ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Corona virus: COVID-19; Saudi Arabia; pandemic
Online: 23 July 2020 (11:32:34 CEST)
Introduction Most cases of COVID-19 coronavirus infection occurred in the Chinese city of Wuhan at the end of December 2019 in the form of acute pneumonia. COVID-19 virus infects people of all ages. The most affected elderly people with underlying medical conditions. This may cause various symptoms such as fever, difficulty breathing, lung infection, coughing and sneezing. Aim The aim of the present study to highlight the COVID-19 pandemic in Saudi Arabia. Method A search was conducted using the relevant keywords to retrieve the studies conducted in Saudi Arabia regarding COVID-19. The search was by Google Scholar, Pub MED, and Twitter. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic carries multiple-risk, and public health groups, such as the United States' Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organisation (WHO), are monitoring the pandemic and posting updates on their website. These groups have also made recommendations on disease prevention and treatment, and according to the Saudi Centres for Disease Control, they have also included the necessary public health measures for mandatory reporting by calling a certain number and through the e-health monitoring network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0238.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Corona Virus; Covid-19; India; Pandemic; Mathematical modeling
Online: 19 June 2020 (10:31:02 CEST)
In the present time, the biggest problem of the world is the outbreak of novel coronavirus. Novel coronavirus (COVID-19), this one name has become a part of our daily lives over the past few months. Beyond the boundaries of medical science, coronavirus is now the main subject of research in all fields like Applied Mathematics, Economy, Philosophy, Sociology, Politics upto living room. The epidemic has brought unimaginable changes in our traditional habits and daily routines. Thousands of people in our country are fighting with the rest of the world to survive in various new situations. There are different kinds of coronavirus appeared in different times. In this time, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19). This virus was first identified towards the end of 2019 in the city of Wuhan in the province of Hubei in China. Within very short duration of time and very fast, it has spread throughout a large part of the world. In this study, the main aim is to investigate the spreading rate, death rate, recovery rate due to corona virus infection and to study the future of the coronavirus in India by using mathematical modeling based on the previous data. Mathematical models, in this situation, are the important tools in recruiting effective strategies to fight this epidemic. India is at high risk of spreading the disease and is facing many losses in socio-economic aspects. With current infection rates and existing levels of personal alertness, the number of infected people in India will increase at least in the next three months. Proper social awareness, maintain of social distance, large rate of testing and separation may break the chain of the Coronavirus-2.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0080.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: depression; anxiety; social solidarity; corona virus; mental health
Online: 4 August 2020 (08:14:35 CEST)
Introduction: Corona epidemic and quarantine enforcement, various effects on the psychological and social aspects of the population has left. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between depression, anxiety and relationship with medical staff and mental health is caused by corona. Methods: For this purpose, samples of 650 health personnel of private hospitals were selected. Inventory DASS, HADS, and selected social cohesion (Keyes) and the Internet and through social media networks were evaluated. To analyze the data, Pearson correlation and regression analysis were used. Results: The results showed that straw anxiety corona) to negative (and social cohesion caused by corona) to positive (mental health correlates. It was also found that anxiety and social cohesion caused by corona, respectively 47 and 26 percent predict changes in mental health. Conclusion: These results show the positive and negative effects of psychosocial interventions in quarantine and it have practical implications in the development of the epidemic crisis is Corona.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0645.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: COVID; Corona; Incidents; Complaints; Obstetrics; Gynaecology; Paediatrics; Child; Quality; Safety.
Online: 25 November 2020 (14:09:26 CET)
Background: To investigate any associations between new clinical policies implemented because of the COVID-19 pandemic and harm to patients. Methods: Retrospective data collection of incidents and complaints reported through Datix®, and the Patient Liaison Service respectively. The setting was the Family Health division in a University teaching hospital in the UK. Primary and secondary outcome measures included; Proportion of incidents reported on Datix from 23/3/20 to 25/5/20, compared to the period from 23/3/19 to 29/5/19. COVID-19 related incidents and complaints and association with newly published guidelines or pathways from 23/3/20 to 29/5/20. Results: There was no significant difference in the proportion of overall patient activity resulting in incidents reported on Datix in 2020 (2.08%) compared to 2019 (2.09%), with 98% resulting in no/low harm in 2020. Three incident categories had increases in relative proportions of incidents including terms “COVID” or “Corona” compared to incidents that did not; “Child death”, “delay/failure to treatment and procedure” and “information governance”. One of the child deaths was a miscarriage and we were unable to link the second child death to a change in clinical policy at this stage. We were only able to link 2 COVID-19 associated incidents with a pathway or procedural change (one to the Children's Emergency Department admission pathway and the second to the introduction of virtual antenatal clinics). Eighteen complaints related to COVID-19 were logged. However, at this stage, we are unable to link any of these to a published change in clinical policy. Conclusions: Practice in the division was overall deemed to be safe in the designated period, with only 2 COVID-19 related incidents clearly related to a change in pathways and procedures. Continued surveillance and improved metrics for monitoring the impact of changes to pathways and procedures should be sought with the sustained presence of COVID-19 in clinical areas.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0515.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Covid-19; Herd Immunity Threshold; Corona Virus; Innate immunity; flattening the curve; serological survey
Online: 31 May 2020 (21:14:05 CEST)
We have analysed the death and recovery rate of Covid-19 disease progression. From the analysis, we have argued that the pandemic is over in certain countries (labelled as group-A) and for other countries (labelled as group-B) the disease appears to remain as endemic. Taking into account the serological survey (sero-survey) test results obtained by certain groups and comparing it with herd immunity threshold value one can infer that the low number of infection for group-B is either due to acquired immunity by some previous infection by other coronavirus or due to innate immunity towards this infection. This effect is stronger for group-B to slow the progress of the disease to such an extent resulting in flattening of the disease progression curve compared to group-A.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corona virus; environmental degradation; hydrogen economy; clean energy; renewable sources; non renewable sources; economic impact; environmental impact.
