ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0010.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; cognition; theory of consciousness; meta-consciousness; meta-cognition
Online: 1 March 2023 (03:53:11 CET)
For consciousness to exist, an entity must have prerequisite characteristics and attributes to give rise to it. We explore these “building blocks” of consciousness in detail in this paper, which range from perceptive to computational to higher-order characteristics of an entity’s cognitive architecture. We show how each cognitive attribute is strictly necessary for the emergence of consciousness, and how the building blocks are collectively sufficient for any entity to be classified as being conscious. The list of building blocks is not limited to human or organic consciousness and may be used to classify artificial and organisational conscious entities. We further explore a list of attributes that seem intuitively necessary for consciousness, but on further investigation, are neither required nor sufficient. The building blocks do not represent a theory of consciousness but rather a meta-theory on the emergence and classification of consciousness.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1696.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Pain; Nociception; Disorders of Consciousness; Consciousness
Online: 23 June 2023 (15:38:00 CEST)
Keywords: Pain; Nociception; Disorders of Consciousness; Consciousness
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0510.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: psychedelics; neuroimaging; consciousness
Online: 31 May 2020 (20:53:59 CEST)
Serotonergic psychedelics are known to elicit changes in conscious awareness, including perception of the environment and the self, as well as in mood, emotion and different aspects of cognition (Nichols, 2016). The effect of these compounds is complex and resists a straightforward classification that is useful for other drugs, such as “stimulants” or “sedatives”. While the effects of certain psychedelics do have a stimulant dimension, their defining characteristic is the capacity to temporarily induce a state of altered consciousness. Because of this, the study of psychedelics cannot be based only on animal models, since humans are alone in their capacity to explicitly report the contents of their conscious awareness. Psychedelic research with healthy human subjects necessitates techniques for the non-invasive recording of brain activity or its physiological and metabolic correlates. These techniques are referred to as “neuroimaging”, and here we review their application in the study of the neural correlates of altered consciousness induced by serotonergic psychedelics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0178.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: consciousness; meta-causation; pre-reflective self-consciousness; physicalism; causal productivity; dynamism; laws of nature; laws of physics; temporal non-locality
Online: 27 August 2020 (08:27:28 CEST)
How, if at all, consciousness can be part of the physical universe remains a baffling problem. This article outlines a new, developing philosophical theory of how it could do so, and offers a preliminary mathematical formulation of a physical grounding for key aspects of the theory. Because the philosophical side has radical elements, so does the physical-theory side. The philosophical side is radical, first, in proposing that the productivity or dynamism in the universe that many believe to be responsible for its systematic regularities is actually itself a physical constituent of the universe, along with more familiar entities. Indeed, it proposes that instances of dynamism can themselves take part in physical interactions with other entities, this interaction then being “meta-dynamism” (a type of meta-causation). Secondly, the theory is radical, and unique, in arguing that consciousness is necessarily partly constituted of meta-dynamic auto-sensitivity, in other words it must react via meta-dynamism to its own dynamism, and also in conjecturing that some specific form of this sensitivity is sufficient for and indeed constitutive of consciousness. The article proposes a way for physical laws to be modified to accommodate meta-dynamism, via the radical step of including elements that explicitly refer to dynamism itself. Additionally, laws become, explicitly, temporally non-local in referring directly to quantity values holding at times prior to a given instant of application of the law. The approach therefore implicitly brings in considerations about what information determines states. Because of the temporal non-locality, and also because of the deep connections between dynamism and time-flow, the approach also implicitly connects to the topic of entropy insofar as this is related to time.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: consciousness; perception; artificial intelligence
Online: 2 November 2023 (10:39:17 CET)
Consciousness pervades our daily experiences, yet it remains largely unaccounted for in contemporary physics and chemistry theories. Several existing theories, such as the Integrated Information Theory (IIT), Global Workspace Theory (GWT), Electromagnetic Field Theory (EMF Theory of Consciousness), and Orchestrated Objective Reduction Theory (Orch-OR), attempt to clarify the essence of consciousness. Yet, they often encounter significant challenges. These challenges arise due to the intricate nature of our neural systems and the limitations of current measurement and computational technologies, which often prevent these theories from being rigorously mathematically described or quantitatively tested. Here we introduce a novel theory that hypothesizes consciousness as an inherent property of certain particle configurations. Specifically, when a group of particles align in a particular state, they exhibit consciousness. This relationship between particle states and conscious perceptions is governed by what we term the "universal consciousness code". And we propose a possible practical mathematical method to decipher the complex relationship between neural activities and consciousness and to test our theory using the latest artificial intelligence technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Consciousness; awareness; decision making; attention
Online: 21 November 2023 (07:27:26 CET)
Background: Consciousness is usually interpreted as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self. According to the trilogy paradigm of consciousness (or simply “trilogy”), it is primarily guided by two new mental functions—awareness-based choice selection (ABCS) and discretionary selection of information for awareness (DSIA) or intentional attention—which may play a role in the choice selection during decision making. Method: To test whether ABCS and DSIA could improve the choice selection efficiency, 204 subjects were recruited using social media platforms to complete an anonymous online survey. The survey was designed to examine the role of subtle hints and cues in guiding participants’ attention toward a particular subject of awareness and this in return would increase the likelihood of selecting a correct choice among the proposed options, thereby enhancing the decision-making efficacy. Results: The participants’ attention could be successfully swayed to a particular subject matter (DSIA) in 59−73% of occasions. In addition, using ABCS increased the efficiency of selecting a correct choice among presented options. The analyses further revealed a gap between the selecting a choice during decision-making process and its execution, which is indicative of an appropriation process. Conclusion: The present study shows that sheer knowledge of facts may not be sufficient for selecting a correct choice among presented options effectively. However, as ABCS improves the choice selection efficiency, it plays an instrumental role in determining the subject of awareness, indirectly supporting the notion of DSIA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0098.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Consciousness Quantum mechanics Collapse Wavefunction
Online: 28 July 2022 (08:57:54 CEST)
We propose a novel interpretation of consciousness and an enlarged definition of locality, which provide a solution to the problem of the consistency of measurements in quantum mechanics: consciousness is a characteristics of the Universe as a whole. Besides its physical conse- quences, this interpretation has also moral implications: individuality comes out naturally to be just an accident functional to evolution which shaped past and present history through competition, and re- alizing this fact should enforce cooperation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0410.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Neural correlates of consciousness, biological neural network, Phenomenal Consciousness, Artificial Intelligence; Information Integration theory
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:40:06 CEST)
Abstract: It has been shown that three-dimensional self-assembled multicellular structures derived from human pluripotent stem cells show electrical activity similar to EEG. More recently, neurons were successfully embedded in a digital game-worlds (Kagan, et al. 2022). The biologically inspired neural network (BNN), expressing human cortical cells, was able to show internal modification and learn the task at hand (predicting the trajectory of a digital ball while moving a digital paddle). In other words, the system allowed to read motor information and write sensory data into cell cultures. In this article, we discuss Neural Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) theories, and their capacity to predict or even allow for consciousness in a BNN. We found that In-formation Integration Theory (IIT) is the only NCC that offers the possibility for a BNN to show consciousness. IIT argues that any system capable of integrating information will have some degree of phenomenal consciousness. The pattern of activity appearing in the BNN, with increased density of sensory information leading to better performance, implies that the BNN could be conscious. This may have profound implications from a physiological, philosophical, and ethical perspective.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain injury, coma, consciousness, cognitive motor dissociation, disorders of consciousness, ethics, neurorehabilitation, traumatic brain injury
Online: 6 December 2018 (10:05:52 CET)
Background: The vegetative state (VS)/unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) denotes brain-injured, awake patients who are seemingly without awareness. Still, up to 15% of these patients show signs of covert consciousness when examined by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or EEG, which is known as cognitive motor dissociation (CMD). Most experts prefer the term unresponsive wakefulness syndrome to avoid the negative connotations associated with vegetative state and to highlight the possibility for CMD. However, the perception of VS/UWS by the public has never been studied systematically. Methods: Using an online crowdsourcing platform, we recruited 1297 participants from 32 countries. We investigated if vegetative state and unresponsive wakefulness syndrome might have a different influence on attitudes towards VS/UWS and CMD. Results: Participants randomized to be inquired about the vegetative state believed that CMD was less common (mean estimated frequency in unresponsive patients 38.07% ± SD 25.15) than participants randomized to unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (42.29% ± SD 26.63; p=0.016). Attitudes towards treatment withdrawal were similar. Most participants preferred unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (60.05%), although a sizeable minority favored vegetative state (24.21%; difference 35.84%, 95% CI 29.36 to 41.87; p<0.0001). Searches on PubMed and Google Trends revealed that unresponsive wakefulness syndrome is increasingly used by academics but not lay people.Discussion: Simply replacing vegetative state with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome may not be fully appropriate given that 1 of 4 prefer the first term. We suggest that physicians take advantage of the controversy around the terminology to explain relatives the concept of CMD and its ethical implications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0074.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: sustainability; consciousness; education; e-portfolios; ICT
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:49:54 CEST)
The contents of Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) should be included in teachers’ initial and advanced training programs. In order to determine the key competences for sustainability, creating a Sustainable Consciousness is one of the main foundations. However, there are not many empirical studies that deal with consciousness from education. In this context, e-portfolio appears as a tool that promotes reflection and critical thinking, key competences for consciousness development. This work intends to propose a categorization system to extract types of consciousness and identify trainee teachers’ levels of consciousness. For this research work, of an eminently qualitative nature, we have selected twenty-five portfolios of students in the last year of the School of Education at the University of Macerata (Italy). The qualitative methodological procedure followed allowed to deduce three bases that shape trainee teachers’ consciousness: thinking, representation of reality and type of consciousness. We concluded that the attainment of a Sustainable Consciousness in teachers requires activating and developing higher levels of thinking, as well as a projective and macrostructural representation of reality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2114.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: Human; lifespan; aging; consciousness; brain; integration
Online: 30 September 2023 (17:55:59 CEST)
Human longevity is an important but difficult goal due to the extreme complication of human body. If people could repeatedly transfer their consciousness from old bodies to new ones, their lifespan might be prolonged extremely. However, there are several difficulties which prevent the achievement of such a technique. In this paper, we propose an approach that can transfer human consciousness indirectly, and avoid or significantly relieve those difficulties. The strategy of our approach is to integrate the consciousnesses of two bodies (old and new) into a unique consciousness. By doing so, the consciousness is extended to the new body. After that, the consciousness shrinks and remains in the new body when the old body dies. This may also apply to integrating more than two bodies of human, or animal, or even across different species. After investigating thousands of literatures, we find quite strong evidence (related discoveries and technologies) that can support the proposed approach and its advantages. Beside prolonging human lifespan, the approach could also have other meaningful applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0326.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Binding Problem; Perceptual Binding; Consciousness; Perception
Online: 25 February 2022 (08:46:39 CET)
The brain’s ability to create a unified conscious representation of an object by integrating information from multiple perception pathways is called perceptual binding. Binding is crucial for normal cognitive function. Some perceptual binding errors and disorders have been linked to certain neurological conditions, brain lesions, and conditions that give rise to illusory conjunctions. However, the mechanism of perceptual binding remains elusive. Here, we present a computational model of binding using two sets of coupled oscillatory processes that are assumed to occur in response to two different percepts. We use the model to study the dynamic behavior of coupled processes to characterize how these processes can modulate each other and reach a temporal synchrony. We identify different oscillatory dynamic regimes that depend on coupling mechanisms and parameter values. The model can also discriminate different combinations of initial inputs that are set by initial states of coupled processes. Decoding brain signals that are formed through perceptual binding is a challenging task, but our modeling results demonstrate how crosstalk between two systems of processes can possibly modulate their outputs. Therefore, our mechanistic model can help one gain a better understanding of how crosstalk between perception pathways can affect the dynamic behavior of the systems that involve perceptual binding.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0201.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: psychedelics; language; consciousness; cognition; pharmacology; semantics
Online: 10 November 2021 (09:45:20 CET)
Psychedelics are drugs capable of eliciting profound alterations in the subjective experience of the users, sometimes with long-lasting consequences. Because of this, psychedelic research tends to focus on human subjects, given their capacity to construct detailed narratives about the contents of their consciousness experiences. In spite of its relevance, the interaction between serotonergic psychedelics and language production is comparatively understudied in the recent literature. This review is focused on two aspects of this interaction: how the acute effects of psychedelic drugs impact on speech organization regardless of its semantic content, and how to characterize the subjective effects of psychedelic drugs by analyzing the semantic content of written retrospective reports. We show that the computational characterization of language production is an emergent powerful tool to predict the therapeutic outcome of individual experiences, relate the effects elicited by psychedelics with those associated with other altered states of consciousness, draw comparisons between the psychedelic state and the symptomatology of certain psychiatric disorders, and investigate the neurochemical profile and mechanism of action of different psychedelic drugs. We conclude that researchers studying psychedelics can considerably expand the range of their potential scientific conclusions by analyzing brief interviews obtained before, during and after the acute effects. Finally, we list a series of questions and open problems that should be addressed to further consolidate this approach.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: consciousness; qualia; network; bacteria; learning; phenotype
Online: 15 September 2021 (15:58:51 CEST)
The relevance of bacteria to subjective experiences or qualia is under-appreciated. Here, I make four proposals. Firstly, living systems traverse sequences of active states that determine their behaviour; these states result from competitive coherence, which depends on a connectivity-based competition between a Next process and a Now process whereby elements in the active state at time n+1 are chosen between the elements in the active state at time n and those elements in the developing n+1 state. Secondly, bacteria should help us link the mental to the physical world given that bacteria were here first, are highly complex, influence animal behaviour and dominate the Earth. Thirdly, the operation of competitive coherence to generate active states in bacteria, brains and other living systems is inseparable from qualia. Fourthly, these qualia become particularly important to the generation of active states in the highest levels of living systems, namely, the ecosystem and planetary levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0434.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Consciousness; Simulation; Discrete; Memory; Perception; Computation
Online: 23 November 2022 (07:00:10 CET)
The current theories of consciousness do not address the two major problems:What is the solution to the hard problem of consciousness or What is the experience of self-existence? and How is conscious perception computed? We address these questions using our hypothesized theory:The Self Simulation theory and propose a model of computation of consciousness.The components of the model are an interconnected network of auxiliary processors or Auxiliary Neural Networks(AN) which receives input from the external sensory modalities,computes a representation of the information and relays it to the NCC(Neural Correlates of Consciousness), the NCC – a processing unit which can be neuro anatomically distributed in location but computationally connected to each other and to the Auxiliary Networks,and a working memory which the NCC references for further computation of information.Computation of conscious perception is achieved via the decoding of the content of the memory by the NCC.The self simulation theory accounts not only for the various phenomenal experiences but also experimentation paradigms conducted in the past.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: cosmology, life, superfluid quantum space, consciousness.
