REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0193.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: conductive polymer composite; orientation; electrical conductivity.
Online: 9 August 2018 (14:53:38 CEST)
Bipolar plates significantly contribute in the development of the polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells technology due to their ability to produce high electrical conductivity based on type of materials used. Mismatching of inappropriate materials and manufacture may lead to the inferior performance of PEM fuel cells. Hence, material development was determined crucial to balance the overall performance of PEM fuels including the mechanical properties and electrical conductivity of the materials. Studies on conductive polymer composites (CPCs) offered filler orientation as an alternative method to enhance the overall performance of bipolar plate. Filler orientations permit an excellent conductivity network formation while controlling the filler alignment based on required applications. This paper reviewed various studies of filler orientations including materials used and methods of manufacture of CPC materials for the effective development of bipolar plate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0583.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: electrical conductivity; young module; conductive filled; hydrophobic
Online: 28 January 2021 (12:39:17 CET)
A novel hybrid material based on Polyvinyl alcohol-Chitosan (PVA-Cs) was made, reinforced with conductive polymer fillers such as polypyrrole (PPy), Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), carbon black (CB) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MW CNT). Our proposal is to use these fillers, which have not been studied in this context before, for obtaining composite materials, and to characterize them for the development of applications in microelectronics. FTIR analysis made evident the different func-tional groups present in the matrix and the fillers used. The use of quaternary mixtures (4 fillers) increased the contact angle, which increased the degree of hydrophobicity of the biocomposite. The Nyquist diagram of the analyzed samples showed a decrease in resistance and energy diffu-sion; the latter due to the transfer of electrons caused by the conductive polymers CB and the MWCNT. In the mechanical tension tests, Young's modulus values of 18.386 MPa were obtained, in contrast with the material matrix of PVA-Cs, which showed values of 11.628 MPa. Further-more, morphological analysis by SEM showed that the materials obtained were homogeneous, with no phase formation. The materials obtained showed higher electrical conductivity in the presence of the OH and NH2 groups, which could have possible applications in biopolymer elec-trodes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0388.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: sensor; e-textile, embroidery, moisture, conductive yarn
Online: 17 October 2018 (14:32:52 CEST)
In this work, an embroidered textile moisture sensor is presented. The sensor is based on a capacitive interdigitated structure embroidered on a cotton substrate with an embroidery conductor yarn composed by 99% pure silver plated nylon yarn 140/17 dtex. In order to evaluate the sensor sensitivity, the impedance of the sensor has been measured by means of a LCR meter from 20 Hz to 20 kHz on a climatic chamber with a sweep of the relative humidity from 25% to 65% at 20 ºC. The experimental results show a clear and controllable dependence of the sensor impedance with the relative humidity. Moreover, the reproducibility of the sensor performance subject to the manufacturing process variability and washing process is also evaluated. The results show that the manufacturing variability introduce a moisture measurement error up to 4%. The washing process impact on the sensor behavior after applying the first washing cycle implies a sensitivity reduction higher than 14%. Despite these effect, the textile sensor keeps its functionality and can be reused in standard conditions. Therefore, these properties point out the usefulness of the proposed sensor to develop wearable applications on health and fitness scope including the user needs to have a life cycle longer than one-time use
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0372.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: testosterone; molecular imprinting; electronically conductive polymer; electrochemical sensing; urine.
