ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1980.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: preschool; caregiver; vegetable consumption; fruit consumption; social support
Online: 28 July 2023 (09:29:46 CEST)
This research objective was to develop a promoting vegetable and fruit consumption behaviors program among preschool children based on 4 aspects of House’s social support framework to increase fruit and vegetable consumption in preschool the program. This study was quasi-experimental. The sample consisted of preschool children and their caregivers who were randomly selected based on the inclusion criteria. The experimental and control groups had 96 pairs of preschool-aged children and their caregivers. The experimental group was given the program, while the control group was to resume normal activities. The program development was based on the caring lifestyle of caregivers in Muang District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. The tools consisted of a preschool care eating behavior assessment and a caregiver knowledge test about the child's fruit and vegetable intake and how to modify the child's fruit and vegetable intake. In addition, fruit and vegetable eating behaviors in preschoolers and a handbook for nurses and primary caregivers were approved by five experts and deemed suitable for the caregiver support framework. The results of the development indicated that a 10-week program was appropriate and tended to increase preschoolers' consumption of fruits and vegetables. In especially experimental group both caregivers increasingly gained knowledge and behavior of caregivers to promote fruit and vegetable eating behavior and preschool increasing the fruit and vegetable consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0060.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: alcohol consumption; Alzheimer's disease; light to moderate wine consumption; neurodegeneration
Online: 6 November 2019 (10:54:00 CET)
Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most threatening neurodegenerative diseases, is characterized by the loss of memory and language function, an unbalanced perception of space and other cognitive and physical manifestations. Pathology of the AD is characterized by neuronal loss, and the extensive distribution of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). The role of environment and the diet in the AD is being studied actively, and nutrition is certainly one of the main factors playing a prominent role in the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, the relationship between dementia and wine use/abuse has received increased research interest in recent times, with varying and often conflicting results. Scope and approach: This review aims to critically summarize the most recent studies conducted to clarify the relationship between wine drinking and AD, as well as whether effects are influenced by quantity and/or frequency of drinking. Key findings and Conclusion: Overall, based on the interpretation of various studies, it can be concluded that there is no indication that light to moderate alcohol drinking is detrimental to cognition and dementia, and it is not possible to define whether alcohol could be used as a means to reduce risk of developing AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: manufacturing sustainability; milling process; turning process; energy consumption; power consumption.
Online: 20 August 2018 (14:52:43 CEST)
The system design for Sustainable manufacturing is to consider both ecological and financial constraints. Manufacturing industry demands to advance in sustainable manufacturing by accounting in environment factors in it. All the factors that affect the environment need to be analyzed so that proper amendments or suggestions can be provided. To favour this, Computer aided life cycle inventory model has been presented for CNC milling and turning processes. Based on utilization of resources and stages, whole machining operation time can be divided into three phases named as process (milling or turning), idle and basic times. As parameters are different for evaluating the process times i.e. depth and width of cut in case of milling and initial and final diameters for turning, two different case studies has been presented one for each milling and turning process. Effect of material choice has been studied for different processes. Highly dense and hard materials takes more time in finishing the job due to low cutting speed and feed rates as compared to that of sot materials. In addition, face milling takes more time and consumes more power as compared to peripheral milling due to more retraction time caused by over travel distance and lower vertical transverse speeds than the horizontal transverse speed used in peripheral retraction process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0223.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: power consumption; material removal rate; specific energy consumption; grain density; modeling
Online: 25 February 2019 (10:01:43 CET)
The energy efficiency of grinding depends on the appropriate selection of cutting conditions, grinding wheel and workpiece material. Additionally, the estimation of specific energy consumption is a good indicator to control the energy consumed during the grinding process. Consequently, this study develops a model of material removal rate to estimate the specific energy consumption based on the measurement of active power consumed in a plane surface grinding of C45K with different thermal treatments and AISI 304. This model identifies and evaluates the power dissipated by sliding, ploughing and chip formation in a industrial-scale grinding process. Furthermore, the instantaneous positions of the abrasive grains during cutting are described to study the material removal rate. The estimation of specific chip formation energy is similar to that described by other authors in laboratory scale, which allows to validate the model and experiments. Finally, the results show that the energy consumed by sliding is the main phenomenon of energy dissipation in industrial-scale grinding process, where it is denoted that sliding energy by volume unity decreases as the depth of cut and speed of workpiece increase.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0501.v1
Online: 27 December 2022 (01:56:44 CET)
Green consumption has become a crucial academic and practical topic with the increasing environmental-protection awareness of scholars, industries and consumers. However, the growth in green purchasing may not reflect the concerns. This study aims to synthesize recent research, and points several causes of low purchases to green products in the consumer perspective, and provide a comprehensive understanding to the realistic consumer decision-making process. Through the scope of Consumer Buying Process framework, this study systematically reviewed 73 credible articles on green purchase behaviour published from 2010 to 2022. Main constructs and theories applied in selected literature is further discussed in each sector of the CBP framework. The study results showed the green purchase process may have a ‘loop tendency’ that falls into the circulation of construction of evaluation and adoption of those evaluation. Moreover, purchasing behaviour which performed by minority of the consumers may not be strong enough to form a valid social norm, and the current available still lacked power to fulfil consumer needs. The lack of research to impulsive purchasing behaviour, or the emotions of consumers are under-researched, thus how the emotional appraisals affect consumer green purchasing may require more research. With the modified consumer buying process framework, this study highlights the importance of creating memorable experience and build strong emotional communications with consumers. In addition, triggering the collective empathy is recommended to be an effective way of constructing consistent social norms thus enhance the green purchasing intention of consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0031.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: self-sufficiency degree; planetary health diet; land consumption; food sovereignity; livestock; consumption
Online: 4 April 2023 (02:22:26 CEST)
The way people in many countries eat today is disconnected to the resources and land locally available. In Europe, for instance, too much meat is eaten, but often cannot be fed by local resources. The percentage of non-local and non-seasonal food is tremendous, exploiting other regions and their water reservoirs. Current diets harm eco systems and people’s health. (Re-)regionalising food systems and aligning diets to planetary boundaries could be one way to reconnect people to the food they eat. Before demanding the (re-)regionalisation of food, it should be analysed whether current consumption patterns can be met at all with the regionally available agricultural land. We looked at the region Hesse in Central Germany, calculated and compared land consumption of current diets with the consumption as recommended by the Planetary Health Diet. Our focus is on livestock because land consumption to produce meat, dairy and eggs is relatively high. Our results show that the region is far from being able to feed the current livestock population, that it does not have the land to support the livestock needed to meet current consumption patterns, but that it could support a smaller livestock population according to the Planetary Health Diet, especially if farmers adopt crop rotation systems and extensive husbandry.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0135.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy consumption prediction; Time-series forecasting; Forecasting Building Energy Consumption; Long Short-Term memory
Online: 2 June 2023 (05:11:04 CEST)
The global demand for energy has been steadily increasing due to population growth, urbanization, and industrialization. Numerous researchers worldwide are striving to create precise forecasting models for predicting energy consumption to manage supply and demand effectively. In this research, a time-series forecasting model based on multivariate multilayered long short-term memory (LSTM) is proposed for forecasting energy consumption and tested using data obtained from commercial buildings in Melbourne, Australia: the Advanced Technologies Center, Advanced Manufacturing and Design Center, and Knox Innovation, Opportunity, and Sustainability Center buildings. This research specifically identifies the best forecasting method for subtropical conditions and evaluates its performance by comparing it with the most used methods at present, including LSTM, bidirectional LSTM, and linear regression. The proposed multivariate multilayered LSTM model was assessed by comparing mean average error (MAE), root-mean-square error (RMSE), and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) values with and without labeled time. Results indicate that the proposed model exhibits optimal performance with improved precision and accuracy. Specifically, the proposed LSTM model achieved a decrease in MAE by 30%, RMSE by 25%, and MAPE by 20% compared to the LSTM method. Moreover, it outperformed the bidirectional LSTM method with a reduction in MAE by 10%, RMSE by 20%, and MAPE by 18%. Furthermore, the proposed model surpassed linear regression with a decrease in MAE by 2%, RMSE by 7%, and MAPE by 10%. These findings highlight the significant performance increase achieved by the proposed multivariate multilayered LSTM model in energy consumption forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0615.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Building management system; Smart building; Energy consumption management; Demand response management; Energy consumption optimization
Online: 25 May 2021 (14:19:32 CEST)
Considering the increasing rate of energy consumption and its environmental detrimental effects, as well as considering the use of non-renewable energy sources such as fossil fuels, energy management issues have become more important. Given the 40% share of the building industry's total energy consumption, as well as the 80% share of energy consumed during the operation period, attention to the areas of energy management and optimization during the operation period of the buildings can have a major impact on buildings’ energy performance. In this research, through identifying building energy management tools and studying previous studies and assessing the effects of building energy management systems, the economic and environmental impacts of using building energy management systems on the annual energy consumption in an office building in Tehran as a case study has been investigated. The results indicate a 32 percent reduction in energy consumption and a significant reduction in the release of the environmental pollutants in smart mode compared to the base mode. Moreover, considering the social costs associated with the emitted pollutants as well as the return period, it has been attempted to identify the factors contributing to the economic justification of using smart heating and cooling systems. According to the results, the use of smart energy management systems can be considered as an effective step in optimizing and managing energy consumption in the construction sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1567.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy consumption prediction; Energy management; Time series forecasting; Building energy consumption forecast; Covid-19 pandemic
Online: 24 July 2023 (08:47:09 CEST)
The Covid-19 pandemic and the subsequent implementation of lockdown measures have significantly impacted global electricity consumption, necessitating accurate energy consumption forecasts for optimal energy generation and distribution during a pandemic. In this study, we propose a new forecasting model called the Multivariate Multilayered LSTM with Covid-19 case injection ($\proposedModel$) for improved energy forecast during the next occurrence of a similar pandemic. We utilize data from commercial buildings in Melbourne, Australia during the Covid-19 pandemic to predict energy consumption and evaluate the model's performance against commonly used methods such as LSTM, Bi-LSTM, Linear Regression, Support Vector Machine and the previously published work of Multilayered LSTM (M-LSTM). The proposed forecasting model was analyzed using the following metrics of mean percent absolute error (MPAE), normalized root mean square error (NRMSE), and $R^2$ score values. The model $\proposedModel$ demonstrates superior performance, achieving the lowest MPAE values of 0.061, 0.093, and 0.158 for data sets from 3 different buildings, respectively. Our results highlight the improved precision and accuracy of the model, providing valuable information for energy management and decision-making during the challenges posed by the occurrence of a pandemic like Covid-19 in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0627.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: coffee consumption; tea consumption; mild cognitive impairment; dementia; Alzheimer’s disease; nutrition; epidemiology; apolipoprotein E; MCI
Online: 20 April 2023 (07:55:34 CEST)
Background: Studies exploring the possible protective effect of coffee and tea consumption on dementia showed inconsistent results so far. We aimed to investigate whether consumption of tea and different types of coffee at midlife are associated with dementia later in life and, whether sex or ApoE4 influence such association. Methods: We included 7381 participants from the Norwegian HUNT Study. Self-reported questionnaires assessed daily consumption of coffee and tea at baseline. After 22 years, individuals 70 years or older were screened on cognitive impairment. Results: General coffee consumption and tea consumption was not associated with dementia risk. Compared to daily consumption of 0-1 cups of coffee, daily consumption of ≥8 cups of boiled coffee was associated with increased dementia risk in women (OR:1.83, 95% CI: 1.10-3.04, p-value for trend=0.03) and daily consumption of 4-5 cups of other types of coffee was associated with a decrease in dementia risk in only men (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.32-0.72, p-value for trend =0.05). Furthermore, the association between boiled coffee and increased dementia risk was only found in ApoE4 non-carriers. Differences by sex or ApoE4 carrier status were not supported by strong statistical evidence for interaction. Conclusion: Type of coffee may play a role in the direction of the association between coffee-drinking habits and dementia later in life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0230.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: fish consumption; subsistence fishing; Detroit River; surveys; contamination; consumption advisories; environmental justice; mercury; PCBs; dioxins
Online: 19 December 2018 (03:15:20 CET)
Consumption guidelines are a common way to improve conscious consumption behaviors in areas where game fish are known to contain contaminants. However, guideline information can be difficult to distribute, and effectiveness difficult to measure. To increase the distribution and effectiveness of guideline information for the Detroit River, an educational campaign was launched in 2010, which included distribution of pamphlets with consumption information, posting of permanent signs at popular fishing locations, and hiring River Walkers to personally communicate with anglers. In 2013 and 2015, we conducted in-person surveys of active shoreline anglers to determine the effectiveness of education and outreach efforts. Results from the survey indicated that 55% of anglers were aware of the guidelines in 2013, and by 2015 36% had communicated the information to family or friends. However, anglers were often unwilling to reduce consumption of popular game species, despite high contaminant levels. Encouragingly, black anglers were most likely to supplement their diet with species lower in contaminants. Our results suggest that utilizing multiple educational strategies including reaching out directly to individual anglers may improve conscious consumption behavior among the targeted population, providing a template for educational campaigns to successfully target vulnerable populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: FASD; pregnancy; alcohol consumption; Spain; biomarker