Online: 15 April 2021 (13:38:05 CEST)
The evolution of life on the planet Earth is happening primarily in the universe and secondary on the Earth. We will examine in this article evolution of life as the cosmic phenomena. In our model multidimensional time-invariant superfluid quantum space that is the fundamental arena of the universe and represents about 95% of the energy in the universe has stable entropy. The increase of entropy happens only by about 5% of the energy in the universe that is in the form of matter. The evolution of life in our model is a process of matter organization into living systems that tends to develop towards the constant entropy of the time-invariant multidimensional quantum space. This process runs in the entire universe. The development of life into intelligent organisms is the universal process running throughout the entire universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Consciousness Field; functional connectivity; task fMRI
Online: 14 September 2021 (15:54:17 CEST)
Task fMRI has played a critical role in recognizing the specific functions of the different regions of human brain during various cognitive activities. This study aimed to investigate group analysis and functional connectivity in the Faradarmangars brain during the Faradarmani CF (FCF) connection. Using task functional MRI (task-fMRI), we attempted the identification of different activated and deactivated brain regions during the Consciousness Filed connection. Clusters that showed significant differences in peak intensity between task and rest group were selected as seeds for seed-voxel analysis. Connectivity of group differences in functional connectivity analysis was determined following each activation and deactivation network. In this study, we report the fMRI-based representation of the FCF connection at the human brain level. The group analysis of FCF connection task revealed activation of frontal lobe (BA6/BA10/BA11). Moreover, seed based functional connectivity analysis showed decreased connectivity within activated clusters and posterior Cingulate Gyrus (BA31). Moreover, we observed an increased connectivity within deactivated clusters and frontal lobe (BA11/BA47) during the FCF connection. Activation clusters as well as the increased and decreased connectivity between different regions of the brain during the FCF connection, firstly, validates the significant effect of the FCF and secondly, indicates a distinctive pattern of connection with this non-material and non-energetic field, in the brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0093.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: consumer behavior; cooking fuel; environmental consciousness; health consciousness; semi-parametric estimation; trivariate probit; water and sanitation; wealth
Online: 13 February 2018 (08:53:03 CET)
Relying on Random Utility Theory (RUT) as the guiding mechanism for the Data Generating Process (DGP), this paper uses households consumption choices on cooking fuel, drinking water, and sanitation from the 2014 United States Agency for International Development's (USAID) Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data on Burkina Faso, to characterize and investigate the inter-linkages between health consciousness and environmental consciousness, and their relationship with wealth in a low income country context. We achieve this by specifying sequentially three econometric modeling frameworks: the first one being independent binary probit (IBP) models to describe each choice process, followed by a fully parametric trivariate probit (FPTP) model to account for choice dependency, and finally by a semi-parametric trivariate probit (SPTP) model to further relax the linearity assumption. Based on the Akaike Information criteria (AIC) and the estimated Trivariate model correlation coefficients, the SPTP framework is found to be the best specification for describing the observed consumption behaviors. The results show that increased wealth level raises households health and environmental consciousness, while leaving the relative preference ordering over the elements in the household consumption basket unchanged.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0679.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Consciousness Field; cosmic consciousness network; default mode network; EEG; Fara-darmani; Fara-therapist; gamma wave; Mind-body
Online: 27 September 2020 (11:58:42 CEST)
Mind-body interaction and its manifestations at the brain level has been studied extensively in the field of consciousness research. Fara-darmani Consciousness Field, as claimed by Mohammad Ali Taheri (the founder), is a method of connecting with the Cosmic Consciousness Network through human mind and his brain has a detective role in this process. As a result of this connection, the scanning process of the state of a being, e.g., the health status of the cells and consequently organs is performed. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the Fara-darmani Consciousness Field connection on electroencephalogram (EEG) features as an important biomarker of the brain functioning. The results showed that there was a significant increase in the gamma2 frequency band (35-40 Hz) power in the frontal lobe in medial frontal gyrus (BA6) and paracentral lobule (BA31) of the brain during the task condition compared to the rest condition in a Fara-therapist population. Considering the cortical electrical activity of Fara-therapist’s brain during Fara-darmani Consciousness Field connection, characterizing increase in the power of gamma wave and the activity of the areas affecting on memory, attention, perception and default mode network intrinsic activity. This manifestation distinguishes Fara-darmani Consciousness Field connection from other known methods dealing with the mind-body interaction criterion mainly different types of mediation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0330.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; awareness; attention; free will; self-awareness
Online: 17 November 2022 (08:59:13 CET)
Consciousness is usually perceived as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self. Despite its omnipresence in our life, understanding this concept is challenging. This has given rise to several theories attempting to explain the nature of consciousness, as well as hard and soft problems of consciousness. In fact, the boundaries of consciousness defined by these theories are a topic of continued discussion, particularly in light of the recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI). Some of these theories consider consciousness as a simple integration of information while others purport the need for an agency in the process of integration for an entity to be considered conscious. Some theories consider consciousness as a graded entity and some equate consciousness with content of awareness. In this work, major theories of consciousness are reviewed and compared, focusing on awareness, attention, and sense of self. These findings are interpreted in relation to AI in order to ascertain what makes AI distinct from natural intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0073.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Consciousness; awareness; free will; attention; self-awareness
Online: 6 June 2022 (09:01:24 CEST)
Consciousness is usually interpreted as a state of being aware of one’s environment as well as self, while awareness is understood as knowledge of something. Despite their semantic differences, in philosophy, these terms are often used interchangeably, as is the case of the hard problem of consciousness proposed by Chalmers, which in fact is the hard problem of awareness. Trilogy paradigm of consciousness (or simply “trilogy”) offers a new paradigm where consciousness is the result of a unique interaction between awareness and the decision-making process. By conferring the input of awareness to the decision-making process, a new mental function of awareness-based choice selection (ABCS) or true free will emerges. Likewise, application of the power of decision-making to the process of awareness gives rise to discretionary selection of information for awareness (DSIA) or intentional attention. The intertwined actions of ABCS and DSIA comprise “I” which is the faculty of our consciousness and is what sets natural intelligence (NI) apart from artificial intelligence (AI). Based on trilogy, mind is an unconscious compilation of all mental function excluding ABCS and DSIA that are the essence of consciousness. As humans, we are a union of “I,” our minds, and our bodies.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: concept cells; consciousness; Global Neuronal Workspace Hypothesis
Online: 4 August 2021 (13:17:08 CEST)
Serendipity favors the prepared mind, but how does the brain make that lucky find? Analyzing the cerebral mechanisms behind an exceptional (albeit trivial) discovery, the author suggests that a combination of ‘concept cells’ and the Global Neuronal Workspace Hypothesis could explain how we make great discoveries.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0195.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Information Circulation; Perception; Memory; Consciousness; Neural Circuits
Online: 7 August 2020 (11:47:54 CEST)
Long-Term Potentiation(LTP) and Long-Term Depression(LTD) are two major forms of synaptic plasticity, which are also two well-know functional and unit activities involved in high advanced central neural system(CNS) activities, like memory. But we still know little about how the advanced CNS activities are organized in the brain and in the level of organism. Based on the current understanding and experimental evidence of neurology, we propose the term “Information Circulation” to summarize the current understandings for advanced CNS activities, and we define it as separately input neural signals finally converge in different levels of CNS and interact with each other, then neural information are circulated and processed in different levels of CNS to give out orders for next body actions. This review provides a detailed description for the functional organizations of advanced CNS activities in the term of Information Circulation. This article outlines the receiving of outside stimulation and transmission of neural information, especially transmission and procession of visual bioelectrical signals, then we described neural circuits of Information Circulation in advanced CNS activities, the corresponding specificity and dynamic properties of neural circuits, different sensation linkages, and neural synchronization for information circulation to produce consciousness in CNS. In conclusion, Information Circulation is defined as an important signature involved in advanced CNS activities.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0072.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: consciousness; mental monism; idealism; automata; cellular automata
Online: 5 March 2020 (02:21:55 CET)
Models of consciousness are usually developed within physical monist or dualistic frameworks, in which the structure and dynamics of the mind derive from the workings of the physical world (in particular, the brain). Little attention has been given to modeling within a mental monist framework, deriving the structure and dynamics of the mental world from primitive mental constituents only. Mental monism is gaining attention as a candidate solution to Chalmers’ Hard Problem, and it is therefore timely to examine possible formal models of consciousness within it. Here, we propose a minimal set of hypotheses that any credible model of consciousness (within mental monism) should respect. From those hypotheses, it is feasible to construct many formal models that permit universal computation in the mental world, through cellular automata. We need further hypotheses to define transition rules for particular models, and we propose a transition rule with the unusual property of deep copying in the time dimension. In conclusion, we hope to dispel the notion that mental monism requires a deus ex machina, by showing that a parsimonious set of assumptions can yield a naturalistic and computationally potent mental world.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0352.v5
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Coherence; Compression; Computation; Consciousness; Entanglement; Free-energy principle; Generative model; Information; Qualia; Quantum; Representation
Online: 14 October 2019 (09:53:26 CEST)
The QBIT theory is an attempt toward solving the problem of consciousness based on empirical evidence provided by various scientific disciplines including quantum mechanics, biology, information theory, and thermodynamics. This theory formulates the problem of consciousness in the following four questions: (1) What is the nature of qualia? (2) How are qualia generated? (3) Why are qualia subjective? (4) Why does a quale have a particular quality or meaning?In sum, the QBIT theory proposes that (1) when a pack of quantum information is compressed beyond a certain threshold, a quale is generated; (2) a quale is a superdense pack of maximally entangled qubits in a pure state; (3) when information-theoretic certainty of a system about an external stimulus exceeds a particular level, the system becomes conscious of that stimulus; (4) subjectivity of consciousness is due to the fact that maximally entangled pure states are private and unshareable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0345.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: stream of consciousness; quantum mechanics; decoherence theory; synaptic transmission; spike; action potential; neural code; neural correlate of consciousness
Online: 4 March 2020 (04:54:40 CET)
In previous work, a quantum mathematical formalism associated an element of experience with a single sensory neuron, as a local reduction of a global mental state. In contrast to the binary objective states of neuronal polarisation/depolarisation, neuronal experience was modeled as a continuous variable, the instantaneous value of which could only be estimated statistically from an ensemble of evoked responses to stereotyped stimulus presentation. In the present work, the quantum operations formalism of energy dissipation through amplitude damping is adopted to explain how smooth evolution of conscious experience might arise from discrete spikes and discontinuous synaptic transmission between neurons.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0025.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Thermodynamics Keywords: Neural synchrony; Cognition; Consciousness; Entropy; Equilibrum; Energy gradients
Online: 6 March 2023 (14:21:13 CET)
Our purpose is to address the biological problem of finding foundations of the organization in the collective activity among cell networks in the nervous system, at the meso/macroscale, giving rise to cognition and consciousness. But in doing so, we encounter another problem related to the interpretation of methods to assess the neural interactions and organization of the neurodynamics, because thermodynamic notions, which have precise meaning only under specific conditions, have been widely employed in these studies. The consequence is that apparently contradictory results appear in the literature, but these contradictions diminish upon the considerations of the specific circumstances of each experiment. After clarifying some of these controversial points and surveying some experimental results, we propose that a necessary condition for cognition/consciousness to emerge is to have available enough energy, or cellular activity; and a sufficient condition is the multiplicity of configurations in which cell networks can communicate, resulting in non-uniform energy distribution, the generation and dissipation of energy gradients due to the constant activity. These ideas may reveal possible fundamental principles of brain organization and how healthy activity may derive to pathological states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0378.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Tubulin; microtubules; immune system; brain; consciousness; Orch OR
