ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0073.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Quantum optics; quantum correlations; polarization correlations; Stokes vectors
Online: 21 July 2022 (02:45:42 CEST)
Controllable, quantum-strong correlations of polarization states can be implemented with multi-photon independent states. Polarization-based photonic quantum correlations can be traced back to the overlap of the polarization Stokes vectors on the Poincaré sphere between two polarization filters. The quantum Rayleigh scattering prevents a single photon from propagating in a straight line inside a dielectric medium, and it also provides a mechanism for the projective measurement of polarization. Complexities associated with single-photon sources and detectors can be eliminated because the quantum Rayleigh scattering in a dielectric medium destroys entangled photons. Entanglement-free, identical sources and processing devices give rise to correlations rather than these being caused by “quantum nonlocality”. These analytic developments were prompted by the vanishing expectation values of the Pauli spin vector for a single photon of maximally entangled photonic Bell states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0162.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: communication cost; simulating quantum correlations; contextuality
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:49:04 CET)
We review some semantical aspects of probability bounds from Boole’s “conditions on possible experience” violated by quantum mechanics. We also speculate about emerging space-time categories as an epiphenomenon of quantization and the resulting breakdown of relativity theory by non-unitary and non-linear processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0071.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Kondo Lattice; localized moments; ferromagnetic correlations
Online: 3 May 2018 (12:03:16 CEST)
We study the electron spin resonance (ESR) line width for localized moments within the framework of the Kondo lattice model. An ESR signal for an impurity can only be observed if the Kondo temperature is sufficiently small. On the other hand, for the Kondo lattice, short-range ferromagnetic correlations (FM) between the localized spins are necessary to obtain an observable signal. The spin relaxation rate (line width) is inversely proportional to the static magnetic susceptibility. The FM enhance the susceptibility and hence reduce the line width. For most of the heavy fermion systems displaying an ESR signal the FM arise in the ab-plane from the strong lattice anisotropy. An ESR signal was observed in the cubic heavy fermion compound CeB6 which has a Γ8 ground-quartet. The orbital content of the Γ8-quartet gives rise to an antiferro-quadrupolar ordered (AFQ) phase below 4 K. Single ions with a Γ8 ground-multiplet are expected to display four transitions, however, only one has been observed. We address the effects of the interplay of AFQ and FM on the phase diagram and the ESR line width. While for anisotropic Ce and Yb compounds with ESR-signal it is difficult to distinguish if the resonance is due to localized spins or conducting heavy electron spins, an itinerant picture within the AFQ phase is necessary to explain the electron spin resonances for CeB6. The longitudinal magnetic susceptibility has a quasi-elastic central peak of line width 1/T1 and inelastic peaks for the absorption/emission of excitation. The latter are measured via inelastic neutron scattering (INS) and provide insights into the magnetic order. We briefly summarize some of the INS results for CeB6 in the context of the picture that emerged from the ESR experiments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0399.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Correlations; Energy consumption; Urban Density
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:39:48 CEST)
Although impending urbanization is a well-acknowledged problem, there is a rising concern about how the urban forms will change and what can be the impacts on the global energy demand. As hubs of economic, social and cultural activities, cities are major energy consumers and GHG emissions. Energy consumption is a technical or a spatial problem? From Newman and Kenworthy to today, several studies have tried to shed light on this nexus. In this work, the controversial paradigm of urban density is discussed as a key component of the fight against climate change impacts. Concerning energy consumption, an in-depth bibliometric analysis is developed to identify the interdependencies of the terms. As a key ‘promise’ of an efficient urban configuration, density has been the core of diverse studies but with still under exploration arguments. This work provides a way forward for planners seeking to design strategies related to dense urban tissues exploring controversial paradigms as a key solution for energy-efficient problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0336.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: behaviour; BPSD; cognitive decline; aging; correlations; SAMP8
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:46:48 CET)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by cognitive impairment and different non-cognitive deficits called “Behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia” (BPSD) related to neurotrophin alterations, which differ from those presented in normal aging. Mouse models, both transgenics and inbreed mice models of AD, are a useful tool in understanding the underlying mechanisms of the disease. The SAMP8 (senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8) mice line was generated from AKR/J strain by Professor Toshio Takeda at the University of Kyoto. This strain exhibited a particular early-onset and accelerated aging phenotype. The present study characterizes and provides information regarding the non-cognitive, cognitive and neurotrophin alterations and their correlation, demonstrating the AD-like symptoms presented in older males SAMP8. The cognitive impairment presented was accompanied by a reduction in sociability and an increase in aggressive as well as anxiety behaviours. Furthermore, changes in two of the most important neurotrophins, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-3 (NT3) were found. Thus, the present results reveal new insights in this useful inbred mouse model of neurodegeneration and AD, demonstrating the potential relationship between neurotrophin modifications, cognitive impairment and neuropsychiatric disorders (ND).
