ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: long-haul truck; crash scenarios; GIDAS; CARE; crash causation; European national crash data
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:35:39 CEST)
This paper addresses crashes involving heavy goods vehicles (HGV) in Europe focusing on long-haul trucks weighing 16 tons or more (16t+). The identification of the most critical scenarios and their characteristics is based on a three-level analysis: general crash statistics from CARE addressing all HGVs, results about 16t+ trucks from national crash databases and a detailed study of in-depth crash data from GIDAS, including a crash causation analysis. Most European HGV crashes occur in clear weather, during daylight, on dry roads, outside city limits, and on non-highway roads. Three main scenarios for 16t+ trucks are characterized in-depth: (1) rear-end crashes in which the truck is the striking partner, (2) conflicts during right turn maneuvers of the truck and a cyclist riding alongside and (3) pedestrians crossing the road in front of the truck. Among truck-related crash causes, information admission failures (e.g. distraction) were the main causing factors in 72% of cases in scenario (1) while information access problems (e.g. blind spots) were present for 72% of cases in scenario (2) and 75% of cases in scenario (3). The results provide both a global overview and sufficient depth of analysis in the most relevant cases and thereby aid safety system development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0035.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: pedestrian safety; crash severity; crash factors; ordered probit model; random parameter model
Online: 27 April 2018 (08:10:22 CEST)
Background: According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, 116 pedestrians were killed in motor vehicle crashes in Ohio in 2015. However, no study to date has analyzed crashes in Ohio exploring the factors contributing to the pedestrian injury severity resulting from motor vehicle crashes. This study fills this gap by investigating the crashes involving pedestrians exclusively in Ohio. Materials and Methods: This study uses the crash data from the Highway Safety Information System, from 2009 to 2013. The explanatory factors include the pedestrian, driver, vehicle, crash, and roadway characteristics. Both fixed- and random-parameters ordered probit models of injury severity (where possible outcomes are major, minor, and possible/no injury) were estimated. Results: The model results indicate that being older pedestrian (65 and over), younger driver (less than 24), driving under influence (DUI), being struck by truck, dark-unlighted roadways, six-lane roadways, and speed limit of 40 mph and 50 mph were associated with more severe injuries to the pedestrians. Conversely, older driver (65 and over), passenger car, crash occurring in urban locations, daytime traffic off-peak (10 AM to 3:59 PM), weekdays, and daylight condition were associated with less severe injuries. Conclusion: This study provides specific safety recommendations so that effective countermeasures could be developed and implemented by the policy makers, which in turn will improve overall highway safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0159.v1
Online: 12 February 2020 (12:26:51 CET)
The primary purpose of this investigation was to identify safety-oriented bicycling practices commonly used by adult riders in an urban setting (Brooklyn, New York), and to explore whether there are any differences between the safety-oriented practices of men and women riders. Methods: 24 adult riders (14 men, 10 women) in Brooklyn were interviewed concerning their perceptions of bicycling hazards and their safety-oriented practices. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed through thematic analysis. Fisher’s Exact Test was employed to test for gender differences. Results: Participants identified a variety of hazards, mainly due to motor vehicles but also pedestrians and roadway conditions. The analysis distilled twenty-one bicycling practices to summarize prevalent views of the participants about safe riding practices. Related items were grouped under broader categories, generating seven safety-oriented bicycling strategies. Few differences based on gender were found in the analysis; however, women in this study were more likely than men to say that they felt disrespected by other road users. Conclusion: Seven strategies may be important for safe urban bicycling: minimizing exposure to other road users (especially motor vehicles) while riding, being vigilant and anticipating what others might do, riding in a predictable fashion, making one’s presence known to other road users, making sure it is safe before proceeding, obeying traffic rules, and riding at a safe speed. Future studies could develop these concepts further and test whether they are associated with involvement in traffic crashes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0146.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: child seats; car accidents; car crash analyses; children safety
Online: 15 January 2020 (07:30:38 CET)
The study presents a comparison of the common Child Restraint Systems (CRS) which reduces the value of dynamic loads affecting the child's body during car accidents. The analyzed systems were: child seats, Combi Booster Seats, and straps adjusting vehicle seat belts to children's sizes. The effectiveness of the analyzed devices was assessed on the basis of experimental tests carried out in the accredited laboratory approving the Child Restraint Systems. The tests were carried out accordingly to the new Regulation No. 129 UN / ECE. Whether the tested devices meet the guidelines of the new Regulations No. 129 despite approval in accordance with Regulation No. 44. Based on the research result, better safety parameters of some new solutions dedicated to children’s safety could be observed. The final results show that there is still space for improving the safety of young vehicle passengers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: child seats; car accidents; car crash analyses; children safety
Online: 8 December 2019 (15:45:04 CET)