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:49:50 CET)
Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has slow down the world economic system. The pandemic has cleared the roads, close factories and grounded planes causing severe economic challenges. The damaging impact of the pandemic amid lockdown has been a blessing in guise for the environment because of significant drop in pollution level as transport and industrial sectors shutdown. Transport and industrial sectors are major contributors to environmental degradation through various emissions as a result of fossil fuel consumption. Energy consumed by transport and industrial sectors will have to shift to viable, readily available, economically and environmentally friendly with no carbon build up post Covid-19 pandemic. Hydrogen energy remains the best alternative option technologies containing green house gas emission and pollutions of several forms. Hydrogen holds the potential to provide a clean, reliable, renewable and economical source of energy for meeting the growing and unending global energy needs post pandemic. The present paper explores the economic feasibility and potential of hydrogen to serve as a competitive fuel option post pandemic. In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier hydrogen economy structure, potential of hydrogen economy, hydrogen production methods, hydrogen application and the economic and environmental importance of hydrogen as a viable fuel option post covid-19 pandemic were discussed. There will be a surge in demand and investment for hydrogen economy post Covid-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0452.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: corona; covid-19; crisis management; basic income; environmental politics; globalization; public policy; inequality; sustainable development
Online: 19 May 2021 (14:38:12 CEST)
The rapidly expanding corona pandemic in 2020 brought the world to virtual economic stagna-tion. While the impact on the environment from suspended air traffic, idle industry and economic lockdown has been considerable, so have the economic and social consequences of the crisis. To make matters worse, the resulting state of stagnation is neither economically nor socially sustaina-ble. Nevertheless, we need to ask ourselves what we can learn from the situation in order to ex-plore the benefits of globalization, intercept similar crisis situations more effectively in the future and move towards more sustainable development on an ecological, economic and social level. This paper identifies the areas of expanded externality management needed to further improve environmental quality, digitalization, network expansion and basic income. These central issues need to be addressed both during and after the crisis in order to deal with problems of inequality and climate change mitigation for current and future generations. Concrete concepts will be put forward and discussed in the paper.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0102.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Corona discharge; corona ring; corona suppression; high voltage capacitor banks; shunt capacitor banks
Online: 4 November 2021 (11:21:35 CET)
Capacitor banks are widely used in current electrical transmission systems in order to improve power quality and increase efficiency. Utilizing high voltage components such as, shunt capacitors in the power grid imposes new challenges to the system which are required to be addressed. One of these challenges is corona discharges that can have negative impacts on capacitor banks such as power loss, insulator erosion followed by equipment failure, and radio interference. Although previous studies have almost exclusively focused on optimization of corona suppression rings for transformers and transmission lines, no specific studies have conducted regarding high voltage capacitor banks. This paper presents a novel study concerning verification and development of corona discharge suppression models on AC and DC capacitor banks with two different voltage levels. The employed method is based on the Maxwell’s equations and finite element method (FEM) which is implemented with the help of COMSOL Multiphysics© software. Results have verified the necessity of suppression methods as well as the efficiency of proposed solutions. Corona inception voltage levels are identified and effective factors on its appearance are reviewed. Analyses of proposed solutions have shown significant improvements in optimization of corona suppression methods as well as enhancement of maintenance maneuverability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0695.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Domestic violence, crimes against women, the impact of Corona on the family, male domination, women in Jordanian culture
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:59:09 CEST)
Objectives: The study aimed to uncover the percentages of battered women in Jordan, its causes, forms, and relationship to several social factors. Methodology: The study was conducted on a random, targeted sample of (1308) women based on social sample survey method and electronic questionnaire tool for data collection, the Descriptive statistical method and chi-square test were used to examine statistically significant differences. Results: The study found that the percentage of battered women reached 17.1% during Corona pandemic in 2020, and the increase in men's violence against women during this period of was in large and medium degrees according to the sample. Husbands were the most practicing violence against their wives at 37.5%, followed by fathers against daughters at 28.6%, and brothers against sisters at 26.8%. The causes of male violence are due to social factors represented by male domination culture, interference by family and relatives, and economic factors represented by the high cost of living, low household income and poverty. The most common forms of violence are verbal, physical, and psychological. The study found that women in southern Jordan, who are poorer and less educated, and who live in a large family, are the most abused. The study recommended activating family and community service and reform offices, solving problems of deteriorating economic situation and individual poverty, and enlightening community awareness of the dangers of domestic violence.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0213.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: covid-19; rlmE MTase; new drug target; corona diagnosis; corona pandemic
Online: 13 April 2020 (12:33:22 CEST)
Covid-19 infections are rapidly spreading worldwide with more than 100000 death and thus understanding the molecular mechanism of tropism of human cells is an urgent need for drug design. We have described here a bioinformatics approach to predict the functional aspects of non-structural nsp16 protein of Corona virus. The covid-19 7098 AA large polyprotein was degraded into sixteen proteins and last nsp16 protein was found an RlmE type rRNA methyltransferase. Nsp16 has no similarity to bacterial RlmABCD but has 25 percent similarity to the bacterial RlmE protein which methylates the U2551 2-hydroxy group of Ribose. The nsp16 proteins of different corona viruses like covid-19, bat-coronavirus, SARS and MERS have strong homology. Mrm2 and Dim1 like yeast and mammalian rRNA methyltransferases have 26-33 percent homologies but not with 2-O-capping MTase as reported previously. Rrp8 MTases also has no similarity to nsp16. We postulated that mitochondrial rRNA methylation of bronchial cells were mediated by the nsp16 protein causing inhibition of protein synthesis due to poor assembly of aminoacyl-tRNA or mRNA and peptidyl transferase at the PTC. This is one of the new molecular mechanism of corona virus cellular tropism and different than ACE-2 mediated blockage of cellular signalling to inhibit aldesterone biosynthesis with abnormal Na+ ions in cells. We also designed primers based on nsp16 cDNA sequence (nt 20659-21552, accession no MT121215) specific for Covid-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0436.v1
Online: 29 March 2020 (11:31:15 CEST)
Novel Coronavirus infection mediated pandemic started in China in December 2019 and is still killing 1000s of people throughout the world. The second most populous country, India too is fighting against this infectious disease. The country is taking effective measures to curb the pandemic by exerting extensive campaigning on sanitation and strict social distancing measures to quell the explosion of the infection rate. The future of the COVID-19 infections in India still remain unpredictable, so precautionary methods need to be continued until the growth rate of new cases drop below one.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0195.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Nanoparticles, interactions, protein corona, nanomedicine
Online: 16 July 2019 (12:36:38 CEST)
