ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0208.v2
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Cognitive & Experimental Psychology Keywords: sleep; memory; consolidation; napping; fatigue
Online: 14 December 2021 (10:40:37 CET)
Understanding the complex relationship between sleep and memory is a major challenge in neuroscience. Thousands of studies on memory consolidation in humans suggest that sleep triggers offline memory processes, resulting in less forgetting of declarative memory and performance stabilization in non-declarative memory. However, an increasing number of contradictory findings reveal potential issues with how research is conducted in this field and call into question the reliability and interpretation of the results. In this consensus paper, we describe four sets of prevalent methodological pitfalls in human sleep and memory research: (i) non-optimal experimental designs, (ii) task complexity, (iii) fatigue effects in repetitive tasks, and (iv) inappropriate data analysis practices. We then offer solutions to each of these pitfalls. We believe that implementing these solutions in future research of sleep and memory will lead to more reliable results and significantly advance our understanding in this field.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0075.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: nap; sleep; motor adaptation; learning; consolidation
Online: 6 May 2022 (10:36:15 CEST)
Daytime napping offers benefits for motor memory learning and is used as habitual countermeasure to improve daytime functioning. A single napping is shown to ameliorate motor memory learning, although the effect of consecutive napping on motor memory consolidation remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the effect of daytime napping over multiple days on motor memory learning. Twenty university students were divided into the napping group and no-nap (awake) group. Napping group performed motor adaption tasks before and after napping for three consecutive days, whereas no-nap group performed the task on the similar time schedule as the napping group. In addition, a subsequent retest was conducted one week after the end of the intervention. The speed to complete the task of the napping group was significantly shorter than that of the awake group in the retention test. No significant difference was confirmed for trajectory length to complete the task. Thus, consecutive napping may facilitate motor learning and motor memory consolidation in the long term.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0181.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: ethylsilicates; consolidation; nanoparticles; physico-chemical properties
Online: 7 November 2018 (16:12:08 CET)
Even if silicon alkoxides (especially ethylsilicates) have long been used as consolidants of weathered stone monuments, their physical properties are not ideal. In this study, an innovative procedure for the consolidation of sedimentary rocks was developed that combines the use of organometallic and alkylamine catalysts with the addition of well-defined nanoparticles exhibiting a narrow size distribution centered at ca 10 nm. As a suitable test material, the Pietra di Lecce limestone was selected because of its color and problematic physico-chemical properties, such as rather low hardness. Using the developed procedure, the mechanical and surface properties of the limestone were improved without the unwanted over-consolidation of the surface layers of the stone, and any significant deterioration in the pore size distribution, water vapor permeability or the stone’s appearance. The developed modified ethylsilicates penetrated deeper into the pore structure of the stone than the unmodified ones and increased the hardness of the treated material. The formed xerogels within the stone pores did not crack. Importantly, they did not significantly alter the natural characteristics of the stone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0461.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Finance Keywords: fiscal sustainability; public finance; fiscal consolidation; fiscal responsibility
Online: 24 July 2018 (15:54:14 CEST)
Given the contradiction between the current demands for sustainability and the way the financial system works, this paper explores in a retrospective and a prospective view the Romanian Public Finance Sustainability, highlighting the major challenges and vulnerabilities. For the retrospective part, we concentrate mainly on empirical tests on Romanian government solvency between the period 1986- 2016, by applying unit root and co-integration tests. To gain a better, general understanding of the behavior of policy-makers, in the second part we use a scenario analysis of budgetary adjustment in the short and medium run under alternative hypotheses. The results provide a formal proof that policy makers decisions face critical and complex questions and the way in which they manage fiscal stimuli have a direct implication on the sustainability of the country and on the lax implementation of fiscal policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0351.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: vegetable; seedling quality; automatic transplanting; substrate improvement; consolidation strength
Online: 25 March 2022 (15:52:36 CET)