Online: 3 October 2023 (10:33:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Alcohol consumption during pregnancy is a major concern, particularly in Europe and North America. Its prevalence has been so far under researched. In most of the studies the determination of this consumption may be underestimated, as it is based on the information obtained from questionnaires rather than from biomarkers, which will provide a much reliable approach. The main objective in this study was the comparison of prevalence of consumption during pregnancy assessed by a questionnaire and a hair biomarker. (2) Method: Cross-sectional study with a random sample of 425 pregnant women treated in public hospital consultations in Seville (Spain) and in the 20th week of their pregnancy, orally interviewed through a questionnaire elaborated ad hoc which evaluated sociodemographic, obstetric, and alcohol consumption variables. Additionally, the ethyl glucuronide metabolite (EtG) was tested on a hair sample in 252 pregnant women who agreed to facilitate it. Once data obtained through the questionnaire and the hair testing were analyzed, the level of metabolites and the self-reported alcohol consumption were contrasted. (3) Results: The prevalence of self-reported alcohol consumption (questionnaire) was 20.7% and real consumption (metabolite analysis) was 20.2%. In 16.8% of pregnant women who declared not consuming alcohol during their pregnancy a noticeable consumption was detected according to the metabolite testing. No relevant level of variability in estimated alcohol consumption was detected in the biomarker with respect to the studied sociodemographic and obstetric variables.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1315.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: raw milk; bacteriological analysis; human consumption
Online: 19 June 2023 (07:58:04 CEST)
The study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality of raw milk produced in Supare-Akoko of Ondo State, Nigeria. Two study areas (Supare and Akungba Villages) both in the Akoko South-West L.G.A. of Ondo State, in Nigeria's South-West geopolitical zone, were selected for the study. The study area served as the raw milk collection points. Raw milk samples were collected with the aid sterile container into the milking bucket and then transported to the laboratory of the Adekunle Ajasin University's department of microbiology in Akungba-Akoko, Ondo state, Nigeria, for further analysis. Several tests such as test for serial dilution, PH measurement, gram staining, and biochemical analysis, to identify and evaluate the microbe species in the raw milk selected for the study.The findings showed that numerous microbe species, including Bacillus, Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Alcaligens, Actinomycetes, Enterobacteria, Licheniformis, Listeria, and Streptococcus species, were present in all of the raw milk samples. Therefore, the study recommended that there should be adequate awareness & education on handling of milk in the most hygienic way possible, as well as the establishment of bulk milk tanks and milk processing plants in key locations that could enable appropriate test and production of quality milk before the product is being made available to the general public for consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0518.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: NeTrainSim; Network Trains Simulation; energy consumption
Online: 30 August 2022 (10:20:19 CEST)
Although train simulation research is vast, most available network simulators do not track the instantaneous movements and interactions of multiple trains for the computation of energy/fuel consumption. In this paper, we introduce the NeTrainSim simulator for heavy long-haul freight trains on a network of multiple intersecting tracks. Trains are modeled as a series of moving mass points (each car/locomotive is modeled as a point mass) while ensuring safe following distances between them. The simulator considers the motion of the train as a whole and neglects the relative movements between the train cars/locomotives. Furthermore, the powers of the different locomotives are transferred to the first locomotive as such a simplification result in a reduced simulation time without impacting the accuracy of energy consumption estimates. While the different tractive forces are combined, the resistive forces are calculated at their corresponding locations. The output files of the simulator contain pertaining information to the train trajectories and the instantaneous energy consumption levels. A summary file is also provided with the total energy consumed for the full trip and the entire network of trains. Two case studies are conducted to demonstrate the performance of the simulator. The first case study validates the model by comparing the output of NeTrainSim to empirical trajectory data using a basic single-train network. The results confirm that the simulated trajectory is precise enough to estimate the electric energy consumption of the train. The second case study demonstrates the train-following model considering six trains following each other. The results showcase the model’s ability in relation to maintaining safe-following distances between successive trains. Finally, the NeTrainSim is demonstrated to be scalable with computational times of O(n) for less than 50 trains (n) and O(n2) for higher number of trains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Breakfast consumption; mortality; coronary diseases; obesity
Online: 29 April 2022 (08:20:22 CEST)
Epidemiological studies indicate that skipping breakfast as a universal behavior, may have adverse effects on cardiovascular diseases [CVDs}and metabolic diseases. However, eating breakfast regularly, may increase satiety, thereby reducing overeating later in the day which prevents weight gain. Recent studies indicate that skipping breakfast increases the risk of obesity, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), coronary artery disease (CAD), and cardiovascular mortality as well as all-cause mortality. However, many studies also reported that regular taking of breakfast decreases the risk of CVDs and T2DM and all-cause mortality. Previous studies reported that heavy breakfast, in particular eating western diet may increase circadian rhythm of CVDs and sudden cardiac death. It seems that those who do not eat breakfast, they tend to eat refined and sweetened products, possibly, more in the night resulting in to greater risk of CVDs and T2DM. Breakfast skipping and eating in the night, may be associated with circadian misalignment in the central and peripheral clocks, leading to oxidative stress and inflammation. Increased systemic inflammation damages the adipocytes, beta cells of pancreas, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells as well as neurons, which may produce dysfunction in these cells resulting in to related diseases. The beneficial effects of breakfast, may also be, at least in part, due to nutrient dense foods rather than time of eating. Eating regular breakfast, in particular rich in Indo-Mediterranean foods; vegetables, whole grains, fruits, spices and nuts may be protective against circadian increase in oxidative stress in the morning, resulting in to significant decline in the risk of CVDs and T2DM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0006.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Diverticulitis; Hemorrhoids; Vegetables; Prevention; Epidemiology; Consumption
Online: 1 March 2021 (13:02:53 CET)
Background The high incidence of diverticulitis and hemorrhoidal proctitis episodes in the population imposes an important healthcare and economic burden. Aim To determine the association between intake of certain plant foods and diverticulitis and hemorrhoidal proctitis episodes. Methods Case-control study with quantitative food frequency questionnaire focusing on selected plant foods and derived products. These were grouped by main chemical components into: ethanol, caffeine/theine/theobromine, capsaicin, alliin, acids, eugenol, and miscellaneous foods like curcumin. We quantified intake according to 24-h recall, either on a 1-4 scale (no intake, low, moderate, high intake) or as the number of units consumed (e.g. cups of tea/coffee, n of oranges or lemons); this value was multiplied by the number of reported intake days per week (1-7). Overall intake was expressed as a continuous variable obtained by successively multiplying the score for each food category, and the result was transformed into a common logarithm (range 0.3 to 27.7). Cases and controls were compared using the chi-squared test, student’s t test, odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI), and predictive analysis (multiple logistic regression). Results The sample included 410 cases and 401 controls, who were similar in mean age and gender distribution. The mean score for overall intake of included plant foods was 6.3 points (standard deviation [SD] 4.5), and this was significantly higher in cases (8.5 points, SD 5.3) than in controls (4.1 points, SD 1.2; p < 0.001). Overall intake was similar in cases presenting diverticulitis or hemorrhoidal proctitis. Cases had 13 times the odds of being in the upper quartile for overall intake (> 7 points) compared to controls (OR 13.2, 95% CI 8.3 to 20.8, p < 0.001). Predictive logistic regression models showed that the chemical food group most closely associated with diverticulitis and hemorrhoidal proctitis was capsaicin, followed by ethanol, eugenol, caffeine/theine/theobromine, and acids. The OR for age was near the null value. Neither alliin nor miscellaneous food groups showed any association. Conclusions High, frequent consumption of some plant foods and derived products increases the risk of presenting symptoms of diverticulitis and hemorrhoidal proctitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0071.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: PDE; Power Consumption; TCLs; Control; Minimization
Online: 7 May 2019 (10:18:05 CEST)
We consider a control problem for a diffusive PDE model of heterogeneous population of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) aiming to balance the aggregate power consumption within a given amount of time. Using the Green’s function approach, the problem is formulated as an approximate controllability problem for a residue depending on control parameters nonlinearly. A sufficient condition for approximate controllability is derived in terms of initial temperature distribution, operation time of TCLs and threshold value of the aggregate power consumption. Case studies allow to reveal the advantages of the proposed solution from numerical calculations point of view.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0927.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Emotional consumption; Psychological flexibility; Healthy diet; Adults
Online: 14 September 2023 (03:03:43 CEST)
The aim is to understand the relationship between psychological inflexibility, emotional eating, and the rate of healthy eating. A total of 705 Spanish adults participated (65.2% women); the mean age was 27.21 years (SD = 10.67). The instruments used were Acceptance and Action Ques-tionnaire, Eating and Appraisal Due to Emotions and Stress Questionnaire and the Healthy Eating Index for the Spanish population. The women showed significantly higher scores in psychological inflexibility than men (p < .001). No differences have been described in the Emotional Eating scale (p = .085) differences have been reported on the Self-efficacy in Emotion -and Stress-Related Eating subscale, where men do better at managing eating (p < .001). Females indicate better diet quality (p < .001). Those who show less psychological inflexibility obtain emotional eating scores indicative of less coping with emotions through food (p < .001). Groups formed according to psychological inflexibility do not differ in diet quality (p = .898). The importance of psychological inflexibility is due to its role and strong association with a variety of problems related to eating behavior, but especially because it is a construct that can be intervened upon and modified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: sustainable consumption behavior; electronic vehicles; SEM; Kunming
Online: 6 June 2023 (03:50:11 CEST)
A number of sustainable and environmental issues are caused by consumer's behavior. Consumers' consumption pattern plays an increasingly important role in environmental conservation and adopting to a more sustainable community. This study used planned behavior theory and structural equation model to quantifies individual purchasing behavior of electronic vehicles based on perceived health risk cased by air pollution in Kunming, China. The findings showed that (1)for residents in Kunming, the perceived air pollution risk, the willingness to purchase new energy vehicles, and actual purchase behavior are low; (2) perception of health risks has a significant positive impact on purchase willingness, behavioral attitude and subjective norms play a significant positive mediating role between perception of health risks and purchase willingness, and perception of behavioral control plays a significant negative role, purchase willingness has significant positive impact on purchase behavior, the direct effect of perceived behavioral control on purchase behavior is insignificant; (3) for highly educated groups, risk controllability has a significant impact on the perception of health risk, subjective norms and behavioral attitude have significant impacts on purchase willingness, while for low-income gourp, risk controllability has significant impacts on the perception of health risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: blockchain; throughput; consensus; energy consumption; scalability; security
Online: 4 November 2022 (01:47:09 CET)
Blockchain technology has gotten much interest recently from academics, industry, and governments worldwide. It is regarded as a technical innovation that can disrupt various application fields affecting many aspects of our lives. Cryptocurrencies are a public blockchain application's success story that sparked extensive research and development. Scalability, energy consumption, and security, on the other hand, remain significant challenges. With low throughput, high transaction delay, and high energy consumption, most cryptocurrencies are experiencing low-efficiency difficulties. The scalability issue with public Blockchains is preventing organizations and sectors from receiving effective solutions. As a result, it is critical to bridge the gap and develop new frameworks that connect Blockchain with those goals. This paper examines the evolution of blockchain architecture and consensus protocols, provides a retrospective analysis, discusses the rationale for the various architectures and protocols' change, and captures the assumptions supporting their development and contributions to collaborative application development. However, existing research on consensus algorithms is insufficient. The features of the algorithms are discussed insufficiently in those papers, and some prominent blockchain consensus methods are not examined in terms of their scopes. The study’s findings are delivered in tabular formats, allowing for a clear representation of these algorithms. We discovered in our investigation that scalability is a result of many parameters such; transaction throughput, number of nodes, storage, block size, high communication, latency, cost. Furthermore, Due to its off-chain data storage and smaller block size, PoF is much more scalable than PoS and PoW, and Because PoA is a hybrid of PoW and PoC, it does not necessitate a large number of computational resources. As a result, it has a higher throughput than PoW. PoPF entails ranking all participating nodes and appointing n accountants to compete for adding new blocks. This article addresses the need by analyzing a wide range of consensus algorithms using a complete taxonomy of attributes and delving into the consequences of several still-present flaws in consensus algorithms.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0399.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Bibliometric Analysis; Correlations; Energy consumption; Urban Density
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:39:48 CEST)
Although impending urbanization is a well-acknowledged problem, there is a rising concern about how the urban forms will change and what can be the impacts on the global energy demand. As hubs of economic, social and cultural activities, cities are major energy consumers and GHG emissions. Energy consumption is a technical or a spatial problem? From Newman and Kenworthy to today, several studies have tried to shed light on this nexus. In this work, the controversial paradigm of urban density is discussed as a key component of the fight against climate change impacts. Concerning energy consumption, an in-depth bibliometric analysis is developed to identify the interdependencies of the terms. As a key ‘promise’ of an efficient urban configuration, density has been the core of diverse studies but with still under exploration arguments. This work provides a way forward for planners seeking to design strategies related to dense urban tissues exploring controversial paradigms as a key solution for energy-efficient problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0310.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Kardashev scale; civilization; energy consumption and supply
Online: 23 March 2022 (05:19:37 CET)
The level of technological development of any civilization can be gaged in large part by the amount of energy they produce for their use, but also encompasses that civilization’s stewardship of their home world. Following the Kardashev definition, a Type I civilization is able to store and use all the energy available on its planet. In this study, we develop a model based on Carl Sagan’s K formula and use this model to analyze the consumption and energy supply of the three most important energy sources: fossil fuels (e.g., coal, oil, natural gas, crude, NGL and feedstocks), nuclear energy and renewable energy. We also consider environmental limitations suggested by United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the International Energy Agency, and those specific to our calculations to predict when humanity will reach the level of a Kardashev scale Type I civilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; optimization; expert system; irrigation system
Online: 19 October 2021 (08:34:22 CEST)
Innovative practices in irrigation systems can bring improvements in terms of economic efficiency and in the same time can reduce environmental impact. Investment in high tech technologies frequently involves additional costs, but an efficient water management can increase the lifetime of the equipment. The main objective of this article is to reduce the energy consumption by one thousand cubic meters pumped and automatically to increase the economic efficiency of the pumping groups. This paper develops a new operating algorithm that ensures the operation of the pumping group at safe operating intervals and in the same time identifies the equivalent pump operating points for the entire flow range and pumping height of the pumping group. This methodology is based on the principles of an Expert System to perform the optimization process of the energy consumption in pumping groups. The resulting methodology avoids the combinatorial explosion of the solutions to be analyzed and determines the point of maximum efficiency without violation of any of the system constraints under any operating condition. The proposed methodology is tested on an irrigation system that includes a pumping group with 5 pumps, showing its effectiveness in obtaining the optimal solution with a relatively low computational burden.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0540.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Smokeless tobacco; India; Ageing; Occupation; Tobacco consumption
Online: 30 August 2021 (11:49:45 CEST)