Nanotechnology is a multidisciplinary science covering matters involving nanoscale level that is being developed for a great variety of applications. Nanomedicine is one of these attractive and challenging uses focused on the employment of nanomaterials in medical applications such as drug delivery. However, the uses of these nanometric systems requires specific parameters to establish the possible advantages and disadvantages in specific applications. This review presents the fundamental factors of nanoparticles and it´s microenvironment that must be considered to make an appropriate design for medical applications: (i) Interactions between nanoparticles and their biological environment, (ii) the interaction mechanisms, (iii) and the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles. On the other hand, the repercussions of the control, alteration and modification of these parameters in the final applications. Additionally, we here briefly report the implications of nanoparticles in nanomedicine and provide perspectives for some particular applications which still are challenged
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0045.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Social Psychology Keywords: corona virus transmission; path of transmission of virus; missing information about corona virus; social distancing
Online: 8 May 2020 (04:41:22 CEST)
We present the detailed calculations of social distancing requirement. A comparative study of the growth pattern and death tolls in different communities indicates that the growth pattern of infected patients and death rate follow the similar distribution with different parametrizations. Every distribution follows an exponential growth pattern curve, like other microbes, then reaches the saturation point an d eventually decay s However, the argument for the exponential function depends on several parameters unbeknownst, as of yet. However, the slope varies different ial ly for various epicenter s and seems to have a relationship with parameters such as accessibi lity to healthcare facilities, pre existing medical conditions socio economic conditions and lifestyle. The mismatch of the growth pattern is also linked with the impact of various other factors and a premature interpretation of limit ed data. Novel behavi or of the virus brought many surprises, opened up new venues for medical research, and the need for the more detailed study of pathogens in the light of the interaction of RNA and DNA The adaptability to diverse ecological condition s and the relevant modification in the structure is also worth investigation The genetic modification can be studied using quantum mechanical probabilistic approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: online education; corona crisis; challenges; possibilities
Online: 3 June 2020 (08:25:46 CEST)
Online class now is the demand of the day as little scopes are to find out alternatives to online class in these unprecedented days caused by corona pandemic across the globe. The study was qualitative in approach and data were collected from secondary sources i.e. different newspapers and journals in the recent times along with a mini interview with students of private universities studying in different subjects over mobile phone by the researcher. Findings of the study show that though online education has a number of challenges faced by two main stakeholders; students and teachers, handling all these challenges carefully can have the chance to create a positive atmosphere in the field of education as an alternative teaching learning resulting in positive outcomes in all regards.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0393.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Corona Effect; Monitoring; Maintenance; High voltage Line
Online: 21 December 2022 (08:05:12 CET)
The investigation consists of taking data from the insulator chains of the 220 kV voltage for lines located in the coastal areas of Peru, in this case line 2212 from Huacho to Zapallal was chosen and the data consists of audios and images taken in hours at night when there is low temperature and high relative humidity, with the objective of identifying the characteristics that show the occurrence of effluvia that are atmospheric discharges due to the voltage of the line and the environmental conditions, this phenomenon is known as the Corona effect. Data were taken during the months of October 2020 June and July 2022, being more than 20 thousand archives of video, audio, and data (collected in csv type files), allowing to determine that the Corona effect does not manifest itself during the moments of lowest temperature. This allows redefining the maintenance strategy to be more effective in combating the damage to the insulators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0132.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; SARS-CoV-2; novel corona virus; Wuhan pneumonia
Online: 18 February 2020 (11:52:25 CET)
The rapid development of 2019-2020 Wuhan seafood market pneumonia currently posed a major public health concern in China. Genome sequencing identified a novel beta-coronavirus closely related to SARS-CoV, named 2019-nCoV by WHO, as the cause of this pandemic disease. Viruses with single stranded RNA genome are prone to evolve quickly by accumulation of mutations, such as SNV, INDEL and cross viral recombination, aiding fast transmission among hosts and cross species. Here we collected related genome sequences and investigated variations shared by different strains of 2019-nCoV, identified reoccurrence of SNV mutations in clusters of patients, an indication of rapid evolution of 2019-nCoV at the transmission from animal host to human. The information collected herein would help to understand the dynamics of current pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0318.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: chitosan; nanocapsules; degradation; FRET; protein corona; bioimaging
Online: 17 September 2018 (15:02:11 CEST)
Sub-micron o/w emulsions coated with chitosan have been used for drug delivery, quorum sensing inhibition and vaccine development. To study interactions with biological systems, nanocapsules have been fluorescently labelled in previous works, but it is often difficult to distinguish the released label from intact nanocapsules. In this study, we present advanced labelling strategies based on FRET measurements for chitosan-coated nanocapsules and investigate their dissolution and degradation. We used FRET measurements of nanocapsules loaded with equimolar concentrations of two fluorescent dyes in their oily core and correlated them with DLS count rate measurement and absorbance measurements during their disintegration by dissolution. Using count rate measurements, we also investigated the enzymatic degradation of nanocapsules using pancreatin and how protein corona formation influences their degradation. Of note, nanocapsules dissolved in ethanol, where FRET decreased simultaneously with count rate, and absorbance caused by nanocapsule turbidity, indicating increased distance between dye molecules after their release. Nanocapsules were degradable by pancreatin in a dose dependent manner, and showed a delayed enzymatic degradation after protein corona formation. We present here novel labelling strategies for nanocapsules that allow us to judge their status and an in vitro method to study nanocapsule degradation and the influence of surface characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0471.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: corona discharge; Trichel pulse; multi-needle; EM radiation
Online: 22 October 2018 (05:38:30 CEST)
Negative corona discharges occur widely in high voltage transmission lines and charged aircraft, which can cause strong electromagnetic interference. Negative corona discharge is typically performed simultaneously at multiple discharge points. In this study, the current and its EM radiation characteristics of single-needle and multi-needle negative corona discharge in different conditions were tested. The current and electromagnetic radiation characteristics of the two discharge structures were compared. The dipole radiation model was established to analyze the EM radiation characteristics of the negative corona discharge.The results show that, It is only when the voltage reaches a certain threshold that the current and electromagnetic radiation fields of the multi-needle discharge structure will be superimposed and their amplitudes will increase significantly. The frequency of electromagnetic radiation signal does not change with the number of needles, cathode geometry and applied voltage, but only depends on ambient pressure. It provides a basis for detecting corona discharge sources under different conditions.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: corona-virus; COVID-19; tourism sector; review; risk hedging
Online: 30 April 2020 (14:15:28 CEST)
Nowadays tourism is growing as a gigantic, global business accounting for 10.4 % of Global GDP and 10% of global employment (Joppe, 2020). This review paper aims to explore the risks borne for tourism sector by the outbreak of corona-virus in 2020. Tourism sector is a highly vulnerable sector and the costs that will be borne from corona-virus pandemic will be devastating, particularly for the countries relying on this sector as a basic source of income. The paper suggests possible solutions and adaptation routes, while at the same time reviews lessons of the past from other pandemics and crisis. This paper is very useful for tourism policy makers and governments in countries where tourism contributes a significant part of their GDP, but also for other economic sectors closely but indirectly connected in the tourism value chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0441.v1
Online: 24 April 2020 (12:06:33 CEST)
