ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0278.v2
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: converter-based microgrids; distribution networks; renewable energy sources; definitions of microgrids and distributed generation units
Online: 14 February 2019 (04:03:12 CET)
Although microgrids facilitate the increased penetration of distributed generations (DGs) and improve the security of power supplies, they have some issues that need to be better understood and addressed before realising the full potential of microgrids. This paper presents a comprehensive list of challenges and opportunities supported by a literature review on the evolution of converter-based microgrids. The discussion in this paper presented with a view to establishing microgrids as distinct from the existing distribution systems. This is accomplished by, firstly, describing the challenges and benefits of using DG units in a distribution network and then those of microgrid ones. Also, the definitions, classifications and characteristics of microgrids are summarised to provide a sound basis for novice researchers to undertake ongoing research on microgrids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0037.v3
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: converter-based microgrids; renewable energy sources; optimum battery control; real-time energy management; particle swarm optimisation
Online: 14 January 2019 (10:15:30 CET)
Real-time energy management of a converter-based microgrid is difficult to determine optimal operating points of a storage system in order to save costs and minimise energy waste. This complexity arises due to time-varying electricity prices, stochastic energy sources and power demand. Many countries have imposed real-time electricity pricing to efficiently control demand side management. This paper presents a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) for the application of real-time energy management to find optimal battery controls of a community microgrid. The modification of the PSO consists in altering the cost function to better model the battery charging/discharging operations. As optimal control is performed by formulating a cost function, it is suitably analysed and then a dynamic penalty function in order to obtain the best cost function is proposed. Several case studies with different scenarios are conducted to determine the effectiveness of the proposed cost function. The proposed cost function can reduce operational cost by 12% as compared to the original cost function over a time horizon of 96 hours. Simulation results reveal the suitability of applying the regularised PSO algorithm with the proposed cost function, which can be adjusted according to the need of the community, for real-time energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0067.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: hierarchical control; AC-DC hybrid microgrids; primary control; ESS; interlinking converter; power flow analysis
Online: 6 May 2019 (12:41:22 CEST)
HybridAC/DC microgrids(HMG) are emerging as an attracting method for integrating the AC/DC distributed energy resources(DERs) with the features of high-performance and low-cost. In the isolated hybrid AC/DC microgrid (IHMG), the key problem is how to balance the power variation and regulate the voltage and frequency. Various energy storage systems (ESS)and interlinking converter (IC) technologies are viable for this application. The present study proposes a novel unified power flow model to evaluate and compare the abilities of the ESS with different connection topologies and ICs with different control approaches to maintain the voltage and frequency stability of the IHMG. In order to investigate the performance of the proposed scheme, five operation modes of the IHMG are defined and explained. The classification is based on the connection topologies and control modes of the ESS/IC in the IHMG. Then, a set of generic PF equations are derived. Moreover, three binary matrices are applied in the construction of the unified power equations. These matrices are used for describing the running state of the IHMG. Finally, in order to verify the proposed scheme, it is applied to several case studies of the IHMG. The operation characteristics of multi-DC subgrids IHMG in different modes, particularly when an external disturbance occurs, are investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Converter-driven stability; hybrid renewable energy source (HRES) system; modal resonance; full converter-based wind power generation (FCWG); full converter-based photovoltaic generation (FCPV)
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:14:24 CEST)
Various renewable energy sources such as wind power and photovoltaic (PV) have been increasingly integrated into the power system through power electronic converters in recent years. However, power electronic converter-driven stability issues under specific circumstances, for instance, modal resonances might deteriorate the dynamic performance of the power systems or even threaten the overall stability. In this paper, the integration impact of a hybrid renewable energy source (HRES) system on modal interaction and converter-driven stability is investigated in an IEEE 16-machine 68-bus power system. Firstly, an HRES system is introduced, which consists of full converter-based wind power generation (FCWG) and full converter-based photovoltaic generation (FCPV). The equivalent dynamic models of FCWG and FCPV are then established, followed by the linearized state-space modeling. On this basis, converter-driven stability analyses are performed to reveal the modal resonance mechanisms of the interconnected power systems and the modal interaction phenomenon. Additionally, time-domain simulations are conducted to verify effectiveness of dynamic models and support the converter-driven stability analysis results. To avoid detrimental modal resonances, an optimization strategy is further proposed by retuning the controller parameters of the HRES system. The overall results demonstrate the modal interaction effect between external AC power system and the HRES system and its various impacts on converter-driven stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0481.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Converter-driven stability; HVDC; Offshore, MMC, Converter, Replica, impedance-based stability analysis, Interactions.
Online: 18 March 2021 (12:31:45 CET)
Offshore wind farms are increasingly built in the North Sea and the number of HVDC systems transmitting the wind power to shore increases as well. To connect offshore wind farms to adjacent AC transmission systems, onshore and offshore modular multilevel converters transform the transmitted power from AC to DC and vice versa. Besides, modern wind farms mainly use wind turbines connected to the offshore point of common coupling via voltage source converters. However, converters and their control systems can cause unwanted interactions, referred to as converter-driven stability problems. The resulting instabilities can be predicted by applying an impedance-based analysis in the frequency domain. Considering that the converter models and system data are often confidential and cannot be exchanged in real systems, this paper proposes an enhanced impedance measurement method suitable for black-box applications to investigate the interactions. The proposed method is applied to assess an offshore HVDC system’s converter-driven stability, using impedance measurements of laboratory converters and a wind turbine converter controller replica. The results show that the onshore modular multilevel converter’s interactions with AC grids of moderate short-circuit ratios can lead to instabilities. The offshore system analysis reveals that considering the offshore grid topology is crucial for assessing interactions between the wind turbine controllers and the offshore modular multilevel converter. It is shown that different stability margins result from varying offshore grid layouts.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Multi-output converter; DC-DC converter; Boost converter; Renewable energy
Online: 12 January 2021 (15:24:40 CET)
The use of different sources to energize a load is convenient in many applications, particularly those where two or more renewable energy sources are employed as: energy harvesting, hybrid vehicles, and off-grid systems. In these cases, a multi-input converter able to admit sources with different characteristics and, if necessary, select the output power of each source. Several topologies of multi-input converters have been proposed to this aim, however, most of them are based on multi-stage designs, which decreases efficiency and increases control complexity, particularly when more than two sources are used. In this work, a three-input step-up converter easy to control in open loop condition is analyzed. A designed procedure is described, and experimental results are presented for a 1 kW power converter. The implemented converter results in a higher voltage gain, less storage element keeping high efficiency compared to similar topologies. Using the procedure here proposed, this converter that was initially proposed for photovoltaic applications is enabled to be used in medium and high-power applications, for example when renewable energy sources are used.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: venturini method; matrix converter; unbalanced voltage conditions; carrier-based pulse width modulation (PWM)
Online: 22 May 2018 (05:05:38 CEST)
Based on Venturini method, it is in favor of the modulation technique for controlling the matrix converter due to only use of the comparison between the duty cycles in time domain and the triangular carrier wave for generating the gating signals and the achievable voltage ratio between fundamental output magnitude and fundamental input magnitude to 0.866. However, even with simple modulation method and achieving maximum fundamental output magnitude, the possible input voltage unbalance conditions accordingly influence on the output performances (more reduction and distortion). Thus, a modified Venturini modulation method is presented in this paper, in order to solve the problems of unbalanced input voltage conditions on the matrix converter performances. The proposed strategy is to satisfy the desirable feature of the duty cycle modulating waves, as generated in the event of normal situation. Up to this approach, it can support either single-phase condition or two-phase condition. Performance of the proposed control strategy was verified by the simulated implementation in the MATLAB/Simulink software with showing good steady-state and dynamic operations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: application based active learning; active learning methodology; cooperative learning; DC/DC converter; DC motor; DC/AC converter engineering education; learner-centered teaching
Online: 18 November 2021 (18:18:33 CET)
This paper presents an Application Based Active Learning (ABAL) methodology on Power Electronics (PE) and Electric Machines (EM) as a hybrid laboratory course for the undergraduate students to design and implement the real-world engineering problems. The ABAL is a type of active learning which is a branch of Learner-centered teaching (LCT). The DC/DC converter along with the speed control of DC separately excites the motor. In addition, a DC/AC converter is designed to control the speed of an induction motor. The results are then investigated on a hardware platform under the ABAL experimental methodology. This paper also discusses the problem identification selection of the equipment, circuit design, hardware mounting and critical analysis of the results acquired from the hybrid laboratory. The ABAL methodology was evaluated based on student satisfaction, feedback, grades and interest to solve the real-world problem rather than cramming the engineering concepts and fulfill so-called lab routine and tasks
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0390.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: High step-up converter; Impedance source converter; Z-source converter; Cascaded technique
Online: 19 October 2020 (14:54:47 CEST)
To improve the voltage gain of step-up converters, cascaded technique is considered as a possible solution in this paper. By considering the concept of cascading two Z-source networks in a conventional boost converter, the converter takes the advantages of both impedance source and cascaded converters. However, by applying some modifications, the proposed converter provides high voltage gain while the voltage stress of switch and diodes are still low. Moreover, the low input current ripple of the converter makes it absolutely appropriate for photovoltaic applications in order to expand the lifetime of PV panels. After analyzing the operation principles of the proposed converter, simulation and experimental results of a 100W prototype are presented to verify the proposed converter performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0553.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: air kerma meter; flyback converter; high-voltage power supply; Royer converter
Online: 29 December 2022 (04:05:03 CET)
The general circuit topology and principles of low-noise high-voltage power supply are investigated to meet the requirements of the high-voltage bias application in air kerma meters. Two topologies, flyback converter and Royer converter are simulated using SPICE simulation program. The simulation results indicate that the circuit structure of the Royer converter is more complex, but it obtains lower output high voltage noise. While we develop an adjustable high-voltage power supply according to the circuit structure of the Royer converter, and tested it to ensure the design requirements for continuously adjustable output high-voltage linearity. The test results show that the linear adjustment rate is not more than ±0.0025%, the load regulation rate is less than ±0.1%, and the output ripple noise voltage percentage is less than 0.01%. These tested performance make it more suitable for accurate nuclear measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0113.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: CMOS; DC-DC converter; control circuit; integration; voltage –mode; boost converter
Online: 7 November 2022 (08:48:18 CET)
The integrated DC-DC converter is appropriate for use in many domains, namely, display, cellular, and portable applications. This paper presents an integrated monolithic voltage-mode DC-DC boost converter with a low-power control circuit. The driver circuit requires an integrated converter to power up a digital logic circuit and converts the unregulated DC input to the controlled DC output at the desired voltage level. It is the integration of both power switches and control circuitry within the same CMOS technology to buck down and boost voltages using a switch mode regulator. In order to increase power efficiency in the DC-DC boost converter that provides low-power operation with a small chip size, a low-voltage operation is applied to the unique circuit characteristic. The operational transconductance amplifier(OTA), comparator, and oscillator in the control circuit are designed with the supply voltage of 3.3V and the operating frequency of 5.5 MHz. A compensator is used to create a pole that has sufficient phase margin for high stability. The DC- DC boost converter is measured in both experiment and simulation. Testing of the proposed circuit on the 0.35μm CMOS process shows that the output transient time of the amplifier can be controlled within of 7μsec and the output voltage is accurately controlled with a ripple ratio of 3%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0451.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC Converter, DC-AC Converter, Solar Photovoltaic, Efficiency, Cost Analysis.