More than two-thirds of death in developing countries are due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and tobacco is a leading risk factor. Among different socio-demographic factors, occupation and its corelates have impact on use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) and the evidence in India is limited. The objectives of this study are to find out the overall preva-lence of SLT use and its pattern of association with various occupation and associated variables. Methods: This study used data from Longitudinal Ageing Study in India (LASI) wave 1. Current and ever users of SLT are taken into consideration as target population. For the data analysis, survey-weighted tools have been applied for descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic re-gression model. The weighted data analysis has been done using R. Results and Discussion: From the sample size of 65561, 38% have ever used either smoking or SLT, of them, 40 % use to-bacco in smoke form, 51 % use SLT and 9 % take both. At the population level, 22.8% and 20.4% are ever and current users of SLT respectively. Type, place, and workload in the occupation found to be significantly associated with SLT use. Workplace tobacco-cessation-policy for infor-mal-workers is required to manage this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0238.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: residual feed consumption; quail; high environmental temperature
Online: 22 April 2019 (11:22:21 CEST)
Three hundred ten 12-wek-old laying quails (155 each) were randomly selected from the initial population and kept in individual battery cages. The measurements of growth and egg production were determined to derive RFI. The relationship between RFI and egg quality, blood parameters and carcass characteristics was also determined. The results indicated that the gray quails had significantly higher egg mass and lower broken eggs compared to the white quails. A significant increase for eggshell strength and shell % was found in eggs produced from gray quails compared to white counterparts, although the shell thickness was the same. The results of multiple regression analysis clearly identified a significant effect of metabolic body weight and egg mass in computing expected feed intake rather than body weight gain in both varieties of Japanese quails. Strongly positive correlation between RFI and feed intake in both gray and white quail varieties was found. The same trend was also observed for feed conversion ratio (FCR). Therefore, including RFI in selection criteria of Japanese quail to improve FCR under high environmental temperature is highly recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0585.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: consumption; financial wealth; housing wealth; wealth effects
Online: 25 October 2018 (04:46:24 CEST)
Based on the seminal paper of Case, Quigley and Shiller (2013), we investigate the effects of financial and housing wealth on consumption. Using quarterly data from 1975 to 2016, for all States of U.S. economy, and a different methodology in measuring wealth, we report relatively greater financial effects than housing effects on consumption. Specifically, in our basic utilized model, the calculated elasticity for financial wealth is 0.060, while for housing is 0.045. The results are not in agreement with the ones obtained by Case, Quigley and Shiller. In an attempt to investigate the disparity we proceed by incorporating the introduction of the Tax Reform Act in 1986, which increased incentives for owner-occupied housing investments. Finally, due to distributional factors at work, and taking into account the pronounced uneven distribution of wealth we investigate the effects of wealth for 8 states that include the Metropolitan areas comprising of the well known Case-Shiller 10-City Composite Index. Now the housing effect on consumption is much stronger and larger than the financial effect. Additionally, we forecast the consumption changes at the time of the high rise and large drops in house prices for these states. Forecasts showed a recession from the fall of Lehman Brothers until the fourth quarter of 2011. These forecasts were not verified. Probably, the new techniques used by politics played an important role. We also find that extreme behaviors cannot be predicted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0048.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: animal welfare; attitudes; chicken; knowledge; consumption; poultry
Online: 8 March 2017 (07:35:54 CET)
Little is known about public knowledge of meat chicken production and how it influences attitudes to birds’ welfare and consumer behaviour. We interviewed 506 members of the public in SE Queensland, Australia, to investigate this. Knowledge was assessed from 15 questions, and low scores were supported by respondents’ self-assessed report of low knowledge levels and agreement that their knowledge was insufficient to form an opinion about which chicken products to purchase. Older respondents and single people without children were most knowledgeable. There was uncertainty about whether chicken welfare was adequate, particularly in those with little knowledge. There was also evidence that lack of empathy towards chickens related to lack of knowledge, since those that thought it very acceptable that some birds are inadequately stunned at slaughter had low knowledge scores. More knowledgeable respondents ate chicken more frequently and were less likely to buy products with accredited labelling. Approximately half of the respondents thought the welfare of the chicken to be more important than the cost. It is concluded that the public’s knowledge has an important connection to their attitudes and consumption of meat chickens. Respondents with little knowledge demonstrated that they had both lack of empathy and intolerance to religious slaughter practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1993.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: mesothelin; acute myeloid leukemia; glycolysis; oxygen consumption rate
Online: 30 November 2023 (13:38:57 CET)
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy characterized by rapid growth and uncontrolled proliferation of undifferentiated myeloid cells. Metabolic reprogramming is commonly observed in the bone marrow of AML patients, as leukemia cells require increased ATP supply to support disease progression. In this study, we examined the potential role of mesothelin as a metabolic modulator in myeloid cells in AML. Mesothelin is a well-known marker of solid tumors that promotes cancer cell proliferation and survival. We initially analyzed alterations in mesothelin expression in the myeloblast subpopulations, defined as SSC-Alow/CD45dim, obtained from bone marrow of AML patients using flow cytometry. Our results showed overexpression of mesothelin in 34.8% of AML patients. Subsequently, metabolic changes in leukemia cells were evaluated by comparing the oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of bone marrow samples derived from adult AML patients. Notably, higher OCR was observed in the mesothelin-positive compared to the mesothelin-low and non-expressing groups. Treatment with recombinant human mesothelin protein enhanced OCR and increased the mRNA expression of glycolytic enzymes and mitochondrial complex II in KG1α AML cells. Notably, siRNA targeting mesothelin in KG1α cells led to reduction of glycolysis-related gene expression but had no effect on the mitochondrial complex gene. The collective results demonstrate that mesothelin induces metabolic changes in leukemia cells, facilitating acquisition of a rapid supply of ATP for proliferation in AML. Therefore, targeting of mesothelin presents a potentially promising approach for mitigating the progression of AML through inhibition of glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration in myeloid cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1573.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: globalization; renewable energy consumption; carbon emissions; European Policies
Online: 25 September 2023 (04:51:50 CEST)
The study investigates the impact of globalization, renewable energy consumption and economic growth on CO2 emissions in 26 European Union (EU) countries for the period 1990-2020. The second-generation panel unit root tests are applied, the Westerlund cointegration test is used, and panel Fully Modified Least Squares (FMOLS) and Dynamic Ordinary Least Squares (DOLS) techniques are employed to estimate the long-term relationship between variables. The causality relationship among variables under investigation is identified by the heterogeneous Dumitrescu-Hurlin causality test. It is found that globalization and renewable energy consumption contributed to the carbon emissions mitigation, while economic growth induced their increase. The results are robust when control variables (i.e., financial development, foreign direct investment and urbanization) are added in the model. Foreign direct investment and urbanization are contributors to carbon emissions increase whereas financial development induce their decrease. The effect of variables under consideration on carbon emissions is differentiated by the economic development and institutional quality level. Unidirectional causalities relationships were identified from globalization to carbon emissions and from carbon emissions to foreign direct investment and bidirectional relationships between economic growth, renewable energy consumption, financial development and carbon emissions. Policy implications of the findings are also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: prophet; LSTM; GRU; meteorological data; electricity consumption forecasting
Online: 19 September 2023 (08:33:08 CEST)
This study proposes a short- and medium-term electricity consumption prediction algorithm by combining the GRU model suitable for long-term forecasting and the Prophet model suitable for seasonality and event handling. (1) Manufacturing Company B's Electricity consumption data and meteorological data in Naju, Jeollanam-do, South Korea are collected and preprocessed. (2) The preprocessed data proposes the Prophet model in the first step for seasonality and event handling prediction. (3) In the second step, seven multivariate data are experimented with GRU. Specifically, the seven multivariate data consist of six meteorological data and the residuals between the predicted data from the proposed Prophet model in Step 1 and the observed data. These are utilized to predict electricity consumption at 15-minute intervals. (4) Electricity consumption is predicted for short-term (2 days and 7 days) and medium-term (15 days and 30 days) scenarios. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method outperforms the conventional Prophet model by more than 23 times and the modified GRU model by more than 2 times in terms of MAPE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2135.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Lubumbashi; trace metal; pollution; accumulation; safe weekly consumption
Online: 30 June 2023 (07:35:05 CEST)
Copper smelting has been the source of soil contamination in trace metals in Penga Penga (Lubumbashi). Residents are exposed to trace metal ingestion and planting trees is challenging in such soil conditions. Nevertheless, planting trees in former household dumps or using various types of amendments allowed the provisioning of fruits in few residences. In the perspective of scaling up the process, a survey has been conducted with the aim of assessing the effectiveness of the planting processes on the trace metal content in fruits and leaves of Mangifera indica L. and Syzygium guineense (Willd) DC. Samples were collected in residential households from Penga Penga and Kalebuka (a non-polluted suburb). The bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the safe weekly consumption (SWC) were calculated for each species. Results showed higher values of total and soluble concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn in the rhizosphere of the two species at Penga Penga. Metal concentrations were higher in fruits and leaves from Penga Penga with 47% of samples above FAO and WHO thresholds (vs 18.5% in Kalebuka). The BCF values were below 1 demonstrating the effectiveness of the process to reduce metal translocation to leaves and fruits. Recommendations from the SWC limited by Pb for consumption to 9 kg for mango flesh and by Cd 6.6 kg for S. guineense fruits at Penga Penga (Vs 78 and 68 kg at Kalebuka). Finally, results from this study provide interesting lessons from the scaling up and the technical itinerary of planting tree un Penga Penga.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Meat consumption; Flexitarianism; Sustainable Development; Protein transition; Brazil
Online: 1 February 2023 (01:09:51 CET)
The flexitarian diet, which emphasizes a reduction in meat consumption, has been identified as a crucial factor in transitioning to sustainable food systems that can help combat climate change and improve food and nutritional security, particularly in areas where food choices are abundant. Despite Brazil being a major meat producer, meat consumption among Brazilians has been decreasing in recent years, with a growing portion of the population adopting meat-free and meat-reduced dietary models. In this study, we conducted the first non-industry funded scientific investigation of Brazilian flexitarians, with the goal of characterizing their socio-economic and demographic characteristics, motivations for adopting flexitarianism, frequency of animal-based meat consumption, and main substitutes consumed. Data was collected from 1029 self-identified flexitarians in Brazil. Our findings indicate that the flexitarian food model is primarily adopted by women and is motivated by concerns about the environmental impact of meat consumption, personal health, and animal welfare. Flexitarians were found to have a consumption profile that can be divided into three groups: low (consuming meat 36 times a week), medium (consuming meat 7 times a week), and high (consuming meat 4 times a week). The flexitarian meals pattern is characterized by lower consumption of beef (less than 2 times per week) and higher consumption of chicken (3 times per week) and is supplemented by plant-based protein sources and eggs as the main meat substitutes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0205.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: prenatal alcohol consumption; gut microbiome; neurodevelopment; FASD; mice
Online: 12 December 2022 (13:50:01 CET)
Disorders associated with substance abuse are a major public health crisis with few treatment options. According to World Health Organization (WHO) ethanol is the most widely used drug in the world, and it represents a risk factor for the advent of disease, disability, and eventually death. Foetal Alcoholic Spectrum Disorders (FASD) is a diagnostic term to describe the range of effects that can occur in an individual whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. These effects encompass both physical, mental, behavioural and further lifelong disabilities. Besides, ethanol can harm the gut microbiota. Gut microbiome is firstly acquired from the mother and it is crucial for intestinal homeostasis during hosts’ lifetime. It is responsible for producing metabolites that benefits and protects the host from harm microbial colonization. Knowledge about the interactions between human gut microbes and the developing nervous system is still scarce. Nevertheless, animal models have shown that gut bacteria and microbial metabolites are strongly associated with Central Nervous System (CNS) homeostasis. Endotoxins such as Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are hypothesized to have a major role in neurodegeneration, however, conclusions must be taken with care due to differences in sensitivity between humans and mice. In this review we focus on the role of gut microbiota on the neurodevelopment of mice when ethanol consumption is one of the major stressors during prenatal period. We detail the range of the endotoxin hypothesis in describing endotoxins’ contribution to neurodegeneration and the influence that kynurenine pathway has on the process.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0246.v1
Subject: Engineering, Marine Engineering Keywords: food safety; sustainability; RFID; technology; fisheries; consumption; traceability
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:35:05 CEST)
At present, sustainability and emerging technology are the most expressed issues in any supply chain management (SCM) sector. At the same time, pandemic makes consumers more concerned regarding health, and safe food with a sustainable way to access the current market. Thus, supervision and monitoring of product quality with symmetric traceability information in fresh food and fisheries SCM is significant. Research on food safety and traceability systems based on blockchain, internet of service (IoT), wireless sensor networks (WSN), and radio frequency identification (RFID) provides the solution of constancy from production to consumption. This review focused on the RFID-based traceability systems in fisheries SCM, which have been employed globally in the last fifteen years to ensure fish quality and security. Additionally, a summarized comparison study has presented different sectors’ traceability systems using RFID and their advantages over real-time applications. The outcome of this study will help future researchers to solve the crisis in terms of trust between consumers and the fisheries SCM. Thus, this review would be a guideline and solution for enhancing the reliability of RFID-based traceability in food SCM systems to ensure the integrity and reducing the opacity and asymmetry in the product information.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0194.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Tillage; trencher; sugarcane plantation; energy consumption; conservation agriculture.
Online: 8 July 2021 (10:52:17 CEST)
An efficient design of conservation tillage trencher (CTT) saves time, natural resources, and conserves soil health by avoiding vigorous soil disturbance of tillage operations. A two-wheel tractor operated CTT has constructed with modified rotary shafts, toolbar frames, depth control bars, bed shapers and chisel ploughs for conservation tillage operation of sugarcane plantation. The performance evaluation of developed CTT was tested for comparing the suitability with small-scale farmer’s practice (SFP) and large farm practice (LFP). Finally, the CTT is applied for preparing sugarcane farmland in different conservation tillage methods of i) bed cum trenching (BT), ii) zero-tillage trenching (ZT) and iii) strip-tillage (ST). The performance of effective field capacities of CTT were 0.14 ha h-1, 0.12 ha h-1 and 0.14 ha h-1 for BT, ZT and ST, respectively. Developed CTT saved time 80% and 26-37% over SFP and LFP, and required 96% and 26-36% less labour than SFP and LFP, respectively. Conservation tillage required 7-10 l ha-1diesel whereas SFP and LFP required 25 l ha-1and 65 l ha-1, which reduced CO2 emission by 60-72% and 85-89% compared to SFP and LFP, respectively. Ultimately, newly developed CTT saved sugarcane land preparation costs by 86% to 90% compared to conventional tillage systems.