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Anomalous; correlations; trans-PA; electronic transport; FET
Online: 27 March 2019 (08:41:38 CET)
The electronic transport stability in nanodevices composed by metal/trans-polyacetylene /metal with different long length has contributed greatly for performance, homogeneity, stability, organization of the chains, reproducibility and higher conductivity. In this paper, we present an analytical study of the electronic transport characteristics from dimerized trans-polyacetylene (trans-PA) molecules containing an odd-even number of sites coupled to metal leads (left and right) in T-shaped geometry using the extended Su-Schrieffer-Heeger (SSH) model based on tight-binding Hamiltonian with the Non-Equilibrium Green´s Function (NEGF) via Heisenberg´s equation of motion and the Keldysh´s formalism. Due to the complexity of the T-shaped odd-even chain, our proposal was to test the effects on the finite-length network for three, four, five sites and furthermore foresee for 17-sites. We show how to tune dimerization strength () coupling to the parameters and T-shaped geometry of the device to which it affects the overlap integral localized at the three endpoints of the T-shaped system, making both the odd and even chains to undergo a metal-insulator transition in their electronic behavior. The results reached through control parity of the chain plane of the parameters governing () the electronic and experimental tunneling allow a better understanding of the subject.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0188.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: electromagnetism; brain oscillator; quasiphoton; thermodynamic, kinetic; quantum correlations
Online: 20 June 2019 (03:32:22 CEST)
The physics of the human brain has two components – basic physics common to all mammals and the physics of thinking inherent only in man. The development of the mental component of the structural and functional organization of the brain in phylogeny was associated with the chiral factor of the external environment, and in ontogenesis - with the social factor. The sensitivity of the brain to these factors was based on the single-connected nature of its aqueous basis, the mechanism of electromagnetic induction, and the features of the thermodynamics of the brain in a state of night sleep. In order to unify the description of the mechanism of electromagnetic processes in the brain, the concept of a quasiphoton has been introduced, combining all forms of excitation of electronic and molecular-cellular structures of the brain. Equivalent schemes of vibrational contours of neural network elements and macrostructures of the brain are proposed. Estimates of the kinetic parameters (activation energy, velocity) of the physical processes underlying the energy-information exchange of the brain with the external environment are made. Mechanisms of operative (physical) and permanent (chemical) memory of the brain, including a model of nonlocal quantum correlations, are discussed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0400.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: seeds; physical properties; range of variation; correlations; sorting
Online: 22 August 2018 (15:04:22 CEST)
Information about the variations and correlations between the physical properties of seeds is essential for designing and modeling seed processing operations. The aim of this study was to determine the variations in the basic physical properties of seeds of selected spruce species and to identify the correlations between these attributes for the needs of the seed sorting processes. Terminal velocity, thickness, width, length, mass and the angle of external friction were determined in the seeds of 11 spruce species. The measured parameters were used to calculate three aspect ratios, geometric mean diameter, sphericity index and specific mass of each seed. The average values of the basic physical properties of the analyzed seeds were determined in the following range: terminal velocity – 5.25 to 8.34 m s-1, thickness – 1.10 to 2.32 mm, width – 1.43 to 3.19 mm, length – 2.76 to 5.52 mm, the angle of external friction – 23.1 to 30.0°, and mass – 2.29 to 18.57 mg. The seeds of Jezo spruce and Meyer's spruce were most similar to the seeds of other spruce species, whereas oriental spruce seeds differed most considerably from the remaining seeds. Our findings indicate that spruce seeds should be sorted primarily with the use of mesh sieves with longitudinal openings to obtain fractions with similar seed mass and to promote even germination.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0362.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: quantum-strong correlations; quantum Rayleigh scattering; polarization Stokes vectors
Online: 20 December 2022 (08:44:06 CET)