Online: 30 January 2020 (15:06:13 CET)
Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) can often bind target molecules with high selectivity and specificity. When used as MIPs, conductive polymers may have unique binding capabilities; they often contain aromatic rings, which have a great tendency to undergo covalent and hydrogen bonding interactions with similarly structured target (or template) molecules. In this work, an electrochemical method was used to optimize the synthetic self-assembly of poly(aniline-co-metanilic acid) and testosterone, forming testosterone-imprinted polymers (TIPs) on sensing electrodes. The linear sensing range for testosterone ranged from 0.1 to 100 pg/mL, and the limit of detection was as low as ~pM. Random urine samples were collected and diluted 1000 fold to measure testosterone concentration using the above TIP sensors in comparison with a commercial ARCHITECT ci 8200 system. The testosterone concentrations in the tested samples were in the range of 0.33± 0.09 to 9.13±1.33 ng/mL. The mean accuracy of the TIP-coated sensors was 90.3 ±7.0 %.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0142.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: amphiphilic block copolymers; carbon nanotubes; stimuli responsive; conductive composite
Online: 12 August 2019 (12:28:23 CEST)
Homogeneous water dispersions of MWCNTs were prepared by ultrasonication in the presence of an amphiphilic polystyrene-block-poly(acrylic acid) (PS-b-PAA) copolymer. The ability of PS-b-PAA to disperse and stabilize MWCTNs was investigated by UV-vis, SEM and zeta potential. It is shown that the copolymer can disperse nanotubes directly by sonication in water. The results show that the addition of a styrene block to PAA enhances the dispersion efficiency compared to pure PAA, possibly due to the nanotube affinity with the polystyrene moiety. Notably, the dispersions show an evident pH-responsive behavior, being MWCNTs reaggregation promoted in basic environment. Furthermore, composites obtained by drop casting display electrical conductivity responsive to pH variations, showing the potential of such materials for sensing applications.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0280.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: conductive hydrogel; tissue engineering; biomaterials; physical and electrical properties
Online: 15 August 2018 (16:12:51 CEST)
In the field of tissue engineering, conductive hydrogels have been the most effective biomaterials to mimic the biological and electrical properties of tissues in the human body. The main advantages of conductive hydrogel include not only its physical properties, but also its adequate electrical properties, thus providing electrical signals to cells efficiently. However, when introducing a conductive material into a non-conductive hydrogel, a conflicting relationship between the electrical and mechanical properties may develop. This review examines the strengths and weaknesses of the generation of conductive hydrogels using various conductive materials and introduces the use of these conductive hydrogels in tissue engineering applications.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: theory and simulation; conductive transition metal nitrides; nanostructures; solar cells
Online: 21 May 2021 (09:51:18 CEST)
Particle layers employing conductive transition metal nitrides have been proposed as possible alternative plasmonic materials for photovoltaic applications due to their reduced losses compared to metal nanostructures. We critically compare the photocurrent gain due to an additional layer made of nanopillars of nitrides with other material classes obtained in an already highly optimized doped c-Si baseline solar cell with accurate doping profile from measurements. A relative photocurrent gain with respect to the baseline cell of on average 5% to 10% is observed, with a few cases achieving around 30% gain. While the local field enhancement is moderate resonances for nitrides spread over the whole UV-VIS range. For some nitrides, the shading effect remains a problem similar as for metals, but others behave more like dielectric scatterers with high photocurrent gain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0648.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Fabrics/Textiles; Polymer fibers; textile composites; conductive nanofiber; Electro-spinning
Online: 25 November 2020 (15:08:15 CET)
Electrospinning polymer fibers for is a well-understood process, primarily resulting in random mats or single strands. More recent systems and methods have allowed for the production of nanofiber yarns (NFY) for ease of use in textiles. This paper presents a method of NFY manufacture using a simplified dry electrospinning system to produce self-assembling functional NFY capable of conducting electrical charge. The polymer is a mixture of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), polyvinyl acrylate (PVA) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS). When treated with Ethylene Glycol (EG) to enhance conductivity, fibers touching the collector plate align to the applied electrostatic field and grow, twisting together as additional nanofiber polymer is added by the jet. The longer the electrospinning continues, the longer and more uniformly twisted the NFY becomes. This process has the added benefit of reducing the electric field required for NFY production from >2.43 kV cm-1 to 1.875 kV cm-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0070.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: flexible antenna; wireless communication systems; OLED; transparent conductive fabric; VeilShield
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:40:09 CET)