Online: 22 February 2021 (09:05:38 CET)
This paper presents a detailed description of three methodologies to electrify the rural households of small loads with reliable and economical method using solar energy as input source of power. It is observed that high DC voltage is better and economical solution rather than AC based solar systems and low voltage DC systems. In this paper, three methodologies were analysed to select the right combination of portable converters with low prices, which may further enhance the energy access and affordability to common people. The proposed three methodologies were tested through action research in collaboration with a team of scientists and technical experts of National Institute of Solar Energy. The comparative analysis is carried out on three different converters, various kind of house loads and types of power supply i.e. AC/DC. The performance, quality and economic evaluation has been carried out with the help of MATLAB SIMULINK and other measuring instruments specific for solar photovoltaic systems. The derived results were analysed and inferences made for use in village household loads and their income groups. Further, a three-step analytical framework on village-level power energy efficient power at affordable power preposition was presented. This study will help in the designing as well as in the performance and economic evaluation of converters based on solar photovoltaic systems of different technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0154.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC power converter; fault tolerance; multilevel converter; switched-capacitor network
Online: 11 April 2018 (14:18:54 CEST)
A modular switched-capacitor (SC) DC-DC converter (MSCC) is introduced in this paper. It is designed to boost a low input voltage to a high voltage level and can be applied for photovoltaics and electric vehicles. This topology has high extensibility for high voltage gain output. The merits of the converters also lie in the fault tolerance operation and the voltage regulation with a minimum change in the duty ratio. Those features are built in when designing the modules and then integrating these into the DC-DC converter. Converter performance including voltage gain, voltage and current stress are focused and tested. The converter is modelled analytically, and its control algorithm is analyzed in detailed. Both simulation and experiment are carried out to verify the topology under normal operation and fault mode operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: control; current mode control; voltage control; transfer function; power converter; soft-switching converter; battery charging;
Online: 23 May 2019 (12:58:27 CEST)
This paper presents a control algorithm for soft-switching series LC converters. The conventional voltage-to-voltage controller is split into a master and a slave controller. The master controller implements constant-current-constant-voltage (CCCV) control, required for demanding applications, i.e. lithium battery charging or laboratory power supplies. It defines the set-current for the open-loop current slave controller, which generates the PWM parameters. The power supply achieves fast large-signal responses, e.g. from 5 V to 24 V, where 95% of the target value is reached in less than 400 µs. The design is evaluated extensively in simulation and on a prototype. A consensus between simulation and measurement is achieved.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0593.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Solar Photovoltaic (PV); MPPT; DC-DC Converter; DC-AC Converter; Stability of Photovoltaic system; Filter
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:51:40 CET)
Recently, solar energy is growing as a power source for potential alternative to meet the global demand. Unlike other energy sources such as coal, nuclear, gas and oil, their prices are not only stable, they prevent the harmful side-effects on the environment, being one of the best sources of clean energy (solar energy). This article presents an analysis of the transformation of the static system for the treatment of solar energy using photovoltaic modules. It is designed to generate energy for future generations to be more useful from different parts of the photovoltaic energy conversion system, such as a DC-DC converter, current inverter, maximum power tracking algorithm (MPPT), filter, the stability of a system, etc. The above result will be useful in the improvement of efficiency in photovoltaics structures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: converter; ice-melting; modular multilevel converter (MMC); optimization design; transmission line; static var generator (SVG)
Online: 18 August 2018 (08:56:04 CEST)
Ice covering on overhead transmission lines would cause damage to transmission system and long-term power outage. Among various de-icing devices, modular multilevel converter (MMC) based DC de-icer (MMC-DDI) is recognized as a promising solution due to its excellent technical performance. Its principle feasibility has been well studied, but few literature discuss its economy or hardware optimization, thus the designed MMC-DDI for high voltage transmission lines is usually too large and too expensive for engineering applications. To fill this gap, this paper presents a quantitative analysis on the converter characteristics of MMC-DDI, and calculates the minimal converter rating and its influencing factors. It reals that, for a given de-icing requirement, the converter rating varies greatly with its AC-side voltage. Then an optimization configuration is proposed to reduce the converter rating and improve its economy. The proposed configuration is verified in a MMC-DDI for a 500kV transmission line as a case study. The result shows, in the case of outputting same de-icing characteristics, the optimized converter rating is reduced from 151 MVA to 68 MVA, and total cost of MMC-DDI is reduced by 48%. This analysis and conclusion are conductive to the optimized design of multilevel DC de-icer, then to its engineering application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0200.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC converters; boost converter; flyback converter; high step-up voltage gain; sustainable energy system
Online: 22 January 2018 (11:39:16 CET)
This paper presents a new high-efficiency-high-step-up based converter integrating two stype DC-DC Boost and Flyback coupled magnetic converter with recovery stage dedicated to smart HVDC distributed architecture in renewable energy production systems. Appropriate duty cycle ratio assumes that the recovery stage work with parallel charge and discharge to achieve high step-up voltage gain. Besides, the voltage stress on the main switch is reduced with a passive clamp circuit and thus, low on-state resistance Rdson of the main switch can be adopted to reduce conduction losses. The circuit is simple to control. As a final point of this research, the simulation and the prototype investigational results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of this proposed converter.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Multiphase converter; Phase-Shedding; Decentralized Control
Online: 17 August 2021 (08:25:32 CEST)
This article presents a decentralized phase-shedding technique for multiphase converters. The usual central digital controller is replaced by identical local controllers forming a daisy-chain structure. Phase-shedding decisions are taken locally based on a local inductor current monitoring and threshold crossing management. This control strategy allows to implement as many phases as desired in a modular manner. In order to handle specific events such as load current inrush or a start-up sequence and to guarantee optimal transient responses, additional functions are included into each local controllers. The inter-cell communication protocol is described, along with necessary design considerations of threshold and timing values. Finally, functional simulations are carried out on a 5-leg 12V/1.2V 60W multiphase converter, which validate the proposed decentralized phase-shedding strategy for a microcontroller power supply implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: converter; leakage current; common-mode; renewable
Online: 13 July 2021 (11:29:11 CEST)
Power generation systems based on renewable energy sources are finding ever-widening applications and many researchers work on this problem. Many papers address the problem of transformerless structures, but few of them are aimed at conducting research on structures with multilevel converter topologies. In this paper a grid-tied transformerless PV-generation system based on a multilevel converter is discussed. There are common-mode leakage currents which act as a parasitic factor. It is also known that common-mode voltage is the main cause of the common-mode leakage current in grid-tied PV-generation systems. This paper considers the space vector pulse-width modulation (PWM) technique which is used to suppress or reduce common-mode leakage current. The proposed engineering solutions for a generation system based on the multilevel converter controlled with a pulse-width modulation technique are verified by experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: bifurcation; chaos; current control; period doubling; zeta converter; continuous input and output power buck boost converter
Online: 24 November 2019 (14:57:25 CET)
The renewable energy source plays a major role in the grid side power production. The stability analysis is very essential in the renewable energy converters. In this paper the bifurcation is analyzed in ZETA converter and Continuous input and output(CIO) power Buck Boost converter. The ZETA converter gives positive step down and step up output voltage and the CIO power converter gives the negative step up and step down output voltage. These converters are used in the DC micro grid with renewable energy as the source. The current mode control technique is applied to analyze the bifurcation behavior and the reference current is taken as the bifurcation parameter. When the reference current is varied, both the converters loses its stability and it enters into chaotic region through period doubling bifurcation. The simulation results are presented to study the performance behavior of both the converters. The stability region of both the converters are determined by deriving the Monodromy matrix approach.
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: High Voltage Direct Current transmission (HVDC); Multi-terminal HVDC; Voltage Source Converter (CSC); Voltage Source Converter (VSC)
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:28:43 CEST)
There is a growing use of High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) globally due to the many advantages of Direct Current (DC) transmission systems over Alternating Current (AC) transmission, including enabling transmission over long distances, higher transmission capacity and efficiency. Moreover, HVDC systems can be a great enabler in the transition to a low carbon electrical power system which is an important objective in today’s society. The objectives of the paper are to give a comprehensive overview of HVDC technology, its development, and present status, and to discuss its salient features, limitations and applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0339.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Wave; Energy; Dynamics; Modeling; Generator; Converter; linear
Online: 25 February 2022 (13:53:54 CET)
Recently, most countries suffering from global warming due to the waste gases coming out of the combustion engines used to generate electric power by traditional methods. Therefore, many countries are currently trying to find alternative solutions to this problem by using renewable energies such as solar energy, wind energy, and energy generated from the waves of the ocean and sea to overcome pollution problems. The waves of the seas and oceans have enormous and largely untapped energy, so this work presents an efficient way to use the energy of sea waves to generate electricity. And also, trying to be a way to produce electricity from wave energy in the future. The best suitable places along the shores of Jizan city were inspected to install the buoy system to revenue advantage of the wave supreme height to achieve the height amount of electrical energy. A mathematical model was made to analyze the wave energy and convert it into energy extracted by mechanical force. The mathematical analyzes used the data collected from satellite maps of the numerous severe waves in the Red sea of the Jazan area, and the data published in previous research along that area. It was found that the beach of the Al Shuqaiq area is the greatest for installing the buoy and obtaining the highest electrical energy due to the presence of the highest wave intensity, followed by the beach of the Baysh and Al Morgan area. Also, one of the objectives of this research is to study the design of a device powered by a buoy to use the waves of the Red Sea to generate electric power. The influence of the buoy system design parameters such as the buoy diameter, length of the cylinder, and the length of the connecting rod on the electrical energy generation from wave energy was investigated. The current device is designed with a gearbox to produce continuous power with a single electric generator. A floating mooring device uses the rise and fall of bulges to convert sea wave energy into electrical energy. The device consists of a float, arm, two wheels of different diameters, a gear set, and an electric generator. The effect of the design of several factors on the performance of the device for converting the sea waves energy into electrical energy, including the length of the buoy arm, the wave height by changing the cam diameter, and the conversion ratios between the gear set, to optimize the output power of the wave energy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0784.v1
Online: 31 March 2021 (16:38:58 CEST)
Implementing computer algorithms and virtual reality tools into all areas of the educational process is vital for the new generation engineers, scientists and researchers. With regards to chemistry education, various software that allow dynamic molecular building and viewing are currently available. The present short communication provides a summary of these applications and a detailed description of the NarupaXR program, which has the desired mix of functionality and simple design, necessary for an educational tool. Since NarupaXR can only be used with a companion application “Narupa Builder” which has a different file format, we have developed a converter that allows a simple transition between the two extensions of the aforementioned programs and sufficiently increases the efficiency of the educational process. The automatic converter is freely available on GitLab (https://gitlab.com/teamSCAMT/converter_mol2_to_xml). We have provided this short communication with detailed written instructions that can simplify the installation process of the converter and facilitate the use of both the software and the hardware of the VR set.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0153.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: Carbon dioxide; Injection; Blast Furnace; Converter; Combustion
Online: 12 December 2018 (15:32:35 CET)
A overview on application of CO2 in the ironmaking and steelmaking process is presented. Study on resource utilization of CO2 is significant for the reduction of CO2 emissions and the coping with global warming. The paper introduces the research progress of CO2 utilization in the sintering, Blast Furnace, Converter, secondary refining, Continuous Casting and smelting process of stainless steel in recent years in China. According to the foreign and domestic research and application status, the paper analyzes the feasibility and metallurgical effects of the CO2 utilization in the ferrous metallurgy process. The paper mainly introduces such new techniques as 1) flue gas circulating sintering, 2) blowing CO2 through Blast Furnace tuyere and CO2 as a pulverized coal carrier gas, 3) top and bottom blowing CO2 in the converter, 4) Ladle Furnace and Electric Arc Furnace bottom blowing CO2, 5) CO2 as Continuous Casting shielding gas, 6) CO2 for stainless steel smelting, and 7) CO2 circulation combustion. CO2 has a very wide application prospect in ferrous metallurgy process and the quantity of CO2 utilization is expected to be 100kg per ton of steel. It will effectively facilitate the progress of metallurgical technology and strongly promote the energy conservation of metallurgical industry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: EMI; Luo-converter; chaotic PWM technique; FPGA; RCFMFD