A physical scrutiny of experimental results published in Physical Review Letters (December 2015, M. Giustina, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250401, and L. K. Shalm et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402) is undertaken. These articles reported that measured outcomes were fitted with quantum states possessing a dominant component of non-entangled photons, thereby contradicting their own claim of quantum nonlocality. With probabilities of photon detections lower than 0.1 %, the alleged quantum nonlocality cannot be classified as a resource for developing quantum computing devices, despite recent publicity. Experimental evidence of a feasible process for quantum-strong correlations has been identified (M. Iannuzzi, et al., Phys. Lett. A, 384 (9), 126200, 2020) in terms of correlations between independent and multi-photon states evaluated as Stokes vectors on the Poincaré sphere. As single-photon sources are not needed, the design and implementation of quantum computing operations will be significantly streamlined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0123.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Reference evapotranspiration; agro-meteorological; multifractal; scaling; cross-correlations; persistence
Online: 6 October 2020 (11:17:39 CEST)
This paper examined the multifractal properties of six acknowledged agro-meteorological parameters, such as reference evapotranspiration (ET0), wind speed (U), incoming solar radiation (SR), air temperature (T), air pressure (P), and relative air humidity (RH) of five stations in California, USA. The investigation of multifractality of datasets from stations with differing terrain conditions: Dagget, Bakersfield, Santa Maria, Los Angeles and San Diego using the Multifractal Detrended Fluctuation Analysis showed the existence of a long term persistence and multifractality irrespective of the location. The scaling exponents of SR and ET0 time series are found to be higher for stations with higher altitudes. Subsequently, this study proposed using the novel multifractal cross correlation (MFCCA) method to examine the multiscale-multifractal correlations properties between ET0 and other investigated variables. MFCCA could successfully capture the scale dependent association of different variables and the dynamics in the nature of their associations from seasonal to multi-annual time scale. The multifractal exponents of pressure and relative air humidity are consistently lower than the exponents of ET0, irrespective of station location. This study found that joint scaling exponent was nearly the average of scaling exponents of individual series in different pairs of variables. Additionally, the α-values of joint multifractal spectrum were lower than the α values of both of the individual spectra, validating two universal properties in the mutifractal cross correlation studies for agro-meteorological time series. The temporal evolution of cross-correlation showed similar pattern for all pair-wise associations involving ET0, except for the RH-ET0 link.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0280.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Quantum Rayleigh spontaneous emission, photon polarization states, polarization correlations.
Online: 30 August 2018 (11:31:24 CEST)
The interpretation of published experimental results intended to prove the existence of a quantum phenomenon of non-locality involving photonic entangled states did not take into consideration the existence of the quantum Rayleigh conversion of photons in dielectric media. This phenomenon leads to the existence of high levels of correlations between two independent photonic and linearly polarized quantum states generated after the entangled photons have been absorbed through the quantum Rayleigh conversion. Both pure and mixed individual states of polarization result in expressions normally associated with entangled photonic states, providing support for the view that the physical reality of quantum non-locality is highly questionable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0471.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: generalised correlations; orthonormal polynomials; randomised block designs; umbrella effects
Online: 28 June 2018 (12:44:08 CEST)
The Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel (CMH) methodology is a suite of tests applicable to particular tables of count data. Inference is conditional on the treatment and outcome totals on each stratum being known before sighting the data. The CMH tests are important for analyzing randomised blocks data when the responses are categorical rather than continuous. This overview will first review the traditional CMH tests and then explore new alternative presentations of the ordinal CMH tests. Next the ordinal CMH tests will be extended so they can be used to test for higher moment effects. Finally unconditional analogues of the extended CMH tests will be developed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0039.v1
Subject: Keywords: systems biology; probabilistic modelling; experimenter effect; quantum-like correlations
Online: 6 March 2018 (03:35:12 CET)