Online: 16 November 2023 (10:01:39 CET)
This study describes the design and development of novel compounds aimed at optimizing the function of microtubules and tubulin in the immune system and the brain as they relate to the Orch OR theory of consciousness. These compounds are defined by the following molecular formulas:C65H100CoN15O22P(C6H12O5);C65H100CoN15O22P(C5H10NO4);(C65H100CoN15O22P)(C6H12N2O)n;(C65H100CoN15O22P)(C6H12O5)(C6H12N2O)n;(C6H12N2O)n(C6H12O5)m;Zn(C6H12O5)2;These molecules, formulated under the form of drugs, health functional foods, or food supplements, have the potential to positively affect a number of areas ranging from prevention and therapy of neurological diseases to supporting the immune system.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: consciousness; microtubule; Orch OR; brain; microbiota; quantum entanglement
Online: 23 July 2021 (12:32:42 CEST)
It is proposed to incorporate the concepts of brain microbiota and microbial consciousness in the Orchestrated Objective Reduction (Orch OR) theory of human consciousness with the goal of increasing its explanatory and predictive powers. If consciousness arises from quantum computations in cytoskeletal structures inside human neurons, there is no theoretical impediment at hypothesizing that it might also occur in the cytoskeletal structures of the microbes resident in the human brains. If the concept of the brain microbiota is integrated in a general Orch OR theory, its explanatory and predictive powers would be vastly increased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0098.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Consciousness; Quantum Measurement; M-Properties; Quantum Zeno Effect
Online: 9 October 2019 (10:29:25 CEST)
A variant of the von Neumann-Wigner Interpretation is proposed. It does not make use of the familiar language of wave functionsand observers. Instead it pictures the state of the physical world as a vector in a Fock space and, therefore not, literally, a functionof any spacetime coordinates. And, rather than segregating consciousness into individual points of view (each carrying with it asense of its proper time), this model proposes only unitary states of consciousness, Q(t), where t represents a fiducial time withrespect to which both the state of the physical world and the state of consciousness evolve. States in our world's Fock space areclassified as either 'admissible' (meaning they correspond to definite states of consciousness) or 'inadmissible' (meaning they donot). The evolution of the state vector of the world is such as to always keep it restricted to 'admissible' states. Consciousness istreated very much like what Chalmers calls an "M-Property." But we try to show that problems with the quantum Zeno effect do not arise from this model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1273.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Resonance; Brain; Consciousness; Criticality; Biofield; Continuum Theory; Entrainment
Online: 21 November 2023 (05:58:39 CET)
Abstract: Aim: Biofields combine many physiological levels both spatially and temporally. These biofields reflect naturally resonant forms of synaptic energy reflected in growing and spreading waves of brain activity. The study desires to theoretically understand better how resonant continuum waves may be reflective of consciousness, memory, and thought. Background: The metabolic processes that maintain animal cellular and physiological function are enhanced by physiological coherence. Internal biological system coordination and sensitivity to particular stimuli and signal frequencies are two aspects of coherent physiology. There exists significant support for the notion that exogenous biologically and non-biologically generated energy entrains human physiological systems. All living things have resonant frequencies that are either comparable or coherent, therefore eventually all species will have a shared resonance. An organism's biofield activity and resonance are what support its life and allow it to react to stimuli. Methods: As the naturally resonant forms of synaptic energy are growing and spreading waves of brain activity, The temporal and spatial frequency of waves are effectively regulated by a time delay (T) in inter-layer signals in a layered structure that mimics the structure of the mammalian cortex. From ubiquitous noise, two different types of waves can arise as a function of T. One is coherent, and as T rises, so does its resonant spatial frequency. Results: Continued growth eventually causes both the wavelength and the temporal frequency to abruptly increase. Two waves expand simultaneously and randomly interfere in an area of T values as a result. Conclusion: We suggest that because of this extraordinary dualism, which has its roots in the phase relationships of amplified waves, coherent waves are essential for memory retrieval whereas random waves represent original cognition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0322.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land consolidation; social consciousness; modernization; governance; rural China
Online: 9 October 2023 (03:11:34 CEST)
With the changing relationship between urban and rural areas in China, the rural areas are experiencing rapid social transformation. To ensure successful implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, land consolidation has become a major measure of rural economic reform. Existing research focuses on quantitative studies exploring the relationship between land consolidation and rural economic development, but there is a lack of studies on the relationship between land consolidation and social change. In this study, Jin’an Village is selected as the research area, using semi-structured interviews and semi-participatory observation to obtain original materials, aiming to make a detailed description of the specific practice of land consolidation, and to analyze the impact of land consolidation on the transformation of rural social consciousness. The study found that rural land consolidation involves villagers in the land consolidation process, which can effectively stimulate villagers’ participation in public affairs. Concurrently, the interaction between villagers and outside investors disrupts the conventional socialization model in rural areas and motivates villagers to act in accordance with contractual agreements. The conclusion is that land consolidation in rural areas can enhance the political democracy and legal consciousness of local villagers, which can lead to a change in local social consciousness. Our findings also emphasize the crucial necessity to grant rural villagers with improved accessibility to professional services and information, coupled with the continued promotion of land consolidation to advance modernization in these areas.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: disorders of consciousness; EEG; fMRI; PET; fNIRS; multimodal
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:38:12 CEST)
Accurate evaluation of patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC) is crucial for personalized treatment. However, misdiagnosis remains a serious issue. Neuroimaging methods could observe the conscious activity in patients who have no evidence of consciousness in behavior, and provide objective and quantitative indexes to assist doctors in their diagnosis. In the review, we discussed the current research based on the evaluation of consciousness rehabilitation after DoC using EEG, fMRI, PET, and fNIRS, as well as the advantages and limitations of each method. Nowadays single-modal neuroimaging can no longer meet the researchers` demand. Considering both spatial and temporal resolution, recent studies have attempted to focus on the multi-modal method which can enhance the capability of neuroimaging methods in the evaluation of DoC. As neuroimaging devices become wireless, integrated, and portable, multi-modal neuroimaging methods will drive new advancements in brain science research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0098.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: brain graph; EEG; Faradarmani Consciousness Field; functional connectivity
Online: 6 September 2021 (13:26:29 CEST)
The study of the brain networks using analysis of electroencephalography (EEG) data based on statistical dependencies (functional connectivity) and mathematical graph theory concepts is common in neuroscience and cognitive sciences for examinations of patient and healthy individuals. The Consciousness Fields according to Taheri theory and applications in the optimization of system under study have been investigated in various studies. In this study, we examine the results of working with Faradarmani Consciousness Field (FCF) in the brain of Faradarmangars. Faradarmangars are one of the necessary components in mind mediation of the function of Faradarmani Consciousness Fields according to Taheri. For this purpose, the functional and effective connectivity and the corresponding brain graphs of EEG from the brain of Faradarmangars is compared with that of non Faradarmangar groups during FCF connection. According to the results of the present study, the brain of the Faradarmangars shows significant decreased activity in delta (BA8), beta2 (BA4/6/8/9/10/11/32/44/47) and beta3 (in 34 of 52 BA) frequency bands mainly in frontal lobe and after that in parietal and temporal lobes in the comparison with the non Faradarmangars. Moreover, the functional and effective connectivity analysis in the frontal network shows dominant multiple decreased connectivity mainly in the case of beta3 frequency band in all parts of the frontal network. On the other hand, the graph theory analysis of the Faradarmangar brain shows an increase in the activity of the O2-T5-F4-F3-FP2-F8 areas and significant decrease in the characteristic path length and increases in global efficiency, clustering coefficient and transitivity. In conclusion, the unique higher graph function efficiency and the reduction in the brain activity and connectivity during the Faradarmani Consciousness Field mind mediation, shown the passive and detector like function of the human brain in this task.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0136.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: Consciousness; awareness; free will; decision-making; attention; self-awareness
Online: 9 June 2022 (07:27:39 CEST)
The notion of free will seems so intuitive to us that it would be hard, even impossible, to imagine that we live in a world without ever exerting any willpower. This view of reality is not only hindrance to inspiration, it poses a serious threat to our moral and social responsibilities. Nonetheless, many scientific and philosophical schools of thought such as determinism purport free will as a mere illusion. As an attempt to rescue free will put forward by libertarianism, compatibilism or physical indeterminism that either exempts our mind from the universal rules of cause and effect by offering our minds a metaphysical status or substitute free will with random will rooted in the laws of quantum mechanics. This manuscript offers an alternative perspective under a new paradigm of consciousness called physical libertarianism that explicates true free will through the unwavering laws of cause and effect. Based on this paradigm, consciousness is the result of interaction of awareness and decision-making process. By applying awareness to the process of decision-making awareness-based choice selection or true free will is conceived. In return, by assigning the power of decision making to the process of awareness discretionary selection of information for attention or intentional attention is emerged. Through integration of these two mental functions, an independent entity called “I” is formed that differentiates natural intelligence from artificial intelligence. While determinism can aptly describe the world of inanimate objects and artificial intelligence, because of “I,” determinism has no jurisdiction over the realm of natural intelligence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0324.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Information; Quantum Physics; Biochemical Projection; Neural Interpretation; Consciousness; Reality
Online: 25 August 2021 (11:24:41 CEST)
How does the world around us work and what is real? This question has preoccupied humanity since its beginnings. From the 16th century onwards, it has been periodically necessary to revise the prevailing worldview. But things became very strange at the beginning of the 20th century with the advent of relativity theory and quantum physics. The current focus is on the role of information, there being a debate about whether this is ontological or epistemological. A theory has recently been formulated in which spacetime and gravity emerges from microscopic quantum information, more specifically from quantum entanglement via entanglement entropy. A latest theory describes the emergence of reality itself through first-person perspective experiences and algorithmic information theory. In quantum physics, perception and observation play a central role. Perception, interaction with the environment, requires an exchange of information. Via biochemical projection, information is given an interpretation that is necessary to make life and consciousness possible. The world around us is not at all what it seems.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: consciousness; cognition; life; equivalence relation; synchrony; compartmentalization; closure; connectivity
Online: 16 February 2020 (15:01:47 CET)
In an analogous manner as occurred during the development of a connected metabolism that at some point reached characteristics associated with what is called ‘life’ ―due mainly to a catalytic closure phenomenon when chemicals started to autocatalyze themselves forming a closed web of chemical reactions― it is here proposed that cognition and consciousness (or features associated with them) arose as a consequence of another type of closure within the nervous system, the brain especially. Proper brain function requires an efficient web of connections and once certain complexity is attained due to the number and coordinated activities of the brain cell networks, the emergent properties of cognition and consciousness take place. Seeking to identify main features of the nervous system organization for optimal function, it is here proposed that while catalytic closure yielded life, neuroglial closure produced cognition/consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0212.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: neural synchronization; consciousness; quantum biology; brain dynamics; brain connectivity
Online: 17 June 2020 (09:29:28 CEST)