Background: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally now. However, the clinical presentation that predict prognosis of the patients are still largely unknow. Methods: We enrolled 393 patients infected with COVID-19 and 30 patients with common pulmonary bulla and reviewed their clinical features to evaluate the potential prognostic value of pulmonary vesicles, especially in the patients with severe symptoms. One COVID-19 patient with vesicles was treated by bullectomy for last resort, and its characteristics of the patient’s perioperative laboratory tests was analyzed. The pathological findings of bullectomy were described and compared with those of common bulla cases. Results: Patients infected with COVID-19 showed more dependence on ventilator, occurrence of super resistant bacteria, and prone to vesicle formation than common bulla (p<0.05). Disease severity is associated with age, sex, and usage of ventilator, ECMO and antibiotics, super resistance bacteria and vesicle formation (p<0.05). The average mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was 4.10% (25.4% in severe patients, 0.00% in mild patients). Interestingly, the mortality rate further increased in severe patients with pulmonary vesicles than those without pulmonary vesicles (35.7% vs 22.4%, p=0.0442). One COVID-19 patient with vesicles underwent bullectomy and had a poor prognosis, who showed diffuse alveolar damage and extensive necrosis in bullectomy specimen. Conclusions: Patients infected with COVID-19 are more prone to form pulmonary vesicles showed on chest CT scans, as an important poor prognosis factor, especially in the severe patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0217.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: COVID-19; Indigenous Tribes; Co-morbidities; Corona Virus; Navaho
Online: 14 April 2020 (08:43:11 CEST)
Introduction The COVID-19 virus was initially reported in Dec 2019 as the causative agent of a pneumonia breakout in Wuhan China. This virus rapidly spread from China to Europe and the East Coast of the United States eventually reaching the South West United States and indigenous tribes in mid -March. Since, then the indigenous tribes have been devasted by the virus which the Governor of New Mexico has likened as an existential threat. Methodology A PubMed search was performed utilizing the words: Navajo Indian, Indigenous Indian, Wuhan Virus, COVID-19, SARs coronavirus, ACE2, S protein, virulence, clinical presentation, epidemiology, genome, treatment, structure, MERs, pathogenesis and/or pathology alone and in combination with other terms. Each paper was evaluated by three content experts for quality, reproducibility, credibility and reputation of the journal Results: Navajo’s and other indigenous peoples may have elevated levels of ACE2 receptors in their lungs and other tissues allowing greater susceptibility to the COVID-19 virus. Increased levels of diabetes and protein nutrition are directly related to increased morbidity and mortality in this group while obesity, COPD, and heart diseas are not. The increased morbidity and mortality is exasperated by an inability to test for COVID-19 Conclusion: The infectivity rate of Navaho’s on the reservation is 22 times higher than the national average with a death rate near 4%. Comorbidites account for some of the increased morbidity and mortality while lack of access to adequate health care unnecessarily magnifies the poor outcome. The threat to indigenous tribes in the Southwest of COVID-19 is dire.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0215.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: Corona; Covid-19; Pandemic; Business; Affected business; Social; Operations; Funding
Online: 14 October 2021 (10:57:43 CEST)
Social enterprises are very common in Birmingham having the largest concentrations of social enterprises in the United Kingdom. With the emergence of the Covid-19 pandemic, the operations and management of social enterprises in Birmingham has been greatly affected. This study seeks to analyse the impact of the Covid-19 pandemic on the operations and funding of social enterprises in Birmingham UK. In order to achieve this, the study is going to carry out a qualitative methodology in order to analyse the impact Covid-19 has had on social enterprises. The research is going to select relevant stakeholders through a non-purposive sampling criteria identifying individuals who have direct interest in the functioning of social enterprises. The relevant stakeholders will be expected to respond to semi structured interviews that are structured to evoke responses relevant to this area of research. The research realized that Social enterprises in Birmingham are a critical player in the economy of UK with many individuals depending on the social enterprise industry. In addition to that, the study realised that the Covid-19 pandemic exposed social enterprises to various financial and market risks. Moreover, social enterprises were forced to make a change in their organizational structure through cost management changes and offering alternative services. However, the government came in support through provision of grants and funding to boost the social enterprise economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0628.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; corona virus; COVID-19; non-parametric model
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:54:23 CET)
Based on comprehensible non-parametric methods, estimates of crucial parameters that characterise the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on the German epidemic are presented. Where appropriate, the estimates for Germany are compared with the results for seven other countries (FR, IT, US, UK, ES, CH, BR) to get an idea of the breadth of applicability and a relational understanding. Thereby, only prevalence data of daily reported new counts of diagnosed cases and fatalities provided by the Johns Hopkins University are used. Drawing on uncertain a priori knowledge is avoided. Specifically, we present estimates resulting from delay-time correlations for the duration from diagnosis to death being 13 days for Germany and Switzerland. The delay-time correlation applied to time series from other countries exhibit less pronounced peaks suggesting high variabilities for the corresponding time-to-death durations. With respect to the German data, the two time series of new cases and fatalities exhibit a strong coherence within the frequency range of interest, which backs our findings. Furthermore, based on the knowledge of this time lag between diagnoses and deaths, properly delayed asymptotic as well as instantaneous fatality-case ratios are calculated having superiority compared to the commonly published case-fatality rate. The temporal median of the instantaneous fatality-case ratio with proper delay of 13-days between cases and deaths for Germany turns out to be 0.02. Time courses of asymptotic fatality-case ratios are presented for other countries which substantially differ during the first half of the pandemic, however, converge to a narrow range with standard deviation 0.57% and mean 2.4%. Additionally, the time courses of instantaneous fatality-case ratios with optimal delay for the 8 exemplarily chosen countries are calculated and compared by means of the temporal medians. Similarly to the asymptotic fatality-case ratios, the differences are much smaller than expected from mass media reports. The basic reproduction number, R0, for Germany is estimated to be between 2.4 and 3.4. The uncertainty stems from uncertain knowledge of the generation time. A delay autocorrelation shows resonances at about 4 days and 7 days, where the latter resonance is at least partially attributable to the sampling process with weekly periodicity. The calculation of the basic reproduction number is based on an evaluation of cumulative numbers of cases yielding time-dependent doubling times as an intermediate step. This allows to infer to the reproduction number during the early phase of onset of the epidemic. In a second approach, the instantaneous reproduction number is derived from the incident (counts of new) cases and allows, in contrast to the first version, to infer to the temporal behaviour of the reproduction number during the later epidemic course. The time course of the reproduction number is compared to an alternative control measure given by the per capita growth, which largely confirms the conclusions drawn from the reproduction number. To conclude, by avoiding complicated parametric models we provide insights into basic features of the COVID-19 epidemic in an utmost transparent and comprehensible way. The perhaps most striking insight is that the fatality-case ratios do not differ between countries as much as previously suspected.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0192.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV2; corona virus; affinity proteomics; glycoproteins; glycoprotein-binding domains
Online: 11 May 2020 (10:24:43 CEST)
We analyzed the affinity-proteomics data of saliva absorbed to plate-bound Spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, and identified major virus-binding proteins as MUC7, MUC5B, DMBT1, and neutrophil defensins. Furthermore, we found that saliva from healthy donors inhibited the binding of Spike-protein-specific polyclonal antibodies to Spike antigen. These data suggest that the Spike protein’s glycoprotein-binding domains (GBD) may be targeted to block virus adherence or entry of SARS-CoV-2.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0129.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: biostimulation; stress tolerance; elicitors; corona; hormesis; nutritional quality; growth promoters