Background: Benveniste’s biology experiments suggested the existence of molecular-like effects without molecules (“memory of water”). In this article, it is proposed that these disputed experiments could have been the consequence of a previously unnoticed and non-conventional experimenter effect. Methods: A probabilistic modelling is built in order to describe an elementary laboratory experiment. A biological system is modelled with two possible states (“resting” and “activated”) and exposed to two experimental conditions labelled “control” and “test”, but both biologically inactive. The modelling takes into account not only the biological system, but also the experimenters. In addition, an outsider standpoint is adopted to describe the experimental situation. Results: A classical approach suggests that, after experiment completion, the “control” and “test” labels of biologically-inactive conditions should be both associated with “resting” state (i.e. no significant relationship between labels and system states). However, if the fluctuations of the biological system are also considered, a quantum-like relationship emerges and connects labels and system states (analogous to a biological “effect” without molecules). Conclusions: No hypotheses about water properties or other exotic explanations are needed to describe Benveniste’s experiments, including their unusual features. This modelling could be extended to other experimental situations in biology, medicine and psychology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0052.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: acoustic emission; long-range correlations; natural time analysis; heterogeneous materials
Online: 3 December 2021 (11:37:56 CET)
This work focuses on analyzing acoustic emission (AE) signals as a means to predict failure in structures. Two main approaches are considered: (i) long-range correlation analysis using both the Hurst (H) and the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) exponents, and (ii) natural time domain (NT) analysis. These methodologies are applied to the data collected from two application examples: a glass fiber reinforced polymeric plate and a spaghetti bridge model, where both structures were subjected to increasing loads until collapse. A traditional (AE) signal analysis is also performed to reference the study of the other methods. Results indicate that the proposed methods yield a reliable indication of failure in the studied structures.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Tsirelson bound; Bell-CHSH inequality; superquantum correlations; quantum information theory
Online: 2 July 2019 (04:24:45 CEST)
To answer Wheeler's question "Why the quantum?" via quantum information theory according to Bub, one must explain both why the world is quantum rather than classical and why the world is quantum rather than superquantum, i.e., "Why the Tsirelson bound?" We show that the quantum correlations and quantum states corresponding to the Bell basis states, which uniquely produce the Tsirelson bound for the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt quantity, can be derived from conservation per no preferred reference frame (NPRF). A reference frame in this context is defined by a measurement configuration, just as with the light postulate of special relativity. We therefore argue that the Tsirelson bound is ultimately based on NPRF just as the postulates of special relativity. This constraint-based/principle answer to Bub's question addresses Fuchs' desideratum that we "take the structure of quantum theory and change it from this very overt mathematical speak ... into something like [special relativity]." Thus, the answer to Bub's question per Fuchs' desideratum is, "the Tsirelson bound obtains due to conservation per NPRF."
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0060.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Experimenter effect; “Memory of water”; Quantum-like correlations; Classical conditioning
Online: 3 October 2018 (14:57:40 CEST)
Introduction. The “memory of water” experiments suggested the existence of molecular-like effects without molecules. Although no convincing evidence of modifications of water – specific of biologically-active molecules – has been reported, consistent changes of biological systems were nevertheless recorded. We propose an alternate explanation based on classical conditioning of the experimenter.Methods. Using a probabilistic modelling, we describe not only the biological system, but also the experimenter engaged in an elementary dose-response experiment. We assume that during conventional experiments involving genuine biologically-active molecules, the experimenter is involuntarily conditioned to expect a pattern, namely a relationship between the descriptions (or “labels”) of experimental conditions and the corresponding biological system states.Results. The modelling predicts that the conditioned observer could continue to record the learned pattern even in the absence of the initial cause, namely biologically-active molecules. The phenomenon is self-sustained since the observation of the expected pattern reinforces the initial conditioning. A necessary requirement is the use of a system submitted to random fluctuations with autocorrelated successive states (no forced return to the initial position). The relationship observed by the conditioned observer is however not causal and has a quantum-like structure. The modelling predicts also that blind experiments with an “outside” supervisor lead to a loss of correlations (i.e. system states randomly associated to “labels”). Conclusion. This psychophysical modelling allows explaining the results of “memory of water” experiments without referring to water or another local cause. It could be extended to other scientific fields in biology, medicine and psychology when an experimenter effect is suspected.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0295.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Hidden variables; von Neumann's theorem; Bell's theorem; Local realism; Quantum correlations
Online: 15 January 2021 (13:09:12 CET)