Online: 9 April 2018 (09:00:19 CEST)
Chaotic switching is a newly evolve randomization method which can suppress conducted electromagnetic interference generated within the DC-DC converter. It can suppress the spectral peaks present in the frequency band effectively by spread spectrum technique and can spread it over the wide range of frequency band implying EMI suppression. In this paper, a chaotic PWM technique based on RCFMFD scheme is generated through Field programmable gate array (FPGA) for suppressing the conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI) generated within the Luo converter. A hardware prototype of Luo converter was developed in order to analyze EMI reduction through FFT analysis by comparing both traditional periodic PWM switching and chaotic PWM switching. The results obtained from the hardware setup shows significant reduction of EMI with Chaotic switching as compared to traditional PWM switching for both boost and buck operation of Luo converter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Solar Power; Flyback Converter; Duty Cycle; Coupling Inductor
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:32:45 CEST)
In this paper, a method of charging lead acid battery with solar power by flyback converter is proposed. The basic system consists of a buffer circuit, auxiliary power circuit, control circuit, voltage feedback circuit and current feedback circuit. The system is capable of monitoring battery voltage and the current, charging the coupling inductor and automatic control of output duty cycle, overcharging and over-discharging protection. The experiment proves that the charging efficiency is improved by about 83% at full load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0054.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Active Front-End converter; back-to-back converter; PMSG; THD; Type-4 wind turbine; wind energy system; Opal-RT Technologies®
Online: 4 September 2018 (05:02:15 CEST)
In this paper, the active front-end (AFE) converter topology for the total harmonic distortion (THD) reduction in a wind energy system (WES) is used. A higher THD results in serious pulsations in the wind turbine (WT) output power and in several power losses at the WES. The AFE converter topology improves capability, efficiency and reliability in the energy conversion devices; by modifying a conventional back-to-back converter, from using a single voltage source converter (VSC) to use pVSC connected in parallel the AFE converter is generated. The THD reduction is done by applying a different phase shift angle at the carrier of digital sinusoidal pulse width modulation (DSPWM) switching signals of each VSC. To verify the functionality of the proposed methodology, the WES simulation in Matlab-Simulink® is analyzed, and the experimental laboratory tests using the concept of rapid control prototyping and the real-time simulator Opal-RT® Technologies is achieved. The obtained results show a type-4 WT with total output power of 6MVA, generating a THD reduction up to 5.5 times at the WES.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0720.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: High Gain, Single Stage, Switched Inductor Buck Boost Converter
Online: 27 April 2021 (12:51:21 CEST)
In this research paper, a high gain transformer less inverter modeling which is used for the smart grid technology or as the stand alone for home appliances is proposed. The proposed transformer less topology provides a higher voltage gain, low cost, small size and simple control stand alone transformer less inverter for home appliances. The above inverter is modeled by using software which is known as MATLAB/ Simulimk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0617.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power factor correction; EMI filter; parameter identification; boost converter
Online: 22 April 2021 (20:53:40 CEST)
This paper proposes an approach to estimate the parameters of an AC-DC boost power factor corrector converter which includes an EMI filter. To this end, once the topology is known, measurements at the input and output terminals of the converter are done to identify the values of the passive elements. The proposed methodology is based on the trust-region nonlinear least squares algorithm to identify the parameters of the converter. The steady-state and the transient signals of the converter at the input/output terminals are acquired non-intrusively without any internal modification of the circuitry. The accuracy of the parameter identification carried out is determined by comparing the estimated values with the actual values provided by the manufacturer, and by contrasting the measured signals with the ones obtained with a simulation model with the estimated values of the parameters. The results presented in this paper prove the accuracy of the proposed approach, which can be extended to other power converters and filters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0041.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: PV; MPRVS; quasi Z-source inverter; MPP; SEPIC converter
Online: 4 June 2018 (12:19:02 CEST)
This research work deals with the modeling and control of hybrid photovoltaic (PV) - Wind micro-grid using Quasi Z-Source inverter. This inverter provides better buck/boost characteristics, able to regulate the phase angle output, less harmonic content, no requirement of the filter and has high power performance characteristics over conventional inverter as major benefits. A SEPIC converter as dc-dc switched power apparatus is employed for maximum power point tracking (MPPT) functions which provides high voltage gain throughout the process. Moreover, a modified power ratio variable step (MPRVS) based perturb & observe (P&O) method has been proposed in the PV MPPT action which forces the operating point close to maximum power point (MPP). Practical responses justify the performance of hybrid PV-Wind micro-grid with Quasi Z-Source inverter structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC Microgrid; DC-DC converter; stability analysis; stability boundary; CPL
Online: 9 December 2022 (07:19:54 CET)
In this paper, the authors consider the influence of the type of power supply and the internal parameters of the DC-DC converter on the stability of the system at constant power load. The stability of the system under consideration is important in the design and development of the power supply system for an autonomous consumer. Such a typical system can be a DC microgrid. In the work, when analyzing the stability of the system, the power source is not considered an ideal voltage source, but the active-inductive nature of the voltage source is taken into account, which is equivalent to using a synchronous machine with permanent magnets. The Rauss-Hurwitz algebraic criterion was used as a criterion for analyzing the stability of the system. This will make it possible to build and analyze the areas and boundaries of the system's stability. As a result, the areas and boundaries of the stability of the system were presented. The general trend towards the behavior of the zone of instability of the system was given. At the same time, dependences describing the boundaries of instability are presented, which are combinations of parameters of the DC-DC converter, beyond which the system becomes unstable. The presented definitions of the instability limits can be used as a corrective device of the control system to ensure the stability of the system in the upper limits of the power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Wave energy converter; Wave overtopping; Shape memory alloy; Random waves
Online: 8 November 2022 (03:17:28 CET)
A Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) enabled Overtopping Wave Energy Converter (OWEC) that maximizes its overtopping discharge, and thus energy output under different wave conditions is presented. Among all the parameters affecting the overtopping discharge rate, the crest freeboard height is the most influential one to control the overtopping discharge rate and the stored overtopping volume behind it. Currently, all the OWEC crest freeboard heights are fixed by design to maximize the discharge rate on one particular sea state. In the present study, we show that the SMA can adjust the crest freeboard height through a control system based on the sea state and achieve an optimal overtopping discharge rate. A scaled OWEC model is built in the lab with its crest freeboard height controlled by springs made of SMA. The length (and thus tension) of the springs is controlled by temperature changes by changing the passing current through the springs. By adjusting the length of the springs based on the incoming wave condition, we adjust the freeboard to an optimal height known to generate a maximum overtopping discharge rate for energy conversion. This smart material-enabled design can maximize the overtopping discharge and thus the output power of the OWEC under various wave conditions. Furthermore, the simplicity of using SMA springs as the actuator leads to the minimum number of moving mechanical parts, which can remarkably decrease maintenance costs. As the proof of concept, two types of tests are conducted in the laboratory using the same OWEC model under several random wave trains generated from spectra with different significant wave heights - one type with a fixed crest freeboard height and the other type featuring the adjustable crest freeboard height controlled by the springs. The substantial increase of harvested output power in the OWEC with the adjustable crest freeboard height may pave the way for more efficient wave energy conversion systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0135.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: lead acid battery; supercapacitor; DC/DC converter; state-of-charge
Online: 25 October 2018 (09:40:30 CEST)
Lead Acid Batteries (LABs) are used for starting, lighting, and igniting, as well as in air conditioning systems and to supply power to electric engines in transport vehicles (TVs). However, the application of LABs for TVs has faced a number of market challenges, mounted by the upcoming high energy density and long lifespan batteries, such as lithium ion. LABs, on the other hand, are inexpensive. The key research question is, how can the lifespan of LABs used in automotive industries be increased, while still ensuring a low cost solution? Thus, integrating LABs with the supercapacitor (known as an electric double layer capacitor—EDLC) is likely to outperform the competing alternative batteries for TVs. This paper proposes a multiple stage approach to hybrid lead acid batteries and a supercapacitor system for TVs that is capable of maintaining the battery state-of-charge (SOC) at statistically high limits, ranging between 90% and 95%. This SOC target will likely ensure that the lifespan of the hybrid battery system can be elongated (extended) more than its competitors. In this study, the multiple stage approach of concatenated converters has been designed in order to satisfy all energy storage requirements for different characteristics of LABs and the supercapacitor. The designed hybrid system has been simulated using Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB/Simulink (version R2016a, MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA)). The simulated results show that high transient currents from the direct current (DC) bus of LABs, caused by the regenerative braking or deceleration of the TVs, reduce the battery lifespan and induce mechanical stress. The supercapacitor reduces the stress on the LAB by absorbing high transient currents. This, in turn, keeps the LABs’ SOC between 90% and 96% and the voltage at 12 V. As indicated by the simulated results, the hybrid battery SOC is maintained at 90–96% and the terminal voltage is approximately 12 V.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0554.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: slope compensation; coupled inductors; current mode control; boost-flyback converter
Online: 28 September 2018 (05:50:01 CEST)
Power converters with coupled inductors are very promising due to the high efficiency and high voltage gain. Apart from the aforementioned advantages, the boost-flyback converter reduces the voltage stress on the semiconductors. However, to obtain good performance with high voltage gains, the controller must include two control loops (current and voltage), and a compensation ramp. One of the most used control techniques for power converters is the peak current-mode control with compensation ramp. However, in the case of a boost-flyback converter there is no mathematical expression in the literature, to compute the slope of the compensation ramp. In this paper, a formula to compute the slope of the compensation ramp is proposed in such a way that a stable period-1 orbit is obtained. This formula is based on the values of the circuit parameters, such as inductances, capacitances, input voltage, switching frequency and includes some assumptions related to internal resistances, output voltages, and some other electrical properties related with the physical construction of the circuit. The formula is verified numerically using the saltation matrix and experimentally using a test circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0398.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: DC-DC buck converter; contraction analysis; global stability; matrix norm
Online: 20 September 2018 (05:17:58 CEST)
Reliable and robust control of power converters is a key issue in the performance of numerous technological devices. In this paper we show a design technique for the control of a DC-DC buck converter with a switching technique that guarantees not only good performance but also global stability. We show that making use of the contraction theorem in the Jordan canonical form of the buck converter, it is possible to find a switching surface that guarantees stability but it is incapable of rejecting load perturbations. To overcome this, we expand the system to include the dynamics of the voltage error and we demonstrate that the same design procedure is not only able to stabilize the system to the desired operation point but also to reject load, input voltage and reference voltage perturbations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0031.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ant colony optimization; cuk converter; dSPACE (DS1104); fuzzy logic control
Online: 3 September 2018 (12:02:09 CEST)
This research work explains the practical realization of hybrid solar wind based standalone power system with maximum power point tracker (MPPT) to produce electrical power in rural places (residential applications). The solar inspired Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) based MPPT algorithm is employed for the purpose of fast and accurate tracking power from solar and wind system. Fuzzy Logic Control (FLC) inverter controlling strategy is adopted in this presented work compared to classical PI control. Moreover, single Cuk converter is operated as impedance power adapter to execute MPPT functioning. Satisfactory practical results have been realized using dSPACE (DS1104) platform that justify the superiority of proposed algorithms designed under various operating situations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0288.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: analog feedback, operational amplifier (Opamp), buck converter, continuous conduction mode.