Online: 6 November 2018 (05:01:51 CET)
Biostimulants are materials that when applied in small amounts are capable of promoting plant growth. Nanoparticles (NPs) and nanomaterials (NMs) can be considered as biostimulants since, in specific ranges of concentration, generally in small levels, they increase the plant growth. Pristine NPs and NMS have a high density of surface charges capable of unspecific interactions with the surface charges of the cell walls and membranes of plant cells. In the same way, the functionalized NPs and NMS, and the NPs and NMs with a corona formed after the exposition to natural fluids such as water, soil solution, or the interior of organisms, presents a high density of surface charges that interact with specific charged groups in cell surfaces. The magnitude of the interaction will depend on the materials adhered to the corona, but the high-density charges located in a small volume causes an intense interaction capable of disturbing the density of surface charges of cell walls and membranes. The electrostatic disturbance can have an impact on the electrical potentials of the outer and inner surfaces, as well as on the transmembrane electrical potential, modifying the activity of the integral proteins of the membranes. The extension of the cellular response can range from biostimulation to cell death and will depend on the concentration, size, and the characteristics of the corona.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0334.v2
Online: 16 September 2020 (03:01:07 CEST)
COVID-19, previously known as “2019 novel coronavirus”, is a newly discovered virus which causes severe acute respiratory syndrome, similar to corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread widely through human to human contact and was declared a pandemic by the WHO in March 2020. To cope with this pandemic many countries have adopted nationwide lockdowns which restrict nonessential activities and encourage their populations to avoid public transport, work from hone wherever possible, and to maintain social distancing at all times. While the severity of these shutdowns has varied with country, large geographic regions of the world (including China, India, Iran, Italy, Spain, and the USA) have all been severely affected, not just in the loss of human life, but also in terms of the financial impacts the lockdowns will have on their countries future prosperityIt was previously reported that a number of environmental factors, including humidity and temperature, played an important role in development and spread of the SARS-Corona Virus infection with the virus retaining viability for over 5 days at temperatures between 22–25oC and relative humidity (RH) of 40–50%. Whereas, elevated temperatures and higher RH (38oC, and >95% RH) decreased virus viability (Kroumpouzos et al., 2020). The spread of COVID-19 started in low temperature areas of China, with major outbreaks subsequently occurring in Iran, Japan, Northern Italy and South Korea. These new virus epicenters all had similar temperature and latitude, along the 30-50◦N” zone. Subsequently, the virus was spread to regions of elevated temperature, such as India, the Middle East and Thailand, due to international travel (Kroumpouzos et al., 2020).The aim of this study was to consider the environmental impact of COVID-19, including water pollution. The paper is divided into four sections. In the first section the current literature related to COVID-19 is reviewed. In the second section a recent update on COVID-19 globally is presented, followed by a descriptive impact on the environment in the third section and finally in the fourth section the COVID-19 related worldwide environmental impact is discussed. Since COVID-19 is a currently an active pandemic with no end in sight, while constructive conclusions can only be made on the limited data currently, which may be prone to high errors. However, these conclusions may provide some preliminary suggestions for assisting in assessing spreading patterns of COVID-19 across the globe, and may be of long-term significances with respect to assessing the environmental impact of lockdown policies due to COVID-19 worldwide.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0730.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: risk management and early measures; Novel Corona Virus (COVID-2019); GHS
Online: 31 August 2020 (17:56:33 CEST)
This research paper is mainly aimed to elaborate the initial risk management and measures which government of Pakistan took towards Novel Corona Virus (COVID-2019). This initial response and planning was devised after the early outbreak of COVID-2019 in Wuhan, China in early time of January 2020. Pakistan devised a comprehensive plan that not to evacuate their student from Wuhan, China. The government of Pakistan in compliance with the National Institute of Health (NIH) devised and documented comprehensive plans such as the flight operations postponed related to Umerah pilgrims, which were intended to go to sacred places of KSA (The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia). The process of visa, immigration policy totally changed and the government of Pakistan notified it officially that, no new visas of visit, student, and business would be issued in due course of uncertainty due to COVID-2019. The government of Pakistan also announced medical emergency and notified through the country’s provinces the process of testing and treatment of COVID-2019. The government of Pakistan also allocated funds for medical supplies and named out the particular country’s best laboratories. The government of Pakistan also locked down all the cities with the emergency announcement that people should stay inside the home in quarantine or self-isolation. NIH (The National Institute of Health) played a vital role in executing the planning to cope with COVID – 2019). The National Institute of Health responded as “The Centre for Disease Control”. In aid to the government, the national army of Pakistan responded in a proactive manner towards planed execution. The medical corps of Pakistan army dedicated themselves to treat the suspected patients of COVID – 2019. Due to plans, policies being documented, implemented in such a way productive way that from February 28, 2020 to till date there is not much critical situation and issues are not present. There are much productive results as there is not much boom in a rise of COVID-2019 patients. This lockdown under the authority of the provinces resulted in fruitful outcomes. Background: On January 02, 2020, authorities of the People Republic of China elaborated that they have encountered with a novel type of infectious viral disease 2019. Later on January 12, the authorities from China elaborated the related sequence of Corona Virus diseases 2019 names as COVID – 2019. When COVID-2019 being identified in Wuhan, Hubei China, as an early response the Government of Pakistan in support of the National Institute of Health (Field Epidemiology & Disease Surveillance Division) published a health advisory about novel coronavirus. Methods: According to Global Health Security Index, Pakistan is ranked as 105th country among 195 countries in GHS index. Overall Score of Pakistan is 35.5. The score of Early Detection and Reporting for Epidemics of Potential International Concern is 41.7. A Graphical depiction of the COVID-19 cases placed until April 10, 2020 as well as a graph trend line of recovered as well as death rate is also depicted. According to the graphical facts of Government of Pakistan and World meters, the recovery rate of COVID-19 is about 98 percent and 2.1 percent death rate is reported against the total cases. Trend analysis with line graph was drawn based on available data from official dashboard web portal of the government of Pakistan and worldometers.info. Data figures were incorporated from March to August 18, 2020 in MS Excel and then subsequently deployed to draw trend analysis from managing risk to recovery. Results: The line graph showed a slowdown in the COVID-19 cases and high rate of recoveries from COVID-19 in Pakistan. On March 11, 2020, there were 20 confirmed cases of coronavirus reported in Pakistan. No death was recorded in very first seven days, on March 18, 2020 only two deaths were reported. On August 18, 2020, there were 272128 recoveries, 6201 deaths, total confirmed cases 290445, and total test were 2340072 in Pakistan. As a results, we can report that due to early measures taken by government of Pakistan no mass scale destruction in terms of death and cases been recorded in Pakistan. Conclusions: To till date, the government of Pakistan tried its level best to minimize the coronavirus cases as much as they can. However, the ending of the potential attack of an outbreak would depend upon the well organized and coordinated approach at all levels such as true directed decisions, fully preparedness, as well implementation and evaluation of continuous decisions. As the recovery rate of the cases is 98 percent and merely death rate is 2.1 percent, concluded that in future it would be a good sign to stop the potential outbreak. Also, lock down as well as precautionary measurement taken by the provincial governments resulted a decline number of COVID-19 cases in the country. Another good sign is that merely 4 percent population of Pakistan is of more than 60 years of old it can be concluded that there are less chances of mass death due to outbreak of COVID-19.