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Solar Photovoltaics, PV Self-consumption, Building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV), Build-ing-applied photovoltaics (BAPV), PV orientations, PV Grid-integration
Online: 22 September 2021 (10:14:35 CEST)
As Solar Photovoltaics in buildings reaches maturity, grid integration and economic yield are topics of greater interest. The traditional design of photovoltaic installations has considered the optimal orientation of photovoltaic modules to be that which yields the maximum annual energy production. The influence of the consumption patterns and the hourly-variable electricity prices implies that this traditional optimal design might not be the most profitable. Using a full-year dataset for a residential installation, alternative installations using canopies and modules attached to the façades are simulated. Simulating the energy balances for different annual consumptions, it is found that the canopy and façade installations offer better self-consumption of the PV produced energy, reflected in a 9% higher self-consumption degree using modules on façades and a 5% using canopies. The economic evaluation under the new electricity tariffs in Spain shows a better profit for PV self-consumption, reducing by more than 2 years the time of return on investment. The analysis of different alternatives for an industrial PV has allowed us to identify several benefits for these orientations, such as an increase in annual energy production of up to 59% over the optimal-producing orientation, that are confirmed after several months of operation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: econometrics; road transportation; telematics; survey data; fuel consumption
Online: 1 April 2021 (09:46:03 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the acceptance and the utilization of GPS/GPRS-based telematics technology in road transport companies registered in Poland. Telematics technologies are essential for management of energy saving and emissions reduction in road transport. It is in line with the European Union policy of sustainable transportation. The evaluation is based on a survey designed and carried out in 2020. The issues concerning the scope of telematics systems utilization as well as the internal and external factors affecting their use are analysed. The methodology is based on Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM). The results are checked for robustness. Based on the results, it can be reasoned that as a result of the COVID19 pandemic, the companies started to use telematics systems more widely than they did before. Furthermore, the companies employing more people recognize the higher usefulness of telematics systems and are motivated to have the systems more than smaller enterprises; however, TAMs estimated separately for small and medium-sized enterprises did not reveal any significant differences in the parameter estimates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0601.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Macadamia; Smallholder farmers; Lucrative crop; Poverty reduction; Consumption
Online: 24 November 2020 (08:31:43 CET)
Macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) nuts have become an essential commodity crop in Malawi. The nuts are a lucrative commodity and are used for household consumption and income generation among farming families and as a foreign exchange earning crop at country-level. In addition, macadamia production has increased significantly in recent years in the country. Currently, Malawi is the seventh top producer of macadamia nuts, with a global market share of three percent (1,846 metric tonnes on kernel basis). In 2018, exports of macadamia kernel had a value of US$24.3 million (£19.8 million or MKW 18.01 billion). However, the bulk (85%) of the crop is grown on large commercial plantations, but the smallholder sector is emerging as vital for the future growth of the macadamia sub-sector in Malawi. Furthermore, Malawian smallholders consider macadamia production to be a low-input crop with large returns per unit area (US$14.37 kg-1ha-1 or MKW 10,701kg-1ha-1) thus a lucrative crop with high potential for poverty reduction and wealth creation among these farming families. This paper, therefore, explores: (i) the historical and current trends in macadamia nut production in Malawi; (ii) analyses the country’s macadamia value chain and (iii) discusses the constraints of macadamia production in Malawi for informed policymaking. Thus, the synthesis of the Malawian macadamia sub-sector provides an understanding of the vital contributions of macadamias to Malawi’s economic growth and improvement of livelihoods.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0111.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: migrant remittances; foreign capital; consumption; investment; economic growth
Online: 7 May 2020 (08:26:35 CEST)
Economic globalization has increased interdependence, particularly among the developing economies. This has increased the potential of migration across the national borders. In a similar context, the Indian economy has witnessed a rapid growth in the number of migrants after the phase of globalization. The rise in the migrant stock has led to a massive increase in the income generated through international borders in the form of remittances. India has become one of the top recipients of remittances with 79$ billion inflows in 2018. The major factor driving the growth of migrant remittances has been the monetary incentives that raise the standard of living of the recipient’s households. The rise in the income level of these households also affects other economic parameters including consumption and investment. Apart from this, the pattern of migration has also changed since the past few years with skilled workers migrating to the developed economies and unskilled ones migrating to the Gulf economies. In this context, the present study examines the trend and pattern of remittance inflows in India for the period of 1975-2017. Additionally, the study explores how remittance inflows affect the level of household consumption and investments. This relationship was examined using a two-stage least squares method by framing a set of simultaneous equations. The findings of the two-stage least square estimates indicate that though personal remittances do not impact the gross domestic product of the economy directly. But, an increase in the inflow of personal remittances leads to a rise in consumption and investment which in turn plays an important role in determining the Gross Domestic Product of the economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0319.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: co2 emission; energy consumption; production of electricity; gdp
Online: 26 November 2019 (15:22:44 CET)
Results of rapid economic growth, China, USA, and India have become the largest energy stealer and the greatest emitter of CO2 in the world and burn over 45% of global fuels in 2016. Meanwhile, the developing strategies of 24 polluted countries to decrease the energy consumption without additional economic output. This paper is exploring the effect of world top polluted countries C02 emission and their GDP and the production of electricity by energy indicators. The GLM model is not predict logistic and probit analysis directly; instead, it is mainly used for instinct to response of CO2 emission, using data for the period 1968-2017. The huge production of electricity will cause of abnormal CO2; this study offers true indication of exploring consumption of energy issues from the perspective of Granger casual and a positive unidirectional causality is detected between energy consumption to economic growth, while short-run bidirectional casualty exists among energy indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0702.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Andean microalgae consumption; Atacama; cyanobacteria; Llayta; microethnography; Nostoc
Online: 30 October 2018 (04:43:02 CET)
Llayta is a dietary supplement used by rural communities in Perú and northern Chile since pre-Columbian days. Llayta is the biomass of colonies of a Nostoc cyanobacterium grown in wetlands of the Andean highlands, harvested, sun-dried and sold as an ingredient for human consumption. The biomass has a substantial content of essential amino acids (58% of total amino acids) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (33% total fatty acids). This ancestral practice is being loss and the causes were investigated by an ethnographic approach to register the social representations of Llayta, to document how this Andean feeding practice is perceived and how much the community knows about Llayta. Only 37% of the participants (mostly adults) have had a direct experience with Llayta; other participants (mostly children) did not have any knowledge about it. These social responses reflect anthropological and cultural tensions associated to lack of knowledge on Andean algae, sites where to find Llayta, where it is commercialized, how it is cooked and on its nutritional benefits. The loss of this ancestral feeding practice, mostly on northern Chile, is probably associated to cultural changes, migration of the rural communities, and a very limited access to the available information. We propose that Llayta consumption can be revitalized by developing appropriate educational strategies and investigating potential new food derivatives based on the biomass from the isolated Llayta cyanobacterium.
COMMENTARY | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0108.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: degrowth; sustainable consumption; sustainable production; inequality; sustainability; employment
Online: 25 October 2016 (09:50:29 CEST)
“De-[Constructing] Growth” is offered as a deeper and more useful conceptualization that avoids the negative connotations of, and resistance to, “degrowth” by decoupling profit from unsustainable consumption, production, and inequality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: edible potato; consumption value; magnesium; biostimulant; nitrate; nitrite; storage
Online: 4 October 2023 (09:39:11 CEST)
: The primary use of the potato is direct consumption. The classification of potatoes into consumption type is made on the basis of consumption evaluation of hydrothermally treated tubers. Nutrient deficiency in the soil, including Mg, contributes to the inhibition of potato growth and development and negatively affects the cooking characteristics of the tubers. Magnesium and biostimulants are responsible for plant nitrogen management. Thus, it is necessary to control the content of harmful nitrates and toxic nitrites in tubers. In potato production, it is also important to maintain appropriate conditions during storage. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of mineral fertilization with magnesium and a biostimulant preparation during cultivation of edible potato and long-term storage on the traits determining utility-consumption type and the content of harmful nitrogen compounds in tubers. The study was conducted using the early potato variety Satina. In a three-year (2015-2017) three-factor experiment: evaluation date (immediately after harvest and after six months of storage), soil fertilization with mineral magnesium (0, 30, 60, 90 kg MgO ha-1), application of an amino acid biostimulant (0, 1.5, 3.0 l ha-1), five consumption traits of tubers after cooking determining the utility-consumption type of potato were determined. In addition, the consumer safety of the potato was determined based on the nitrate and nitrite content of the tubers. The tendency to overcook tubers significantly depended on all the factors used during potato cultivation. In contrast, the texture and structure of tuber flesh after cooking depended only on mineral fertilization with magnesium. The flesh of the tubers after cooking was most tender (1.0 pt) and firm (1.4 pt) after the application of 60 and 90 kg MgO ha-1, respectively. The moisture level of the flesh after cooking was significantly influenced by the interaction of magnesium fertilization with the biostimulant preparation. The factors of the experiment did not modify the utility-consumption type (B/A), while there was a change in the type in relation to that specified by the grower - general utility (B). The applied cultivation technology and long-term storage did not deteriorate the consumer safety of tubers (<200 mg kg-1) in terms of NO3 (max. 112.1 mg kg-1) and NO2 (max. 1.08 mg kg-1) contents. Organoleptic traits: mealiness, moisture and flesh structure were significantly positively related to nitrate and nitrite content of tubers immediately after harvesting and to nitrite concentration after long-term storage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0264.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: ANN; energy consumption; optimization; direct fired absorption chiller; validation
Online: 5 September 2023 (11:28:53 CEST)
With an increasing concern for global warming, there have been many attempts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. About 30 % of total energy has been consumed by buildings and much attention has been paid to reducing building energy consumption. While there are many ways of reducing building energy consumption, accurate energy consumption prediction becomes more significant. As mechanical systems are the most energy-consuming components in the building, the present study developed the energy consumption prediction model for a direct-fired absorption chiller by using the ANN technique for the short term. The ANN model was optimized and validated with the actual data collected through a BAS. For the optimization, the numbers of input variables and neurons, and the data size of training were applied. By changing these parameters, the predictive performance was analyzed. In sum, the outcome of the present study can used to predict the energy consumption of the chiller as well as improve the efficiency of the energy management. The outcome of the present study can be used to develop a more accurate prediction model with a few datasets in that it can improve the efficiency of building energy management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2205.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: sperm selection; oxygen consumption; Cumulus cells; Capacitation; Tyrosine phosphorylation
Online: 1 September 2023 (13:43:58 CEST)
In the literature, it is well known the correlation between poor semen quality and DNA sperm integrity, which can turn into negative outcomes in terms of embryo development and clinical pregnancy. Sperm selection plays a pivotal role in clinical practice and the most widely used methods are mainly based on sperm motility and morphology. The cumulus oophorus complex (COC) during natural fertilization represents a barrier that spermatozoa must overcome to reach the zona pellucida and fertilize the oocyte. Spermatozoa that can pass through the COC have better structural and metabolic characteristics as well as enhanced acrosome reaction (AR). The present study aimed to evaluate the exposure of sperm to cumulus cell secretome during swim-up treatment (SUC), compared to the routinely used swim-up method (SU). To determine the effectiveness of this method biological factors critical for the ability of sperm to fertilize an oocyte, including capacitation, AR, tyrosine phosphorylation signature, DNA integrity, and mitochondrial functionality were assessed. The SUC selection assures recovery of high-quality spermatozoa, with enhanced mitochondrial functionality and motility compared to both SU-selected or unselected (U) sperm. Furthermore, by this modified swim-up procedure significantly reduced sperm DNA damage (p<0.05) was detected. In conclusion, the SUC approach is a more physiological and integrated method for sperm selection that deserves further investigation for its translation into clinical practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1771.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: corn, corn production, corn consumption, corn trade, corn price.
Online: 26 June 2023 (09:44:01 CEST)
Corn is the main agricultural product and has been produced in Kazakhstan as important nutrition in human and animal food. The research results shown in the article, the fact of increasing the sustainability of corn production is formulated, methodological approaches to assessing the level of sustainability are developed, and criteria are defined for the main indicators of sustainability and efficiency of corn production. The world's corn production was 1,223 million tons in the 2021/22 season. Kazakhstan's corn production average was 1,1 million tons and the production area are 206,870 in the 2021/22 season. The yield per hectare was 5,985 kg in the 2021/22 season. Corn consumption was 1170.5 million tons and exported was 180.1 m.tons of corn in the 2021/22 season in Kazakhstan. The purpose of this study is a determination of sustainable developments of corn consumption and production in Kazakhstan and worldwide between the 2011/12 and 2021/22 seasons. Statistical data have been obtained from the International Grain Council, FAOSTAT, USDA, PhD diploma thesis of the article's author, Bureau of National Statistics. Data obtained have been shown in the tables issued by the use of percentage and index calculations. The study analyzed a major factor affecting supply and demand, sustainable development of corn production and market prices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0872.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: dietary intake; bariatric surgery; weight loss; outcomes; macronutrient consumption
Online: 13 June 2023 (04:15:13 CEST)
Metabolic and bariatric surgery (MBS) is the most effective long-term treatment for Class III obesity. Reduced dietary intake is considered a behavioral driver of post-surgical weight loss, but limited data have examined this association. Therefore, this study examined prospective, longitudinal relationships between dietary intake and weight loss over 24 months following Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass and Sleeve Gastrectomy. Relationships between weight loss and dietary intake were examined using a validated 24-hour dietary recall method. Associations between total energy/macronutrient intake and weight loss outcomes were assessed at 12-, 18-, and 24-months following MBS, defining patients as “responders” and “suboptimal responders” according to the Reinhold criteria of 50% excess weight loss. Consistent with previous literature, 12-month responders and suboptimal responders showed significant associations between weight loss and dietary intake. Unlike previous work, this study revealed that many of these associations are no longer significant 24 months post-MBS, despite consistent weight loss trends. This study suggests a short-term signal between these dietary factors and weight loss outcomes 12 months post-MBS, consistent with previous observations. However, this signal does not persist beyond 12 months. These results are essential for interpreting and designing clinical studies measuring long-term post-surgical weight loss outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1638.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: population aging; household tourism consumption; intergenerational care; Internet use
Online: 23 May 2023 (10:26:41 CEST)
The ever deepening population aging has brought opportunities and challenges to the continued expansion of tourism consumption in China. In this article, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption was studied from both theoretical and empirical aspects. First, the micro mechanisms of the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption were analyzed, which include economic condition mechanism, intergenerational care mechanism, health status mechanism and Internet use mechanism. Subsequently, the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption and its impact mechanisms were tested, and the heterogeneity analysis was conducted, by using the data of China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) from 2014, 2016 and 2018. The main conclusions of the article are as follows: (1) Population aging has a significant negative impact on household tourism consumption, and a series of robustness test results such as endogenous treatment support this finding. (2) The results of the impact mechanism test show that population aging has a negative mediating effect on household tourism consumption by reducing household economic conditions. The moderating effect of intergenerational care on the effect of population aging on household tourism consumption is insignificant. Health status of the elderly and Internet use have a significant positive moderating effect on the impact of population aging on household tourism consumption. (3) The results of the heterogeneity analysis show that the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption in urban areas is greater than that in rural areas, and the negative impact of population aging on household tourism consumption of families with the old-old elderly is greater than that of falimies with the young-old elderly. The conclusions of this article provide important references for activating tourism consumption in China in the context of population aging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: support caregivers’ potential; food consumption; iron supplement; anemia prevention
Online: 8 March 2023 (08:41:09 CET)