We show that the respective oversights in the von Neumann's general theorem against all hidden variable theories and Bell's theorem against their local-realistic counterparts are homologous. Both theorems unjustifiably assume the additivity of expectation values within hidden variable theories to derive their respective conclusions. However, for non-commuting observables, the equivalence of a sum of expectation values and the expectation value of the sum of measurement results, although respected within quantum mechanics, need not hold for hidden variable theories, regardless of specific characteristics such as local realism they may respect. Once this oversight is ameliorated from Bell's argument and local realism is implemented correctly, the bounds on the CHSH correlator work out to be +/-2\/2 instead of +/-2, thereby mitigating the conclusion of Bell's theorem. Consequently, what is ruled out by the Bell-test experiments is not local realism but the additivity of expectation values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0556.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: claims reserving; contemporaneous correlations; outliers; robust MM-estimators; seemingly unrelated regression
Online: 30 July 2018 (04:43:55 CEST)
The chain ladder method is a popular technique to estimate the future reserves needed to handle claims that are not fully settled. Since the predictions of the aggregate portfolio (consisting of different subportfolios) in general differ from the sum of the predictions of the subportfolios, a general multivariate chain ladder (GMCL) method has already been proposed. However, the GMCL method is based on the seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) technique which makes it very sensitive to outliers. To address this issue a robust alternative is introduced which estimates the SUR parameters in a more outlier resistant way. With the robust methodology it is possible to detect which claims have an abnormally large influence on the reserve estimates. We introduce a simulation design to generate artificial multivariate run-off triangles based on the GMCL model and illustrate the importance of taking into account contemporaneous correlations and structural connections between the run-off triangles. By adding contamination to these artificial datasets, the sensitivity of the traditional GMCL method and the good performance of the robust GMCL method is shown. From the analysis of a portfolio from practice it is clear that the robust GMCL method can provide better insight in the structure of the data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0072.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ultra-low head turbines; cost correlations; Darrieus; Savonius; small hydro energy
Online: 13 April 2017 (06:06:08 CEST)
In small-scale hydropower scheme, the most important component is electro-mechanical equipment. Since cost contribution of this component is high because hydrokinetic projects require negligible civil works. Turbine and alternator contribute major fraction of the hydrokinetic projects. Thus, there is a requirement to estimates the electromechanical equipment cost for the hydrokinetic hydropower scheme. The present paper investigates design parameters of the hydrokinetic turbines and intends to develop cost correlation which depends on most critical parameters of hydropower sites such as velocity and power capacity. In this present work, three zero head turbines are considered including straight blade Darrieus, two Stage Savonius, and Gorlov Helical. The size and cost of major components have been calculated based on material, manufacturing, research and design, and assembly costs. Based on cost and site parameters, cost correlation has been developed. The obtained cost has been validated with available zero head turbines in the market and installed projects. A techno-economic analysis has been carried out to select economical hydrokinetic turbine for river and canal application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0023.v7
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell’s theorem; local realism; Bell-CHSH inequalities; quantum correlations; Bell-test experimentsexperiments
Online: 1 February 2023 (07:17:00 CET)
I demonstrate that Bell's theorem is based on circular reasoning and thus a fundamentally flawed argument. It unjustifiably assumes the additivity of expectation values for dispersion-free states of contextual hidden variable theories for non-commuting observables involved in Bell-test experiments, which is tautologous to assuming the bounds of ±2 on the Bell-CHSH sum of expectation values. Its premises thus assume in a different guise the bounds of ±2 it sets out to prove. Consequently, what is ruled out by the Bell-test experiments is not local realism but the additivity of expectation values, which does not hold for non-commuting observables in any hidden variable theories to begin with.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0154.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: bread wheat; correlations, gamma, grain nutrients concentrations; mutation, phytic acid; metals bioavailability
Online: 9 July 2018 (15:39:51 CEST)