Online: 16 August 2018 (14:10:02 CEST)
In this paper, we discuss voltage control method for buck converter operating in continuous conduction mode (CCM) using analog feedback system. The aim of this work is to control the output voltage of a buck converter during the variation in load current. This is obtained using analog feedback made with operational amplifier (Opamp). However, the same technique can be applied to other DC-DC converters (e.g boost, buck-boost, cuk converter, etc) in CCM mode, but for the purpose of analysis buck converter is chosen as an example.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0125.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: High voltage gain; DC/DC converter; Step-up techniques; Renewable energy
Online: 6 January 2023 (10:04:32 CET)
This paper presents a comprehensive review that highlights the characteristics of non-isolated step-up converters based on high boost voltage lifting techniques. The paper categorises the high boost techniques: multistage/multilevel, switched capacitor, voltage multiplier, voltage lift, switched inductor, and magnetic coupling. The paper also discusses in detail the advantages and disadvantages for each category such as cost, complexity, power density, reliability and efficiency. The number of passive and active components, voltage gain, voltage stress, switching frequency, efficiency and power rating are also compared. Although the paper considers coupling inductors in the context of the non-isolated converter, the focus of the entire article is on the non-isolated high voltage step-up techniques. The key contribution in this paper is the review of high boosting techniques rather than the DC /DC converters. This allows divergence of new ideas and new power converters that will help provide highly efficient and flexible power converters for several applications where the sending end voltage is very low as photovoltaic systems. In addition, many applications and control techniques of DC/DC converters are summarised in this paper.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0045.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: wells turbine; oscillating water column; wave energy converter; computational fluid dynamics
Online: 2 October 2020 (14:03:41 CEST)
The current need to develop sustainable power sources has led to the development of ocean-based conversion systems. Wells turbine is a widely used converter in such systems which suffers from a lack of operational range and power production capacity under operational conditions. The profile named IFS which is concave in the post-mid-chord region, can produce significantly larger lift forces and show better separation behavior than the NACA profiles. In the present study, we tested this profile for the first time in a Wells turbine. The performance of six different blade designs with IFS and NACA profiles were evaluated and compared using a validated computational fluid dynamic model. Although the substitution of the NACA profile with the IFS profile in all cases increased the torque generated, the most efficient power generation and the largest efficient range were achieved in the design with varying thickness from the hub with a 0.15 thickness ratio reaching to the ratio of 0.2 at the tip. The operational span of this design with the IFS profile was 24.1% greater and the maximum torque generation was 71% higher than the case with the NACA profile. Therefore, the use of the IFS profile is suggested for further study and practical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0365.v1
Subject: Keywords: System identification; Hydrodynamic model; Ship maneuvering; Wave energy converter; Bayesian regression
Online: 16 September 2020 (12:15:24 CEST)
Establishing an accurate mathematical model is the foundation of simulating the motion of marine vehicles and structures, and it is the basis of modeling-based control design. System identification from observed input-output data is a practical and powerful method. However, for modeling objects with different characteristics and known information, a single modeling framework can hardly meet the requirements of model establishment. Moreover, there are some challenges in system identification, such as parameter drift and overfitting. In this work, three robust methods are proposed for generating ocean hydrodynamic models based on Bayesian regression. Two Bayesian techniques, semi-conjugate linear regression and noisy input Gaussian process regression, are used for parametric and nonparametric gray-box modeling and black-box modeling. The experimental free-running tests of the KVLCC2 ship model and a multi-freedom wave energy converter (WEC) are used to validate the proposed Bayesian models. The results demonstrate that the proposed schemes for system identification of the ship and WEC have good generalization ability and robustness. Finally, the developed modeling methods are evaluated considering the aspects required conditions, operating characteristics and prediction accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0267.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Fully-autonomous; AC micro-grid; AC/DC/AC converter; Seamless switching
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:44:26 CEST)
This paper proposes a novel micro-grid structure, which can operate fully-autonomously with inherent seamless switching. It can operate independently in both grid-connected and islanded mode as a self-governed entity without relying on the utility grid. An AC/DC/AC converter is employed as the interface between the micro-grid and the utility grid, which enables the two entities to have different voltages in grid-connected mode. Seamless switching between operation modes can be achieved naturally. The micro-grid is regulated to exchange predefined amount of power with the utility grid in grid-connected mode. This will benefit the power dispatching algorithm of the power system. The predefined power is estimated based on power forecasting of local renewable generations and loads with consideration of the Sate of Charge (SOC) of the battery, and is updated and broadcasted every certain period. A small scale AC micro-grid with a rotating generator, battery storage and solar arrays etc. is built for investigation. Matlab/Simulink results are provided to validate the robustness and flexibility of proposed micro-grid and its operation strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0184.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: SiC bidirectional AC-DC converter; inverter; variable frequency; PLL; LCL filter
Online: 28 April 2017 (05:06:38 CEST)
The paper presents the design stages of a single-phase Silicon Carbide bidirectional DC-AC converter. This includes the LCL filter design responsible to meet grid connection requirements. A 3kW laboratory prototype of the power converter is built employing a low-cost phase locked loop and its results are presented. The design of the low-cost phase locked loop and its implementation are depicted in some detail.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: high voltage gain; switch-clamp capacitor; DC–DC converter; renewable energy
Online: 18 October 2016 (09:45:49 CEST)
A high step-up DC-to-DC converter that integrates an isolated transformer and a switched-clamp capacitor is presented in this study. The voltage stress of the main power switch should be clamped to 1/4 V by using the turn ratio and switched-clamp capacitor of an isolated transformer to achieve a high voltage gain. In addition, a passive clamp circuit is employed reduce voltage stress on the main power switch. The energy of the leakage inductor can be recycled by the clamp capacitor because of the passive clamp circuit, thereby improving the power converter efficiency. The converter consists of one isolated transformer, one main switch, three capacitors, and four diodes. Operating principle and steady-state analyses are also discussed. Finally, a 24-V-input voltage to 200-V-output voltage and a 150 W output power prototype converter are fabricated in the laboratory. The maximum efficiency of the converter is 95.1 at 60 W.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0045.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: angle tracking observer; generalized predictive control; resolver; resolver-to-digital converter; tracking
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:49:45 CET)
High-performance motor drives that operate in harsh conditions require an accurate and robust angular position measurement to correctly estimate the speed and reduce the torque ripple produced by angular estimation error. For that reason, a resolver is used in motor drives as a position sensor due to its robustness. A resolver-to-digital converter (RDC) is an observer used to get the angular position from the resolver signals. Most RDCs are based on angle tracking observers (ATOs). On the other hand, generalized predictive control (GPC) has become a powerful tool in developing controllers and observers for industrial applications. However, no GPC-based RDC with zero steady-state error during constant speed operation was proposed. This paper proposes an RDC based on a second-order difference GPC (SOD-GPC). In SOD-GPC, the second-order difference operator is applied to design a GPC model with two embedded integrators. Thus, the SOD-GPC is used to design a type-II ATO whose steady-state angle estimation error tends to zero during constant speed operation. Simulation and experimental results prove that the proposed RDC system has better performance than other literature approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0392.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: power converter; fault diagnosis; intelligent algorithm; variational mode decomposition; deep belief network
Online: 26 February 2020 (11:25:27 CET)
The power converter is the significant device in a wind power system. Wind turbine will be shut down and off grid immediately with the occurrence of the IGBT module open-circuit fault of power converter, which will seriously impact the stability of grid and even threaten personal safety. However, in the existing diagnosis strategies of power converter, there are few single and double IGBT modules open-circuit fault diagnosis methods producing negative results including erroneous judgment, omissive judgment and low accuracy. In this paper, a novel method to diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of the permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) wind turbine grid-side converter (GSC) is proposed. Above all, collecting the three-phase current varying with wind speed of 22 failure states including a normal state of PMSG wind turbine GSC as the original signal data. Afterward, the original signal data are decomposed by using variational mode decomposition (VMD) to obtain the mode coefficient series, which are analyzed by the proposed method base on fault trend feature for extracting the trend feature vectors. Finally, the trend feature vectors are used as the input of deep belief network (DBN) for decision-making and obtaining the classification results. The simulation and experimental results show that the proposed method can diagnose the single and double IGBT modules open-circuit faults of GSC, and the accuracy is higher than the benchmark models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: phase-shifted full-bridge; resonant converter; photovoltaics; zero voltage switching; power loss
Online: 14 June 2019 (10:01:32 CEST)
This paper presents the design of a high frequency zero voltage switching (ZVS) full-bridge converter with a phase-shifted driving signal for photovoltaic applications. The resonant power converter can provide high-power capacity under high-frequency operation. The proposed power converter can also reduce the size of the transformer under the same power rating. The high-frequency transformer was developed by using the resonant and switching frequencies of the power converter to reduce the switching loss and to improve the system efficiency. Phase-shifted modulation was selected to drive the switches of a full-bridge power converter based on the switching loss minimization method. The desired output voltage was controlled using a closed-loop controller under a loop gain stability margin. The simulation results showed that the output voltage can be controlled to the desired constant when the input voltage changes from 30 VDC to 60 VDC. The desired output voltage of power converter is constant at 400 VDC. The power converter can transfer the DC supply to a 220 VAC household via grid-connected inverter. Therefore, the proposed study showed the effectiveness of the phase-shift ZVS full-bridge power converter with high-frequency transformer. This power converter can control the operation of the desired voltage system and has a small sizing of power converter system, low switching loss, and high system efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: DC-DC converter; photovoltaic energy storage system; high voltage gain; high efficiency
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:40:50 CEST)
Intended for the high voltage gain and wide-range operation of DC/DC converters for photovoltaic energy storage systems, a topology for four-phase interleaved DC/DC converters for photovoltaic power generation is proposed. This topology increases output voltage for output in series, and reduces the input current ripple by paralleling the input. Compared with traditional boost converter topology, the proposed topology reduces the output current and output voltage ripple, reduces the stress of the switching device, and reduces the withstanding voltage of the output capacitor under the premise of ensuring the boost ratio. Experimental results show that the maximum efficiency of the converter reaches 95.37%. Compared with traditional boost converters, the proposed converter offers obvious advantages in efficiency under the conditions that the output voltage and load are variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0042.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: matrix converter; transient electromagnetic method; simulation; space vector modulation; power factor control
Online: 7 January 2018 (14:07:44 CET)
Three-phase to single-phase matrix converter (TSMC) is used as the transmitter for transient electromagnetic method (TEM) instrument, instead of an AC-DC converter and an H-bridge inverter. The transmitter produces excitation current for primary field. The output current has a waveform with a bipolar square of half duty cycle, which is required by TEM. The space vector PWM based on input currents is discussed in detail. The control method of input power factor is proposed for TSMC. The simulation model of TSMC is established and the simulations of different conditions are completed. The simulation results show the controllability of the input power factor is illustrated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0089.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Closed Loop Control; Cuk Converter; Sliding Mode Control; Robustness; Active Hysterisis Control
Online: 19 June 2017 (16:52:57 CEST)
This paper introduces a sliding mode control (SMC) based equivalent control method to a novel high output gain Cuk converter. An additional inductor and capacitor improves the efficiency and output gain of the classical Cuk converter. Classical PI controllers are widely used in DC-DC converters. However, it is a very challenging task to design a single PI controller operating in different load and disturbances. SMC based equivalent control method which achieves a robust operation in a wide operation range is also proposed. Switching frequency is kept constant in appropriate interval in different loading and disturbance conditions by implementing a dynamic hysteresis control method. Numerical simulations conducted on Matlab/Simulink confirm the accuracy of analytical analysis of high output gain modified Cuk converter. In addition, proposed equivalent control method is validated in different perturbations to demonstrate the robust operation in wide operation range.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0527.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Microgrid; DC/DC converter; Lithium-ion battery; PV array; solar cell; MPPT controller.
