCSM and other kernels as well as the practical effectiveness of MT-GCSM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0012.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Immunology Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; citrulline-peptides; autoantibody; affinity; cross-reaction; targeting
Online: 2 January 2018 (11:50:04 CET)
Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) are responsible for disease onset and progression, however, our knowledge is limited on ligand binding affinities of autoantibodies with different citrulline-peptide specificity. Methods: Citrulline-peptide specific ACPA IgGs were affinity purified and tested by ELISA. Binding affinities of ACPA IgGs and serum antibodies were compared by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis. Bifunctional nanoparticles harboring a multi-epitope citrulline-peptide and a complement activating peptide were used to induce selective depletion of ACPA producing B cells. Results: KD values of affinity purified ACPA IgGs varies between 10-6-10-8 M and inversely correlate with disease activity. Based on their cross-reaction with citrulline-peptides we designed a novel multi-epitope peptide, containing Cit-Gly and Ala-Cit motifs in two-two copies, separated with a short, neutral spacer. This peptide detects antibodies in RA sera with 66 % sensitivity and 98 % specificity in ELISA and is recognized by 90% of RA sera, while none of the healthy samples in SPR. When coupled to nanoparticles, the multi-epitope peptide specifically targets and depletes ACPA producing B cells ex vivo. Conclusions: The unique multi-epitope peptide designed on the basis of ACPA cross-reactivity might be suitable to develop better diagnostics and novel therapies for RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0115.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: Palladium; Suzuki cross coupling; natural product; non-natural product
Online: 15 May 2017 (18:30:52 CEST)
New class of biologically active and non-active compounds can be synthesized via transition metal mediated Suzuki cross coupling reaction that has a great impact on the advancement of organic chemistry. These resulted products can lend a helping hand in pharmaceutical and polymer chemistry for the betterment of mankind. Suzuki-Miyaura cross coupling reaction is one of the best tools through which many natural and non-natural compounds can be synthesized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0147.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: myosin filament stiffness; actin filament stiffness; myosin cross-bridge stiffness; muscle transients; weak binding heads; contractile mechanism; cross-bridge cycle; rigor muscle
Online: 14 March 2019 (07:01:45 CET)
The stiffness of the myosin cross-bridges is a key factor in analysing possible scenarios to explain myosin head changes during force generation in active muscles. The seminal study of Huxley and Simmons (1971: Nature 233: 533) suggested that most of the observed half-sarcomere instantaneous compliance (=1/stiffness) resides in the myosin heads. They showed with a so-called T1 plot that, after a very fast release, the half-sarcomere tension reduced to zero after a step size of about 60Å (later with improved experiments reduced to 40Å). However, later X-ray diffraction studies showed that myosin and actin filaments themselves stretch slightly under tension, which means that most (at least two-thirds) of the half sarcomere compliance comes from the filaments and not from cross-bridges. Here we have used a different approach, namely to model the compliances in a virtual half sarcomere structure in silico. We confirm that the T1 curve comes almost entirely from length changes in the myosin and actin filaments, because the calculated cross-bridge stiffness (probably greater than 0.4 pN/Å) is higher than previous studies have suggested. In the light of this, we present a plausible modified scenario to describe aspects of the myosin cross-bridge cycle in active muscle. In particular, we suggest that, apart from the filament compliances, most of the cross-bridge contribution to the instantaneous T1 response comes from weakly-bound myosin heads, not myosin heads in strongly attached states. The strongly attached heads would still contribute to the T1 curve, but only in a very minor way, with a stiffness that we postulate could be around 0.1 pN/Å, a value which would generate a working stroke close to 100 Å from the hydrolysis of one ATP molecule. The new program can serve as a tool to calculate sarcomere elastic properties for any vertebrate striated muscle once various parameters have been determined (e.g. tension, T1 intercept, temperature, X-ray diffraction spacing results).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0343.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Agreement analysis; Bland-Altman method; Clinical tolerance limits; Limits of agreement; Nonparametric approach; Robust method
Online: 16 August 2021 (13:53:22 CEST)
Clinical agreement between two quantitative measurements on a group of subjects is generally assessed with the help of the Bland-Altman (B-A) limits. The interpretation regarding agreement is based on whether B-A limits are within the pre-specified clinical tolerance. Thus, clinical tolerance limits are necessary for this method. We argue in this communication that such limits of clinical tolerance can be directly used for assessing agreement and plead that this nonparametric approach is simple and robust to the distribution pattern and outliers. Such direct use of clinical tolerance limits has more flexibility, and it is more effective in assessing the extent of agreement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0462.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Antioxidants; ascorbate; Brassica juncea; cadmium stress; Cd defense and tolerance; glutathione; Indian mustard; sulfur assimilation.