The study presents a comparison of the common Child Restraint Systems (CRS) which reduces the value of dynamic loads affecting the child's body during car accidents. The analyzed systems were: child seats, Combi Booster Seats, and straps adjusting vehicle seat belts to children's sizes. The effectiveness of the analyzed devices was assessed on the basis of experimental tests carried out in the accredited laboratory approving the Child Restraint Systems. The tests were carried out accordingly to the new Regulation No. 129 UN / ECE. Whether the tested devices meet the guidelines of the new Regulations No. 129 despite approval in accordance with Regulation No. 44. Based on the research result, better safety parameters of some new solutions dedicated to children's safety could be observed. The final results show that there is still space for improving the safety of young vehicle passengers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: motorcycle crash risk; intersection; vehicle turning signals; conspicuity; Logit model
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:38:25 CET)
The relationships among the potential causes of a car and motorcycle collision involving turn maneuvers as well as the perception of rear and front turn signal (on/off) configuration is examined in this paper. The investigation has been based on data pooled from the answers of a survey proposed to 136 people, with special regards to the correct detection of indicators aspect. Experimental videos have been realized during the tests campaign, both in urban and suburban areas, using a 360-camera attached to a motorcyclist’s helmet, reproducing vehicular conflicts able to potentially generate crash risks. The detection of the blinker was combined with other factors (e.g. age, gender, location of the test site, presence of the car behind tester vehicles and if the bikers are also habitual car or bike drivers) in a stepwise logistic regression that modelled the odds of detecting the turn signal turned on as a function of all of these factors. The results suggest the existence of a connection between the detection of the turn signal aspect and some of the variables considered (e.g. age, being a cyclist or a car driver and the presence of a protecting car).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0478.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Limit order book; Liquidity fluctuations; Markov chains; Limit theorems; Large Deviations; Flash crash
Online: 18 June 2021 (12:35:04 CEST)
We propose a class of stochastic models for a dynamics of limit order book with different type of liquidities. Within this class of models we study the one where a spread decreases uniformly, belonging to the class of processes known as a population processes with uniform catastrophes. The law of large numbers (LLN), central limit theorem (CLT) and large deviations (LD) are proved for our model with uniform catastrophes. Our results allow us to satisfactorily explain the volatility and local trends in the prices, relevant empirical characteristics that are observed in this type of markets. Furthermore, it shows us how these local trends and volatility are determined by the typical values of the bid-ask spread. In addition, we use our model to show how large deviations occur in the spread and prices, such as those observed in flash crashes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0315.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Crash counts; Hazardous Road Locations; Pearson correlation; Random effect negative binomial; Negative binomial model
Online: 13 November 2018 (13:02:16 CET)
The purpose of the present study is to explore the linkage between Hazardous Road Locations-based crash counts and a variety of geometric characteristics, roadway characteristics, traffic flow characteristics and spatial features in the region of Sousse, Tunisia. For this purpose, collision data was collected from at 52 hazardous road sections including 1397 crash records for a 11-year monitoring period from January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2014 obtained from National Observatory for Information, Training, Documentation and Studies on Road Safety in Tunisia (NOITDRS). The matrix of Pearson correlation was used in order to avoid inclusion of both variables, which were highly correlated. Both the Random Effects Negative Binomial model and the Negative Binomial model were estimated. To evaluate the models, the Random Effect Negative Binomial model improves the goodness-of-fit compared to the Negative Binomial model. Average Daily Traffic volume, Curved alignment, Presence of public lighting, Visibility, Number of lane, Presence of vertical/horizontal sign, Presence of rural segment, Presence of drainage system, Roadway surface condition, Presence of paved shoulder and presence of major road were found as significant variables influencing accident occurrences. Overall, the current research contributes to the literature from empirical, modeling methodological standpoints since it was the first study conducted in Tunisia to use crash prediction models for hazardous road locations, and that portrays Tunisian reality. The research findings present advantageous insights on hazardous road locations in the region of Sousse, Tunisia and present useful planning tools for public authorities in Tunisia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0144.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: freeway; crash prediction model (CPM); sharp horizontal curve segment (SHCS); interactive influence among three explanatory variables; generalized negative binomial (GNB)
Online: 15 August 2016 (09:47:37 CEST)
Crash prediction of the sharp horizontal curve segment (SHCS) of a freeway is an important tool in analyzing safety of SHCSs and in building a crash prediction model (CPM). The design and crash report data of 88 SHCSs from different institutions were surveyed and three negative binomial (NB) regression models and three generalized negative binomial (GNB) regression models were built to prove that the interactive influence of explanatory variables plays an important role in fitting goodness. The study demonstrates the effective use of the GNB model in analyzing the interactive influence of explanatory variables and in predicting freeway basic segments. Traffic volume, highway horizontal radius, and curve length have been formulated as explanatory variables. Subsequently, we performed statistical analysis to determine the model parameters and conducted sensitivity analysis. Among the six models, the result of model 6, which considered interactive influence, is much better than those of the other models by fitting rules. We also compared the actual results from crashes of 88 SHCSs with those predicted by models 1, 3, and 6. Results demonstrate that model 6 is much more reasonable than models 1 and 3.