Online: 28 December 2022 (03:38:34 CET)
Microgrids offer flexibility in power generation in a way of using multiple renewable energy sources. In the past few years, microgrids become a very active research area in terms of design and control strategies. Most of the microgrids use DC/DC converters to connect renewable energy sources to the load. In this paper, the simulation model of a DC microgrid with three different energy sources (Lithium-ion battery (LIB), photovoltaic (PV) array, and fuel cell) and external variant power load is built with MATLAB/Simulink and the simulative results show that the stability of DC microgrid can be guaranteed by the proposed maximum power point controller MPPT. The three energy sources are connected to the load through DC/DC converters, one for each. This type of topology ensures protection for each energy source as well as optimum stability at the load.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0294.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: compressed sampling; hardware calibration; spectrum monitoring; linear algebra; matrix theory; modulated wideband converter
Online: 16 August 2022 (15:51:32 CEST)
In the context of cognitive radio, smart city and Internet-of-Things, the need of advanced radio spectrum monitoring becomes crucial. However, surveillance of a wide frequency band without using extremely expensive high sampling rates devices is a challenging task. The recent development of compressed sampling approaches offers a promising solution to these problems. In this context, the Modulated Wideband Converter (MWC), a blind sub-Nyquist sampling system, is probably the most realistic approach and was successfully validated in real-world conditions. The MWC can be realized with existing analog components and there exist calibration methods which are able to integrate the imperfections of the mixers, filters and ADCs, hence allowing its use in real-world. The MWC underlying model is based on signal processing concepts such as filtering, modulation, Fourier series decomposition, oversampling and undersampling, spectrum aliasing, and so on, as well as in-flow data processing. In this paper we develop an MWC model which is entirely based on linear algebra, matrix theory and block processing. We show that this approach has many interests: straightforward translation of mathematical equations into simple and efficient software programming, suppression of some constraints of the initial model, and providing a basis for the development of an extremely fast system calibration method. With a typical MWC acquisition device we obtained a speed up of a factor greater than 20 of the calibration computation time, compared with a previous implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0420.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: High Voltage Gain; Transformerless; Zeta converter; Voltage stress; buck-boost; Fuzzy Logic Controller
Online: 27 October 2021 (15:15:00 CEST)
This article discusses a transformer-free, high-efficiency DC-DC converter besides renewable energy applications. The traditional buck-boost, classic Zeta, Sepic, and Cuk converter does have the benefits of a simple design, low cost, as well as the capacity to execute voltage step-up and step-down. Conversely, because of the detrimental consequences of the parasitic constraints of the device, the voltage conversion gain of the traditional DC-DC converter is much more restricted and the efficiency is also significantly smaller, whereas this proposed converter does have a higher voltage gain and efficiency because it is used in a single power switch, resulting in reduced switching losses and voltage stress. The said converter's design is very simple, which simplifies the operation control and reduces switching and conduction losses, leading to an efficiency of 97.4 percent. This converter seems to have the same capabilities as the Zeta converter, including continuous desired output current and desired buck-boost operation. Such an article offers the operation principle and steady evaluation, as well as a comparison with other existing high step-up configurations. The proposed converter employs a fuzzy logic controller, which improves the voltage level as well as reduces the time taken to set the voltage output of a conventional PI and ANN controller, especially in comparison to the FLC controller. For deployment, Experimental Result and MATLAB/Simulink has been used, and the modeling results indicate that the proposed controller performance has improved
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Narupa, NarupaXR, converter, xml file, mol2 file, virtual and augmented reality, chemistry education
Online: 13 April 2021 (10:15:22 CEST)
Visualization has always been a crucial part of the educational process. Implementing computer algorithms and virtual reality tools into it is vital for the new generation engineers, scientists and researchers. In the field of chemistry education, various software that allow dynamic molecular building and viewing are currently available. These software are now used to enhance the learning process and ensure better understanding of the chemical processes from the visual perspective. The present short communication provides a summary of these applications based on the NarupaXR program, which is a great educational tool that combines the functionality and simple design necessary for an educational tool. NarupaXR is used with a companion application “Narupa Builder'' which requires a different file format, therefore a converter that allows a simple transition between the two extensions has been developed. The converter sufficiently increases the efficiency of the educational process. The automatic converter is freely available on GitLab (https://gitlab.com/teamSCAMT/converter_mol2_to_xml). The current communication provides detailed written instructions that can simplify the installation process of the converter and facilitate the use of both the software and the hardware of the VR set.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0371.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Battery; Supercapacitor; Hybrid power system; Optimal control; DC/DC converter; Energy management strategy
Online: 19 January 2021 (10:56:21 CET)
This paper aims at presenting an energy management strategy (EMS) based upon optimal control theory for a battery-supercapacitor hybrid power system. The hybrid power system consists of a Lithium-ion battery and a supercapacitor with associated bidirectional DC/DC converters. The proposed EMS aims at computing adaptive gains using salp swarm algorithm and load following control technique to assign the power reference for both the supercapacitor and the battery while achieving optimal performance and stable voltage. The DC-DC converter model is derived utilizing the first-principles method and compute the required gains to achieve the desired power. The fact that the developed algorithm takes disturbances into account increases the power ele-ments’ life expectancies and supplies the power system with the required power
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: fly-back converter; zero-voltage-switching (ZVS); Variable-frequency-controller (VFC); single-stage
Online: 9 May 2018 (07:43:25 CEST)
This paper proposes a single-stage asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back (AHBF) converter with resonant mode using dual-mode control. The presented converter has an integrated boost converter and asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter and operates in resonant mode. The boost-cell always operates in discontinuous conduction mode (DCM) to achieve high power factor. The presented converter operates simultaneously using a variable-frequency-controller (VFC) and pulse-width-modulation (PWM) controller. Unlike the conventional single-stage design, the intermediate bus voltage of this controller can be regulated depending on the main power switch duty ratio. The asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter utilizes a variable switching frequency controller to achieve the output voltage regulation. The asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter can achieve zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) operation and significantly reduce the switching losses. Detailed analysis and design of this single-stage asymmetrical half-bridge fly-back converter with resonant mode is described. A wide AC input voltage ranging from 90 to 264 Vrms and output 19 V/ 120 W prototype converter was built to verify the theoretical analysis and performance of the presented converter.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0544.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: pillar-based lake management; object-based lake management; Lake Rawapening
Online: 29 November 2022 (08:49:57 CET)
Lake Rawapening, Semarang Regency, Indonesia, has incorporated a holistic plan in its management practices. However, despite successful target achievements, some limitations remain that a review of its management plan is needed. This paper identifies and analyzes existing lake management strategies as a standard specifically in Lake Rawapening by exploring various literature, both legal frameworks and scholarly articles indexed in Google Scholar and published in Water by MDPI about lake management in many countries. There are two major types of lake management, namely pillar-based and object-based. While the former is the foundation of a conceptual paradigm that does not comprehensively consider the roles of finance and technology in the lake management, the latter indicates the objects to manage so as to create standards or benchmarks for the implementation of various programs. Overall, Lake Rawapening management should include more programs on erosion-sedimentation control and monitoring of operational performance using information systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0336.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: nature-based solutions; climate change adaptation; biodiversity; ecosystem-based adaptation
Online: 23 October 2021 (14:19:30 CEST)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) are increasingly recognised for their potential to address both the climate and biodiversity crises. These outcomes are interdependent, and both rely on the capacity of NbS to support and enhance the health of an ecosystem: its biodiversity, the condition of its abiotic and biotic elements, and its capacity to function normally despite environmental change. However, while understanding of ecosystem health outcomes of nature-based interventions for climate change mitigation is growing, the outcomes of those implemented for adaptation remain poorly understood with evidence scattered across multiple disciplines. To address this, we conducted a systematic review of the outcomes of 109 nature-based interventions for climate change adaptation using 33 indicators of ecosystem health across eight broad categories (e.g. diversity, biomass, ecosystem functioning and population dynamics). We showed that 88% of interventions with positive outcomes for climate change adaptation also reported measurable benefits for ecosystem health. We also showed that interventions were associated with a 67% average increase in local species richness. All eight studies that reported benefits in terms of both climate change mitigation and adaptation also supported ecosystem health, leading to a triple win. However, there were also trade-offs, mainly for forest management and creation of novel ecosystems such as monoculture plantations of non-native species. Our review highlights two major limitations of research to date. First, only a limited selection of metrics are used to assess ecosystem health and these rarely include key aspects such as functional diversity and habitat connectivity. Second, taxonomic coverage is poor: 67% of outcomes assessed only plants and 57% did not distinguish between native and non-native species. Future research addressing these issues will allow the design and adaptive management of NbS to support healthy and resilient ecosystems, and thereby enhance their effectiveness for meeting both climate and biodiversity targets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0212.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge Graphs; Link Prediction; Semantic-Based Models; Translation Based Embedded Models
Online: 17 February 2022 (11:49:24 CET)
For disciplines like biological science, security, and the medical field, link prediction is a popular research area. To demonstrate the link prediction many methods have been proposed. Some of them that have been demonstrated through this review paper are TransE, Complex, DistMult, and DensE models. Each model defines link prediction with different perceptions. We argue that the practical performance potential of these methods, having similar parameter values, using the fine-tuning technique to evaluate their reliability and reproducibility of results. We describe those methods and experiments; provide theoretical proofs and experimental examples, demonstrating how current link prediction methods work in such settings. We use the standard evaluation metrics for testing the model's ability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0027.v2
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: Zoo animal welfare; Five Domains; Validity; Animal-based; Resource-based; Scoring
Online: 22 December 2021 (11:59:32 CET)
Zoos are increasingly putting in place formalized animal welfare assessment programs to allow monitoring of welfare over time, as well as to aid in resource prioritization. These programs tend to rely on assessment tools that incorporate resource-based and observational animal- focused measures since it is rarely feasible to obtain measures of physiology in zoo-housed animals. A range of assessment tools are available which commonly have a basis in the Five Domains framework. A comprehensive review of the literature was conducted to bring together recent studies examining welfare assessment methods in zoo animals. A summary of these methods is provided with advantages and limitations of the approach es presented. We then highlight practical considerations with respect to implementation of these tools into practice, for example scoring schemes, weighting of criteria, and innate animal factors for consideration. It is concluded that would be value in standardizing guidelines for development of welfare assessment tools since zoo accreditation bodies rarely prescribe these. There is also a need to develop taxon or species- specific assessment tools to inform welfare management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0229.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: analog-to-digital converter; ENOB; photonic time-stretch; optical sampling; photonic sampling; photonic ADC
Online: 14 November 2022 (02:14:56 CET)
Application of pulsed optical sources on the base of stable mode-locked lasers, which are known for their very low time jitter, provides the opportunity for creation a high precision photonic analogue to digital converters of signals in the microwave range. However, the repetition rate of modern commercially available mode-locked lasers is limited to a few gigahertz. The increase of repetition rate is possible using the schemes that implement a passive chirp of ultra-short pulses prior to electro-optic amplitude modulator, which is driven by the signal under test, and demultiplexing of modulated signal after a modulator. In the given article we analyzed a continuous time-stretch chirp using single mode fiber as dispersive element. The limitations of input signal bandwidth and source pulses energy are considered.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0728.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Direct Matrix Converter (DMC; Space Vector Modulation (SVPWM); AC-AC Power Conversion; Converters; Simulation
Online: 27 April 2021 (17:26:30 CEST)
The matrix converter converts the input line voltage into a variable voltage with an unrestricted output frequency without using an intermediate circuit, dc link circuit. A pure sine in and pure sine out is the unique feature of the matrix converter. This research paper also analyzes the basic operating principle and the simulation modeling of the direct matrix converter, which is controlled by the Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation technique by using the software which is known as MATLAB/Simulink. The most desirable features in the power frequency changes can be fulfilled by using the matrix converters, and this is the reason for the tremendous interest in the topology. Since the power electronic circuits which is known as the motor drives are used to operate the AC motors at the frequencies other than that of the supply.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0252.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Smart home electricity management system; bidirectional DC-AC converter; high power quality; high efficiency.
Online: 14 July 2018 (20:25:57 CEST)
The management of the electrical energy still raises a huge interest for end-users at the household level. Home electricity management systems (HEMS) have recently emerged both to warrant uninterruptible power and high power quality, and to decrease the cost of electricity consumption, by either shifting it in off peak time or smoothing it. Such a HEMS requires a bidirectional DC-AC converter, specifically when an energy transfer is required between a storage system and the AC-grid, and vice versa. This article points out the relevance of an innovative topology based on sinusoidal waveforms from the generation of sine half-waves. Such a topology is based on a DC-DC stage equivalent to an adjustable output voltage source and a DC-AC stage (H-bridge) which are in series. The results of a complete experimental procedure prove the feasibility to improve the power quality of the output signals in terms of total harmonic distortion (THD-values about 5%). The complexity of the proposed converter is minimized in comparison with multilevel topologies. Finally, wide band-gap semiconductor devices (SiC MOSFETs) are helpful both to warrant the compactness and the high efficiency (about 96%) of the bidirectional converter, whatever its operation mode (inverter or rectifier mode).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0148.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Sustainable Teaching; multidisciplinary; multicultural; teams; Case-based Learning; Problem-based Learning; teamwork
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:38:20 CEST)
This article investigates the prospect of implementing multidisciplinary and multicultural student teamwork (MMT) involving Case-based Learning (CBL) and Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a sustainable teaching practice. Based on a mixed methods approach, which includes direct observation (both physical and virtual), questionnaire distribution and focus-group interviews the study reveals that MMT through CBL and PBL can both facilitate and hinder sustainable learning. Our findings show that while MMT enhances knowledge sharing, it also poses a wide range of challenges, raising questions about its social significance as a sustainable teaching practice. The study suggests the implementation of certain mechanisms, such as ‘Teamwork Training’ and ‘Pedagogical Mentors’, aiming to strengthen the sustainable orientation of MMT through CBL and PBL.