One of the biggest queries in cognitive sciences is the emergence of consciousness from matter. Modern neurobiological theories of consciousness propose that conscious experience is the result of interactions between large-scale neuronal networks in the brain, traditionally described within the realm of classical physics. Here, we propose a generalized connectionist framework in which the emergence of “conscious networks” is not exclusive of large brain areas, but can be identified in sub-cellular networks exhibiting non-trivial quantum phenomena. The essential feature of such networks is the existence of strong correlations in the system (classical or quantum coherence) and the presence of an optimal point at which the system’s complexity is maximized, expressed either by maximization of the information content in large scale functional networks or by achieving optimal efficiency through the quantum Goldilock effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0610.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: self-consciousness; online shopping behavior; technology acceptance model (TAM)
Online: 30 September 2018 (11:31:50 CEST)
Self-consciousness can be considered as the internal disposition to direct attention to oneself. This dispositional tendency can be focused on private aspects of the self, but also on public characteristics of the individual. We examine self-consciousness in online consumer behavior. This concept has been poorly investigated in consumer research. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the influence of the dimensions of self-consciousness in consumer adoption of online shopping. This study is based on a sample of 725 Spanish undergraduates. Results indicated that public self-consciousness is a significant predictor of the adoption of online shopping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0196.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: coronavirus; COVID-19; consciousness; data analysis; mathematical model; control
Online: 12 April 2020 (14:44:42 CEST)
Background: The world, now in an emergency of preventing the drastic spread of COVID-19. After the infection was first reported in December 2019, almost every country did not pay attention to this highly contaminated disease and failed to react swiftly. Now the whole universe is in an vulnerable state, loosing a great loss of lives and facing difficulties in all socio-economic aspects. That is why we have the urge to develop an efficient mathematical model (quarantine) based on social consciousness to control the epidemic. Methods: This is a quarantine mathematical model. The outcome of the system is dependent on social consciousness. We have calculated the awareness level by considering various socio-economic factor of each country. In our model, the parameters are Education Index, GDP per capita, population density, high literacy and stable economy. To maximize the efficiency of the model, it has to be implemented in initial stage. However, strict application of the method in vigorous stage of epidemic will also bring a satisfactory outcome. Results: Higher social consciousness will decrease the number of infected population dramatically while minimal or lower awareness will do a outburst. Conclusion: Outbreak will be in control of health care system, lower the death rate and will ensure social and economic stability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0524.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Self-reference; cognition; consciousness; computation; causal structure; integrated information theory
Online: 29 November 2021 (11:51:43 CET)
Ordinary computing machines prohibit self-reference because it leads to logical inconsistencies and undecidability. In contrast, the human mind can understand self-referential statements without necessitating physically impossible brain states. Why can the brain make sense of self-reference? Here, we address this question by defining the Strange Loop Model, which features causal feedback between two brain modules, and circumvents the paradoxes of self-reference and negation by unfolding the inconsistency in time. We also argue that the metastable dynamics of the brain inhibit and terminate unhalting inferences. Finally, we show that the representation of logical inconsistencies in the Strange Loop Model leads to causal incongruence between brain subsystems in Integrated Information Theory.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1335.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain; Immune System; Orch OR; Consciousness; Microtubules; Tubulin; Religious Chanting.
Online: 18 August 2023 (09:15:07 CEST)
In this article, I consider the relationship between the brain and the immune system in the context of the Orch OR (Orchestrated Objective Reduction) theory of consciousness. Orch OR is a theory that postulates that consciousness arises from quantum computations occurring inside microtubules. The immune system is capable of acquiring, learning, and remembering information, thus showing all the attributes of natural intelligence. I argue that the immune system also has the attribute of consciousness and that it can gain access to an amount of information greater than what is accessible to the brain since it is not constrained by brain's reducing valve that is responsible for cognitive bottlenecks. I also describe the role of meditation and religious chanting in affecting the brain and the immune system. I speculate that some effects of religious chanting on the immune system may not be mediated by the brain. Finally, I examine the role of the immune system in connecting with the consciousness embedded in the universe.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0356.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Consciousness; Quantum Measurement; von Neumann-Wigner Interpretation; Quantum Zeno Effect
Online: 2 February 2023 (11:56:41 CET)
A variant of the von Neumann-Wigner Interpretation is proposed. Problems arising from the quantum Zeno effect are addressed as we have described previously. We do, however, offer some new, and perhaps unexpected observations. We are accustomed to thinking of wave function collapse as occurring consequent to laboratory measurements. We speculate that, whatever physical correlate of consciousness exists within the brain, it is quantum mechanical in the sense that a brain, left to itself, would eventually decohere into a state no longer compatible with its conscious functioning. Wave function collapse returns it to a state compatible with consciousness. Indeed, this may be its important reason for occurring. A universe without it simply could not play host to conscious brains. The fact that it also prevents us from encountering "absurd" situations in the laboratory is merely a fortunate dividend. Whenever a quantum measurement is made the universe's future history splits into a number of possibilities. This number may be very large or infinite. And we believe consciousness plays a vital role in this happening. A "conscious" universe where quantum measurements are being made allows for an enormous number of equally acceptable world-histories. An "unconscious" one, always evolving in a unitary fashion, allows for only one. If we assume that the decision as to which worldhistory is the real one (i.e. this one) is made at random we see that the universe is overwhelmingly more likely to be "conscious" than not.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0301.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: consciousness; information compression; internal representation; QBIT theory; qualia; subjective experience
Online: 26 July 2019 (12:59:02 CEST)
The QBIT theory is an attempt toward solving the problem of consciousness in the light of Quantum mechanics, Biology, Information theory, and Thermodynamics. “Internal representation” is a key concept in the QBIT theory of consciousness. An internal representation is defined as a pack of information (within a cognitive system) that represents an external stimulus.The QBIT theory suggests that when robustness of an internal representation exceeds a certain threshold, a conscious experience (or a quale) is generated. In this paper, the concept of internal representation and its relation with consciousness is explored.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0221.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: non locality; collapse; measurement problem; consciousness; Everett’s interpretation; convivial solipsism
Online: 18 December 2018 (11:55:02 CET)
A large number of physicists now admit that quantum mechanics is a non-local theory. EPR argument and the many experiences (including recent “loop-hole free” tests) showing the violation of Bell’s inequalities seem to have confirmed convincingly that quantum mechanics cannot be local. Nevertheless, this conclusion can only be drawn inside a standard realist framework assuming an ontic interpretation of the wave function and viewing the collapse of the wave function as a real change of the physical state of the system. We show that this standpoint is not mandatory and that if the collapse is no more considered as an actual physical change, it is possible to recover locality.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0459.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: topological quantum brain; quantum computing; Majorana Zero modes; qualia; consciousness
Online: 31 March 2020 (10:41:35 CEST)
Controversial hypotheses to explain consciousness exist in many fields of science, psychology and philosophy. Recent experimental findings in quantum cognition and magnetic resonance imaging have added new controversies to the field, suggesting that the mind may be based on quantum computing. Quantum computers process information in quantum bits (qubits) using quantum gates. At a first glance, it seems unrealistic or impossible that the brain can meet the challenges to provide either of these. Nevertheless, we show here why the brain has the incredible ability to perform quantum computing and how that may be realized.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0309.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: fine motor skill; learning theories; dentistry; self-consciousness; working memory
Online: 12 April 2021 (13:53:10 CEST)
Learning dental procedures is a complex task involving the development of fine motor skills. The reported use of theories and/ or evidence for designing learning activities to develop the fine motor skills needed for dental practice is limited. The aim of this review is to explore the available body of knowledge related to learning fine motor skills in dentistry. Evidence from studies investigating motor skill learning highlights the negative impact of self-focus and self-regulation on learning outcomes, particularly during the early stages of learning. The development of activities and schedules that enable novices to demonstrate characteristics similar to experts, without the reported long period of ‘deliberate practice’, is clearly of value. Outcomes of learning implicitly are important in dentistry because working under stressful conditions is common, either during undergraduate study or in practice. It is suggested that learning implicitly in the simulation stage can reduce disrupted performance when transitioning to clinical settings. Therefore, further investigation of effective methods for learning dental fine motor skills is indicated, using approaches that result in robust performance, even under stressful conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0077.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: integrated information theory; differentiation; integration; complexity; consciousness; computational; IIT; Phi
Online: 8 April 2019 (08:58:29 CEST)
Integrated information theory (IIT) proposes a measure of integrated information (Φ) to capture the level of consciousness for a physical system in a given state. Unfortunately, calculating Φ itself is currently only possible for very small model systems, and far from computable for the kinds of systems typically associated with consciousness (brains). Here, we consider several proposed measures and computational approximations, some of which can be applied to larger systems, and test if they correlate well with Φ. While these measures and approximations capture intuitions underlying IIT and some have had success in practical applications, it has not been shown that they actually quantify the type of integrated information specified by the latest version of IIT. In this study, we evaluated these approximations and heuristic measures, based not on practical or clinical considerations, but rather based on how well they estimate the Φ values of model systems. To do this, we simulated networks consisting of 3–6 binary linear threshold nodes randomly connected with excitatory and inhibitory connections. For each system, we then constructed the system’s state transition probability matrix (TPM), as well as its state transition matrix (STM) over time for all possible initial states. From these matrices, we calculated, approximations to Φ, and measures based on state differentiation, state entropy, state uniqueness, and integrated information. All measures were correlated with Φ in a state dependent and state independent manner. Our findings suggest that Φ can be approximated closely in small binary systems by using one or more of the readily available approximations (r > 0.95), but without major reductions in computational demands. Furthermore, Φ correlated strongly with measures of signal complexity (LZ, rs = 0.722), decoder based integrated information (Φ*, rs = 0.816), and state differentiation (D1, rs = 0.827), on the system level (state independent). These measures could allow for efficient estimation of Φ on a group level, or as accurate predictors of low, but not high, Φ systems. While it’s uncertain whether the results extend to larger systems or systems with other dynamics, we stress the importance that measures aimed at being practical alternatives to Φ are at a minimum rigorously tested in an environment where the ground truth can be established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0111.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: creativity; consciousness; energy-efficiency; Kahneman System 1 and 2; counterfactual worlds
Online: 9 February 2020 (17:02:28 CET)
It is proposed that both human creativity and human consciousness are (unintended) consequences of the human brain’s extraordinary energy efficiency. The topics of creativity and consciousness are treated separately, though have a common sub-structure. It is argued that creativity arises from a synergy between two cognitive modes of the human brain (which broadly coincide with Kahneman’s Systems 1 and 2). In the first, available energy is spread across a relatively large network of neurons. As such, the amount of energy per active neuron is so small that the operation of such neurons is susceptible to thermal (ultimately quantum decoherent) noise. In the second, available energy is focussed on a small enough subset of neurons to guarantee a deterministic operation. An illustration of how this synergy can lead to creativity with implications for computing in silicon are discussed. Starting with a discussion of the concept of free will, the notion of consciousness is defined in terms of an awareness of what are perceived to be nearby counterfactual worlds in state space. It is argued that such awareness arises from an interplay between our memories on the one hand, and quantum physical mechanisms (where, unlike in classical physics, nearby counterfactual worlds play an indispensable dynamical role) in the ion channels of neural networks. As with the brain’s susceptibility to noise, it is argued that in situations where quantum physics plays a role in the brain, it does so for reasons of energy efficiency. As an illustration of this definition of consciousness, a novel proposal is outlined as to why quantum entanglement appears so counter-intuitive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1221.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Brain Injuries; Disorders of consciousness; Childhood; Follow-Up Studies; Vocational Outcome