Metal, primarily Fe and Zn, deficiencies affect over half of the world's population. Human diets with prevalent cereal products cause micronutrient malnutrition. Biofortification is one of the most effective approaches to alleviate malnutrition. Spring wheat genetically stable (M7) mutant lines developed with 100 and 200 Gy gamma treatments to broaden genetic variation and search for new resources were analyzed for nutritionally important minerals (Ca, Mg, K, Fe, and Zn), their bioavailability, and grain protein content (GPC). The variation was 172.3–883.0 mg/kg for Ca, 472.9–1088 mg/kg for Mg, 3128.6–5487.5 mg/kg for K, 40.9–89.0 mg/kg for Fe, and 22.2–89.6 mg/kg for Zn. In mutant lines, among the investigated minerals, the highest increases in concentrations were observed in Fe, Zn, and Ca when compared to the parent. Some mutant lines, mostly in the 100 Gy-derived germplasm, had two to three times higher Fe, Zn, and Ca concentrations, lower phytic acid concentration (1.4–2.1 times), and 6.5–7% higher GPC compare to the parent. Variation was detected for the Ca:Phy, Mg :Phy, Phy:K, Phy:Fe, and Phy:Zn molar ratios, (1.27–10.41, 5.05–18.68, 1.66–4.87, 1.40–5.32 and 1.78–11.78, respectively). The results showed how the genetic variation could be generated through radiation and be useful to develop biofortification by micronutrient varieties with their appropriate bioavailability to overcome malnutrition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0156.v1
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: Dunaliella salina; new isolates; characterization; light intensity; β-carotene; carotenoids; correlations; lutein; classification
Online: 17 January 2018 (12:04:11 CET)
The halotolerant microalga Dunaliella salina has been widely studied for natural β-carotene production. This work shows biochemical characterization of three newly isolated Dunaliella salina strains DF15, DF17 and DF40 compared with D. salina CCAP 19/30 (confirmed to be D. tertiolecta) and D. salina UTEX 2538 (also known as D. bardawil). Although all three new strains have been genetically characterized as Dunaliella salina strains, their ability to accumulate carotenoids and their capacity for photoprotection against high light stress are different. DF15 and UTEX 2538 reveal great potential for producing large amount of β-carotene and maintained a high rate of photosynthesis under light of high intensity; however, DF17, DF40 and CCAP 19/30 showed increasing photoinhibition with increasing light intensity, and reduced contents of carotenoids, in particular b-carotene, suggesting that the capacity of photoprotection is dependent on the cellular content of carotenoids, in particular β-carotene. Strong positive correlations were found between the cellular content of each of all-trans β-carotene, 9-cis β-carotene, all-trans α-carotene and zeaxanthin but not lutein in the D. salina strains. Lutein was strongly correlated with respiration in photosynthetic cells and strongly related to photosynthesis, chlorophyll and respiration, suggesting an important and not hitherto identified role for lutein in co-ordinated control of the cellular functions of photosynthesis and respiration in response to changes in light conditions, which is broadly conserved in Dunaliella strains. Statistical analysis based on biochemical data revealed a different grouping strategy from the genetic classification of the strains. The significance of these data for strain selection for commercial carotenoid production is discussed.
Subject: Keywords: nanojunction; constriction; quantum electron transport; quantum confinement; dimensionality reduction, stochastic Schrödinger equations; geometric correlations
Online: 10 May 2020 (17:59:42 CEST)
The so-called Born-Huang ansatz is a fundamental tool in the context of ab-initio molecular dynamics, viz., it allows to effectively separate fast and slow degrees of freedom and thus treating electrons and nuclei at different mathematical footings. Here we consider the use of a Born-Huang-like expansion of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schr\"odinger equation to separate transport and confinement degrees of freedom in electron transport problems that involve geometrical constrictions. The resulting scheme consists of an eigenstate problem for the confinement degrees of freedom (in the transverse direction) whose solution constitutes the input for the propagation of a set of coupled one-dimensional equations of motion for the transport degree of freedom (in the longitudinal direction). This technique achieves quantitative accuracy using an order less computational resources than the full dimensional simulation for a prototypical two-dimensional constriction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0084.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Ferritin; Quantum dots; Layer-by-layer deposition; Conductive atomic force microscopy; Strong correlations; mott insulator
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:07:03 CEST)
Highly-correlated electrons – electrons that engage in strong electron-electron interactions – have been observed in transition metal oxides and quantum dots and can create unusual material behavior that is difficult to model, such as switching between a low resistance metal state and a high resistance Mott insulator state. Tests of devices using a layer-by-layer deposition process for forming multilayer arrays of ferritin (a transition metal (iron) oxide storage protein) have been previously reported that indicate that highly-correlated electron transport is occurring, consistent with models of electron transport in quantum dots. This paper reports the results of the effect of various degrees of structural homogeneity on the electrical characteristics of these ferritin arrays, as well as demonstrating that these structures can provide a switching function associated with the circuit that they are contained within, consistent with the observed behavior of highly-correlated electrons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0298.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: cosmic rays; cosmic ray ensembles; extensive air showers; large scale cosmic ray correlations; CREDO Collaboration