Children under two years old are at risk for anemia because young children have an increased need for iron for their physical growth and brain development. The purpose of this study was designed to evaluate the effects of a caregiver potential support program on anemia prevention in children six months to two years old attending the subdistrict health-promoting hospital in Thasala District, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This study was quasi-experimental. The sample included children aged six months to two years old and their caregivers, who were selected by random sampling and allocated to either the experimental or control group, with 40 pairs per group. The experimental group received a potential support program, while the control group received regular care. Both groups were followed for 12 weeks. The instruments used were the potential caregiver assessment, children’s anemia assessment, and a program to support the potential of primary caregivers. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and t-tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that 11.4% of the children had anemia, and a hematocrit count of less than 33% (range = 30-40, M = 34.89, SD = 1.97). The mean scores of knowledge about anemia and iron supplementation after using the program in the experimental group and control group were significantly different (p < 0.001). The mean scores of knowledge about anemia in the experimental and control group were 15.75, SD = 0.54, and 13.28, SD = 1.43 respectively. The mean scores of knowledge about iron supplementation in the experimental and control group were 10.75, SD = 0.49, and 8.15, SD = 1.54 respectively. It was found that the experimental group had a higher mean score on food care behaviors than the control group for 6-11 months and 1-2 years, with statistical significance. The experimental group also had a higher mean score of care behaviors concerning children’s consumption of medicine than the control group (M = 58.20, SD = 4.05; M = 45.78, SD = 9.66, respectively), (p < 0.001). The mean score of the hematocrit level for the experimental group was found to be higher than the control group after receiving the program (M = 35.80, SD = 1.55; M = 34.83, SD = 2.14, respectively), (p < 0.05). Therefore, healthcare providers should support caregivers' capacity to provide continued care for children to prevent anemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0278.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: knowledge; food consumption behaviors; hematocrit level; school-age children
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:06:28 CEST)
Anemia is a significant public health problem among children, especially school-age children because their body quickly produces red blood cells to provide sufficient blood volume with plasma expansion to maintain blood concentration. This research aimed to study the anemia situation, knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and the association between knowledge, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit level among school-age children in primary school, in Thasala district, Nakhon Si Thammarat Province. This is a descriptive study among 408 students, Grades 4 to 6, aged 9-12 years. Research instruments included the demographic data of the children and their knowledge about anemia, food consumption behaviors, and hematocrit assessment. Data were analyzed using descriptive, Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient, and logistic regression statistics. The results revealed that 23.2% of the samples had anemia, whereas 22.22% had mild anemia and 0.98% had moderate anemia. The children knew about anemia, where the mean score was at a moderate level (Mean= 6.63; SD= 2.51) out of 10. The mean score on food consumption behaviors was in the moderate level (Mean= 17.49; SD= 3.68) out of 24. There were significantly positive correlations between the knowledge about anemia and the hematocrit level at a moderate level (r= 0.45, p< 0.001). Correlation analysis revealed moderate food consumption behaviors with the hematocrit level (r= 0.40, p< 0.001). When confirm with Logistic regression found that knowledge about anemia (OR = 9.15, 95% CI: 4.57-18.34), and food consumption behaviors (OR = 19.09, 95% CI: 9.71-37.53) were significantly associated with the hematocrit level. Conclusions: This study showed that knowledge and appropriate food consumption behaviors are associated with hematocrit levels. Enhancing knowledge about anemia and food consumption behaviors may be reduced the prevalence of anemia in school-age children. The health care providers in primary care should be encouraged children to have health education and eat sufficient food.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0013.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: parental presence; alcohol and drug consumption; deviant behaviours; adolescents
Online: 1 August 2022 (08:52:00 CEST)
The study is based on wide international research, the International Self-report Delinquency Study 3 (ISRD-3) and it analyses the relationship between parental presence, juvenile delinquency, and the consumption of psychotropic substances in adolescents. The data have been collected by a questionnaire ISRD-3 administered to 6021 students from 7th to 9th grade from 24 countries. The results confirmed the protective effect of dual-parent families on alcohol and drug use and committing illicit behaviours. Monoparental families and families without parents are associated with higher levels of alcohol, drug use, and deviant behaviors by young people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0076.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: water consumption; drinking water; consumer preference; water usage purposes
Online: 5 July 2022 (13:45:20 CEST)
The aim were to determine the drinking water preferences of people applied to a family health center. This cross-sectional study was carried out from April 01st to May 31st, 2022. The data were evaluated using the chi-square test and percent ratios with a significant of P < 0.05. The mean age of all 432 respondents was 48.03±15.86. It was determined that those aged 31-45 had drunk more bottled water (p<0.01) and more spring water (p<0.001), that those aged 65 and over more purified water (p<0.001), that women more tap water (p<0.001), that married people had drunk more demijohn and tap water (p<0.001, each one), that divorced/widows had drunk more packaged and purified water (p<0.001, each one), that the illiterate/literate bottled water (p<0.001, per one), that those who had no income/people who lived on the state or municipal assistance only carboy water (p<0.001). This study suggests that the biggest factor that positively affected the drinking water preference was the packaging of the water. However, the drinking rates of mains water and spring water were quite low. Convincing the authorities to make the mains water drinkable is of great importance in terms of overcoming the public's distrust of mains water.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0278.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Virtual Choreograhies; Behaviour-change; Energy consumption; Human-behaviour representation
Online: 28 April 2022 (08:55:28 CEST)
Reducing office buildings’ energy consumption can contribute significantly towards carbon reduction commitments since it represents 10% of total energy consumption. Major components are lighting (40% of consumption), electrical equipment (35%), and heating and central cooling systems (25\%). Occupants’ behaviours impact these energy consumption components, with solid evidence on the role of individual behaviours. In this work, we propose a methodology that uses virtual choreographies to identify and prioritize behaviour-change interventions towards office users based on the potential impact on energy consumption. The data shows that some behaviours with significant consumption have little potential for behavioural change impact, while other behaviours hold substantial potential for lowering energy consumption via behavioural change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0308.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Cryptocurrency; Electricity theft; Energy consumption; CO2 emission; power signatures.
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:12:25 CEST)
Since the most important constituent of the cost of cryptocurrency production is energy bills, use of illegal electricity in cryptocurrency mining farms is very common. For this reason, many countries prohibit cryptocurrency production or restrict it with some legal regulations. This situation raises the problem of how to detect illicit cryptocurrency mining. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed to detect illicit cryptocurrency mining farms. In this study, it has been shown that unique noise and/or harmonic characteristics of machines producing cryptocurrency can be used to detect illicit cryptocurrency mining farms. The unique harmonic characteristics formed by data centers on neutral line have been detected by field measurements performed. Electricity distribution companies can make risk assessments with this approach by monitoring energy quality data. As a result, the necessary legal permissions can be obtained to investigate suspicious high-risk consumers. Illicit cryptocurrency mining farms can be detected by investigating at high-risk consumer facilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0237.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cropland; environmental limits; consumption; production; trade; Sustainable Development Goals
Online: 13 January 2021 (07:38:40 CET)
Sustainable Development Goal 12 requires countries to achieve responsible consumption and production patterns without exceeding safe environmental limits for natural resource use. However, little is known about how cropland impacts from the agri-food sector contribute to the exceedance of national environmental limits for consumption and production. Using a multi-regional input-output model, we linked the cropland impacts of agri-food production to countries of consumption while considering the exceedance of production-based and consumption-based environmental limits. We defined national consumption-based environmental limits via the fair-share approach and quantified national production-based environmental limits according to the biophysical limit of available arable land. We then classified countries into quadrants according to their exceedance of consumption and/or production environmental limits. We found that the USA, Australia and other high-income countries were exceeding both consumption-based and production-based environmental limits. High-population but low-income countries such as India and China were within safe consumption-based environmental limits but exceeded production-based environmental limits. Brazil and other countries of the Americas incurred substantial environmental costs due to the conversion of forests into cropland to produce food for export. We identified patterns in international trade relationships that could inform national-level responsible agri-food consumption and production patterns across the global supply chain, thereby contributing to Sustainable Development Goal 12. More stringent regulations and commitments in national and international policies are required to reduce the exceedance of consumption-based and production-based environmental limits and avoid exceeding the global land-system change planetary boundary.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0348.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Covid-19 process; Electricity production; Electricity consumption; Energy demand
Online: 16 October 2020 (12:06:39 CEST)
With the year 2020, the world faced a new threat that affects all areas of life, negatively affects production in all areas, and paralyzes social life. The measures and restrictions taken by the country's governments to prevent the epidemic from spreading rapidly in the society with the effect of the Covid-19 virus, which first appeared in China and spread all over the world, brought a new lifestyle. Covid-19 has been much the impact on electricity use and electricity production in the period in Turkey as in other countries. There was a sharp decline in commercial and industrial electricity use. The coronavirus effect has also been reflected in the electricity demand and the consumption amount has undergone a great negative change. Due to the enactment of measures against the new type of coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic and the partial or full-time curfews, electricity consumption was moved to homes, supermarkets, and hospitals in April 2020 from places where mass consumption is intense, such as industry, workplaces, and educational institutions. In this study, Covid-19 period, the first cases were examined electricity production and consumption in Turkey as of the date it is seen throughout, in comparison with electricity consumption data in the same month of the previous years corresponding to this period, the effects on electricity generation and consumption habits of this period were examined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0047.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: sustainable development goals; land consumption; population growth; urban area
Online: 31 January 2020 (09:58:57 CET)
Demographic and socio-economic developments couple with other requirements to satisfy human needs result in rapid urban expansion sometimes with increasing rate of surface extent greater than the rate of growth of population, that result in continuous sealing of ground surface thereby affecting ecosystem services. This study applied remote sensing toward achieving the progress of SDGs and stage to determine the ratio of the rate of land consumption to the rate of population growth of Gombe metropolis. QGIS 2.18 was used for the image processing and classification analysis for the key Landsat ETM+ (Enhanced Thematic Mapper), Impervious Surface Indices and population data to inform on the urban trend and LCR/PGR for the periods 2000-2005, 2005-2010, and 2010-2015. The result appears that the LCR/PGR for the periods of study show split trends. During 2000-2005 the result shows that the study area expanded outward with LCR/PGR of 1.2. The result also indicate that during 2005-2010, the study area densified with little expansion with the LCR/PGR of 0.8. The result further reveals that during 2010-2015 the LCR/PGR reached 1.8. Pointing that the study area expanded outward with the rate of ground sealing getting high.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0316.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: economic growth; energy consumption; KEC; MENA countries; TG emissions
Online: 28 October 2019 (05:28:14 CET)
The purpose of this paper is to test the Kuznets Environmental Curve (KEC) hypothesis for 10 MENA (Middle East and North Africa) countries during the period 1987-2017. To do this, the translogical functional form has been adopted to estimate the relationship between Toxic Gases (TG) emissions, energy consumption and GDP per capita. The results confirm the presence of KEC, GDP per capita and energy consumption have a positive influence on TG emissions, and the presence of a feedback relationship between GDP per capita and energy consumption. As a result, the environmental framework of the selected countries improves as their level of growth has become more advanced. In addition, to reduce TG emissions, MENA countries are expected to significantly increase the use of renewable energy and a more efficient energy policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0360.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: LoraWAN; IoT, agriculture 4.0; wireless sensor network; low consumption
Online: 19 July 2018 (12:51:38 CEST)
A The agri-food sector is in full renovation, continuously demanding new systems that allow farmers to facilitate their work. Efficient agricultural practices are essential for increasing farm profitability. Efficient agricultural practices can be increased by understanding and managing water neeeds. However, real-time monitoring of water needs is currently slow, and irrigation decisions are based on previous data or physical evidence. Furthermore, the prices of automatic systems for collecting data from several sources (soil and climate) are expensive and the autonomy is very low. Emerging Internet of Things (IoT) technologies such as wireless sensor networks can be used to collect vast amounts of data recorded via apps. By means of an LPWAN communication the farmer can know in real time the state of his crops thanks to a large number of sensors connected wirelessly and distributed across his farm. This paper presents a low consumption solution based on LoRaWAN technology. The wireless sensor node, called BoX, exhibits very low power since it has been optimized both in terms of hardware and software. The result is a higher degree of autonomy than commercial motes. That will allow the farmer to have all the information necessary to achieve an efficient management of his crops with full autonomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0267.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: deforestation; environmental awareness; media consumption; sustainable development; species extinction
Online: 20 April 2018 (12:01:26 CEST)
This study inscribes itself in the global discussion about the issue of environmental awareness, beliefs and behaviors. Here we focus on the role that cultural differences and scientific media dieting play in explaining heterogeneities in students' awareness and expectations about the two environmental issues of deforestation and species (plant and animal) extinction in the Middle East and North America. To this end, we use the cross-sectional survey data of the OECD's Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2015, along with seemingly unrelated Bi-variate ordered Probit modeling techniques. The results show that compared to their North American Counterparts, students' in the Middle East are 14.2% less aware of, and 14.5% less optimistic about the issue of deforestation, while 38.9% less aware of, and 59.0% less optimistic about the issue of species extinction. In addition, we found that science club attendance and broad science reading in books are the two most effective communication media for raising students awareness about the two environmental issues. In fact, every one level increase in students' awareness is found to raise their optimism by 20.4% for the issue of deforestation, and 15.0% for the issue of plant and animal extinction. Therefore raising young people environmental awareness and optimism through proper communication strategies, could be invaluable for achieving an economic development in line with our need to preserve the natural environment and ecosystem services for generations to come.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0081.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: optimization; simulated annealing; genetic algorithm; power losses; power consumption
Online: 9 May 2017 (10:45:49 CEST)
In this paper a variable’s involved in assessing the quality of a distributed generation system are reviewed, aiming to minimize the electric power losses (unused power consumption) and optimize the voltage profile. To provide this assessment, several experiments have been made to the IEEE 34-bus test case and various actual test cases with the respect of multiple DG units. The possibility and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for optimal placement and sizing of DG in distribution systems have been verified. Finally, four algorithms were trailed: simulated annealing (SA), hybrid genetic algorithm (HGA), genetic algorithm (GA) and variable neighbourhood search. The HGA algorithm was found to produce the best solution at a cost of longer processing time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: hauling operations; optimum schedule; energy consumption; CO2 emission; hauler
Online: 26 September 2016 (10:12:16 CEST)
Mass hauling operations play central roles in construction projects. They typically use many haulers that consume large amounts of energy and emit significant quantities of CO2. However, practical methods for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of such operations during project planning are lacking. This paper presents a detailed model for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of mass haulers that integrates the mass hauling plan with a set of predictive equations. The mass hauling plan is generated using a planning program such as DynaRoad in conjunction with data on the productivity of selected haulers and the amount of material to be hauled during cutting, filling, borrowing, and disposal operations. This plan is then used as input for estimating the energy consumption and CO2 emissions of the selected hauling fleet. The proposed model will help planners to assess the energy and environmental performance of mass hauling plans, and to select hauler and fleet configurations that will minimize these quantities. The model was applied in a case study, demonstrating that it can reliably predict energy consumption, CO2 emissions, and hauler productivity as functions of the hauling distance for individual haulers and entire hauling fleets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0970.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: atmospheric methane consumption; polar regions; methanotrophic bacteria; Methylocapsa; USCα group.