Online: 16 June 2023 (10:38:26 CEST)
. Background: Recent studies suggest that acquired brain injury with impaired consciousness in infancy is related to more severe and persistent effects and may have a cumulative effect on ongoing development. In this work, we aim to describe vocational outcome in a group of patients at 15 years from a severe brain lesion they suffered in developmental age. Methods: This study included a total of 147 patients aged 1.5 to 14 years with acquired brain lesion. Clinical, functional details (“Glasgow Outcome Scale – Extended”, “Functional Independent Measure”, Intelligence Quotient) were collected at the time of their first hospitalization and vocational outcome was determined after 15 years. Results: 94 patients (63.9%) presented with traumatic brain injury, while 53 patients (36.1%) presented with a brain lesion of other origin. Traumatic patients had a higher probability to be partly or fully productive than non-traumatic ones: 75.5% of traumatic subjects were working –taking into account limitations due to the traumatic event, versus 62.3% of non-traumatic ones. A relationship between some clinical variables and the vocational outcome was found. Conclusions: Rehabilitation should adequately emphasize “vocational rehabilitation” because a significant proportion of people experiencing a disorder of consciousness in childhood may show good social integration in adult age.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0164.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: Emergence; Information; Consciousness; Integrated Information Theory; Emergent Information Theory; Connectome; Artificial Intelligence
Online: 2 August 2023 (08:36:05 CEST)
In spite of its remarkable characteristics, consciousness cannot be considered in splendid isolation. It is only one of the remarkable phenomena associated with the brain, the brain is just one of the organs in the body, and computers and brains share many characteristics as information-based systems. On the basis of the ubiquitous hierarchical organization of reality into stacked layers, and the particular importance of strong emergence in living systems, this article argues that the brain must also employ such methods to achieve its advanced functions. This is in line with the prop-osition of Integrated Information Theory (IIT) that consciousness requires a high degree of causal integration in its physical substrate. However, such emergence is also shown to underlie infor-mation processing in computers and the non-conscious functions of the brain. It is also demon-strated that both computers and brains exploit a specific type of information that is correlated to but not synonymous with states and mechanisms in the physical substrate. Emergent Information Theory (EIT) therefore presents consciousness as one member of a large and diverse family of non-physical but real forms of emergent information created by specific types of designed and evolved systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0130.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: evolution; consciousness; nervous systems; feelings; reflexes; instincts; amniotes; behavioral decisions; neuronal algorithms
Online: 10 October 2022 (14:49:33 CEST)
Definition: Most multicellular animals have a nervous system that is based on the following three components: 1) Sensory cells gather information and send it to processing units; 2) the processing units use the information to decide on what action to take; and 3) effector neurons activate the appropriate muscles. Due to the importance of making the right decisions, evolution made profound advances in the processing units. I shall review present knowledge regarding the evolution of neurological tools for making decisions, here referred to as strategies or algorithms. Consciousness can be understood as a particularly sophisticated strategy. It may have evolved to allow for the use of feelings as a ‘common currency’ to evaluate behavioral options. The advanced cognitive capacity of species such as humans further improved the usefulness of consciousness, yet in biological terms it does not seem to be an optimal, fitness-enhancing strategy. A model for the gradual evolution of consciousness is presented. There is a somewhat arbitrary cutoff as to which animals have consciousness but based on current information it seems reasonable to restrict the term to amniotes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Locavore, Locally produced foods, Health consciousness, Traceability, Price consciouness, Taste, Social Responsibility.
Online: 17 March 2017 (22:05:04 CET)
ABSTRACT After locavore was chosen as “the best word of the year” in 2007, its popularity increased gradually. Today great number of locavores consciously prefer locally produced food for the benefit of themselves and their community. Undoubtedly this conscious movement has its consequences in marketing discipline. Accordingly, this paper is purposed to examine the how locavore perceptions affect loyalty towards retailers that sell locally produced food. In this context, a survey was applied to people residing in Istanbul and Kocaeli districts to measure the robustness of these effects. Furthermore, attitude towards locavore is used as a control variable to reveal to what extend locavorism affects these proposed connections. According to results, for participants with low attitude, Social Responsibility and Health Consciousness variables have significant effect on local retailer shopping loyalty. However, for participants with high attitude, all independent variables proved to have substantial effect on local retailer shopping loyalty. As the first empirical study in Turkey on the subject, this paper will provide important insight to academia and practicioners due to today’s ever-increasing consciousness in green marketing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0851.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Covert Marketing, Overt Marketing, Guerrilla Marketing, Brand Evangelism, Ecological Consciousness, Food Industry.
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:55:20 CEST)
Traditional marketing tactics have been significantly challenged by marketers, especially in the food sector. Companies have been engaging in covert and overt advertisements as an emerging marketing communication strategy to circumvent customer skepticism, build a good image, and create value for the brand. But there is a lack of literature regarding integrating traditional and new marketing tactics in building intention and ecologically conscious consumer behavior. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to provide empirical evidence concerning the integration of different marketing tactics, i.e., Green Product Features, Green Pricing, Covert Advertisement, Overt Advertisement and Guerrilla Marketing, and their effects on Purchase Intention and Ecologically Conscious Consumer Behavior. The study also employs moderation of Brand Evangelism, Environmental Knowledge and Habitat Attitude between intention and behavior building. A visual appraisal technique was used by showing a video or picture as a sample of covert or overt marketing tactics before filling out a close-ended questionnaire to get accurate responses. The data from 568 customers of the frozen food industry were analyzed using the co-variance-based structure equation modeling technique with the help of AMOS. The findings of the study elaborate that parallel to the significant impact of conventional marketing mix tactics, covert, overt and guerrilla marketing are strong antecedents for intention building, which eventually develops Ecologically Conscious Consumer Behavior (ECCB). The results also affirm that intention can lead to ECCB significantly through brand evangelism and environmental knowledge. These findings reflect the importance of shifting marketers from conventional marketing tactics to novel hidden marketing techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0050.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: mind brain interaction, Avicenna, consciousness, cognition, incorporeity of mind, mind matter interaction
Online: 6 June 2019 (12:58:52 CEST)
Mind and brain/matter interaction is one of the important and controversial issues in Islamic philosophy. In fact, in the resources of Islamic philosophy, one of the basic parts of philosophical discussions is related to mind’s nature and its interaction with the brain. Especially, in Avicenna’s philosophy, there are many articles and books which have addressed the topic of mind and brain and the relation between them. Avicenna was a profound philosopher, an expert physicist and a proficient physician of his time. Because of his experimental proficiency in medicine and surgery and his deep philosophical analysis, his discussion about mind and brain is very interesting for our time, due to recent advances in neuroscience. In this article, we have explained one of Avicenna’s arguments (in his famous opus “al-Isharat”) about the incorporeity of mind (self), which is very close to modern neuroscience and physics literature. In addition, we explain his model of mind and brain interaction. Avicenna described the mechanism of the causal effect of mind on the brain via a third identity, which works as an interface between them (in his main book “al-Shifa”). We try to illustrate his model by the use of some examples, inspired from modern physics. Also, we explore the philosophical constraints which must be considered in any model of mind-matter interaction, within the Islamic philosophy framework. In fact, we propose a new understanding of Avicenna’s philosophy which is in agreement with modern physics and neuroscience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0342.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: integrated information theory; Lempel-Ziv complexity; multichannel EEGs; Electroencephalography; measures of consciousness
Online: 16 August 2021 (13:52:06 CEST)
Multichannel EEGs were obtained from healthy participants in the eyes-closed no-task condition (where the alpha component is typically abolished). EEG dynamics in the two conditions were quantified with two related binary Lempel-Ziv measures of the first principal component and with three measures of integrated information including the more recently proposed integrated synergy. Both integrated information and integrated synergy with model order p=1 had greater values in the eyes closed condition. If the model order of integrated synergy was determined with the Bayesian Information Criterion, this pattern was reversed, and in common with other measures, integrated synergy was greater in the eyes open condition. Eyes open versus eyes closed separation was quantified by calculation of the between-condition effect size. Lempel-Ziv complexity of the first principal component showed greater separation than the measures of integrated information. The performance of the integrated information measures investigated here when distinguishing between indisputably different physiological states encourages caution when advocating for their use as measures of consciousness.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Co-production; dream consciousness; Guido Morselli; identity obsession; narrative obsession; now-vigilance; self
Online: 28 November 2023 (07:21:32 CET)
Contemporary diagnostic practice in psychiatry relies on the tick-box approach of diagnostic manuals. In light of the obvious limitations of diagnostic systems, narrative formulations, whether in the form of biological, psychodynamic or behavioural cognitive ones, have been proposed. Their approach, which can be caricatured as one of drawing arrows, enriches our clinical tools and practice but in their explicitly theoretical orientation, as well as expanding the field of discovery, they also constrain it. In two previous papers I summarized the resulting limitations, with specific reference to the patient’s experience and proposed further enriching clinical perspicacity by attending to images and parataxis. The specific intent of attending to the patient’s experiences through a process that explicitly eschews narrativization, but allows clinical phenomena to “hang loose”, is to facilitate a process of clinical discovery and healing through practices of co-production between patient and clinician. In the present paper, I expand the range of phenomena that may assist in this co-production through adding attention to dreams to that of images and parataxis. In particular, I turn to the work of the Italian novelist Guido Morselli. Morselli agrues that the self is created through bundling experiences together through acts of “will” in order to establish our personal narrative. In doing so, however, the “will” forbids access to phenomena that do not fit the dominant narrative. Experience is therefore impoverished. Dream consciousness is a type of consciousness not harnessed by the constraints of narrativity. It allows a slipping of the narrative vigilance which bundles phenomena together to create a coherent narrative and thus offers a richer menu of potential experiences, including “bizarre” images that can serve to challenge our usual self-narrative and offer a new perspective on ourselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1777.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Artificial consciousness; artificial neural network; quantum mechanics; Information compression; Six-dimensional space-time
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:24:58 CEST)
Consciousness results from comprehending the living creature from its existence in time and space. Thought and consciousness are distinguishing factors between humans and machines having artificial intelligence. No algorithm has been offered for artificial self-awareness based on Thinking. Previous studies have not studied the relationship between consciousness, thinking and time. In this study, the relationship between consciousness, thinking, memories and speech over time has been studied. A deep logical connection exists between consciousness, thinking, and time. An algorithm can be designed for artificial consciousness based on this research findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1302.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Space Science Keywords: Plant-like astronauts; Artificial intelligence; Synthetic biology; Green skin; Blue blood; Human consciousness
Online: 19 June 2023 (05:38:15 CEST)
Based on the eventual destruction of the solar system and the critical need for human continuation, this article suggests sending synthetic biology- and AI-created plant-like astronauts to the closest habitable exoplanet, Teegarden's Star b. Here we show that these astronauts will have green skin, blue blood, and the ability to perform photosynthesis. They could withstand cosmic radiation and extremely low temperatures in space while generating energy through photosynthesis. This groundbreaking interdisciplinary approach may provide a solution to the survival challenges faced by humans on their eternal interstellar journey. As long as plant-like astronauts possess human consciousness, it does not matter whether they are even a hybrid of carbon-based and silicon-based life. They will be a continuation of humanity on exoplanets. Human faces two options for survival. The first is the Mars migration program led by Elon Reeve Musk, which remains within the solar system and may not protect against the Sun's future scorching all life on the solar system during its red giant phase. The second option involves a more daring approach: the frantic escape of plant-like astronauts from the solar system. Should we consider both options simultaneously, much like how humans use their two legs to walk?