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:13:43 CEST)
The Cosmic Ray Extremely Distributed Observatory (CREDO) is a newly formed, global collaboration dedicated to observing and studying cosmic rays (CR) and cosmic ray ensembles (CRE): groups of a minimum of two CR with a common primary interaction vertex or the same parent particle. The CREDO program embraces testing known CR and CRE scenarios, and preparing to observe unexpected physics, it is also suitable for multi-messenger and multi-mission applications. Perfectly matched to CREDO capabilities, CRE could be formed both within classical models (e.g. as products of photon-photon interactions), and exotic scenarios (e.g. as results of decay of Super Heavy Dark Matter particles), their fronts might be significantly extended in space and time, and they might include cosmic rays of energies spanning the whole cosmic ray energy spectrum. CRE are expected to be partially observable on Earth even if the initiating interaction or process occurs as far as ~1 Gpc away. They would have a footprint composed of at least two extensive air showers with correlated arrival directions and arrival times. Since CRE are mostly expected to be spread over large areas and, because of the expected wide energy range of the contributing particles, CRE detection might only be feasible when using available cosmic ray infrastructure collectively, i.e. as a globally extended network of detectors. Thus, with this review article, the CREDO Collaboration invites the astroparticle physics community to actively join or to contribute to the research dedicated to CRE, and in particular to share any cosmic ray data useful for the specific CRE detection strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0224.v2
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: propeller; cavitation pattern; unsteady cavitation; induced pressure fluctuations; high-speed visualization; volume acceleration; cavitation-pressure correlations
Online: 5 September 2016 (09:37:05 CEST)
An experimental study is carried out in a cavitation tunnel on a propeller operating downstream of a non-uniform wake. The goal of this work is to establish quantitative correlations between the near pressure field and the cavitation pattern that takes place on the propeller blades. The pressure field is measured at the walls of the test section and in the near wake of the propeller, and is combined with quantitative high-speed image recording of the cavitation pattern. Through simple harmonic analysis of the pressure data and image processing techniques that allow to retrieve the cavitation extension and volume, we discuss the potential sources that generate the pressure fluctuations. Time correlations are unambiguously established between pressure peak fluctuations and cavitation collapse events, based upon the Rayleigh collapse time. Finally, we design a model to predict the cavitation-induced pressure fluctuations from the derivation of the cavitation volume acceleration. This simple model demonstrates a remarkable agreement with the actual pressure field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0021.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: Solvency capital requirements capital, standard formula, near unit root, spurious correlation, VaR—implied correlations, tail dependence
Online: 12 July 2016 (09:38:23 CEST)
The Solvency II regulatory framework specifies procedures and parameters for determining solvency capital requirements (SCRs) for insurance companies. The proposed standard SCR calculations involve two steps. The Value–at–Risk (VaR) of each risk driver is measured and, in a second step, all components are aggregated to the company’s overall SCR, using the Standard Formula. This formula has two inputs: the VaRs of the individual risk drivers and their correlations. The appropriate calibration of these input parameters has been the purpose of various Quantitative Impact Studies that have been conducted during recent years. This paper demonstrates that the parameter calibration for the equity–risk module—overall, with about 25%, the most significant risk component—is seriously flawed, giving rise to spurious and highly erratic parameter values. As a consequence, an implementation of the Standard Formula with the currently proposed calibration settings for equity–risk is likely to produce inaccurate, biased and, over time, highly erratic capital requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0019.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Nuclear & High Energy Physics Keywords: RHIC; PHENIX; femtoscopy; Bose-Einstein correlations; L\'evy distribution; anomalous diffusion; critical point; in-medium mass modification
Online: 4 December 2017 (07:28:13 CET)