Subject: Biology, Other Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; RATG13; BtCoV/4991; SARS-like (SL-) corona virus; pneumonia
Online: 24 May 2020 (20:02:22 CEST)
Genomic analysis indicates that SARS-CoV-2 is most related to RaTG13, a beta corona virus derived from bats by 96% 1. At present, RaTG13 is only available on the public database in the form of a genome sequence. The genome of RaTG13 (MN996532.1) was sequenced from the RNA of a bat faecal swab collected in 2013 from Yunnan, China, however the exact location is not mentioned. Since RaTG13 is one of the main supports for SARS-CoV-2 to have a natural origin, it is of utmost importance to understand the sample location. RNA dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) sequence of RaTG13 shows that it is 100% similar to that of bat corona virus BtCoV/4991 and 98.7-98.9% similar to SARS-CoV-2 RdRp 2. BtCoV/4991 was described to be a SARS-like (SL-) corona virus from bat faeces sampled in an abandoned mine from Mojiang 2. Both the publications 1,2 are authored by Dr. Zheng-li Shi (Z-L Shi), who is described as the bat woman of China 3. However, BtCoV/4991 has not been mentioned by Zhou et al 2020 1 where novel corona virus was first described. Based on the RdRp sequence similarities, similarities in sample collection dates, sample locations, and the fact that RaTG13 is mentioned synonymous to BtCoV/4991 on the Chinese bat database, it is predicted that RaTG13 and BtCoV/4991 originate from the same sample. The sample, bat faecal swab was collected in 2013 from an abandoned mineshaft in Mojiang by Dr. Shi and her work group. In 2012, in a Mojiang mineshaft, six mine workers suffered from atypical pneumonia and three of them died. These workers were engaged in the work of clearing debris from a mineshaft which had a lot of bats and bat faeces 3,4. A detailed health investigation indicated that the miners suffered from atypical pneumonia mostly of the viral origin 4. Therefore, in the light of the present Covid-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2, the fact that its phylogenetic neighbour RaTG13 originated from bat faeces collected from a mineshaft, which was also the origin of pneumonia-like disease in miners in 2012, should be noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: corona loss; helical charge; 3-D calculation model; stranded conductor; sag
Online: 1 November 2017 (17:03:45 CET)
Corona loss generated from conductors is one of the important design factors on ac transmission lines. Based on helical charge simulation method, the 3-D corona loss calculation model considering the conductors’ outer strands in the corona cage is established. With regard to 2-D corona-loss calculation method, the calculation model proposed in this paper can take the electric field strength’s nonuniformity along the axial direction of stranded conductor into consideration, furthermore, it can also calculate the corona loss when the conductor has sag. The calculation results of the LGJ-300/40 and LGJ-400/35 in the small corona cage well coincide with the measurement results, which indicates that the corona-loss calculation model is appropriate. In addition, the corona loss of the bundle conductors 4 × LGJ720 with sag in UHV corona cage is also analyzed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0467.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Corona; SARS-CoV-2; vaccine; mass media; cues-to-action; health status
Online: 29 August 2022 (05:11:18 CEST)
One of the models that could be used to understand the adoption of vaccine uptake is the Health Belief Model (HBM). The aim of this study is to assess the role of HBM constructs and perceived health status (PHS) on vaccination status of individuals and to understand the role of socio-demographic variables on HBM scoring. A comparative cross-sectional telephone survey was conducted among 1,325 vaccinated (60.0%) and non-vaccinated (40.0%) vaccinated individuals aged 40 years and above in July 2021 in Punjab province, Pakistan. A higher level of education was the strongest predictor of positive HBM. All constructs of HBM, PHS and cues-to-action were significant predictors of COVID-19 vaccination uptake with perceived benefits as the strongest predictor. In order to expand the vaccination coverage, doubled pronged interventions utilizing both ICT and human resources should be designed that address each barrier perceived by individuals and understandably communicate the benefits of COVID-19 vaccine to the broader population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0143.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: COVID-19; Corona virus; Aquatic food system; Food security; Small-scale fisheries; Bangladesh
Online: 12 June 2020 (08:25:09 CEST)
COVID-19 is now a major global health crisis, can lead to severe food crisis unless proper measures are not taken. Though a number of scientific studies have addressed the possible impacts of COVID-19 in Bangladesh on variety of issues, problems and food crises associated with aquatic resources and communities are missing. Therefore, this study aimed at bridging the gap in the existing situation and challenges of COVID-19 by linking its impact on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries with dependent population. The study was conducted based on secondary data analysis and primary fieldwork. Secondary data focused on COVID-19 overview and number of confirmed, recovered and death cases in Bangladesh; at the same time its connection with small-scale fisheries, aquatic food production, demand and supply was analyzed. Community perceptions were elicited to present how the changes felt and how they affected aquatic food system and small-scale fisheries and found devastating impact. Sudden illness, reduced income, complication to start production and input collection, labor crisis, transportation abstraction, complexity in food supply, weak value chain, low consumer demand, rising commodity prices, creditor’s pressure were identified as the primary affecting drivers. Dependent people felt the measures taken by the Government should be based on protecting the health and food security, although it could be detrimental to economic growth in the short term. The study provides insight into policies adopted by the policy makers to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on aquatic food sector and small-scale fisheries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0403.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: zoonotic; corona virus; COVID-19; SARS; MERS; global health emergency; India; lockdown strategies
Online: 24 May 2020 (19:34:03 CEST)
Global emerge of zoonotic novel corona virus (COVID-19) became a pandemic and its effect to mankind is talk of the town now a days. This tiny, invisible enemy has affected every country in the world and almost every living directly or indirectly and nationwide complete lockdown has triggered a short-term environmental impact. Since 2003, corona virus came into existence in the form of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and more evolved Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. This time, at the end of December 2019, outbreak of novel corona virus COVID-19 (also known as SARS-CoV2, nCoV-2019) draw attention as global health emergency. World Health Organization (WHO) report says that the outbreak of this virus is so immense, it has already affected 35,57,235 people and caused death to 2,45,150 people worldwide and 46,433 Indians got affected with 1568 death as on 5th May 2020 (2:00 am) and these numbers are increasing exponentially day by day. Virologist, micro-biologist and science community are hammering their head very hard to find out cure and vaccine against this powerful virus and to prevent mass demise of mankind. In order to curb the spread of COVID-19, Janta curfew on 22.03.2020 and nationwide complete lockdown was implemented in India for 21 days (phase-I, from 25.03.2020 to 14.04.2020) to stop community transmission of third stage, for 19 days (phase-II, 15.04.2020 to 03.05.2020) and 14 days (phase-III, 04.05.2020 to 17.05.2020) complete lockdown to minimize the community transmission effect. During complete lockdown and quarantine period a drastic change in Earth’s atmosphere, including reduction in emission of greenhouse gases, air pollution (~50% fall in air quality index), noise pollution, water pollution and solid waste pollution, have been recorded by government agencies as well as private agencies. In this paper we considered data of Janta curfew, phase-I and phase-II lockdown to link between geological and environmental aspect related to environmental impact due to emerge of COVID-19 and massive reduction in pollution level during complete lockdown in India. We propose future lockdown strategies to minimize the emission of greenhouse gas by ~100 Mt to ~200Mt (3.33% to 6.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month nationwide lockdown or ~70 Mt to ~140 Mt (2.33% to 4.66%) of GHGtotal per year by 2-4 days per month complete lockdown of energy sectors only.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0365.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: corona virus; reported and unreported cases; isolation; quarantine; public closings; epidemic mathematical model
Online: 25 February 2020 (07:38:24 CET)
We model the COVID-19 coronavirus epidemic in China. We use early reported case data to predict the cumulative number of reported cases to a final size. The key features of our model are the timing of implementation of major public policies restricting social movement, the identification and isolation of unreported cases, and the impact of asymptomatic infectious cases.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: corona virus; reported and unreported cases; isolation, quarantine; public closings; epidemic mathematical model
Online: 6 February 2020 (08:45:07 CET)