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Keywords: excessive fertilization; agro environment; rental land; traditional way; younger farmers; environmental consciousness
Online: 13 November 2017 (16:14:39 CET)
Abstract: The study focuses on how socio-economic and demographic indicators affect fertilization sustainability (excessive amount of fertilization). Principally we aim to examine the significance magnitude of the effects of three socio-demographic variables such as traditional way of fertilization, rental land farming, and farmers’ younger age on over-fertilization in Bangladesh and other developing countries. In 1960s, Bangladesh state authority launched a campaign ‘Grow more Food’ to feed huge numbers of population and thus the farmers are provided chemical fertilizers and pesticides at a subsidized low price. Farmers began to use huge amount of fertilizers for gaining high yields and continued it to present causing environmental woes a lot. We interview (face-to-face, focus group discussion, and phone interview) 210 Bangladesh farmers in 2016 by semi-structured questionnaire. Data has been analyzed using General Linear Model (GLM) in Univariate Analysis of Variance. The study found the effect of traditional way of fertilization on excessive amount of fertilization is strongly significant at 1% level. Apart from, rental land farming and farmers’ younger age have a significant influence on over- fertilization; though their significance level (5% and 10% respectively) is quasi-strong. Policy makers can be able to formulate fertilizer policy on the basis of these findings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0263.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Theory of Planned Behavior; organic food; green consciousness; purchasing behavior Structural Equation Modelling
Online: 12 May 2021 (10:45:41 CEST)
The rapid growth of the organic food market in Italy and in other developed countries has drawn the attention of researchers and practitioners. The diffusion of pro-environmental concerns and sustainable lifestyles among consumers are often cited as two of the main drivers of the increase in demand for organic food products. Consequently, unveiling the factors that influence consumers’ demand of, and preference for organic food is essential for all the actors involved in the supply chain. This paper presents the results of a research model which relates organic food purchase intention to consumers’ green consciousness, health motivations, food safety concerns, organic product knowledge, family and social context and perception of the intrinsic quality of food. A questionnaire, based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) and the extant literature on organic food choice, was developed and presented to a sample of 600 Italian consumers. Causal relations among variables were then tested using Structural Equation Modelling. The results suggest that, besides the existence of green consciousness, other variables may affect consumers’ preference for organic food: among these, specific and closely interlinked elements, such as food safety concerns and perceived quality heavily affected the intention to buy organic food products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0226.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: vividness; mental imagery; consciousness; cognitive neuroscience; neuroimaging; cognitive psychology; behavior; verbal report; phenomenology; perception
Online: 19 April 2019 (12:26:25 CEST)
Organisms are adapted to each other and the environment, not as tradition would have it, because natural selection made them that way, but because there is inbuilt striving towards stability and equilibrium. A General Theory of Behaviour connects imagery, affect and action with the central executive system we call Consciousness. The General Theory is founded on the assumption that the primary motivation of all of Consciousness and intentional behaviour is Psychological Homeostasis. Psychological homeostasis is as important to the organisation of mind and behaviour as Physiological Homeostasis is to the organisation of bodily systems. Consciousness processes quasi-perceptual images independently of the input to the retina and sensorium. Consciousness is the “I-Am” control centre for integration and regulation of (my) thoughts, (my) feelings and (my) actions with (my) conscious mental imagery as foundation stones. Imagery vividness, a combination of clarity and liveliness, is essential to imagining, remembering, thinking, predicting, planning and acting. Assessment of vividness using introspective report is validated by objective means such as fMRI. A significant body of work shows that vividness of visual imagery is determined by the similarity of neural responses in imagery to those occurring in perception of actual objects and performance of activities. I am Conscious, therefore I am.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0496.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intuitive Meditation; Consciousness; Inner Balance technology 3; Coherence; Feeling; Thinking; HeartMath; Wellbeing; Self; Qualitative
Online: 21 June 2021 (09:53:57 CEST)
An introductory course of Arka Dhyana, also known as Intuitive Meditation (IM), consisting of five sessions, was offered to an international audience via Zoom technology. Participants were shown how to connect to their deeper self, essence or soul by bringing their I-ego-awareness from the thinking mind, often associated with the frontal part of the brain, to 19 energetic stations in the body including the heart centre. In this limited study, evaluation was both process and outcome orientated and included HeartMath (HM) Inner Balance or emWave2 electronic technology to measure mean coherence and achievement before and after each session. A highly significant increase in both coherence and achievement in six participants was found, which was also reflected in a reported increase in wellbeing related to feelings in qualitative statements indicating changes in levels of consciousness and individual transformative experiences as predicted by the Theory of the Six Main Levels of Consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0454.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: unconscious; consciousness; quantum-like models; decision making; indirect measurement scheme; open quantum systems; sensation; perception
Online: 17 March 2021 (16:58:30 CET)
We present the mathematical model of cooperative functioning of unconscious and consciousness. The model is based on the theory of open quantum systems. Unconscious and consciousness are treated as bio-information systems. The latter plays the role a measurement apparatus for the former. States of both systems are represented in Hilbert spaces. Consciousness performs measurements on the states which are generated in unconscious. This process of unconscious-conscious interaction is described by the scheme of indirect measurements. This scheme is widely used in quantum information theory and it leads to the theory of quantum instruments (Davis-Lewis-Ozawa). Our approach is known as quantum-like modeling. It should be sharply distinguished from modeling of genuine quantum physical processes in biosystems, in particular, in the brain. In the quantum-like framework, the brain is a black box processing information in the accordance with the laws of quantum theory. During the last 10-15 years this framework has been actively used in cognition, psychology, decision making, social and political sciences. The quantum-like scheme of unconscious-consciousness functioning has already been explored for sensation-perception modeling.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: sleep; anesthesia; rapid eye movement (REM) sleep; NREM sleep; sharp-wave ripples (SWRs); dreaming; consciousness
Online: 30 April 2019 (11:12:47 CEST)
Sleep is still considered a mystery, despite intense scientific investigation. Here we present the first complete biological theory of sleep. The role of sleep is to restore the optimal homeostatic state, which is essential for tissue performance and health. Non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREMS) restores cortical and most other brain neurons, via relaxed global activity managed by thalamocortical circuits. The role of REM sleep is to restore acetylcholine (ACh) neurons, which support focused responses and hence cannot participate in global oscillations. Sleep enhances learning and memory via state restoration and ACh-affected paths. NREMS induces a lack of consciousness because global synchronous activity prevents focused responses, which are essential for consciousness. Dreams result from focused neural firing during sharp-wave ripples and REMS, and have a sense of reality because they involve the same neurons representing focused perceptual responses during wake. Anesthetics utilize a variety of mechanisms that prevent focused responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0126.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: consciousness; catecholaminergic neurons; substantia nigra pars compacta; locus coeruleus; ferritin; electron transport; voluntary action selection
Online: 8 November 2021 (09:33:34 CET)
A newly-discovered physical mechanism involving electron tunneling in layers of the protein ferritin that are found in catecholaminergic neurons (catecholaminergic neuron electron transport or CNET), is hypothesized to support communication between neurons. Recent tests further confirm that these ferritin layers can also perform a switching function (in addition to providing an electron tunneling mechanism) that could be associated with action selection in those neurons, consistent with earlier predictions based on CNET. While further testing would be needed to confirm the hypothesis that CNET allows groups of neurons to communicate and act as a switch for selecting one of the neurons in the group to assist in reaching action potential, this paper explains how that hypothesized behavior would be consistent with Integrated Information Theory (IIT), one of a number of consciousness theories (CTs). While the sheer number of CTs suggest that any one of them is not sufficient to explain consciousness, this paper demonstrates that CNET can provide a physical substrate that is consistent with IIT and which can also be applied to other CTs, such as to conform them into a single explanation of consciousness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0223.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: mind brain interaction, quantum consciousness, Avicenna, Bohmian quantum mechanics, modified Schrödinger equation, quantum field theory
Online: 17 May 2019 (11:10:12 CEST)
In quantum approaches to consciousness, the authors try to propose a model and mechanism for the mind-brain interaction using modern physics and some quantum concepts which do not exist in the classical physics. The independent effect of mind on the brain has been one of the challenging issues in the history of science and philosophy. In some recent mind-brain interaction models, the direct influence of mind on matter is either not accepted (as in Stapp’s model) or not clear, and there have not been any clear mechanism for it (as in Penrose-Hameroff’s model or in Eccles’s model). In this manuscript we propose a model and mechanism for mind’s effect on the matter using an extended Bohmian quantum mechanics and Avicenna’s ideas. We show that mind and mental states can affect brain’s activity without any violation of physical laws. This is a mathematical and descriptive model which shows the possibility of providing a causal model for mind’s effect on matter. It is shown that this model guarantees the realistic philosophical constraints and respects the laws of nature. In addition, it is shown that it is in agreement with the Libet style experimental results and parapsychological data. To propose this model, we obtained a modified (non-unitary) Schrödinger equation via second quantization method which affects the particle through a modified quantum potential and a new term in the continuity equation. At the second quantized level, which is equivalent to quantum field theory level (QFT), we can use the path integral formalism of Feynman. We show that there are three methods to extend Bohmian QM via path integral formalism, which has different interpretations. By numerical simulation of trajectories in the two-slits experiment, we show their differences and choose one of these methods for our mind-brain model which can be the basis for explaining some phenomena which are not possible to explain in the standard Bohmian QM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0075.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Consumers' consciousness for health; companies’ health-friendly activities; health-friendly products and services; health status
Online: 7 May 2019 (11:14:55 CEST)
Although health policy resides mainly with the government, industry can play an important role in building a health ecosystem. From March to May, we administered questionnaires to 1,200 individuals from the general Korean population asking about their perception of health-friendly labels, and if they would purchase such labeled products (foods, pharmaceuticals, etc.) and services (purifying water, preventing air pollution, etc.) at extra cost. The participants placed a high value on the importance of mental, social, spiritual, and physical health factors in terms of company’s products and services with a score of about 8 out of 10 (range, 7.74-8.33). Most respondents (72.4%) said they were interested in adopting health-friendly labels. When a health-friendly label is introduced (such as one by the Business for Social Responsiveness), 65.1% of the respondents said they intended to purchase the product or service, while 6.8% said they did not, and 75.0% said they were willing to pay extra for the health-friendly product or service. Multivariate logistic regression models showed urban residence, high education level, and good social health to be significantly associated with positive attitudes toward health-friendly labels. People with high income, no religion, or normal weight were more likely to say they intend to purchase products and services with health-friendly labels. They also had a more positive attitude toward paying more for such products and services, as did people with good spiritual health. This study provides data that illustrate the importance of health-friendly products and services to the general population and companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Cognitive Science Keywords: qualia; consciousness; emission theories; perception; event-related brain potentials; P600 or late posterior positivity; N400
Online: 6 June 2018 (10:51:03 CEST)