In this paper we present the measurement of charged pion two-particle femtoscopic correlation functions in = 200 GeV Au+Au collisions, in 31 average transverse mass bins, separately for positive and negative pion pairs. Lévy-shaped source distributions yield a statistically acceptable description of the measured correlation functions, with three physical parameters: correlation strength parameter λ , Lévy index α and Lévy scale parameter R. The transverse mass dependence of these Lévy parameters is then investigated. Their physical interpretation is also discussed, and the appearance of a new scaling variable is observed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0381.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: singlet correlations; twisted Malus law; EPR-B experiments; local hidden variables; spinning coloured disk model; spinning coloured ball model; simulation models
Online: 29 December 2019 (11:28:25 CET)
The famous singlet correlations of a composite quantum system consisting of two spatially separated components exhibit notable features of two kinds. The first kind consists of striking certainty relations: perfect correlation and perfect anti-correlation in certain settings. The second kind consists of a number of symmetries, in particular, invariance under rotation, as well as invariance under exchange of components, parity, or chirality. In this note, I investigate the class of correlation functions that can be generated by classical composite physical systems when we restrict attention to systems which reproduce the certainty relations exactly, and for which the rotational invariance of the correlation function is the manifestation of rotational invariance of the underlying classical physics. I call such correlation functions classical EPR-B correlations. It turns out that the other three (binary) symmetries can then be obtained "for free": they are exhibited by the correlation function, and can be imposed on the underlying physics by adding an underlying randomisation level. We end up with a simple probabilistic description of all possible classical EPR-B correlations in terms of a "spinning coloured disk" model, and a research programme: describe these functions in a concise analytic way.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0482.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Quantum Entanglement, Separability, Positive Partial Transpose Criterion, Permutation, Quantum Information, Quantum Computing, Quantum Communication, Quantum Non-locality, Quantum Correlations, SWAP Operator
Online: 25 July 2018 (12:20:21 CEST)
In this paper, the connections between quantum non-locality and permutation symmetries are explored. This includes two types of symmetries: permutation across a superposition and permutation of qubits in a quantum system. An algorithm is proposed for nding the separability class of a quantum state using a method based on factorizing an arbitrary multipartite state into possible partitions, cyclically permuting qubits of the vectors in a superposition to check which separability class it falls into and thereafter using a reduced density-matrix analysis of the system is proposed. For the case of mixed quantum states, conditions for separability are found in terms of the partial transposition of the density matrices of the quantum system. One of these conditions turns out to be the Partial Positive Transpose (PPT) condition. A graphical method for analyzing separability is also proposed. The concept of permutation of qubits is shown to be useful in dening a new entanglement measure in the `engle'.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0029.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: fundamental physical theory; classical and quantum physics; p-adic numbers; disordered field; zero dimensional space; hologram; dendrogram; Planck conatnt; light velocity; Berll correlations
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:50:38 CEST)
proposal for a fundamental theory is described in which classical and quantum physics as a representation of the universe as a gigantic dendrogram are unified. The latter is the explicate order structure corresponding to the purely number-theoretical implicate order structure given by p-adic numbers. This number field was zero-dimensional, totally disconnected, and disordered. Physical systems (such as electrons, photons) are sub-dendrograms of the universal dendrogram. Measurement process is described as interactions among dendrograms; in particular, quantum measurement problems can be resolved using this process. The theory is realistic, but realism is expressed via the the Leibnitz principle of the Identity of Indiscernible. The classical-quantum interplay is based on the degree of indistinguishability between dendrograms (in which the ergodicity assumption is removed). Depending on this degree, some physical quantities behave more or less in a quantum manner (versus classic manner). Ideologically, our theory is very close to Smolin’s dynamics of difference and Rovelli’s relational quantum mechanics. The presence of classical behavior in nature implies a finiteness of the Universe-dendrogram. (Infinite Universe is considered to be purely quantum.) Reconstruction of events in a four-dimensional space type is based on the holographic principle. Our model reproduces Bell-type correlations in the dendrogramic framework. By adjusting dendrogram complexity, violation of the Bell inequality can be made larger or smaller.