Automation of vegetable seedling transplanting has provided opportunities for saving labors and improving productivity. Some changes in seedling agronomy are necessary for efficient transplanting. In this study, the local nursery substrates were added with the herbaceous peat, the sphagnum peat and the coir peat, respectively. Effects of the new compound substrates were investigated on the seedling qualities and the root-substrate strength. In the results, we found that the addition of these horticultural mediums significantly affected the physiochemical properties of the original substrates. Under the same nursery conditions, some appropriate additions could promote the seedling growth. And the deficient or excessive additions were to inhibit the growing development of seedlings and their roots. The corresponding additions would also improve the structural characteristics of the root lumps. Generally, the nursery substrates added with the sphagnum peat were relatively optimized in contribution to the seedling qualities and the root-substrate strength. Especially as the commercial substrate and the sphagnum peat were mixed at the volume ratio of 2:1, the dry matter accumulation of seedlings was 2.18 times more than the original. Their root lumps had the best consolidation strength, which may be an effective application for the necessary qualities of seedlings for automatic transplanting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0317.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: consolidation; sandstone; alkoxide consolidants; diammonium hydrogen phosphate; accelerated weathering; durability
Online: 28 September 2019 (15:12:05 CEST)
To achieve efficient and durable consolidation of weathered sandstone, the selection of a suitable consolidant is essential. To reasonably assess the suitability of different formulations, it is fundamental to compare their performance as a consolidant within a substrate, which reliably models the properties of deteriorated material. As a test substrate, the sandstone from quarries in Mšené in central Bohemia was selected, for its developed porosity and relatively low mechanical strength. To obtain relevant comparison of their application potential, both commercial (Remmers KSE OH and Surfapore) and self-developed consolidants were included. To test the long-term stability of each consolidant, the stone was subjected to accelerated weathering. The characterization of texture properties was based on the physical sorption of nitrogen and krypton, mercury intrusion porosimetry and water uptake. While the mechanical properties in microscale were determined by nanoindentation, the mechanical strength in macroscale before and after consolidation was measured by drilling resistance. Both commercial exhibited good mechanical performance with reasonable durability. The performance of our developed samples was comparable or, in some cases, superior. Very interesting were the consolidants containing TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, the former exhibiting comparable degree of consolidation and durability as commercial ones, with additional photocatalytic function, the latter unusually high increase in the mechanical strength, even after the weathering test. The diammonium hydrogen phosphate based consolidant showed exceptional durability in the weathering test, which makes it a promising product not only for carbonate but also sandstone materials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0188.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: ecological sensitivity; ecological sensitivity evaluation; land consolidation; ecological value; Guanling
Online: 9 October 2018 (14:35:04 CEST)
Land consolidation engineering inevitably interferes with terrestrial ecosystems, leading to natural capital loss. Therefore, conducting an ecological sensitivity evaluation of a project area before consolidation engineering is very important for reducing unnecessary human interference. Conservation of terrestrial ecosystems and the biodiversity therein to the greatest possible extent is urgently needed. This research analyzes the interference by human activities caused by land consolidation engineering in terrestrial ecosystems. GIS technology, ecological values, landscape pattern indexes, and an ecological risk evaluation were used to construct an ecological sensitivity evaluation index. The coefficient of variation method and a comprehensive sensitivity rating evaluation were used to calculate the weights and results. The project area was divided into sensitivity zones according to the results, and the results and suggestions are as follows: In the highly eco-sensitive zone, where bare rocks, gravel, and grass-covered areas compose the main landscape type, vegetation should be restored, and forests should be planted. In the medium eco-sensitivity zone, where irrigated paddy fields and arid land compose the main landscape type, land parcels should be merged, and agricultural infrastructure should be constructed or improved. In the low eco-sensitivity zone, where forests compose the main landscape type, roads should be closed, natural habitat should be restored, and buffer zones should be created. This study provides suggestions for future land management decisions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0055.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Polymeric nanocomposites; limestone artworks; cultural heritage conservation; consolidation; colorimetric measurements.