We develop a mathematical model to provide epidemic predictions for the 2019-nCov epidemic in Wuhan, China. We use reported case data up to January 31, 2020 from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention and the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission to parameterize the model. From the parameterized model we identify the number of unreported cases. We then use the model to project the epidemic forward with varying level of public health interventions. The model predictions emphasize the importance of major public health interventions in controlling 2019-nCov epidemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0332.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: protein determination; soft protein corona; hard protein corona; covalent immobilization; supernatant method; gold nanoparticles; latex polymer particles; gold sodium chloride method; amino acid analysis; aromatic amino acid analysis; AAAA; acid hydrolysis
Online: 24 March 2022 (14:32:48 CET)
Protein immobilization for the functionalization of particles is used in various applications, including biosensors, lateral-flow immunoassays (LFIA), bead-based assays, and others. Common methods for the quantification of bound protein are measuring protein in the supernatant before and after coating and calculating the difference. This popular approach has the potential for a significant overestimation of the amount of immobilized protein since layers not directly bound to the surface (soft protein corona) are usually lost during washing and handling. Only the layer directly bound to the surface (hard corona) can be used in subsequent assays. A simplified amino acid analysis method based on acidic hydrolysis and RP-HPLC-FLD of tyrosine and phenylalanine (aromatic amino acid analysis, AAAA) is proposed to directly quantify protein bound to the surface of gold nano- and latex microparticles. The results are compared with indirect methods such as colorimetric protein assays, such as Bradford, bicinchoninic acid (BCA), as well as AAAA of the supernatant. For both particle types, these indirect quantification techniques show a protein overestimation of up to 1700% compared to the direct AAAA measurements. In addition, protein coating on latex particles was performed both passively through adsorption and covalently through EDC/sulfo-NHS chemistry. Our results showed no difference between the immobilization methodologies. This finding suggests that usual protein determination methods are no unambiguous proof of a covalent conjugation on particles or beads.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0196.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Numerical Analysis & Optimization Keywords: orthogonal collocation; variational iteration method; mamadu-njoseh polynomials; differential equations; corona virus; SEIR model
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:42:20 CEST)
In this paper, we proposed the numerical method called the variational iteration orthogonal collocation method (VIOCM), for the approximate solution of the deadly Corona virus model using Mamadu-Njoseh polynomials as basis functions. The proposed method is an elegant mixture of the variational iteration method (VIM) and the orthogonal collocation method (OCM). It was observed that the proposed method converges rapidly to the exact solution even as N increases. This suggests that the use of orthogonal polynomials as trial functions for the SEIR model is indeed an effective approximant as it produces the analytic solution at just few iterations. Resulting numerical evidences were compared with the standard variational iteration method as available in literature. All computational frameworks were executed with MAPLE software.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0071.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; novel corona virus; Wuhan virus; drug; vaccine; spike protein; epitope; vaccine design
Online: 5 February 2020 (15:34:15 CET)
The recent outbreak of the new virus in Wuhan city, China from the sea food market has led to the identification of a new strain called the corona virus and named as novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) belonging to Coronaviridae family. This has created major havoc and concern due to the mortality of 250 persons and affecting more than 10,000 people. This virus causes sudden fever, pneumonia and also kidney failure. In this study a computational approach is proposed for drug and vaccine design. The spike protein sequences were collected from a protein database and analysed with various bioinformatics tools to identify suitable natural inhibitors for the N-terminal receptor binding domain of spike protein. Also, it is attempted to identify suitable vaccine candidates by identifying B-Cell and T-cell epitopes. In the drug design, the tanshinone Iia and methyl Tanshinonate were identified as natural inhibitors based on the docking score. In the vaccine design, B-cell epitope VLLPLVSSQCVNLTTRTQLPPAYTN was found to have the highest antigenicity. FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-I allele and FVFLVLLPL of MHC class-II allele were identified as best peptides based on a number of alleles and antigencity scores. The present study identifies natural inhibitors and putative antigenic epitopes which may be useful as effective drug and vaccine candidates for the eradication of novel corona virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0381.v2
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV2; corona virus; glycopeptide; N-linked glycans; mass spectrometry; antibody; cryo-EM structure; crystal structures; epitope prediction
Online: 13 April 2020 (11:09:29 CEST)
Corona viruses hijack human enzymes to assembly sugar coat on Spike glycoproteins. The mechanism that human antibodies may uncover the antigenic viral peptide epitopes hidden by sugar coat are unknown. In this study, we analyzed recombinant SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein secreted from BTI-Tn-5B1-4 cells, by trypsin and chymotrypsin digestion followed by mass spectrometry analysis. We acquired MS/MS spectrums for glycopeptides of all 22 predicted N-glycosylated sites. We further analyzed the surface accessibility of Spike proteins according to Cryo-EM and homolog-modeled structures, and available antibodies that bind to SARS-CoV-1. The results showed that all 22 N-glycosylated sites of SARS-CoV-2 are modified by high-mannose type of N-glycans. MS/MS fragmentation clearly established the glycopeptide identities. Electron densities of glycans cover most of the Spike receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2, except YQAGSTPCNGVEGFNCYFPLQSYGFQPTNGVGYQ, similar to a region FSPDGKPCTPPALNCYWPLNDYGFYTTTGIGYQ in SARS-CoV-1. Other surface-exposed domains included those located on Central Helix, between amino acids 967 and 1016 of SARS-CoV-1, and 985 to 1034 of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein. As the majority of antibody paratopes bind to peptide portion with or without sugar modification, we propose a snake-catcher model that a minimal length of peptide is first clamped by a paratope, and the binding is either strengthened by sugars close to peptide, or not interfered by sugar modification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0440.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; 2019-nCoV; novel corona virus; drug repurposing; chloroquine; high-risk group; asymptomatic
Online: 30 March 2020 (07:24:16 CEST)
COVID-19 (2019-nCoV) is a pandemic disease with an estimated mortality rate of 3.4% (estimated by the WHO as of March 3, 2020). Until now there is no antiviral drug and vaccine for COVID-19. The current overwhelming situation by COVID-19 patients in hospitals is likely to increase in the next few months. About 15 percent of patients with serious disease in COVID-19 require immediate health services. Rather than waiting for new anti-viral drugs or vaccines that take a few months to years to develop and test, several researchers and public health agencies are attempting to repurpose medicines that are already approved for another similar disease and have proved to be fairly effective. This study aims to identify FDA approved drugs that can be used for drug repurposing and identify biomarkers among high- risk and asymptomatic groups. In this study gene-disease association related to COVID-19 reported mild, severe symptoms and clinical outcomes were determined. The high-risk group was studied related to SARS-CoV-2 viral entry and life cycle by using Disgenet and compared with curated COVID-19 gene data sets from the CTD database. The overlapped gene sets were enriched and the selected genes were constructed for protein-protein interaction networks. Through interactome, key genes were identified for COVID-19 and also for high risk and asymptomatic groups. The key hub genes involved in COVID-19 were VEGFA, TNF, IL-6, CXCL8, IL10, CCL2, IL1B, TLR4, ICAM1, MMP9. The identified key genes were used for drug-gene interaction for drug repurposing. The chloroquine, lenalidomide, pentoxifylline, thalidome, sorafenib, pacitaxel, rapamycin, cortisol, statins were proposed to be probable drug repurposing candidates for the treatment of COVID-19. However, these predicted drug candidates need to be validated through randomized clinical trials. Also, a key gene involved in high risk and the asymptomatic group were identified, which can be used as probable biomarkers for early identification.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0424.v1
Subject: Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Korean COVID-19; Wuhan Corona virus; real time PCR Ct Value; Sensitivity; False Negative
Online: 28 February 2020 (12:03:13 CET)