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Model-based systems engineering (MBSE); Model informatics and analytics; Model-based collaboration
Online: 12 March 2021 (16:52:34 CET)
In MBSE there is yet no converged terminology. The term ’system model’ is used in different contexts in literature. In this study we elaborated the definitions and usages of the term ’system model’, to find a common definition. 104 publications have been analyzed in depth for their usage and definition as well as their meta-data e.g., the publication year and publication background to find some common patterns. While the term is gaining more interest in recent years it is used in a broad range of contexts for both analytical and synthetic use cases. Based on this three categories of system models have been defined and integrated into a more precise definition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: game-based learning; game design; project-based teaching; informatics and society, cybersecurity
Online: 26 July 2018 (16:38:48 CEST)
This article discusses the use of game design as a method for interdisciplinary project-based teaching in secondary school education to convey informatics and society topics. There is a lot of knowledge about learning games but little background on project-based teaching using game design as a method. We present the results of an analysis of student-created games and an evaluation of a student-authored database on learning contents found in commercial off-the-shelf games. We further contextualise these findings using a group discussion with teachers. Results underline the effectiveness of project-based teaching to raise awareness for informatics and society topics. We further outline informatics and society topics that are particularly interesting to students, genre preferences and potentially engaging game mechanics stemming from our analyses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: recommendation system; context awareness; location based services; mobile computing, cloud-based computing
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:54:04 CEST)
The ubiquity of mobile sensors (such as GPS, accelerometer and gyroscope) together with increasing computational power have enabled an easier access to contextual information, which proved its value in next generation of the recommender applications. The importance of contextual information has been recognized by researchers in many disciplines, such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, to filter the query results and provide recommendations based on different user status. A context-aware recommendation system (CoARS) provides a personalized service to each individual user, driven by his or her particular needs and interests at any location and anytime. Therefore, a contextual recommendation system changes in real time as a user’s circumstances changes. CoARS is one of the major applications that has been refined over the years due to the evolving geospatial techniques and big data management practices. In this paper, a CoARS is designed and implemented to combine the context information from smartphones’ sensors and user preferences to improve efficiency and usability of the recommendation. The proposed approach combines user’s context information (such as location, time, and transportation mode), personalized preferences (using individuals past behavior), and item-based recommendations (such as item’s ranking and type) to personally filter the item list. The context-aware methodology is based on preprocessing and filtering of raw data, context extraction and context reasoning. This study examined the application of such a system in recommending a suitable restaurant using both web-based and android platforms. The implemented system uses CoARS techniques to provide beneficial and accurate recommendations to the users. The capabilities of the system is evaluated successfully with recommendation experiment and usability test.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: co-design; ITO; thermo-optic phase shifter; mode selective converter; mode selective router; numerical simulation
Online: 14 April 2021 (10:13:38 CEST)
Recently, Indium Tin Oxide, a highly transparent, well conductive, and CMOS-compatible material, has been paying strong attention to the thermo-optic controlled silicon photonics industry because it allows a miniature of the gap between the core silicon and the heater, thus enabling reducing the electric power consumption and enhancing the switching speed. In this article, we propose an ultralow loss and small-size ITO microheater for the phase shift tuning. The designated microheater is manipulated in realizing a numerical co-design of compact and high bandwidth three-mode converter and three-mode selective router. Simulation results illustrate the 3-dB bandwidth for the three-mode converter and three-mode selective router as much as 100-nm and 40-nm during crosstalk under -25 dB, respectively. Besides, co-designed devices attain relatively large fabrication tolerances corresponding to width and height tolerances of ±50 nm and ±5 nm. In addition, the proposed devices consumed less than 90 mW total power consumption and took a fast switching time below 8 μs. Moreover, both two co-designs can be integrated into an estimated compact footprint of 8 μm2160 μm. Such excellent performances demonstrate the attractive potential of ITO as low-loss thermo-optic phase shifters and open an alternative way for enabling ultrafast and high-speed mode division multiplexing systems and very large-scale photonic integrated circuits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0073.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Messenger RNA • Hospital-based mRNA therapeutics • circular mRNA • self-amplifying mRNA • RNA-based CAR T-cell • RNA-based gene-editing tools
Online: 6 January 2022 (11:20:59 CET)
Hospital-based programs democratize mRNA therapeutics by facilitating the processes to translate a novel RNA idea from the bench to the clinic. Because mRNA is essentially biological software, therapeutic RNA constructs can be rapidly developed. The generation of small batches of clinical grade mRNA to support IND applications and first-in-man clinical trials, as well as personalized mRNA therapeutics delivered at the point-of-care, is feasible at a modest scale of cGMP manufacturing. Advances in mRNA manufacturing science and innovations in mRNA biology, are increasing the scope of mRNA clinical applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0523.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: angle-based outlier detection: percentile-based outlier detection; multiphilda, noise; irrelevant software requirements
Online: 30 August 2022 (11:25:24 CEST)
Noise in requirements has been known to be a defect in software requirements specifications (SRS). Detecting defects at an early stage is crucial in the process of software development. Noise can be in the form of irrelevant requirements that are included within a SRS. A previous study had attempted to detect noise in SRS, in which noise was considered as an outlier. However, the resulting method only demonstrated a moderate reliability due to the overshadowing of unique actor words by unique action words in the topic-word distribution. In this study, we propose a framework to identify irrelevant requirements based on the MultiPhiLDA method. The proposed framework distinguishes the topic-word distribution of actor words and action words as two separate topic-word distributions with two multinomial probability functions. Weights are used to maintain a proportional contribution of actor and action words. We also explore the use of two outlier detection methods, namely Percentile-based Outlier Detection (PBOD) and Angle-based Outlier Detection (ABOD), to distinguish irrelevant requirements from relevant requirements. The experimental results show that the proposed framework was able to exhibit better performance than previous methods. Furthermore, the use of the combination of ABOD as the outlier detection method and topic coherence as the estimation approach to determine the optimal number of topics and iterations in the proposed framework outperformed the other combinations and obtained sensitivity, specificity, F1-score, and G-mean values of 0.59, 0.65, 0.62, and 0.62, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0196.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: crocodilian; animal welfare; animal-based measure; animal-based indicator; welfare assessment; welfare measure
Online: 10 November 2021 (08:46:54 CET)
Animal-based measures are the measure of choice in animal welfare assessment protocols as they can often be applied completely independently to the housing or production system employed. Although there has been a small body of work on potential animal-based measures for farmed crocodilians [1-3], they have not been studied in the context of an animal welfare assessment protocol. Potential animal-based measures, that could be used to reflect the welfare state of farmed crocodilians, were identified and aligned with the Welfare Quality® principles of good housing, good health, good feeding and appropriate behaviour. A consultation process with a panel of experts was used to evaluate and score the potential measures in terms of validity and feasibility. This resulted in a toolbox of measures being identified for further development and integration into animal welfare assessment on the farm. Animal-based measures related to ‘good feeding’ and ‘good health’ received the highest scores for validity and feasibility by the experts. There was less agreement on the animal-based measures that could be used to reflect ‘appropriate behaviour’. Where no animal-based measures were deemed to reliably reflect a welfare criterion nor be useful as a measure on the farm, additional measures of resources or management were suggested as alternatives. Future work in this area should focus on the reliability of the proposed measures and involve further evaluation of their validity and feasibility as they relate to different species of crocodilian and farming system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0175.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors; enzyme-based systems; receptor-based systems; toxins; food analysis; environmental monitoring; nanotechnology
Online: 9 October 2018 (05:59:30 CEST)
The exploitation of lipid membranes in biosensors has provided the ability to reconstitute a considerable part of their functionality to detect trace of food toxicants and environmental pollutants. Nanotechnology enabled sensor miniaturization and extended the range of biological moieties that could be immobilized within a lipid bilayer device. This chapter reviews recent progress in biosensor technologies based on lipid membranes suitable for environmental applications and food quality monitoring. Numerous biosensing applications are presented, putting emphasis on novel systems, new sensing techniques and nanotechnology-based transduction schemes. The range of analytes that can be currently detected include, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, metals, toxins, antibiotics, microorganisms, hormones, dioxins, etc. Technology limitations and future prospects are discussed, focused on the evaluation/ validation and eventually commercialization of the proposed sensors.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0069.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: biosensors, enzyme-based systems, receptor-based systems, toxins, food analysis, environmental monitoring, nanotechnology
Online: 3 August 2018 (14:20:04 CEST)
The exploitation of lipid membranes in biosensors has provided the ability to reconstitute a considerable part of their functionality to detect trace of food toxicants and environmental pollutants. Nanotechnology enabled sensor miniaturization and extended the range of biological moieties that could be immobilized within a lipid bilayer device. This chapter reviews recent progress in biosensor technologies based on lipid membranes suitable for environmental applications and food quality monitoring. Numerous biosensing applications are presented, putting emphasis on novel systems, new sensing techniques and nanotechnology-based transduction schemes. The range of analytes that can be currently detected include, insecticides, pesticides, herbicides, metals, toxins, antibiotics, microorganisms, hormones, dioxins, etc. Technology limitations and future prospects are discussed, focused on the evaluation/ validation and eventually commercialization of the proposed sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0307.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Marketing Keywords: sustainable outcomes; dedication-based mechanism; constraint-based mechanism; perceived switching costs; loyalty program
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:55:47 CEST)
Given the increase in consumers’ preferences for coffee, it is becoming important to understand their decision-making processes in the coffee chain context. To deepen the understanding of sustainable outcomes in this context, this study investigates the role of dedication- and constraint-based mechanisms in forming consumers’ repurchase and positive word-of-mouth (WOM) intentions, two critical sustainable outcomes. We examined the effects of coffee quality, the quality of the physical environment, and service quality in accelerating the formation of dedication-based factors. Moreover, this study offers an in-depth understanding of the enablers of perceived switching costs. Data collected from 238 university students that frequently visit coffee chains are empirically tested against the proposed theoretical framework by using structural equation modeling. The results confirm that both dedication- and constraint-based factors substantially predict consumers’ sustainable outcomes in the coffee chain context. Brand image and perceived switching costs play an important role in enhancing consumers’ repurchase and positive WOM intentions compared with customer satisfaction. Coffee quality is significantly associated with both customer satisfaction and brand image, whereas the quality of the physical environment and service quality are only significantly associated with brand image. Habit is found to be the key enabler of perceived switching costs, while loyalty programs have no significant impact on perceived switching costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0069.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantation; phenology; Xishuangbanna; Landsat; object-based approach; pixel-based approach