Online: 18 March 2021 (09:29:59 CET)
The effect of four soil-applied sulfur [S; 100 mg S kg-1 soil (100S) and 200 mg S kg-1 soil (200S)] in different sources (elemental S, ammonium sulfate, gypsum or magnesium sulfate) in protecting mustard (Brassica juncea L. Czern & Coss.) from cadmium effects was studied. Based on the observed reduction in growth and photosynthesis in plants subjected to 100 and 200 mg Cd kg-1 soil, B. juncea cv. Giriraj was selected as the most Cd-tolerant among five cultivars (namely, Giriraj, RH-0749, Pusa Agrani, RH-406, and Pusa Tarak). Sulfur applied to soil mitigated the negative impact of Cd on sulfur assimilation, cell viability and photosynthetic functions, with a lower lipid peroxidation, electrolyte leakage, and contents of reactive oxygen species (ROS: hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, and superoxide anion, O2•−). Generally, added S caused a higher activity of antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase), and contents of ascorbate (AsA) and reduced glutathione (GSH), and increases in the activities of their regenerating enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase and GSH reductase), as well as rises in S assimilation, biosynthesis of non-protein thiols (NPTs) and phytochelatins (PCs). Compared to the other S-sources tested, elemental S more prominently protected B. juncea cv. Giriraj against Cd-impacts by minimizing Cd-accumulation and its root-to-shoot translocation; decreasing cellular ROS and membrane damage, and improving Cd-chelation (NPTs and PCs), so strengthening the defense machinery against Cd. The results suggest the use of elemental S for favoring the growth and development of cultivated plants also in Cd-contaminated agricultural soils.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Lockstep; Reliability; Fault Tolerance; Soft Error Mitigation; Zynq APSoC; ARM Cortex-A Processor; MicroBlaze Processor
Online: 8 August 2020 (04:57:57 CEST)
An attractive option for realizing applications in radiation environments is to employ All-Programmable System-on-Chips (APSoCs) thanks to their high-performance computing and power efficiency merits. Despite APSoC's advantages, like any other electronic device, they are prone to radiation effects. Processors found in APSoCs must, therefore, be adequately hardened against ionizing-radiation to become a viable alternative for harsh environments. This paper proposes a novel triple-core lockstep (TCLS) approach to secure the Xilinx Zynq-7000 APSoC dual-core ARM Cortex-A9 processor against radiation-induced soft errors by coupling it with a MicroBlaze TMR subsystem in Zynq's programmable logic (PL) layer. The proposed strategy uses software-level checkpointing principles along with roll-back and roll-forward mechanisms (i.e. software redundancy), and hardware-level processor replication as well as checker circuits (i.e. hardware redundancy). Results of fault injection experiments show that the proposed solution achieved high soft error security by mitigating about 99% of bit-flips injected into both ARM cores' register data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0508.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: cholesterol; cross-sectional study; dyslipidemia; lipids; Mali; type 2 diabetes
Online: 28 January 2023 (01:29:07 CET)
Dyslipidemia is a disorder where abnormally lipid concentrations circulate in the bloodstream. The disorder is common in type 2 diabetics (T2D) and is linked with T2D comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia in T2D is typically characterized by elevated plasma triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. There is a significant gap in the literature regarding dyslipidemia in rural parts of Africa, where lipid profiles may not be routinely captured through standard surveillance activities. This study aimed to characterize the prevalence and demographic profile of dyslipidemia in T2D patients in the rural community of Ganadougou, Mali. We performed a cross-sectional study of 104 subjects with T2D in Ganadougou between November 2021 and March 2022. Demographic and lipid profiles were collected through cross-sectional surveys and blood tests. The overall prevalence of dyslipidemia in T2D patients was 87.5% (91/104), which did not differ by sex (p = .368). High low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was the most common lipid abnormality (78.9%, [82/104]). Dyslipidemia was associated with age and hypertension status (p = .013 and p = .036, respectively). High total and high LDL-C parameters were significantly associated with hypertension (p = .029 and p = .006, respectively). In low-resource settings such as rural Mali, there is a critical need to improve infrastructure for routine dyslipidemia screening to guide its prevention and intervention approaches. The high rates of dyslipidemia observed in Gandadougou, consistent with concomitant increases in cardiovascular diseases in Africa suggest that lipid profile assessments should be incorporated into routine medical care for T2D patients in African rural settings.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0477.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: cross-country skiing; temporal event detection; wearable sensors; field analysis
Online: 25 November 2022 (10:09:08 CET)
The aim of this study was to adapt a treadmill-developed method for determination of inner-cycle parameters in cross-country roller ski skating for a field application. The method is based on detecting initial and final ground-contact of poles and skis during cyclic movements. Eleven athletes skied four laps of 2.5 km at low and high endurance-intensity, using two types of skis with different rolling coefficients. Participants were equipped with inertial measurement units (IMUs) attached to their wrists and skis, while insoles with pressure sensors and poles with force measurements were used as reference systems. The method based on IMUs was able to detect more than 97% of the temporal events compared to the reference system. The inner-cycle temporal parameters had a precision ranging from 49 to 59 ms, corresponding to 3.9% to 13.7% of the corresponding inner-cycle duration. Overall, this study showed good reliability of using IMUs on athlete’s wrists and skis to determine temporal events, inner-cycle parameters and the performed sub-techniques in cross-country roller ski skating in field-conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0060.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Impact; board of directors; endogeneity; cross-sectional dependence; firm performance
Online: 6 October 2022 (09:22:17 CEST)
The objectives of the research are to investigate the characteristics of the board of directors on the financial performance of the enterprise. Using a sample data from 52 construction and real estate enterprises listed on Vietnam stock exchange in the period 2006-2020. Using typical regression methods such as pooled OLS, FEM, REM and assessing the defects of the research model, the FGLS method is selected. At the same time, due to the existence of endogenous phenomena and the nature of interdependence among enterprises in Vietnam, research using the instrumental variables two-step generalized method of moments (IV-GMM) in order to correct for cross-sectional dependence, autocorrelation, endogeneity, and heteroskedasticity in the analysis. Research results suggest that board size, female board members, meeting frequency, and board members' education have a positive influence on financial performance. Moreover, the independence of the Board of Directors increases, the business efficiency decreases. The research also found a positive relationship of tangible fixed assets, and a negative relationship between capital structure choice, firm size and corporate financial performance.