Since mid-December of 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been spreading from Wuhan, China. As of February 21, total 75,773 confirmed cases worldwide have spread to more than two dozen countries. Transmission of COVID-19 can occur early in the course of infection since SARS-CoV-2 viral loads in asymptomatic patients are similar to that in the symptomatic patients. Therefore, more sensitive diagnostic methods are needed to detect early phase of the infection to prevent secondary or tertiary spreads. Here, we compare the RT-PCR confirmatory test results using two different SARS-CoV-2 viral RNAs from two Korean COVID-19 confirmed cases.RT-PCR method targeting the RdRP gene, which was recommended by WHO guideline, was less sensitive than targeting N genes (as per CDC guideline). Because many countries follow the WHO guideline, our findings may contribute to the early diagnosis of COVID-19.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0490.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Covid-19; Long Covid-19; Long Haulers Covid; Post Covid-19 Syndrome; Post-Acute Covid-19; Corona Virus; SARS-Cov-2; Novel Corona Virus 2019; Post-Acute SARS-CoV-2; PASC, Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19; Late Sequelae COVID-19
Online: 18 March 2021 (17:16:52 CET)
Introduction: Despite more than one year passed since the first cases of SARS-CoV-2 were reported, there is still no consensus on the definition and clinical management of post-acute-COVID-19. The condition has heterogeneously been named as Chronic COVID syndrome, Post COVID-19 Syndrome, post-acute sequela of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC), and the more familiar long COVID. Method: In order to capture all relevant published studies, we undertook a multi-step search with no language restriction. The following four-step search strategy was utilized: First, a preliminary (limited) search was conducted on January 20, 2021, in Google Scholar and PubMed to identify the appropriate keywords. Then, on January 30, 2021, we adopted a search strategy of electronic databases from Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of sciences, using those keywords. Then, after duplicate removal, we screened all titles, abstracts, and full texts. This resulted in 66 eligible studies. Subsequently, after a forward and backward search of their references and citations an additional 54 publications were found, resulting in a total of 120 publications that formed the basis of the present analysis. The titles, abstracts, and full-texts of non-English articles were translated using Google Translate for further evaluation. We conducted our scoping review based on the PRISMA-ScR Checklist.Results: We found only one randomized clinical trial in our search. Of the 67 original studies, 22 were cohort and 28 were cross-sectional studies totaling 74.6% of the original studies. Of the total of 120 publications, 59 (49.1%) focused on signs and symptoms, 28 (23.3%) were focused on management, and 13 (10.8%) focused on pathophysiology. Ten (9%) publications focused on imaging studies. Ninety-one percent of the original investigations came from high and upper-middle-income countries, highlighting the scarcity of reports originating from low-income and lower-middle-income countries.Conclusion: The predominant symptoms among those with the so-called “Long COVID” were: fatigue, breathlessness, arthralgia, sleep difficulties, and chest pain. Recent reports also point to the risk of long-term sequela with cutaneous, respiratory, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, mental health, neurologic, and renal involvement in those who survive the acute phase of the illness. The ambiguity and controversies in its definition have impaired proper recognition and management of those requiring additional support following the resolution of the acute phase of this infection. This has resulted in long-standing distress for the patients and their families. Our findings highlight the need for a multidisciplinary approach, support, and rehabilitation for these patients in terms of long-term mental and physical health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Geomagnetic induced current (GIC); Magnetic field component (dB/dt); Geomagnetic data (GMD); Corona mass ejections (CMEs); Electric field (E)
Online: 12 March 2021 (23:58:40 CET)
Geomagnetic induced current (GIC) is a ground end manifestation associated with the space weather perturbations that should be greatly taken into account by the society. Although the GICs implication to the power system is not regular, it can cause large scale of system failure. In equatorial, the power system is considered safe since the most intense of geomagnetic storm happened in high latitude. However, the internal damage due to GICs which finally led to the South African power system failure has totally changed the normal perception. Therefore, a preliminary investigation on the GICs activity in equatorial region is performed to understand the space weather impact to the power system. Time derivative of the horizontal magnetic field component (dB/dt) is done to indicate the GICs activity value based on Faraday’s law. All the reported power failures are compiled to produce the threshold value of dB/dt, which possibly cause the harmful effect to the system. Then, dB/dt analysis is extended to show the pattern of GICs activity in function of magnetic latitude and local time. The results reveal that power network in equatorial region has possibly suffered by GIC. Plus, high number of intense GIC activity in this region occurred during dayside.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0037.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: Stark broadening; van der Waals broadening; line shapes; helium plasma; corona discharge; plasma diagnostics; code comparison; neutral broadening; pressure broadening
Online: 7 March 2018 (13:36:47 CET)
Passive plasma spectroscopy is a well-established non-intrusive diagnostic technique. Depending on the emitter and its environment which determine the dominant interactions and effects governing emission line shapes, passive spectroscopy allows the determination of electron densities, emitter and perturber temperatures as well as other quantities like abundances. However, using spectroscopy needs appropriate line shape codes retaining all the physical effects governing the emission line profiles. This requires for line shape code developers to continuously correct or improve them to increase their accuracy when applied for diagnostics. This is exactly the aim expected from code-code and code-data comparisons. In this context, the He I 492 nm emitted in a helium corona discharge at room temperature represents an ideal case since its profile results from several broadening mechanisms: Stark, Doppler, resonance and van der Waals. The importance of each broadening mechanism depends on the plasma parameters. Here the profiles of the He I 492 nm in a helium plasma computed by various codes are compared for a selected set of plasma parameters. In addition, preliminary results related to plasma parameter determination using experimental spectra from a helium corona discharge at low pressure 1- 2 bars, are presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0040.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: stark broadening; van der waals broadening; line shapes; helium plasma; corona discharge; plasma diagnostics; code comparison; neutral broadening; pressure broadening
Online: 6 March 2018 (03:51:17 CET)
Many spectroscopic diagnostics are routinely used as a technique to infer the plasma parameters from line emission spectra but their accuracy depends on the numerical model or code used for the fitting process. However, the validation of a line shape code requires some steps : comparison of the line shape code with other similar codes for some academic (simple) cases and then more complex ones, comparison of the fitting parameters obtained from the best fit of the experimental spectra with those obtained with other diagnostic techniques and/or comparison of the fitting parameters obtained by different codes to fit the same experimental data. Here we compare the profiles of the hydrogen Balmer β line in a helium plasma computed by six codes for a selected set of plasma parameters and we report on the plasma parameters inferred by each of them from the fitting to a number of experimental spectra measured in a helium corona discharge where the pressure was in the range 1- 5 bar.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0140.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: C*-algebra; Bieberbach conjecture; de Branges theorem; Robertson conjecture; Lebedev-Milin conjecture; Zalcman conjecture; Krzyz conjecture; Corona conjecture; Riemann mapping theorem
Online: 8 August 2022 (09:53:02 CEST)
We study C*-algebraic versions of following conjectures/theorems: (1) Bieberbach conjecture (de Branges theorem) (2) Robertson conjecture (3) Lebedev-Milin conjecture (4) Zalcman conjecture (5) Krzyz conjecture (6) Corona conjecture (Carleson theorem). We prove that the C*-algebraic Bieberbach Conjecture for invertible coefficients is true for second degree C*-algebraic polynomials.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Aviptadil; Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide; VIP; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Corona Virus; Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome; ARDS; Acute Lung Injury; ALI; surfactant; Alveolar Type II; ATII
Online: 2 August 2020 (18:16:20 CEST)
RLF-100 (Aviptadil), a synthetic form of Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide (VIP) is shown to block replication of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and has been granted Fast Track Designation by the US FDA for the treatment of Critical COVID-19 with Respiratory Failure. We describe the clinical course of the first patient treated with this investigational medication in an open label manner -- a 54 year old patient suffering antibody-mediated rejection of his double lung transplant who contracted COVID-19 with respiratory failure refractory to all currently available therapies. He received three infusions of RLF-100 under an FDA-approved emergency use IND. Within 24 hours of the third infusion, substantial improvement in oxygen saturation and radiographic improvement in characteristic COVID-19 pneumonitis was noted. He was discharged from intensive care at that point and scheduled for discharge to home at 1 week on room air. Despite an intervening hospitalization for trauma, he remains alive and free of respiratory failure at 28 days post treatment.