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:54:28 CEST)
Effectively mapping and monitoring rubber plantation is still changing. Previous studies have explored the potential of phenology features for rubber plantation mapping through a pixel-based approach (pixel-based phenology approach). However, in fragmented mountainous Xishuangbanna, it could lead to noises and low accuracy of resultant maps. In this study, we investigated the capability of an integrated approach by combining phenology information with an object-based approach (object-based phenology approach) to map rubber plantations in Xishuangbanna. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data were firstly used to acquire the temporal profile and phenological features of rubber plantations and natural forests, which delineates the time windows of defoliation and foliation phases. Landsat images were then used to extract a phenology algorithm comparing three different approaches: pixel-based phenology, object-based phenology, and extended object-based phenology to separate rubber plantations and natural forests. The results showed that the two object-based approaches achieved higher accuracy than the pixel-based approach, having overall accuracies of 96.4%, 97.4%, and 95.5%, respectively. This study proved the reliability of a phenology-based rubber mapping in fragmented landscapes with a distinct dry/cool season using Landsat images. This study indicated that the object-based phenology approaches can effectively improve the accuracy of the resultant maps in fragmented landscapes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0131.v1
Online: 9 July 2019 (14:15:17 CEST)
Saudi Arabia is an oil-reliant nation as a large percentage of its GDP comes from oil resources. Oil dependency leaves a county at the mercy of the international crude market, and a decrease in the price of crude can seriously destabilize the economy of such nations. An example is the case of Venezuela whose dependence on oil caused a national disaster (McCarthy, 2017). As such, the nation’s exports, GDP, and government revenue are primarily dependent on oil revenue, and the recent decrease in the oil prices has decreased Venezuela’s national revenue resulting in economic collapse as well as inflation. A shift from a resource based economy to a knowledge based economy will help Saudi Arabia become less reliant on its oil revenues for its economic stability and growth (Nurunnabi, 2017).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0416.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: AC voltage converter; multi-zone regulation; soft starter; induction motor; reactive power compensation; improved electromagnetic compatibility
Online: 22 November 2022 (09:52:06 CET)
The development trends of the modern world of power electronics dictate the requirements for the use of AC voltage converters as soft starters for induction motors. A direct connection of the motors to the mains voltage negatively affects both the motor itself and the mains system as a whole due to high starting currents values, which entail, as a rule, more frequent accidents and shorter the drive system service life. The paper presents a study of the control system of a multi-zone AC voltage regulator. The use of capacitive voltage dividers will also compensate for the consumed reactive power. The article analyzes the features of modern soft starters, describes the circuit design, presents a mathematical calculation by the method of algebraization of differential equations, a performed simulation modeling in Matlab/Simulink, and also an assembled experimental stand for further research. Particular attention is paid to the definition of the multizonality concept of the proposed converter and the analysis of the control method. The developed algorithm of the double-loop automatic control system will minimize the influence of induction motors on the mains voltage, and thus improve electromagnetic compatibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0331.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: IoT-based payment protocols; identity-based signature; server-aided verification; pairing-free security protocols
Online: 21 October 2022 (10:20:05 CEST)
After the great success of Mobile wallet, the Internet of Things (IoT) leaves the door wide open for consumers to use their connected devices to access their bank accounts and perform routine banking activities from anywhere, anytime and with any device. However, consumers need to feel safe when interacting with IoT-based payment systems, and their personal information should be protected as much as possible. Unlike as usually done in the literature, in this paper, we introduce two lightweight and secure IoT-based payment protocols based on an identity-based signature scheme. We adopt a server-aided verification technique to construct the first scheme. This technique allows to outsource the heavy computation overhead on the sensor node to a cloud server while maintaining the user's privacy. The second scheme is built upon a pairing-free ECC-based security protocol to avoid the heavy computational complexity of bilinear pairing operations. The security reduction results of both schemes are held in the Random Oracle Model (ROM) under the discrete logarithm and computational Diffie-Hellman assumptions. Finally, we experimentally compare the proposed schemes against each other and against the original scheme on the most commonly used IoT devices: a smartphone, a smartwatch and the embedded device Raspberry Pi. Compared with existing schemes, our proposed schemes achieve significant efficiency in the term of communication and computational overheads
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0046.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Paperfluidics; Parafilm; Paper-based Analytical Devices
Online: 3 December 2021 (09:58:36 CET)
Paper-based analytical devices have been substantially developed in recent decades. Many fabrication techniques for paper-based analytical devices have been demonstrated and reported. Herein we report a relatively rapid, simple, and inexpensive method for fabricating paper-based analytical devices using parafilm hot pressing. We studied and optimized the effect of the key fabrication parameters, namely pressure, temperature, and pressing time. We discerned the optimal conditions, including pressure of 3.8 MPa (3 tons), temperature of 80oC, and 3 minutes of pressing time, with the smallest hydrophobic barrier size (821 µm) being governed by laminate mask and parafilm dispersal from pressure and heat. Physical and biochemical properties were evaluated to substantiate the paper functionality for analytical devices. Wicking speed in the fabricated paper strips was slightly slower than that of non-processed paper, resulting from reducing paper pore size. A colorimetric immunological assay was performed to demonstrate the protein binding capacity of the paper-based device after exposure to pressure and heat from the fabrication. Moreover, mixing in two-dimensional paper-based device and flowing in a three-dimensional counterpart were thoroughly investigated, demonstrating that the paper device from this fabrication process is potentially applicable as analytical devices for biomolecule detection. Fast, easy, and inexpensive parafilm hot press fabrication presents an opportunity for researchers to develop paper-based analytical devices in resource-limited environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0490.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Keywords: Hydroxyapatite; Ca-based catalyst; stability; polyglycerol.
Online: 29 September 2021 (11:26:01 CEST)
Abstract: Calcium-based catalysts are of a high interest for glycerol polymerization due to their high catalytic activity and large availability. However, their poor stability under reaction conditions is an issue. In the present study, we investigated the stability and catalytic activity of Ca-hydroxyapatites (HAps) as one of the most abundant Ca-source in nature. A stochiometric, a Ca-deficient and a Ca-rich HAps have been synthetized and tested as catalysts in the glycerol polymerization reaction. Deficient and stochiometric HAps exhibited a remarkable 100% selectivity to triglycerol at 15 % of glycerol conversion at 245 °C after 8 h of reaction in the presence 0.5 mol.% of catalyst. Moreover, under the same reaction conditions, Ca-rich HAp showed a high selectivity (88 %) to di- and triglycerol at a glycerol conversion of 27 %. Most importantly, these catalysts were unexpectedly stable towards leaching under the reaction conditions based on the ICP-OES results. However, based on the catalytic tests and characterization analysis performed by XRD, XPS, IR, TGA-DSC and ICP-OES, we found that HAps can be deactivated by the presence of the reaction products themselves, i.e., water and polymers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: SDG; Gender Equality; project-based methodology
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0139.v1
Online: 27 September 2017 (16:45:25 CEST)
Object-Based Image Analysis (OBIA) has been successfully used to map slums. In general, the occurrence of uncertainties in producing geographic data is inevitable. However, most studies concentrated solely on assessing the classification accuracy and neglecting the inherent uncertainties. Our research analyses the impact of uncertainties in measuring the accuracy of OBIA-based slum detection. We selected Jakarta as our case study area, because of a national policy of slum eradication, which is causing rapid changes in slum areas. Our research comprises of four parts: slum conceptualization, ruleset development, implementation, and accuracy and uncertainty measurements. Existential and extensional uncertainty arise when producing reference data. The comparison of a manual expert delineations of slums with OBIA slum classification results into four combinations: True Positive, False Positive, True Negative and False Negative. However, the higher the True Positive (which lead to a better accuracy), the lower the certainty of the results. This demonstrates the impact of extensional uncertainties. Our study also demonstrates the role of non-observable indicators (i.e., land tenure), to assist slum detection, particularly in areas where uncertainties exist. In conclusion, uncertainties are increasing when aiming to achieve a higher classification accuracy by matching manual delineation and OBIA classification.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0173.v1
Online: 18 August 2016 (06:07:05 CEST)
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0426.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: event-based vision; object detection and tracking; high-temporal resolution tracking; frame-based vision; hybrid approach
Online: 30 June 2022 (09:54:14 CEST)
Event-based vision is an emerging field of computer vision that offers unique properties such as asynchronous visual output, high temporal resolutions, and dependence on brightness changes to generate data. These properties can enable robust high-temporal-resolution object detection and tracking when combined with frame-based vision. In this paper, we present a hybrid, high-temporal-resolution, object detection and tracking approach, that combines learned and classical methods using synchronized images and event data. Off-the-shelf frame-based object detectors are used for initial object detection and classification. Then, event masks, generated per each detection, are used to enable inter-frame tracking at varying temporal resolutions using the event data. Detections are associated across time using a simple low-cost association metric. Moreover, we collect and label a traffic dataset using the hybrid sensor DAVIS 240c. This dataset is utilized for quantitative evaluation using state-of-the-art detection and tracking metrics. We provide ground truth bounding boxes and object IDs for each vehicle annotation. Further, we generate high-temporal-resolution ground truth data to analyze the tracking performance at different temporal rates. Our approach shows promising results with minimal performance deterioration at higher temporal resolutions (48 – 384 Hz) when compared with the baseline frame-based performance at 24 Hz.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0032.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: artificial intelligence; machine learning; drug design; covid-19; structure-based drug design; ligand-based drug design
Online: 2 March 2022 (03:00:37 CET)
The recent covid crisis has proven important lessons for academia and industry regarding digital reorganization. Among fascinating lessons from these times is the huge potential of data analytics and artificial intelligence. The crisis exponentially accelerated the adoption of analytics and artificial intelligence, and this momentum is predicted to continue into the 2020s and over. Moreover, drug development is a costly and time-consuming business, and only a minority of approved drugs return the revenue that exceeds the research and development costs. As a result, there is a huge drive to make drug discovery cheaper and faster. With modern algorithms and hardware, it is not too surprising that the new technologies of artificial intelligence and other computational simulation tools can help drug developers. In only two years of covid research, many novel molecules have been designed/identified using artificial intelligence methods with astonishing results in terms of time and effectiveness. This paper will review the most significant research on artificial intelligence in the de novo drug design for COVID-19 pharmaceutical research.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0203.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Additive manufacturing; Fused Deposition Modelling; Robot-based additive manufacturing; Polylactic acid (PLA) and PLA-based composite.