Online: 16 October 2023 (16:56:18 CEST)
Scavenging of atmospheric trace gases has been recognized as one of the lifestyle-defining capabilities of microorganisms in terrestrial polar ecosystems. Several metagenome-assembled genomes of as-yet-uncultivated methanotrophic bacteria, which consume atmospheric CH4 in these ecosystems, have been retrieved in cultivation-independent studies. In this study, we isolated and characterized a representative of these methanotrophs, strain D3K7, from a subarctic soil of Northern Russia. Strain D3K7 grows on methane and methanol in a wide range of temperatures, between 5 and 30°C. Weak growth was also observed on acetate. The presence of acetate in the culture medium stimulated growth at low CH4 concentrations (~100 p.p.m.v.). The finished genome sequence of strain D3K7 is 4.15 Mb in size and contains about 3700 protein-encoding genes. According to the result of phylogenomic analysis, this bacterium forms a common clade with metagenome-assembled genomes obtained from the active layer of a permafrost thaw gradient in Stordalen Mire, Abisco, Sweeden, and the mineral cryosol at Axel Heiberg Island in the Canadian high Arctic. This clade occupies a phylogenetic position in between characterized Methylocapsa methanotrophs and representatives of the as-yet-uncultivated Upland Soil Cluster Alpha (USCα). As shown by the global distribution analysis, D3K7-like methanotrophs colonize mostly northern terrestrial ecosystems, such as polar deserts, subarctic soils, permafrost environments, but also occur in boreal peatlands or high-latitude habitats.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0957.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: energy consumption; road test; energy demand; hybrid vehicle; traffic conditions
Online: 13 June 2023 (16:05:54 CEST)
In this paper, particular attention is paid to an advanced variant of the plug-in hybrid engine, known as PHEV, which combines two functionalities: the vehicle's internal combustion engine (ICEV) and the electric engine (BEV). The paper also presents the assumptions of the DEVS model, which allows for the estimation of vehicle’s energy consumption. The study described herein also presents the influence of factors such as ambient temperature and constant speed on the PHEV’s energy consumption. It has been shown that the vehicle’s range estimated based on its electronic control module (ECU) is about 20% shorter per annum on average for its year-round operation in every-day driving conditions. When analyzing the energy consumption based on the vehicle’s unit energy consumption model, attention was paid to values that are strongly correlated with the traffic volume and weather conditions affecting the moving vehicle. In addition, the authors emphasized that the estimated total energy consumption of an electric (BEV) or hybrid (PHEV) vehicle, relative to the normative values arising from the type approval test cycle, deviate from the actual values arising from real driving conditions and often vary substantially. In extreme cases, the actual range of a hybrid vehicle is 75% shorter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0455.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Chemical Engineering Keywords: photovoltaics; air-source heat pumps; self-consumption; TRNSYS; hybrid installations
Online: 17 April 2023 (10:58:53 CEST)
Nowadays Air-Source Heat Pumps (ASHP) in combination with a Photovoltaic (PV) installation are a very promising option for a necessary and urgent energy transformation in European Union (EU). It is extremely important to develop solutions that will help maximize the use of energy generated from renewable energy sources (RES). Such issues include the problem of insufficient use of generated electricity in PV on-grid microinstallations in residential buildings. This paper's aim is to analyze the results of one-year-round operation of a PV array grid-connected hybrid installation with ASHP for domestic hot water (DHW) preparation in a residential building in Cracow, Poland in the context of increasing self-consumption (SC) of PV energy. Models of systems are built and simulated in Transient System Simulation Tool 18 (TRNSYS) software. Simulations were carried out for different scenarios involving different building electricity consumption profiles, PV system capacity and specified runtime management of ASHP. The novelty of this study lies in the evaluation of the impact of a certain range of conditions on the energy performance of the system, in particular on SC. The results showed that the use of ASHP, with specified runtime management, results in an increase in monthly SC values from 7 to 18%, and annual SC values up to 13%. Also determining the appropriate size of the used PV system depending on whether it is present ASHP in the installation is crucial to increase the value of the SC parameter. Overall, this study provides valuable insights into the potential benefits of PV panels and ASHP operating together, in particular on SC values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0067.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: COVID-19; nutritional intake; rural China; food consumption; food security
Online: 6 June 2022 (08:22:25 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic introduced risks and challenges to global food and nutrition security. In this paper, we examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the nutritional intake of China's rural residents using panel data and a fixed effect model. The data were collected in 2019 and 2020 and covered nine provinces and 2,631 households in rural China. The results reveal that an increase of 100 confirmed cases in a county resulted in a 1.48% (p<0.01), 1.46% (p<0.01), 1.77% (p<0.01), and 1.23% (p<0.01) decrease in per capita intake of dietary energy, carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, respectively. Moreover, the COVID-19 pandemic only had a significant and negative effect on dietary energy intake in the low-income group at the 5% level of significance. Our study indicates that the potential insufficient nutrition situation, nutritional imbalance, and dietary imbalance of low-income rural residents should be addressed appropriately.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: burn injury; cardiac dysfunction; gene profiling; mitochondrial metabolism; oxygen consumption
Online: 23 November 2020 (13:59:47 CET)
Burn-induced cardiac dysfunction is thought to involve mitochondrial dysfunction although the mechanisms responsible are unclear. In this study, we used our established model of in vivo burn injury to understand the genetic evidence of burn-induced mitochondrial metabolism confusion by describing cardiac mitochondrial metabolism-related gene expression after burn. Cardiac tissue was collected at 24 hours after burn injury. An O2K respirometer system was utilized to measure cardiac mitochondrial function. Oxidative phosphorylation complex activities were determined using enzyme activity assays. RT Profiler PCR array was used to identify differential regulation of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism. Quantitative qPCR and Western Blotting were applied to validate differentially expressed genes. Burn-induced cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction was supported by the finding of decreased state 3 respiration and decreased mitochondrial electron transport chain activity in complex I, III, IV, and V following burn injury. Eighty-four mitochondrial metabolism-related gene profiles were measured. The mitochondrial gene profile showed that one third of genes related to mitochondrial energy and metabolism was differentially expressed. Of these 28 genes, 15 were more than 2-fold upregulated and 13 were more than 2-fold downregulated. All genes were validated using qPCR; 4 genes had a protein level which correlated with the observed change in gene expression. This study provides preliminary evidence that a large percentage of mitochondrial metabolism-related genes in cardiomyocytes were significantly affected by burn injury.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0572.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption; Food businesses; Food environments; Asia
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:23:57 CET)
Fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption benefits the health of populations, particularly those in East and Southeast Asian countries, which have undergone an unprecedented change in their food environments in the last decade. This current systematic review is the first to study determinants—facilitators, barriers, and moderators—associated with FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia. In a search of the literature, we consulted five electronic academic databases of English peer-reviewed papers published between 2010 and 2020 and found 31 studies. Results of these studies show that individuals strongly perceive FVs as being higher quality and safe and trust in their benefits, and food businesses with modernized systems have significantly fostered the consumption of FVs. A main barrier to FV consumption, however, is financial concerns, exacerbated by food businesses with FV unavailability and urbanization-induced FV price inflation and dietary patterns. Further hindering FV consumption are demographics and shopping patterns. The fragmented and conditionalized findings of the 31 studies require standardized FV consumption measurements. Unlike the impact of FV consumption determinants and their interactions in Western countries, those in Asia, particularly countries other than China, have been substantially understudied. Therefore, as the research gaps in studies of food environments and FV consumption in East and Southeast Asia urgently demand scholarly attention, this paper proposes recommendations that favour the consumption of FVs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0353.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: organic food; sustainable consumption; visualization; personal shopping data; reflection; feedback
Online: 31 July 2019 (11:11:50 CEST)
Although food retailers have embraced organic certified food products as a way to reduce their environmental loading, organic sales only make up a small proportion of total sales worldwide. Most consumers have positive attitudes towards organic food, but attitudes are not reflected in behaviour. This article addresses consumers’ attitude-behaviour gap regarding their purchase organic food and reports on how visualization of personal shopping data may encourage them to buy more organic food. Through the design of the visualization tool, the EcoPanel, and through an empirical study of its use, we provide evidence on the potential of the tool to promote sustainable food shopping practices. Sixty-five users tested the EcoPanel for five months and interviews were made with ten of these. The test users increased their purchase of organic food with 23%. The informants used the EcoPanel to reflect on their shopping behaviour and to increase their organic shopping. We conclude that the visualization of food purchases stimulates critical reflection and the formation of new food shopping practices. This implies that food retailers may increase sales of organic food through using a visualization tool available for their customers. In this way these retailers may decrease their environmental impact.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Energy Consumption, Saudi Arabia, Renewable Energy, Building Envelope, Energy Efficiency
Online: 28 June 2019 (12:37:43 CEST)
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), residential buildings’ energy consumption accounts for almost 50% of the building stock electricity consumption. The electricity generation consumes over one-third of the daily oil production. KSA was ranked as one of the highest countries in fossil fuel consumption per capita in 2014. Moreover, the KSA’s economy heavily relies on fossil fuel sources, namely oil reservoirs, whereby depletion will negatively affect the future development of the country. The total electricity consumption is annually growing by approximately 5-8%, which would lead to identical oil consumption to oil production in 2035. Currently, the KSA government is concerned to generate more renewable energy using large renewable energy plants. The government is investing in energy generation through renewable sources, by financing large scale photovoltaic farms to stop an economic crisis that may occur in 2035. The existing building stock consumes around 80% of the total current Saudi electricity that is generated. According to the Saudi energy efficiency report, the primary energy consumption per capita is over three times higher than the world average. Therefore, the residential buildings need further assessment as to their current energy consumption. This research used a survey to explore current user behaviour in residential buildings energy performance in the city of Jeddah, KSA. The findings of the survey showed: • The buildings thermal properties were found to be poorly designed • The majority of users within the buildings prefer a room temperature of below 24 °C, which requires a massive amount of cooling • Due to the climate conditions and the cultural aspects of KSA, housing units are occupied for more than 18 hours per day • An increase in user awareness has helped to slightly improve residential buildings energy efficiency Knowing the current high energy consumption sources and causes and being able to define available opportunities for further developments on building thermal properties enhancements and how to increase user awareness to reach self-sustaining buildings is essential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS); oxygen consumption; hemoglobin; myoglobin; skeletal muscle
Online: 8 April 2019 (11:28:43 CEST)
NIRS uses the relative absorption of light at 850nm and 760nm, to determine skeletal muscle oxygen saturation. Previous studies have used the ratio of both signals to report muscle oxygen saturation. Purpose: To evaluate the different approaches used to represent muscle oxygen saturation, and to evaluate the pulsations of the O2heme and Heme signal. Method: Twelve participants, ages 20-29years were tested on the forearm flexor muscles using continuous wave NIRS at rest. Measurements were taken during 2-3mins rest, during physiological calibration (5-minuts Ischemia) and during reperfusion. Results: There was a significant difference in pulse size between O2heme and Heme signal at the three locations (p < 0.05). Resting oxygen saturation was 58.8+9.2%, 69.6+3.9%, and 89.2+6.9% when calibrated using O2heme, TSI, and Heme, respectively. Conclusion: The difference in magnitude of O2heme and Heme pulse with each heartbeat might suggest different anatomical locations of these signals, which propose calibrating with just one of the signals instead of the ratio of both. Calculations of physiological calibration must account for increased blood volume in the tissue, because of the changes in blood volume which appear to be primarily from the O2heme signal. Resting oxygen levels calibrated with Heme agrees with theoretical oxygen saturation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: coffee shop, single origin, connoisseur consumers, sustainable consumption, dynamics capabilities
Online: 17 December 2018 (09:33:49 CET)
Sustainable consumption became the community’s attention as the respond of worrying consumption growth direction that tends to excessively exploit nature without considering the continuity of the next generation. Take into account the growing coffee consumption in Indonesia, this article tries to prove whether the connoisseur consumers (CCs) are capable to mediate dynamics capabilities (DCs) of single origin coffee shops (SOCSs) and to encourage the consumption sustainability. In-depth interview to 30 SOCS managers, 60 baristas and 450 consumers, it is found that CCs are capable of supporting the business continuity of SOCSs because they are loyal consumers with the contribution of more than 20% from the total consumers. Correlation testing between connoisseurs’ attributes and the number of visits also shows positive value. It means there is a significant relationship. In addition, related to the sustainability attribute, the existence of CCs has encouraged the practice of consumption sustainability. At the same time, CCs are capable to moderate SOCSs to improve sensing, seizing, and transforming shop management to put up with the competition. Based on the above findings, CCs are moderating SOCSs in improving their DCs to be more potential in improving the sustainable consumption of coffee commodity in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Face milling; Cost saving; Power consumption; Surface quality; Tool wear
Online: 6 December 2018 (14:09:34 CET)
Face milling is a well known commercial process highly used in heavy industries that consumes high amount of power. Besides power issue, modern manufacturing industries are aiming for per part cost reduction keeping the product quality unimpaired. Unexpectedly if the part is rejected in any stage of manufacturing, the cost of manufacturing dramatically increases. Major cause of part rejection is excessive tool wear that imparts poor surface profile or catastrophic tool failure that causes adherence of broken tool debris onto machined surface. Furthermore, the tool wear is associated with sliding distance (frictional distance) and the tool life quantifies the cost of tools. As such, from the perspective of manufacturing industries it is imperative to optimize the surface quality parameter, cost of part, power consumption, and material removal – this is exactly what is accomplished here. By this work, it is possible to conserve power consumption, produce parts with lower cost, manufacture with uncompromising surface quality and enhanced material removal rate. Moreover, as intermediate factors of interest, the influences of sliding distance, tool life and tool flank wear on the overall machining performance are evaluated. The multi-objective optimization by Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) revealed that for improved product performance and fast manufacturing (case 1) optimum results are: feed per tooth fz = 0.25 mm/tooth, cutting speed vc = 392.6 m/min and cutting length l = 0.5 mm; for resource conservation (case 2) the optimum results are: feed per tooth fz = 0.125 mm/tooth, cutting speed vc = 392.6 m/min, cutting length l = 0.5 mm.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0547.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: smart antenna systems; MANET; MAC; energy consumption; beamforming; round robin
Online: 24 October 2018 (05:03:20 CEST)
The use of Smart Antenna Systems (SAS) in pervasive environments such the Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANET) has been promoted as the best choice to improve Spatial Division Multiple Access (SDMA) and throughput. Although directional communications are expected to provide great advantages in terms of network performance, directional MAC (Medium Access Control) protocols introduce several issues. One of the most known problems in this context is represented by the fact that, attempting to solve or at least mitigate the problems introduced by these kinds of antennas especially at MAC layer, a large amount of energy consumption is achieved ; for example, due to excessive retransmissions introduced by very frequently issue such as deafness and handoff. The expedients proposed in order to reduce these drawbacks attempting to limit beamforming time of nodes in cooperation with a Round-Robin scheduling, can grant high performance in terms of fairness and throughput. However the overall energy consumption in the network is not efficent due to the static approach. In view of this, we propose an Adaptive Beamforming Time with Round-Robin MAC providing for a dynamic assignment of the beamforming time with the purpose to limit the waste of energy of nodes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0358.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: energy diagnosis; energy efficiency; UNAM; IER; energy consumption and demand