Online: 7 March 2018 (13:50:06 CET)
Environmental deterioration factors are constantly increasing, causing unwanted aesthetic changes to stone artworks due to exposure to various physical and chemical deterioration factors. Inorganic nanoparticle-filled polymer composites have extended their multiple functionalities to various applications, including cultural heritage conservation. Therefore, this study has examined the effects of clay, SiO2, Ca(OH)2 and CaCO3 nanomaterials in the enhancement of the physicomechanical properties of limestone monuments, the aim of the present work being to evaluate comparatively the effectiveness of nanoparticles as consolidation and protection material for limestone artworks. The nanoparticles were added to an acrylic-based copolymer (polyethylmethacrylate (EMA)/methylacrylate (MA) (70/30), in order to improve its physiochemical and mechanical properties, and produced a significant improvement in the ability of the polymers to consolidate and protect the stone. The synthesis process of nanoparticles/polymer nanocomposite has been prepared by an in situ emulsion polymerization system. The nanocomposites contained poly (EMA/MA) with a solid content of 3% [poly (EMA/MA)] in the absence and presence of 5% nanoparticles (0.15 g nanoparticles). Samples were subjected to artificial aging by relative humidity/temperature and acid/salt crystallization weathering to show the optimum conditions of durability and the effectiveness of the nano-mixture in improving the physical and mechanical properties of the stone material. To ensure that the treatment had no negative effects on the physical characteristics of the limestone, the properties of the treated limestone samples were evaluated comparatively before and after artificial aging by the conduct of microstructural (phase morphology studied by means of scanning electron microscopy) and aesthetic (colour and lightness measured by spectrophotometry) analyses. Also used were measurement of static contact angle of water droplets on the surface of the samples, total immersion water absorption, compressive strength, and abrasion resistance test. Results demonstrated that the addition of nanoparticles to an acrylic-based polymer enhanced its capability to consolidate and protect the limestone samples.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0377.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: acute exacerbation; consolidation: GGO; HRCT; idiopathic; IPF; LDH; nintedanib; Pirfenidone; triggered
Online: 20 December 2018 (08:43:57 CET)
Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is most common idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is often seen in elderly men who smoke. Diagnosis of IPF requires integration of a detailed clinical history, specific physical examination, laboratory findings, pulmonary function tests, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the chest, and histopathology. IPF has a heterogeneous clinical course, from an asymptomatic stable state to progressive respiratory failure or acute exacerbation (AE). AE of IPF has several important differential diagnoses, such as heart failure and volume overload. The International working project proposed new criteria of AE of IPF in 2016 dividing it into triggered and idiopathic AE. On the basis of these criteria, physicians can detect AE of IPF more easily. The recent international IPF guideline emphasized the utility of chest HRCT. In addition, two anti-fibrotic agents have become available. We should attend not only to management of AE, but also to its prevention. The diagnostic process, laboratory findings, typical chest imaging, management and prognosis of AE are comprehensively reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0427.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: cloud-native; observability; cloud computing; logging; structured logging; logs; metrics; traces; distributed tracing; log aggregation; log forwarding; log consolidation
Online: 25 August 2022 (07:32:18 CEST)
Background: Cloud-native software systems often have a much more decentralized structure and many independently deployable and (horizontally) scalable components, making it more complicated to create a shared and consolidated picture of the overall decentralized system state. Today, observability is often understood as a triad of collecting and processing metrics, distributed tracing data, and logging. The result is often a complex observability system composed of three stovepipes whose data is difficult to correlate. Objective: This study analyzes whether these three historically emerged observability stovepipes of logs, metrics and distributed traces could be handled more integrated and with a more straightforward instrumentation approach. Method: This study applied an action research methodology used mainly in industry-academia collaboration and common in software engineering. The research design utilized iterative action research cycles, including one long-term use case. Results: This study presents a unified logging library for Python and a unified logging architecture that uses the structured logging approach. The evaluation shows that several thousand events per minute are easily processable. Conclusion: The results indicate that a unification of the current observability triad is possible without the necessity to develop utterly new toolchains.