We take what we see, hear, smell and feel for the reality. However, as neuroscientists, we know that this reality, that is, our perceptual world, is in fact made up by the brain from the processing of the nerve impulses coming from receptors. Ancient Greeks used to think that this perceptual world, sometimes called our 3D movie (Chalmers), is emitted and has its own physical nature. Given how real the 3D movie looks to us, it is still difficult today to consider that all we would be dealing with would be patterns of brain activity The present study thus aimed at testing whether the perceptual world could have some physical existence in addition to that of the neural patterns responsible for it. To achieve that goal, we tried to see whether brains could be sensitive to the 3D movie of others. This, admittedly unusual, operational hypothesis was based on two assumptions. First, brains are sensitive to the 3D movie, as our experience includes reactions to our perceptual world. Second, the physicality at stake does not differ across individuals. We recorded the event-related brain potentials (ERPs) evoked by stimuli of the international affective picture system in pairs of closely-related participants. Most importantly, they could neither see the stimuli simultaneously presented to their partners nor their reactions to them. As in Bouten et al. (2015), around 400 ms after the onset of the stimuli, ERPs started being more positive in inconsistent conditions. Namely, when the two subjects of each pair were presented with the same stimulus whereas they were told it would be a different one and vice-versa (i.e., different-stimuli expected to be same). ERPs were less positive when the two subjects of a pair were presented with the same stimuli and were told they were the same and conversely (i.e., different-stimuli expected to be different). The same experiment was then run in pairs of strangers. No significant effect of consistency on ERPs was observed even though participants could, this time, see, in the very periphery of their visual field, the reactions of their partner to the stimuli. We thus use the results of both studies to support a new version of the emission theory of consciousness and to suggest that the sensitivity to the perceptual world of others may depend on their prior familiarity with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0345.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Loss of consciousness; Mental health; Working life; Effort Reward Imbalance; Sleep Dis-orders; Health promotion; Workplace
Online: 25 October 2021 (11:54:17 CEST)
Syncope and presyncope occurring during work can affect safety and impair occupational performance. Few data are available regarding the prevalence of these events among workers. The possible role of sleep quality, mental stress and metabolic disorders in promoting syncope, presyncope and falls in workers is unknown. In the present study, 741 workers (male 35.4%; mean age 47±11 years), employed in different companies, underwent clinical evaluation and blood tests and completed questionnaires to assess sleep quality, occupational distress and mental disorders. The occurrence of syncope, presyncope and unexplained falls during their working life was assessed by an ad hoc interview. The prevalence of syncope, presyncope and falls of unknown origin was 13.9%, 27.0%, and 10.3%, respectively. The occurrence of syncope was associated with an increased risk of occupational distress (adjusted Odds Ratio aOR: 1.62, Confidence Intervals at 95%: 1.05-2.52), low sleep quality (aOR: 1.79 CI 95%: 1.16-2.77) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.43 CI 95%: 1.52-3.87). Presyncope was strongly associated with occupational distress (aOR: 1.77 CI 95%: 1.25-2.49), low sleep quality (aOR: 2.95 CI 95%: 2.08-4.18) and poor mental health (aOR: 2.61 CI 95%: 1.78-3.84), while no significant relationship was found between syncope or presyncope and metabolic syndrome. These results suggest that occupational health promotion interventions aimed at improving sleep quality, reducing stressors and increasing worker resilience might reduce syncope and presyncope events in the working population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0877.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Ouroboros Model; Analogical Algorithms; AI-Challenge; Large Language Models; Cybernetics; Synergetics; Understanding; Common Sense; Consciousness; Free Will.
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:28:07 CEST)
A topical challenge for algorithms in general and for automatic image categorization and generation in particular is presented with the aim of highlighting strengths and deficiencies of current Artificial Intelligence approaches while sketching a way forward. A general lack of encompassing symbol-embedding and (not only) -grounding in some bodily basis is made responsible for current deficiencies. A concomitant dearth of hierarchical organization of concepts follows suite. As a remedy for these shortcomings, it is proposed to take a wide step back and to newly incorporate aspects of cybernetics and analog control processes. It is claimed that a promising overarching perspective is provided by the Ouroboros Model with a valid and versatile algorithmic backbone for general cognition at all accessible levels of abstraction and capabilities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0546.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Theory of Education; Consciousness; Responsibility; Lesley Dewart; Perceptual Control Theory (PCT); William T. Powers; Semiotics of Education
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:40:32 CET)
Among the biggest challenges facing the contemporary human condition, and therefore also education, is responding to the climate crisis. The source of the crisis is assumed to be absent-mindedness, presented by Leslie Dewart as a distortion of the development of human consciousness. Dewart's poorly-known philosophical consciousness study is presented in this paper in broad outline. The problems in the study of consciousness, the most important of which are the qualitative representations – qualia – and the question of free will, are also briefly discussed. These problems are then examined transcendental analytically, with the question of what one must assume in order to allow the emergence of these phenomena. From the resulting conception of causal relationship, we proceed to the circular causality as a prerequisite for life, namely the homeostatic systems and negative feedback. An organization of action that is essential to animals and humans is presented, using William Powers’ perceptual control theory (PCT), and the role of consciousness in this organization is drafted according to the studies of Martin Taylor. Action is seen as continuous problem solving, in which negative feedback is used to bring perceptions into line with the goals. The fundamental function of consciousness is revealed as the direction and enhancement of learning. Based on PCT, it can be shown that the main practical problems in animal and, especially, human action, are related to adverse side effects of action and the resulting various conflicts. The climate crisis is a typical example of the problematic side effects of collective action. Dewart's concept of absent-mindedness can therefore be defined as an inability to responsibly account for the side effects of action. Thus, the main task of education is to forestall, through negative feedback and in cooperation with learner consciousness, absent-mindedness and the problems it causes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1220.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Virtual environment; Avatar customization; Avatar self-similarity; Avatar identification; Public self-consciousness; Online self-expression; Emotional expression
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:25:32 CEST)
Purpose: This study aims to analyze the factors that affect the behavior of user-defined avatars in different virtual environments, and compare the differences in public self-awareness, self-expression, and emotional expression among customized avatars in multiple virtual contexts. Methods: Using a between-subjects experimental design, two random groups of participants were asked to customize avatars for themselves in two contexts, a multiplayer online social game (MOSG) and a virtual meeting (VM). i.e. a relaxed and a serious social environment. Results: When subjects perceived a more relaxed environment, the customized avatars had less self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a stronger self-disclosure willingness and enhanced avatar wishful identification; nevertheless, public self-consciousness was not increased. When subjects perceived a more serious environment, the customized avatars exhibited a higher degree of self-similarity, and the subjects exhibited a greater self-presentation willingness, along with enhanced identification of avatar similarity, and increased public self-consciousness. Conclusions: Participants expressed positive emotions, suggesting that avatars play a positive role in various virtual contexts. The virtual context affects the self-similarity of user-customized avatars, and avatar self-similarity affects self-presentation and self-disclosure willingness, and these factors will affect the behavior of the user-customized avatar. This study contributes suggestions to the Metaverse avatar customization platform design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0889.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Corporate Social Responsibility; Social Responsibility; Economic Responsibility; Environmental Responsibility; Ethical Responsibility; Brand Image; Consciousness; Apparel Industry; Jordan
Online: 25 April 2023 (05:30:58 CEST)
The purpose of this paper is to explore the effect of corporate social responsibility (CSR) on brand image in the apparel industry in Jordan, using the moderating variable of customer consciousness. The current research uses a quantitative, descriptive, cause-effect, and cross-sectional approach, and also it uses a convenience sampling method. Data was collected from 440 respondents. Results indicate that Jordanian Apparel organizations have medium to highly implementing of all items and constructs of CSR, brand image items, and consciousness items. Moreover, there is a strong relationship between CSR dimensions, a medium relationship be-tween each CSR dimension and brand image, a medium relationship between each CSR dimension and consciousness, a medium relationship between total CSR and brand image, a medium relationship between total CSR and consciousness, and the medium relationship between brand image and consciousness. Results of the first model show that total CSR affects the brand image. Where social responsibility has the highest positive effect, followed by ethical responsibility, then economic responsibility, however, environmental responsibility negatively affects the brand image. The second model shows consciousness moderates the effect of CSR on the brand image. The study recommends longitudinal research on the Jordanian Apparel industry, especially to test the effect of environmental responsibility on the brand image. Moreover, the re-search uses customers’ consciousness as a moderating variable, which improves the effect of CSR on brand image. The Apparel industry organizations in Jordan should revise their daily practices particularly environmental responsibility and/or increase their customers’ awareness of their practices. Finally, the current research contributes to existing studies by using consciousness as a moderating variable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0347.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: interocular suppression; consciousness; color vision; visual search; attentional templates; early visual system; awareness; continuous flash suppression; binocoular rivalry
Online: 18 January 2021 (14:32:29 CET)
Color can direct visual attention to specific locations through bottom-up and top-down mechanisms. Using Continuous Flash Suppression (CFS) as way to investigate the factors that gate access to consciousness, the current study investigated whether color also directly affected the timing of conscious perception. Low or high spatial frequency (SF) gratings with different orientations were shown as targets to the non-dominant eye of human participants. CFS patterns were presented at a rate of 10Hz to the dominant eye to delay conscious perception of the targets, and participants had the task to report the target’s orientation as soon as they could see it. With low-SF targets, two types of color-based effects became evident. First, when the targets and the CFS patterns had different colors, the targets entered consciousness faster than in trials where the targets and CFS patterns had the same color. Second, when participants searched for a specific target color, targets that matched these search settings entered consciousness faster compared to conditions where the target color was irrelevant and could vary from trial to trial. Thus, the current study demonstrates that color is a central feature of human perception and leads to faster conscious perception of visual stimuli through bottom-up and top-down attentional mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0099.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: New Ecological Paradigm; Ethical Orientation Scale; ethical decision making; Values driven leadership; eco consciousness; deontological; teleological; anthropocentrism; ecocentrism
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:24:06 CEST)
Business school curriculums are designed to improve business skills and a student’s eventual workplace performance. In addition to these business skill sets the emerging business environment demands softer skills associated with ethical decision-making and sustainable business practices. Understanding the key influencers of ethical orientation and attitudes towards the environment is the first critical step for curriculum planning designed to develop both ethical decision-making and environmental sensibilities of students in business schools. Using a bivariate regression analysis (OLS) that compared the established New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) scale and the newly introduced Ethical Orientation Scale (EOS), this study assesses environmental eco-consciousness and ethical orientation over time and across varying socio-demographic variables. The study shows first, that in addition to socio-cultural variables, situational factors influence ethical decision-making. Secondly, it illuminates that ethical orientations as measured by the EOS predicts beliefs about the environment as measured by the NEP scale. It further provides evidence of the ethical underpinnings of the New Ecological Paradigm as well as provides initial validation for the new EOS. These outcomes provide additional levers to assist business educators in the creation of high impact teaching strategies to measure and encourage ethical decision-making and sustainable business practices that protect the environment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0453.v4
Subject: Physical Sciences, Quantum Science And Technology Keywords: Foundation of physics; Matter; space; time; Consciousness; Life; informational physics; fundamental physical problems; cosmology; quantum mechanics; relativity theories; Standard Mode; particles; antiparticles; fundamental Nature forces; EM force; Gravity; quantum gravity; equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses; fine structure constant; Lorentz transformations; experimental testing.