Online: 19 July 2018 (11:36:57 CEST)
An energy diagnosis is a tool used to seek the improvement of energy saving measures, environmental conservation and energy efficiency, making relevant its implementation in any kind of buildings. For this article, an energy diagnosis of third level was carried out in buildings of the Instituto de Energías Renovables (IER) from Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM) through survey and census of the 36 buildings in the IER, in order to characterize current patterns of energy consumption and demand, and generating specific strategies towards savings and energy efficiency, such as indicators and corrective proposals within and non-financial investment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0051.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: residential electricity consumption; income; piecewise linear model; China; robust tests
Online: 14 October 2016 (09:53:13 CEST)
There are many uncertainties and risks in residential electricity consumption during the economic development. Knowledge of the relationship between residential electricity consumption and its key determinant—income—are important to the sustainable development of electric power industry. Using panel data from 30 provinces for the 1995-2012 period, this study investigates how residential electricity consumption changes as incomes increase in China. Previous studies typically used linear or quadratic double-logarithmic models imposing ex ante restrictions on the indistinct relationship between residential electricity consumption and income. Contrary to those models, we employed a reduced piecewise linear model that is self-adaptive and highly flexible and circumvents the problem of “prior restrictions.” Robust tests of different segment specifications and regression methods are performed to ensure the conservatism of the research. The results provide strong evidence that the income elasticity was approximately one, and it remained stable throughout the estimation period. The income threshold at which residential electricity consumption automatically remains stable or slows has not been reached. To ensure the sustainable development of the electric power industry, introducing higher energy efficiency standards for electrical appliances and improving income levels are vital. And government should emphasize electricity conservation in industrial sector rather than in residential sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0121.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: lagged consumption; dynamic function; water management; average price; marginal price
Online: 12 August 2016 (09:29:43 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence to water policy-makers and the evaluation of the application of economic instruments such as price and other factors affecting demand, they contribute to improved decision-making around water management in the Biosphere Reserve El Vizcaino, Mexico. It was estimated a dynamic function with average price specification and other price perception specification. The findings show that consumers react to average price perceived and not the marginal price; long-run price elasticity is higher than short-run and both elasticities are inelastic. Elasticities inelastic with rising prices generate high incomes to improve water planning, supply quality and expand service coverage. The results suggest that the level of knowledge of users on the price is key to take into account restructuring rates in a scenario where the consumer has asymmetric information and themselves achieve goals of economic efficiency, social equity and environmental sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2048.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: reverse osmosis; electrodialysis; hybrid process; energy consumption; brine management; zero liquid discharge; reverse osmosis; electrodialysis; hybrid process; energy consumption; brine management; zero liquid discharge
Online: 31 July 2023 (10:13:43 CEST)
Hybrid reverse osmosis electrodialysis systems make it possible to obtain solutions with a higher concentration of components compared to single electrodialysis treatment, i.e. more efficient separation of brine and pure water. The article proposes experimental and pilot-industrial studies of a hybrid membrane system operation using industrial wastewater for the disposal of liquid waste from an ion-exchange chemical-desalting water treatment plant of a thermal power plant, followed by a calculation of economic efficiency and an analysis of the environmental feasibility of their use. The developed technological scheme offers separate processing of acidic and alkaline waste regeneration solutions using calcium carbonate reagent and desalination on baromembrane and electromembrane units to obtain clean water and dry residue. The hybrid system includes a booster filter press and an evaporator. The hybrid system makes it possible to provide a thermal power plant with a "zero discharge" with a minimum consumption of reagents and electricity, as well as return all water from wastewater to the power plant cycle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0630.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Integrated energy systems (IES); Buildings, Optimization; Indoor somatosensory comfort; PV consumption
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:04:47 CET)
Building energy consumption is the main urban energy consumption component, which mainly serves people-centered work and living energy demands. Based on the physical requirements of humans in urban buildings and to determine the comfortable body temperature in each season, this paper establishes a sizing optimization model of building-type integrated energy systems (IES), where the cooling and heating loads required to maintain indoor somatosensory body comfortable temperature are calculated. Depending on the external energy price, internal power balance and other constraints, the model develops an optimal sizing and capacity panning method of energy conversion and storage unit in a building-type IES with PV generation. The operating principle is described as follows: the PV generation is fully consumed, a gas engine satisfies the electric and thermal base load requirements, while the power system and a heat pump supply the remaining loads. The gas price, peak-valley electricity price gap and heat-topower ratio of gas engines are considered as important factors for the overall techno-economic analysis. The developed method is applied to optimize the economic performance of building-type IES and verified by practical examples. The results show that using the complementary characteristics of different energy conversion units is important to the overall IES cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1476.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: hotel energy consumption, data envelopment analysis, hotel benchmarking, building energy efficiency
Online: 21 September 2023 (11:30:58 CEST)
The benchmarking of hotel energy use comprehensively identifies the controllable and uncontrollable factors affecting energy performance, including building characteristics, management strategies, operations, and maintenance systems. Other factors include climatic conditions, floor areas, operating hours, occupancy rates, and guest populations. A benchmarking study on energy consumption patterns in significant hotels (each with less than 100 rooms and an average staff strength of 40 employees), situated in the university town of Nsukka (longitude 70 23' E, latitude 60 52' N), Nigeria, was performed using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) methodology. DEA, a linear programming technique that measures the relative performances of units, was chosen as a benchmarking methodology due to its ability to handle multiple inputs and outputs. Following a correlation test, energy use intensity, diesel consumption, and the number of employees were selected as the analysis inputs, while the occupancy rate was chosen as the output variable. Data on these variables spanning 12 months were collected using questionnaires, interviews, site visits, and oral conversations with hotel managers to ensure validity. Grid-supplied electricity accounted for most of the hotels' energy needs, followed by diesel used in generators. More than 70% of the electricity use was for HVAC. From the DEA, Hotel 3 (DMU H3) had a technical efficiency score of 1, whereas adjustments were recommended for improving the efficiency scores of the other hotels, which were deemed inefficient. DMU H7 had the lowest efficiency score (0.474) and the highest identified savings for electricity and diesel. The analysis also revealed that occupancy rates were generally low in the months of June and July, coinciding with the high rainfall season with its accompanying decline in outdoor activities. Consistent with this, electricity consumption was highest in the Christmas and Easter holiday months of December, January, and April following increased travel-related activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2004.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: battery energy storage; energy management; household consumption; solar panels; system dynamics
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:18:39 CEST)
Increasing of renewable energy share in total energy production is a direction that leads towards European Union’s aims of carbon neutrality by 2050, as well as increases energy self-sufficiency and independence. Some of the main challenges to increase renewable energy share while providing efficient and secure energy supply are related to optimization and profitability of de-centralized energy production systems. Integration of energy storage systems in addition to decentralized renewable energy production, for example, by solar panels, leads to more effective electricity supply and smart energy solutions. The modelling of such complex dynamic system can be performed using system dynamics method. The aim of the article is to forecast the practice of electricity storage in Latvia in the coming decades. A system dynamics model predicting the implementation of battery storage in private households was created for the case study of Latvia. Modelling results reveal that under the right conditions for electricity price, investment costs and with the right policy interventions battery storage technologies combined with PV panels have high potential for utilization in household sector. Model results show that in baseline scenario with no additional policies up 21 422 households or 10.8 % of Latvian households could have combined PV and battery system installed in 2050. Moderate subsidy policy can help to increase this number up to 25 118.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0275.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: power consumption; trapezoidal profile; parabolic profile; S-Curve; embedded systems; microcontroller
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:01:02 CEST)
Currently, a wide variety of velocity profiles are used in motion control. Thus, this paper compares the energy consumption of three parabolic, trapezoidal, and S-curve profiles. We studied the case of using embedded systems since they are a powerful solution to monitor and coordinate the movement of devices and machinery in various industries combined with motion control applications. These integrated systems allow precise and efficient control of motors and actuators through control and feedback algorithms. In addition, we propose an alternative methodology for implementing motion controllers using an Advanced RISC Machine (ARM) microcontroller, which computes the trajectory and the control action in real-time. We conducted an experiment using a linear plant composed of a direct current (DC) motor coupled to an endless screw where a carriage is mounted that can move mechanically along a rail a distance of 1.16m. In addition, a 4096 pulses per revolution (PPR) encoder is connected to the motor to measure position and angular velocity, which compute the distance the carriage has moved in meters. A current sensor is used to assess the energy consumption, and 40 tests for each profile were carried out to compare the energy consumption for the three-motion profiles considering cases with and without load on the carriage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1883.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Natural gas engine; Turbulent jet ignition; Pre-chamber; Scavenging; Fuel consumption
Online: 28 June 2023 (02:17:10 CEST)
The pre-chamber technologies can improve the ignition performance of IC engines by more than two orders in magnitude and thereby substantial economic benefits. Compared with the common pre-chamber, a plug-and-play passive scheme is suitable for quick retrofit, which is getting more attention from the automobile industry. Good scavenging is the precondition for improving turbulent jet ignition performance for a passive pre-chamber. Therefore, detailed evaluations of the scavenging process and turbulent jet ignition deserve investigations for new pre-chamber schemes. In this paper, the effects of design parameters on ignition processes of plug-and-play passive pre-chamber were numerically studied, allowing for the lateral angle, orifice diameter, and vertical angle design. Seven pre-chamber schemes were evaluated, and four optimal ones were selected for bench tests. The characteristics of the scavenging process, turbulent jet ignition, and main-chamber combustion were investigated and analyzed. The results show that allowing for the trade-off between ignition energy and scavenging efficiency, the volume ratio of the pre-chamber to clearance is recommended to be 0.2~0.7%, and the corresponding area-volume ratio is 0.003~0.006 mm-1. Compared with the original natural gas engine, the pre-chamber retrofit can save up to 13.2% fuel consumption, which presents a significant improvement in fuel economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1847.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: dairy product consumption; mini-mental state examination score; lower cognitive function
Online: 27 June 2023 (04:58:23 CEST)
Diet modification may be a potential contributor in the prevention of age-related cognitive decline. The association between dairy product consumption and cognitive function remains unknown in older people. We investigated whether cheese intake is associated with lower cognitive function (LCF) in community-dwelling older adults. This cross-sectional study included 1503 adults aged over 65 years. Analyzed data were obtained from face-to-face interviews and functional ability measurement. Cognitive function was assessed using mini-mental state examination (MMSE), and a score ≤ 23 was defined as LCF. The prevalence of LCF was 4.6% and this group had smaller calf circumference, slower usual walking speed, and more frequent history of anemia than subjects with MMSE scores ≥ 24. After adjusting for confounding factors, logistic regression analysis revealed cheese intake (odds ratio (OR) = 0.404, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.198-0.824), age (OR = 1.170, 95% CI = 1.089-1.256), usual walking speed (OR = 0.171, 95% CI = 0.062-0.472) and calf circumference (OR = 0.823, 95% CI = 0.747-0.908) as significant factors associated with LCF. Although the present study was an analysis of cross-sectional data of Japanese community-dwelling older adults, the results suggest that cheese intake is inversely associated with LCF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1996.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: collaborative consumption; Peer-to-Peer accommodation platforms; motivations; sustainability; tourism industry
Online: 30 May 2023 (05:46:20 CEST)
This research aims to contribute to the growing body of knowledge of Collaborative Consumption (CC) by exploring the motivations that influence the use of Peer-to-Peer (P2P) accommodation platforms from the demand side. There has been a significant increase in interest in sustainable choices regarding P2P accommodation in recent years. To address this gap and contribute to the collaborative consumption and P2P accommodation theory a quantitative study was conducted through a survey yielding 235 responses from both users and non-users of P2P platforms. The findings of this study suggest that P2P accommodation platform usage is influenced by multiple motivations, including sustainability, belonging, economic benefits, and convenience. Interestingly, the study also found that individuals with higher levels of academic qualifications are more likely to adopt this mode of consumption. Moreover, the study is the first of its kind to quantitatively address this topic and, therefore, contributes significantly to the field of collaborative consumption and P2P accommodation theory. By understanding the motivations of P2P platform users, policymakers and practitioners can develop targeted strategies to promote sustainable choices in this sector. Overall, this study provides a useful framework for future research on collaborative consumption and sustainable P2P accommodation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0283.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: low power consumption; Internet of Things; Intelligent manhole cover; attitude solving
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:12:11 CEST)
This paper addresses the difficulty of balancing real-time response and low power consumption in intelligent manhole cover application scenarios. It proposes a method to distinguish normal and abnormal events by segmenting the boundary where the acceleration of the intelligent manhole cover deviates from a set threshold and lasts for a certain period, based on the difference in vibration patterns of the intelligent manhole cover when a normal event and an abnormal event occur. This paper uses digital output motion sensor data autonomous data fusion to implement the pattern mentioned above recognition algorithm, which reduces the MCU computing and working time and the overall power consumption of the system while meeting the real-time response requirements. The test results demonstrate that the method has a high rate of anomaly recognition accuracy. The method ensures the system's real-time response capability, and the actual low power consumption test demonstrates that the device can operate continuously for 9.5 years. The low power consumption index exceeds the requirements of the existing national standard, thereby resolving the issue that it is challenging to balance intelligent manhole cover abnormality recognition and low power consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0106.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Energy Consumption; Natural Ventilation; Dwelling Design; CFD Simulation; Hot Dry Climate.