Online: 7 April 2021 (12:24:16 CEST)
Over the last decade, a significant literature has emerged that advocates the potential of different Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and printable polymeric materials. Nevertheless, large scale printing and complex geometric shapes, with curvatures and non-planar layer deposition, are a challenging process for the traditional gantry-based machine. The 3 degrees of freedom cartesian configuration restricted their capability to planar layered printing and restricted part dimensions. To date, many researchers have used industrial robots to overcomes this limitation. This review gives the reader a good overview of the FDM technique due to its scalability, cost efficiency and a wide range of material printability. A strong emphasis is laid on the PLA and PLA-based composites as promising materials for the FDM process applications. The second part of this paper links the successful use of these materials in the traditional printing process to large scale printing using the robot-based FDM process. This survey presents representative setups for robot-based AM and works that have been used these setups for non-planar material deposition. Finally, we conclude this paper by identifying opportunities for realizing new functional capabilities by exploiting robot-based AM, and we also present the future trends in this area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0249.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Fungal diversity; Saccharomyces; genetic diversity; glyphosate-based herbicides; copper-based fungicides; RoundUp Ready™ corn; phylogenetics
Online: 17 February 2020 (15:37:11 CET)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae are a phenotypically diverse species that adapt to a wide variety of environments by exploiting standing genetic diversity and selecting for advantageous mutations. Glyphosate and copper-based herbicides/ fungicides affect non-target organisms, these incidental exposures can impact microbial populations. In this study, glyphosate resistance was found in the historical collection of yeast which was collected over the last century, but only in yeast isolated after the introduction of glyphosate. The highest glyphosate-resistant yeasts were isolated from agricultural sites. However, herbicide application at these sites was not recorded. In an effort to assess glyphosate resistance and impact on non-target microorganisms, yeast were harvested from 15 areas with known herbicidal histories, including an organic farm, conventional farm, remediated coal mine, suburban locations, state park, and a national forest. Yeast representing 23 genera were isolated from 237 samples of plant, soil, spontaneous fermentation, nut, flower, fruit, feces, and tree material samples. Saccharomyces, Candida, Metschnikowia, Klyveromyces, Hanseniaspora, and Pichia were other genera commonly found across our sampled environments. Managed areas had less species diversity and at the brewery, only Saccharomyces and Pichia were isolated. A conventional farm growing RoundUp Ready™ corn had the lowest phylogenetic diversity and the highest glyphosate resistance. The mine was sprayed with multiple herbicides including a commercial formulation of glyphosate; however, the yeast did not have elevated glyphosate resistance. In contrast to the conventional farm, the mine was exposed to glyphosate only one year prior to sample isolation. Glyphosate resistance is an example of the anthropogenic selection of nontarget organisms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0129.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: food safety; gel-based proteomics; LC-based proteomics; post-translational modifications; proteomics; seed ageing; seed quality
Online: 11 December 2018 (11:00:26 CET)
For centuries, crop plants have represented the basis of the daily human diet. Among them, cereals and legumes, accumulating oils, proteins and carbohydrates in their seeds, distinctly dominate modern agronomic practice. Indeed, these plants play an essential role in the food industry and fuel production. Therefore, the seeds of crop plants are intensively studied by food chemists, biologists, biochemists, and nutritional physiologists. Accordingly, not only seed development and germination, but also age- and stress-related alterations in seed vigor, longevity, nutritional value and safety can be addressed by a broad panel of analytical, biochemical and physiological methods. Currently, functional genomics is one of the most powerful tools, giving direct access to characteristic metabolic changes, accompanying plant development, senescence and response to biotic or environmental stress. Among individual methodological platforms, proteomics represents one of the most effective ones, giving access to cellular metabolism at the level of proteins. Here we discuss the main methodological approaches employed by seed proteomics in the context of physiological changes related to seed development, ageing and response to environmental stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0556.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: wave energy converter; model predictive control; comparitive of robustness; embedded integrator; mathematical model; identification methodology; real time series
Online: 28 September 2018 (08:21:41 CEST)
This work is located in a growing sector within the field of renewable energies, wave energy converters (WECs). Specifically, it focuses on one of the point absorbers wave (PAWs) of the hybrid platform W2POWER. With the aim of maximising the mechanical power extracted from the waves by these WECs and reduce their mechanical fatigue, the design of five different model predictive controllers (MPCs) with hard and soft constraints has been carried out. As contribution of this paper, two of the MPCs have been designed with the addition of an embedded integrator. In order to validate the MPCs, an exhaustive study on performance and robustness is realized through simulations carried out in which uncertainties in the WEC dynamics are considered. Furthermore, looking for realistic in these simulations, an identification methodology for PAWs is proposed and validated by means of real time series of a scale prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0277.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: battery charger; photovoltaic module array; LiFePO4 battery; Buck converter; maximum power point tracker; smart two-stage charging strategy
Online: 18 June 2018 (15:55:50 CEST)
This paper aims to present a smart high speed battery charger, powered by a photovoltaic module array, for a LiFePO4 battery as a solar energy storage device. With a battery charging strategy, the presented battery charger involves a Buck converter as the core equipped with a simple maximum power point (MPP) tracker. Considering complexity reduction and easy hardware implementation, a constant voltage MPP tracking approach is adopted such that the maximum amount of output power can be delivered to the load in response to an arbitrary change in the solar radiation. A smart two-stage charging strategy, with a constant current mode followed by a constant voltage mode, is employed in such a way that the battery charge process can be accelerated largely, while the damage caused by overcharging can be prevented. In the end, the performance of this proposal is validated experimentally.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0201.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: ligand-based pharmacophores; structure-based pharmacophores; virtual screening; drug design; machine learning; molecular dynamics; de novo design
Online: 14 September 2022 (09:10:58 CEST)
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are amongst the most pharmaceutically relevant and well-studied protein targets, yet unanswered questions in the field leave significant gaps in our understanding of their nuanced structure and function. 3D pharmacophore models are powerful computational tools in silico drug discovery, presenting myriad opportunities for the integration of GPCR structural biology and cheminformatics. This review highlights success stories in the application of 3D pharmacophore modeling to de novo drug design, discovery of biased and allosteric ligands, scaffold hopping, QSAR analysis, hit-to-lead optimization, GPCR de-orphanization, mechanistic understanding of GPCR pharmacology and elucidation of ligand-receptor interactions. Furthermore, advances in the incorporation of dynamics and machine learning will be highlighted. The review will analyze challenges in the field of GPCR drug discovery, detailing how 3D pharmacophore modeling can be used to address them. Finally, we will present opportunities afforded by 3D pharmacophore modeling in the advancement of our understanding and targeting of GPCRs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Power Converters; Power Electronics; Electromagnetic Interference; EMI; Noise; Differential Mode; DM; Common Mode; CM; Imbalance Difference Model; Boost Converter
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:43:55 CEST)
This article is a big picture of how electrical noise or conducted Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) is generated and mitigated in power converters. It gives an overview of what EMI in power converters is – from generation through to conduction and mitigation. It is meant to cover the complete subject as a summary so that the reader will have an outline of how to control conducted EMI by design (where possible) and how to mitigate by filtering. A clear distinction is made between Differential Mode (DM) and Common Mode (CM) EMI generation and mitigation. By using a boost converter as an example the trade-offs for DM noise control are discussed. It is shown how CM EMI is generated in a boost converter using the concept of the “Imbalance Difference Model” (IDM). Practical measurements for an in-line power filter is given showing the effect of the filter on the total EMI of a boost converter. Measurements for the CM current produced due to the imbalance difference for different values of the boost conductor are also shown. The main contribution of this study is linking CM noise generation to DM EMI. It is shown that CM noise is a direct consequence of DM noise (although circuit imbalance and coupling to a common ground also play a role). This paper will be useful to designers seeking the “bigger picture” of how EMI is generated in power converters and what can be done to mitigate the noise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0121.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: (Efficient) E-STATCOM, Doubly Fed Induction Generator; Rotor Side Converter; Diode Rectifier and140- bus power grid test power system.
Online: 6 August 2018 (13:19:14 CEST)
The arrival of new developments in the field of power electronics circuit’s applications in power systems builds new control strategy to improve voltage quality for power grid by overcome interruptions. Wind energy resources are unconventional resources and get advanced problems to power grid when it is connected. Uncertainty of load sharing, peak energy management, climatic conditions, wind velocity and wind energy injected into power grid leads many of power quality problems on power grid based on the existing guidelines specified in IEC-61400 standard. This system plans efficient operation of DFIG to eliminate the voltage collapse and mismatch frequency to power grid. The DFIG connected diode rectifier and rotor side converter wind generator works as an Efficient Static Synchronous Compensator (E-SATCOM) for supplying the demand of reactive power for power grid to mitigate PQ problems. The benefit of using a combined controller was verified by simulink/Matlab and its simulated results used Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG), wind Turbine. This simulation results gives good quality transient and stable state response to manage and support reactive power for both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults in connection of grid codes to provide continuous quality of power supply, multiple wind generators are required for 140 bus power grid.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0534.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: EMA; prognostics; PHM; model-based; metaheuristic; MEA
Online: 30 January 2023 (02:39:27 CET)
The deployment of Electro-Mechanical Actuators plays an important role towards the adoption of the More Electric Aircraft (MEA) philosophy. On the other hand, a seamless substitution of EMAs in place of more traditional hydraulic solutions is still set back due to the shortage of real-life and reliability data regarding their failure modes. One way to work around this problem is providing a capillary EMA Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) system, capable of recognizing failures before they actually undermine the ability of the safety-critical system to perform its functions. The authors have developed a model-based prognostic framework for PMSM based EMAs leveraging a metaheuristic algorithm: Evolutionary (Differential Evolution (DE)) and swarm intelligence (particle swarm (PSO), grey wolf (GWO)) methods are considered. Several failures (dry friction, backlash, short circuit, eccentricity and proportional gain) are simulated thanks to a Reference Model, acting as a Numerical Test Bench, then detected and identified thanks to the envisioned prognostic method, which leverages a low fidelity Monitoring Model. The employed algorithms showed good results and prove that this strategy could be executed in pre-flight checks or during the flight at specific time intervals, with positive impacts on system safety and availability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0118.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Keywords: Deep Learning; Optimization; Benchmarking; Gradient based optimizers
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:31:40 CET)
Initial choice of Learning Rate is a key part of gradient based methods and has a great effect on the performance of the Deep Learning Model.This paper studies the behavior of multiple gradient based optimization algorithm which are commonly used in Deep Learning and compare their performance on various learning rate. As observed popular choice of optimization algorithms are highly sensitive to various choice of learning rates. Our goal is to find which optimizer has an edge over others for a specific setting. We look at two datasets namely MNIST and CIFAR10 for benchmarking. The results are quite surprising, and it will help us to choose a learning rate more efficiently.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0556.v2
Online: 1 December 2022 (02:09:32 CET)
Agent-based models (ABMs) are computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents in time and space. These models allow users to simulate the complex interactions between individual agents and the landscapes they inhabit and are increasingly used in epidemiology to understand complex phenomena and make predictions. However, as the complexity of the simulated systems increases, notably when disease control interventions are considered, model flexibility and processing speed can become limiting. Here we introduce SamPy, an open-source Python library for stochastic agent-based modeling of epidemics. SamPy is a modular toolkit for model development, providing adaptable modules that capture host movement, disease dynamics, and disease control interventions. Memory optimization and design provide high computational efficiency allowing modelling of large, spatially-explicit populations of agents over extensive geographical areas. In this article, we demonstrate the high flexibility and processing speed of this new library. The version of SamPy considered in this paper is available at https://github.com/sampy-project/sampy-paper .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0464.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Kabirian-based optinalysis; estimators; properties; computing codes
Online: 31 October 2022 (04:53:43 CET)
Good estimators are characterized as robust, unbiased, efficient, and consistent. However, the commonly used estimators are weak or lack one or more of these properties. In this article, eight (8) estimators for statistical and geometrical estimations of symmetry/asymmetry, similarity/dissimilarity, identity/unidentity, and feature transformation were proposed following Kabirian-based optinalysis and other operations. The proposed estimators are characterized as invariant (robust) under scaling, location shift, and rotation or reflection. A computing code was written in python language for each of the proposed estimators so that peers can have working codes for application and performance evaluation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0192.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Analysis Keywords: Knowledge-based Systems; Ontology; Knowledge Engineering; MCDA.
Online: 13 October 2022 (09:54:49 CEST)
Decision making as a result of system dynamics analysis requires, in practice, a straightforward and systematic modelling capability as well as a high-level of customisation and flexibility to adapt to situations and environments that may vary very much from each other. While in general terms a completely generic approach could be not as effective as ad-hoc solutions, the proper application of modern technology may facilitate agile strategies as a result of a smart combination of qualitative and quantitative aspects. In order to address such a complexity, we propose a knowledge-based approach that integrates the systematic computation of heterogeneous criteria with open semantics. The holistic understanding of the framework is described by a reference architecture and the proof-of-concept prototype developed can support high-level system analysis, as well as it suitable within a number of applications contexts - i.e. as a research/educational tool, communication framework, gamification and participatory modelling. Additionally, the knowledge-based philosophy, developed upon Semantic Web technology, increases the capability in terms of holistic knowledge building and re-use via interoperability. Last but not least, the framework is designed to constantly evolve in the next future, for instance by incorporating more advanced AI-powered features.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0239.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: ATO; Performance Evaluation; Scenario-based Testing; Simulation
Online: 17 March 2022 (02:42:05 CET)
There is increasing interest in automating train operations of mainline services, e.g. to increase network capacity. Automatic train operation (ATO) is already achieved by several pilot projects, but not implemented on a large scale. Before the general introduction of new or adapted technologies can have a transformative effect on the operation of such a complex system as train operation on mainlines, they have to pass functional, interoperability and performance tests. A virtual preliminary analysis is one way to ensure a smooth as well as safe introduction and implementation. This paper aims to present an approach that applies to the performance testing of ATO systems. Therefore, methods and test standards for technologies enabling automatic operation in other transport sectors are reviewed. The main findings have been adapted, transformed and combined to be used as a general strategy for virtual performance testing in the railway sector. Specifically, universal performance indicators, namely punctuality, accuracy, energy consumption, safety and comfort, are presented. A layer model for scenario description is adapted from the automotive sector, as well as the definition of different scenario types. Lastly, factors that can influence the performance of an ATO algorithm are identified. To demonstrate the developed approach, a straightforward investigation of a case study is conducted using a microscopic train simulator in combination with an ATO algorithm.