Online: 24 January 2023 (13:13:05 CET)
This article is some review of results that were obtained at 2007-2021 years development of “The Information as Absolute” concept and the informational physical model, which is based on the concept; including a number of fundamental physical problems are briefly considered in framework of the conception and the model. Recently in physics there are several publications, that present lists of the problems. However, those lists are essentially incomplete, for at least two reasons. Firsts of all, a number of phenomena are studied traditionally by philosophy, and so corresponding problems are usually considered to be “metaphysical”. However, they relate also to some concrete physical phenomena. For example, physics evidently studies Matter, and so the metaphysical problems “what is ontology of Matter”, “what is “Space”, “Time” and a few other physical phenomena and notions as well, are really a Meta-physical problems “what does physics study?” There are other fundamental physical problems, which are not considered as such in physics, and are absent in the “fundamental problems lists”. Those include the problems, which really exist, yet are incorporated into standard physical theories, and so are fundamental “implicitly”, which in physics are “solved by default” ‒ and mostly erroneously. Note, though, that a number of “Meta-physical”, and concrete fundamental, problems more in detail are considered in the paper “The Informational Conception and Basic Physics”, https://arxiv.org/abs/0707.4657, v5 (2021), so this paper is, in certain sense, an expanded conclusion of this paper, which includes, correspondingly, more in detail consideration of some more general physical problems; and, besides, in this article, the problem “what are Gravity and Electric Forces” is essentially clarified comparing with the arXiv 2021 paper version above. Besides, the concrete problem “What is Life”, and the rational cosmological model, where a few vague points in standard cosmology rather probably are rationally clarified, while the fundamental problem “matter – antimatter asymmetry” in Matter is solved practically for sure, are considered, and one of recently published rather complete “lists of fundamental problems” is commented in Appendix.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: consciousness 1; subjective experience 2; will 3; agency 4; self 5; psychopathology 6; treatment 7; transcranial near infrared light 8; biophotomodulation 9
Online: 25 May 2021 (08:44:47 CEST)
In this paper I will address Dr. Sonne’s questions about will, agency, choice, consciousness, relevant brain regions, impacts of disorders and their therapeutics, and I will do this by referring to my theory, Dual-brain Psychology, which posits that within most of us there exist two mental agencies with different experiences, wills, choices, and behaviors. Each of these agencies is associated as a trait with one brain hemisphere (either left or right) and its composite regions. One of these agencies is more adversely affected by past traumas and is more immature and more symptomatic while the other is more mature and healthier. The theory has extensive experimental support through 17 peer-reviewed publications with clinical and non-clinical research. I will discuss how this theory relates to the questions that Dr. Sonne presented and will discuss also my published theory on the physical nature of subjective experience and its relation to the brain and how that theory interacts with DBP, and how the 2 theories relate to subjective experience, will, behavior, psychopathology and its treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: Information; matter-related information; micro/macro structuration/destructuration; non-living/living structures; Informational Model of the Human Body and Living Structures; Infor-mational Model of Consciousness
Online: 7 April 2023 (03:56:25 CEST)
This paper is referred to a top frontline research in life science, showing that in spite of the large variation of the physiological architecture and behavioral forms of the living systems, the fundamental structure of their informational system is basically the same, allowing the body growth/development by micro to macro-structuration processes, maintaining the same informational configuration and functions like the basic unit of life – the eukaryotic cell. Starting and based on the determination of the special/specific info-operability in living structures and the role of information in structuration and their functionality, there are discussed the informational functions of the eukaryotic/prokaryotic cells, the simplest units of life and is elaborated and presented the Informational Model of the Living Structures, showing that these structures operate on the basis of two main informational systems: one of them defined as the Programmed Informational System, composed by three components, assuring respectively the info-generation, maintenance and the proliferation/reproduction, and another one defined as the Operative Informational System, necessary for the continuous communication with the environment for adaptation, consisting in four main components referred to memory, decision, sentience and info-connection/info-selection. The revealed properties are compared with the Informational System of the Human Body, as a prototype of a living system on the top of the evolutionary scale, showing/demonstrating the compatibility of structuration and functions on the entire scale, from prokaryotic/eukaryotic unit cells to multicellular organisms – plants, animals and human, by means of a continuous adaptation process, which always follows the same line of micro to macro-structuration process based on the same Info-organization and functionality. These models are new and revolutionary in the information and life sciences
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0963.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: edge of chaos; intermittency; difference mapping; Lyapunov exponent; consciousness; thesaurus; memristor; forth phase of water; proton; Grotthuss mechanism; gap junctions; excitation; inhibition; neuron; brain; fields of hippocampus
Online: 14 September 2023 (11:16:53 CEST)
Consciousness is a special type of interaction between subjects exchanging by lingua quanta (phonemes). A set of lingua quanta composes a thesaurus placed on the edge of chaos. Its library is a memory, modification of which is due to tuning of memristive neural elements scattered in the brain volume. The memristive neural model takes into consideration two types of neurons - excitatory and inhibitory and the current leakage, all at the body temperature, T = 309 K. At such temperatures only heavy ions like hydrogen ions - protons can pass robustly through the water medium of the brain. The robust ion transport is proton water wires supported by the Grotthuss mechanism. Final aims of the ions are the gap junctions (electric synapses) linking nearest neurons. Following these observations, a model of excitable nervous tissue is constructed. Namely, a difference mapping on the basis of sigmoid curves can reproduce chaotic modes of neural activity proved by positive values of the Lyapunov exponent. The edge of chaos is placed near the bifurcation boundary dividing the chaos and the periodic convulsive activity typical at the epileptic discharges. In this region the self-sustained spiral waves occur. An intermittent activity of the competing excitatory and inhibitory neurons is observed on the edge of chaos. The intermittent electrical activity of neural tissues is demonstrated by records both from different literature issues and records made by the author together with DR. A. Dudkin on slices of CA1 field of the hippocampus.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0437.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy And Astrophysics Keywords: Binary digits, Mobius strips, Figure-8 Klein bottles, Dark matter, Dark energy, Topological insulators, Topological superconductors, Topological universe, Weyl fermion, Majorana fermion, Vector-tensor-scalar geometry, Higgs-like body/consciousness
Online: 19 May 2021 (08:23:47 CEST)
The part of this article dealing with topological insulators and topological superconductors was first written about two years ago - the ideas in the part about the topological universe originated six years ago or more. It’s rather strange that I never put the two parts together in writing before. My belief in unification is unshakeable - I’ve been convinced for years that the universe must be composed of topology. Since Earth is part of the cosmos, entanglement means it must have topological materials. The reverse is also true: topological materials on Earth are well known to science - so in a unification, space and time inevitably possess topological composition. Topological materials (topological insulators, topological superconductors) can be less mystifying if they’re related to the paradigm-shifting deterministic view of quantum mechanics which is described in the universal topology (the “rubber-sheet geometry” of the cosmos): see my previous submission “Hypothesis of Quantum Gravity - Resulting from a Static, Topological Universe Resulting from the Positives and Negatives of the Steady State and Big Bang Theories" at https://www.preprints.org/manuscript/202105.0239/v1 (the first section of this present article is a quick summary of the relevant parts).
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0598.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Plant communication; Binary digits; Vector-tensor-scalar geometry; Mobius strip; Figure-8 Klein bottle; Consciousness; Electromagnetic-gravitational interaction; Higgs boson; Artificial Intelligence; Quantum Gravity; Theory of Everything, Life after death/before life (before conception)
Online: 24 June 2021 (10:20:25 CEST)
According to Swiss-American Doctor of Sciences and Agricultural Engineer Jean-Pierre Jost, "plants communicate with each other by the quality of light emitted by their leaves or by means of stress hormones and other volatile chemicals. They also make use of cocktails of chemicals, pheromones, shape and colors to attract pollinators whereas other signals repel unwanted organisms. Insects are able to decode such messages and respond accordingly. Plants are apparently also communicating by sounds and electric signals." (1) How do plants do these things? Of course, it's easy to imagine it's all purely mechanical. But at the risk of sounding like a mysticism fanatic, I wonder if plants' activities are part of a spectrum of consciousness that pervades the entire universe. This spectrum would result from everything in the universe having the BITS or BInary digiTS of electronics as their ultimate composition. As explained in this hypothesis, something I call vector-tensor-scalar geometry is essential to my hypothesis. VTS geometry produces the particles of chemicals and pheromones, and refers to communication via electric signals when it speaks of electromagnetic-gravitational interaction. There's another consequence if everything in the universe is ultimately composed of electronic BITS and the cosmos is a spectrum of consciousness/artificial intelligence. It's impossible for an absence of consciousness to exist, either after death or before conception.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0233.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Mind-body problem; Mind-body coupling phenomenon; Entropic system; Entropic system equation; Law of entropic system; Self-organized criticality (SOC); Self-organized critical triggering factor (SOCTF); Conscious strength; Macrostates of consciousness; Self-organization of minds.
Online: 10 February 2021 (12:45:03 CET)
The mind-body problem is the central issue in both of philosophy and life science for several centuries. To date, there is still no conclusive theory to interpret the relation between the mind and the body, even just the mind alone. Here, we promote a novel model, a derived mathematic equation called the entropic system equation, to describe the innate characters of the mind and the mechanism of the mind-body coupling phenomenon. As the semi-open thermodynamic systems far from equilibrium, the living organisms could be logically considered as an entropic system. In the living organisms or the entropic systems, there also are three essential existing elements including mass, energy and information, in which the mind and the body are hypothetically coupled by free energy and entropic force.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0137.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neuroscience; thalamus; basal ganglia; cortical layers; hippocampus; cerebellum; habenula; claustrum; amygdala; inhibition; predictions; automaticity; dopamine; serotonin; acetylcholine; opioids; oxytocin; crh; glucocorticoids; cannabinoids; orexin; melanin-concentrating hormone; mirror neuron; place cells; grid cells; language; imagery; working memory; attention; consciousness; emotions
Online: 9 May 2018 (05:35:51 CEST)
Understanding brain function is one of the most important problems in human history. At present, there is no concrete theory for how the brain works. Here, a theory is presented that provides a detailed mechanistic biological account of the brain's capacities, including motor control, functional states, language, and thinking. Brain function is managed by a well-defined response (R) process that is generally similar to the process underlying the immune system. The R process is strongly reflected in the brain's anatomy, physiology, and external interactions. Different R process stages are supported by distinct excitatory networks located in different cortical layers, hippocampal fields, and bagal ganglia paths, by distinct coordination networks comprised of GABAergic interneurons, and by distinct molecular agents. The roles of norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine and acetylcholine is to promote the alert, planning, goal-setting and execution R process modes, respectively. Opioids and oxytocin promote termination by success, failure, fight or run, while glucocorticoids and cannabinoids suppress acute responses to protect cells. The R process has two instances occurring at different time scales. The millisecond-scale Quax process implements the execution of hierarchical sequences of movements and thoughts, in which the selection of the next action is determined via interaction between top-down predictions and sensory inputs. The slower Need process controls the satisfaction of internal and external needs. The theory differs from the existing standard accounts in many of the major topics (e.g., the basal ganglia, dopamine, language), and shows how cognition results from biological processes.