In this work, a new flexible antenna integrated with OLED light sources is presented for WiMAX wireless communication systems. The proposed antenna was placed on a 100% polyester base with a thickness of 1.5 mm and achieved a high gain. We evaluated and tested its performance, including reflection coefficient, radiation pattern and gain. The flexible and simple patch antenna has been designed to operate at 3.5 GHz for WiMAX wireless communication systems with a gain value of 5.38 dB. This article proves the applicability of the proposed material for the integration of flexible antennas in OLEDs while maintaining gain performance similar to conventional flat antennas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0069.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: vanadium doping; size tuning; bandgap; transparent conductive oxide; electrical conductivity
Online: 5 July 2020 (11:46:22 CEST)
Metal oxide based electrodes play a crucial role in various as a transparent conductive oxide (TCO). One of the metal oxides, nickel oxide is a promising electrical conductive material. Here, we display that incorporation of vanadium in NiO lattice significantly improve both electrical conductivity and hole extraction. Also, vanadium doped nickel oxide exhibits a lower crystalline size compared to pristine nickel oxide, which maintains the reduction of surface roughness. These results indicating that the vanadium is an excellent dopant for NiO.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0431.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Non-destructive testing; magnetic induction; crack detection; finite element method acceleration; conductive plate
Online: 27 December 2021 (13:53:33 CET)
Alternating current field measurement (ACFM) testing is one of promising techniques in the field of non-destructive testing with advantages of the non-contact capability and the reduction of lift-off effects. In this paper, a novel crack detection approach is proposed to reduce the effect of the angled crack (cack orientation) by using rotated ACFM techniques. The sensor probe is composed of an excitation coil and two receiving coils. Two receiving coils are orthogonally placed in the centre of the excitation coil where the magnetic field is measured. It is found that the change of the x component and the peak value of the z component of the magnetic field when the sensor probe rotates around a crack follows a sine wave shape. A customised accelerated finite element method solver programmed in MATLAB is adopted to simulate the performance of the designed sensor probe which can significantly improve the computation efficiency due to the small crack perturbation. The experiments have also been carried out to validate the simulations. It is found that the ratio between the z and x components of the magnetic field remains stable under various rotation angles. It shows the potential to estimate the depth of the crack from the ratio detected by combining the magnetic fields from both receiving coils (i.e., the x and z components of the magnetic field) using the rotated ACFM technique.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0270.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: Subsurface temperatures; Kriging with External Drift; Conductive Numerical Modeling; Joint Interpolation; Geostatistics; Simulation
Online: 14 September 2018 (16:31:59 CEST)
Subsurface temperature is the key parameter in geothermal exploration. An accurate estimation of the reservoir temperature is of high importance and usually done either by interpolation of borehole temperature measurement data or numerical modeling. However, temperature measurements at depths which are of interest for deep geothermal applications (usually deeper than 2 km) are generally sparse. A pure interpolation of such sparse data always involves large uncertainties and usually neglects knowledge of the 3D reservoir geometry or the rock and reservoir properties governing the heat transport. Classical numerical modeling approaches at regional scale usually only include conductive heat transport and do not reflect thermal anomalies along faults created by convective transport. These thermal anomalies however are usually the target of geothermal exploitation. Kriging with trend does allow including secondary data to improve the interpolation of the primary one. Using this approach temperature measurements of depths larger than 1,000 m of the federal state of Hessen/Germany have been interpolated in 3D. A 3D numerical conductive temperature model was used as secondary information. This way the interpolation result reflects thermal anomalies detected by direct temperature measurements as well as the geological structure. This results in a considerable quality increase of the subsurface temperature estimation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0289.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Microinjection molding; Hybrid fillers; Multi-walled carbon nanotubes; Carbon black; Conductive polymer composites; Microstructure
Online: 16 August 2018 (14:25:56 CEST)
The effect of hybrid carbon fillers of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT) and carbon black (CB) on the electrical and morphological properties of polystyrene (PS) nanocomposites were systematically investigated in microinjection molding (μIM). The polymer nanocomposites with three different filler concentrations (i.e. 3, 5 and 10 wt%) at various weight ratios of CNT/CB (100/0, 30/70, 50/50, 70/30, 0/100) were prepared by melt blending, then followed by μIM under a defined set of processing conditions. A rectangular mold insert which has three consecutive zones with decreasing thickness along the flow direction was adopted to study abrupt changes in mold geometry on the properties of resultant microparts. The distribution of carbon fillers within microparts was observed by scanning electron microscope, which was correlated with electrical conductivity measurements. Results indicated that there is a flow-induced orientation of incorporated carbon fillers and this orientation increased with increasing shearing effect along the flow direction. High structure CB is found to be more effective than CNT in terms of enhancing the electrical conductivity, which was attributed to the good dispersion of CB in PS and their ability to form conductive networks via self-assembly. Morphology observations indicated that there is a shear-induced depletion of CB particles in the shear layer, which is due to the marked difference of shear rates between the shear and core layers of the molded microparts. Moreover, an annealing treatment is beneficial to enhance the electrical conductivity of CNT-containing microparts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0084.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: Ferritin; Quantum dots; Layer-by-layer deposition; Conductive atomic force microscopy; Strong correlations; mott insulator