Online: 5 January 2023 (11:02:08 CET)
This paper evaluates an architectural design using an Energy Consumption consideration of Natural Ventilation in a hot dry climate (Khartoum State), at dwellings design applied. Method was used analysis of Autodesk IEVS software natural ventilation and energy consumption simulation. It resulted that to cooling, by natural ventilation in dwelling design used to get indoor temperature at the comfortable level during the summer. The Best-Case Situation of natural ventilation with consider of energy saving Based on the CFD simulation analysis, the performance of internal air velocity is approximately 0.7m/s. The wind velocity starts to slow down towards the rear of the apartment spaces. Approximately 95% of the internal areas have average air velocity between 0.43 m/s to 0.9 m/s. Internal Air flow pattern single floor house plan at Khartoum (Alazhari City); showing the internal air velocity of 0.7m/s near the window opening positions with the wind directions in the details and pressure of the air as worst-case situation, with velocity and temperature of the air with average 22o as a best-case situation. during a year. Architectural design process in the urban area of Alazhari City for dwelling towards to saving energy was applied and determined into an urban planning neighbourhood at Khartoum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0072.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Sustainable consumption; consumer behaviour; fast fashion; millennial; theory of reasoned actions
Online: 7 October 2022 (07:33:51 CEST)
Previous studies implied the different behavioral intention formation of a specific object for individuals in different age groups, but few research to Chinese consumers’ sustainable fast fashion behaviour were found considering the enormous amount of consumption and waste of fast fashion products in China. Meanwhile, as a fast developing country, it might be insufficient to conduct research ignoring the consequences of different education level and growing environment among different generations. Thus, to generate in-depth and heuristic Chinese consumers information, this study developed proposed theoretical framework (TORA) based on research by Fishbein and Ajzen (1975), while the validity among Chinese consumers was tested as well. Following the TORA model, this study aims to investigate if consumers’ age will moderate the relationship between attitude and intention, and the relationship between subjective norms to behavioral intention. Through structural equation modelling in AMOS, it was found that the model has a well fit to large sample of Chinese consumers, while the moderation effect of age was not significant in the whole sample. Further hierarchical regression analysis conducted in SPSS and Process was able to locate the moderation effect of if divide the consumers into groups by age. Which is, age is significantly and positively moderating the path subjective norms to intention in younger generation (18-25), but significantly positive moderating attitude to intention in consumers aged 26-39. Implications in marketing and to policy makers are discussed at the end of this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0258.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Mendelian randomisation; Alcohol Consumption; UK Biobank; Phenome wide association studies; Biomarker
Online: 19 May 2022 (09:09:35 CEST)
Background: Alcohol consumption is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and liver disease. The biological mechanisms are still largely unclear. Here, we aimed to use an agnostic approach to identify phenotypes mediating the effect of alcohol on various diseases. Methods: We performed an agnostic association analysis between alcohol consumption (red, and white wine, beer/cider, fortified wine, and spirits) with over 7,800 phenotypes from the UK biobank comprising 223,728 participants. We performed Mendelian randomisation analysis to infer causality. We additionally performed a Phenome-wide association analysis and a mediation analysis between alcohol consumption as exposure, traits in causal relationship with alcohol consumption as mediators, and various diseases as outcome. Results: Of 45 traits in association with alcohol consumption, 20 were in causal relationship with alcohol consumption. Gamma glutamyltransferase (GGT; β=9.44; CI,5.94-12.93; Pfdr=9.04×10-7), mean sphered cell volume (β=0.189; CI,0.11-0.27; Pfdr=1.00×10-4), mean corpuscular volume (β=0.271; CI,0.19-0.35; Pfdr=7.09×10-10) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (β=0.278; CI,0.19-0.36; Pfdr=1.60×10-6) showed the strongest causal relationships. We also identified GGT and physical activity as mediators causing liver cirrhosis and alcohol dependence. Conclusion: Our study provides evidence of causality between alcohol consumption and 20 traits and a mediation effect for physical activity on health consequences of alcohol consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Soil bulk density; Water consumption; Rotary tillage; Photosynthetic rate; Field capacity
Online: 12 April 2022 (10:41:57 CEST)
Rotary tillage is a main management tillage practices and widely applied in the North China Plain. However, the long term rotary tillage (depth of 20 cm) results in soil compaction and plow pan formation, which reduces water use efficiency and nutrient uptake, and then impedes the yield increase. In this study, a 3-year field experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different depths of tillage on soil bulk density, field capacity, water use, photosynthetic rate, nutrients and maize yields in the North China Plain. Three depths of tillage (D20, depth of 20 cm; D25, depth of 25 cm; D30, depth of 30 cm) were assessed. D25 and D30 significantly reduced soil bulk density and improved field capacity in 10-20 and 20-30 cm soil layer, compared to D20. Soil water consumption for D25 was significantly higher 10.12% and 6.61% than that for D20 and D30, respectively. Photosynthetic rate for D25 significantly improved than that for D20 and D30. Total nitrogen in 0-20cm soil layer decreased with the depths of tillage. The maize yields for D25 significantly increased by 20.92% and 21.56% compared to that for D20 and D30, respectively. Structural equation models showed that the total effects of tillage, total nitrogen, photosynthesis and soil water consumption on yields were 0.019, -0.628, 0.121, and 0.895 (path coefficients λ), respectively. The results demonstrated that D25 could improve maize yields, water use efficiency, photosynthetic rate by improving soil water consumption. Depth of 25 cm is optimal tillage practice for the maize production in the North China Plain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0172.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: PSNP; household food consumption; household dietary diversity; random effect; instrumental variable
Online: 11 October 2021 (17:15:51 CEST)
This study empirically investigates the effect of productive safety net programme (PSNP) on household food consumption and dietary diversity in Ethiopia. The study applied random effects with instrumental variable to estimate the effect of PSNP membership. The result of the study indicates that though PSNP membership improves household food consumption, it reduces household dietary diversity score. Household food consumption and dietary diversity are also significantly influenced by sex, age, education status of household head, household size, livestock ownership, distance to the nearest market and participation in non-farm activities. The findings of this study suggest that PSNP membership should be reinforced by building household awareness of the benefits of consuming a variety of foods. In addition, PSNP membership should be designed to endow the households to accumulate essential assets, especially livestock.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0313.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: sustainability; solar energy; photovoltaic energy; renewable energy; self-consumption; rooftop pv
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:29:01 CEST)
This article has been developed to assess the economic feasibility of a roof-top photovoltaic installation of industrial self-consumption. Numerical models that enable an interested person to obtain the main expected parameters will be generated. To do this, a calculation methodology will be generated through which the reader, knowing the location of the facility and dimensions of the roof, will be able to calculate the maximum installable power, the main parameters related to production, the cost of the installation, and the LCOE of the plant. The use of actual costs will be facilitated in case they are known, but it will remain possible to apply the costs of the major equipment (modules, inverter, and structure) considered throughout the article. This developed calculation methodology will also allow a quick comparison of the forecasts of production, CAPEX, and LCOE of plants designed with different inclinations and different types of modules. Consequently, it will be especially useful for decision-making before developing the plant's basic engineering. Moreover, the calculations used for modeling the LCOE will be analyzed in depth. This analysis will allow evaluating how the different technical variables affect the profitability of a photovoltaic installation, such as the selected tilt, the location, the module's technology, or the available area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0138.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Energy consumption; BRICS; GM (1, 1); Fractional-order; GREY; Forecasting accuracy
Online: 5 April 2021 (13:51:38 CEST)
Brazil, Russia, China, India, and the Republic of South Africa (BRICS) represent developing economies facing different energy and economic development challenges. The current study aims to forecast energy consumption in BRICS at aggregate and disaggregate levels using the annual time series data set from 1992 to 2019 and to compare results obtained from a set of models. The time-series data are from the British Petroleum (BP-2019) Statistical Review of World Energy. The forecasting methodology bases on a novel Fractional-order Grey Model (FGM) with different order parameters. This study contributes to the literature by comparing the forecasting accuracy and the forecasting ability of the FGM(1,1) with traditional ones, like standard GM(1,1) and ARIMA(1,1,1) models. Also, it illustrates the view of BRICS's nexus of energy consumption at aggregate and disaggregates levels using the latest available data set, which will provide a reliable and broader perspective. The Diebold-Mariano test results confirmed the equal predictive ability of FGM(1,1) for a specific range of order parameters and the ARIMA(1,1,1) model and the usefulness of both approaches for energy consumption efficient forecasting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0763.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: human population dynamics; wealth distribution; nonlocal consumption of resources; spatial patterns
Online: 30 December 2020 (16:35:43 CET)
Dynamics of human populations can be affected by various socio-economic factors through their influence on the natality and mortality rates, and on the migration intensity and directions. In this work we study an economic-demographic model which takes into account the dependence of the wealth production rate on the available resources. In the case of nonlocal consumption of resources the homogeneous in space wealth-population distribution is replaced by a periodic in space distribution for which the total wealth increases. For the global consumption of resources, if the wealth redistribution is small enough, then the homogeneous distribution is replaced by a heterogeneous one with a single wealth accumulation center. Thus, economic and demographic characteristics of nonlocal and global economies can be quite different in comparison with the local economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; behavioral change; public health; Sars-CoV-2; alcohol consumption
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:09:18 CEST)
(1) Background: A global pandemic due to COVID-19 emerged in November 2019 and hit France in early March 2020. It not only resulted in a loss of lives but also in very strict confinement measures. The objective of this study was to understand what the determinants of the change in participants’ behavior and mental state were during the confinement. (2) Methods: An online survey was launched on April 23rd, 2020, and closed on May 7th, 2020. The final sample included 1454 participants from 24 to 65 years old. Descriptive and multivariate analyses were then performed. (3) Results: 28.7% reported having a more balanced diet, against 17.1% with a less balanced diet. 22.7% of respondents reported an increased alcohol consumption, as opposed to only 12.2% declaring a decrease and 11.2% of respondents increased their tobacco consumption, while 6.3% decreased it. 50.6% of the participants reported being more depressed, stressed, or irritable since the beginning of the lockdown. Confinement had a negative effect on every behavior studied in this survey, except for nutrition. We also found that negative mental state changes were strongly associated with nutrition, sleep, physical activity, and alcohol consumption changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: renewable energy; energy consumption; air pollution; spatial dubin model; spatial analysis
Online: 9 July 2020 (06:00:31 CEST)
The rapid development of China's economy has led to a rapid increase in energy production and use. Among them, the excessive consumption of coal in fossil energy consumption is the leading cause of air pollution in China. This paper incorporates renewable energy innovation, fossil energy consumption and air pollution into a unified analysis framework, and uses spatial measurement models to investigate the spatial effects of renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption on air pollution in China, and decomposes the total impact into direct and indirect effects. influences. The empirical results show that China's air pollution, renewable energy green innovation and fossil energy consumption are extremely uneven in geographical space, generally showing the characteristics of high in the east and low in the west, and showing a strong spatial aggregation phenomenon. Fossil energy consumption will lead to increased air pollution, and the replacement of fossil fuels with clean and renewable energy is an important means of controlling pollution emissions. The direct and indirect effects of renewable energy green innovation on air pollution are significantly negative, indicating that renewable energy green innovation not only suppresses local air pollution, but also suppresses air pollution in neighboring areas. The consumption of fossil energy will significantly increase the local air pollution, and the impact on the SO2 and Dust&Smoke pollution in the adjacent area is not very obvious. It is recommended to strengthen investment in renewable energy green innovation, reduce the proportion of traditional fossil energy consumption, and pay attention to the spatial connection and spillover of renewable energy green innovation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0151.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ecological footprint; biocapacity; resource consumption; grazing land; carbon emission; renewable energy
Online: 9 July 2018 (14:05:23 CEST)
Urbanization and industrialization processes in Mongolia have been significant and rapid for the last half-century. During this period, changes in political and economic systems, growth in the population, and the occasional harsh climate conditions were subject to fluctuations in the natural resource usage. The total Ecological Footprint (EF) in Mongolia has increased from 6.8 million global hectares (gha) in 1961 to 14.6 million gha in 2012. However, Biocapacity (BC) has decreased from 50.6 million gha in 1961 to 39.0 million gha in 2012. The study shows that grazing land Footprint and carbon uptake land Footprint are the two major contributors of the recent intensified use of biological resources. To ensure stable economic development and sustainable use of natural resources, environmental planning is required to consider both the population’s pressure on the environment and the ecosystem’s regeneration capacity, simultaneously. We have proposed a few possible strategies for sustainable utilization of grazing land Footprint and carbon Footprint. For grazing land Footprint, efficient management of both herding practice and number of animals should be considered. In case of carbon Footprint, it is estimated that with the improved combustion efficiencies of coal-based power plants and the maximum use of renewable energy, carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Mongolia can be reduced up to 30% compared to the base line business as usual case in 2030.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0391.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: acoustic communication; energy consumption; smart routing protocols; UWSN MAC; underwater mobility
Online: 28 May 2018 (09:02:31 CEST)
Underwater wireless sensor networks (UWSN) have recently been proposed as a way to monitor and explore the water depths' environments. Efficiently delivering the data is still a challenging problem in these networks because of the weaknesses in the acoustic transmission. To tackle such a problem, we propose a novel algorithm provides controlling mechanisms for critical long-term data forwarding underwater sensor networks, called Hop by Hop Power-Efficient Routing Protocol (Hn-PERP). The proposed Hn-PERP is a centralized full-control model that enhances the network's throughput and energy efficiency by a set of solutions depend on power monitoring in UWSN nodes. In particular, the model provides a guaranteed mechanism for scheduling and processing data transmission based on number of nodes, hops between the nodes, energy level and congestion within each node to minimize energy levels or power consumption by avoiding disconnected probability for any node, which in turn maximizing the network lifetime. Simulation results show that our proposed model is consistent with energy level and congestion, and is more accurate for enabling routing and data transmission. Therefore, the data packet delivery ratio and overall throughput also achieves robust scenarios of very sparse or/and weak networks, to keep on Performance stability in UWSN via adjusting hop-by-hop delay and energy consumption during packages delivery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1400.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: hierarchical forecasting; short time series; local approach; global approach; household gas consumption
Online: 21 September 2023 (05:39:44 CEST)
This study presents a novel approach for predicting hierarchical short time series. In this article, our objective was to formulate long-term forecasts for household natural gas consumption by considering the hierarchical structure of territorial units within a country's administrative divisions. For this purpose, we utilized natural gas consumption data from Poland. The length of the time series was an important determinant of the data set. We contrast global techniques, which employ a uniform method across all time series, with local methods that fit a distinct method for each time series. Furthermore, we compare the conventional statistical approach with a machine learning (ML) approach. Based on our analyses, we devised forecasting methods for short time series that exhibit exceptional performance. We have demonstrated that global models provide better forecasts than local models. Among ML models, neural networks yielded the best results, with the MLP network achieving comparable performance to the LSTM network while requiring significantly less computational time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Data Analyzing; energy consumption; thermal comfort; inclusion; exclusion criteria; Delphi method
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:45:39 CEST)
This paper evaluates norms and assesses the level of knowledge in air conditioning project management within the construction industry. A total of 25 questions were distributed to multiple candidates, who were filtered based on pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-nine candidates were ultimately approved to participate in the survey. The questions were designed to address five hypotheses, with each set of five questions corresponding to one hypothesis. The results were obtained after pre-processing the data using Matlab software. The data was pre-processed using Matlab software, and the results were analyzed using the Delphi method. The analysis revealed that only two hypotheses were approved: No matter whether there are nationalized safety rules or not, the impact of data sciences and smart technologies, including air conditioning management systems, is critical for human life in the building business.