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:07:03 CEST)
Highly-correlated electrons – electrons that engage in strong electron-electron interactions – have been observed in transition metal oxides and quantum dots and can create unusual material behavior that is difficult to model, such as switching between a low resistance metal state and a high resistance Mott insulator state. Tests of devices using a layer-by-layer deposition process for forming multilayer arrays of ferritin (a transition metal (iron) oxide storage protein) have been previously reported that indicate that highly-correlated electron transport is occurring, consistent with models of electron transport in quantum dots. This paper reports the results of the effect of various degrees of structural homogeneity on the electrical characteristics of these ferritin arrays, as well as demonstrating that these structures can provide a switching function associated with the circuit that they are contained within, consistent with the observed behavior of highly-correlated electrons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0277.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pediatrics Keywords: Hearing loos; conductive; sensorineural; outer ear; middle ear; inner ear; SNHL; Cochlear; auditory; physical examination; history
Online: 16 August 2022 (04:04:24 CEST)
Hearing loss in infancy leads to preventable speech, language, and cognitive developmental delay [1, 2]. Sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is caused by damages, problems, or issues related to the inner ear such as the cochlea with or without the auditory nerve; cranial nerve VIII, involvement. There are three anatomic areas which include the outer ear: composed of the auricle and external auditory canal and the middle ear: which includes the tympanic membrane, ossicles, and the middle ear space, the inner ear: composed of the cochlea, semi-circular canals, and internal auditory canals. The unique anatomical shape of the auricle catches the incoming sound waves to send them down the external auditory canal. Hearing risk assessment should be part of all health visits while regular hearing screening checks are done for all children from 4 to 21 years [1, 2]. Assessment of hearing loss includes history, physical examination and specific hearing assessment tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201708.0011.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: intrinsically conductive polymers; piezoresistance; polyaniline; sensing array; orthopaedic joint implants; reverse total shoulder arthroplasty; conjugated polymers
Online: 3 August 2017 (12:40:16 CEST)
Load transfer through orthopaedic joint implants is poorly understood. The longer-term outcomes of these implants are just starting to be studied, making it imperative to monitor contact loads across the entire joint implant interface to elucidate the force transmission and distribution mechanisms exhibited by these implants in service. This study proposes and demonstrates the design, implementation, and characterization of a 3D-printed smart polymer sensor array using conductive polyaniline (PANI) structures embedded within a polymeric parent phase. The piezoresistive characteristics of PANI were studied to characterize the sensing behaviours inherent to these embedded pressure sensor arrays. PANI's stable response to a continuous load, its stability throughout loading and unloading cycles, and its repeatable and linear response to incremental loading cycles together with the accuracy of these measurements were investigated. It is demonstrated that this specially developed multi-material additive manufacturing process for polyaniline is an attractive approach for the fabrication of implant components having embedded smart-polymer sensors for the measurement and analysis of joint loads in orthopaedic implants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0261.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings & Films Keywords: review; additive manufacuring; thin films; noble metals; catalysis; conductive; hydrogen technology; sensors; fuel cells; 3-D printing
Online: 26 August 2019 (04:55:11 CEST)
The noble metals palladium and silver find use in many high performance applications, and their alloys (PdAg), known for more than sixty years, are industrially important, finding use in many fields including hydrogen purification and separation, numerous facets of catalysis, and in fuel cells. In recent years, interest in these materials has grown significantly, particularly in energy generating applications and due to their performance as solid-state chemical sensors for a range of small molecules. PdAg thin films can be prepared using traditional physical methods such as cold rolling, or more modern and controllable chemical or physical deposition techniques such as electrodeposition or chemical vapour deposition. Despite the wide-reaching uses of PdAg, several recent advancements in materials preparation, such as additive manufacturing, better known as 3-D printing, remain unexplored for this material due to the differing chemistries of the two elements. In this review, we explore the manufacturing methods commonly employed for the preparation of PdAg thin films, the common and niche applications of these materials, and opportunities for the future development of these two aspects, with an emphasis on how preparation of thin films can utilise additive manufacturing approaches.