REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0161.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: High Performance Computing (HPC); big data; High Performance Data Analytics (HPDS); con-vergence; data locality; spark; Hadoop; design patterns; process mapping; in-situ data analysis
Online: 9 November 2022 (01:38:34 CET)
Big data has revolutionised science and technology leading to the transformation of our societies. High Performance Computing (HPC) provides the necessary computational power for big data analysis using artificial intelligence and methods. Traditionally HPC and big data had focused on different problem domains and had grown into two different ecosystems. Efforts have been underway for the last few years on bringing the best of both paradigms into HPC and big converged architectures. Designing HPC and big data converged systems is a hard task requiring careful placement of data, analytics, and other computational tasks such that the desired performance is achieved with the least amount of resources. Energy efficiency has become the biggest hurdle in the realisation of HPC, big data, and converged systems capable of delivering exascale and beyond performance. Data locality is a key parameter of HPDA system design as moving even a byte costs heavily both in time and energy with an increase in the size of the system. Performance in terms of time and energy are the most important factors for users, particularly energy, due to it being the major hurdle in high performance system design and the increasing focus on green energy systems due to environmental sustainability. Data locality is a broad term that encapsulates different aspects including bringing computations to data, minimizing data movement by efficient exploitation of cache hierarchies, reducing intra- and inter-node communications, locality-aware process and thread mapping, and in-situ and in-transit data analysis. This paper provides an extensive review of the cutting-edge on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged systems. We review the literature on data locality in HPC, big data, and converged environments and discuss challenges, opportunities, and future directions. Subsequently, using the knowledge gained from this extensive review, we propose a system architecture for future HPC and big data converged systems. To the best of our knowledge, there is no such review on data locality in converged HPC and big data systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0036.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Beta function; extended beta function; hypergeometric function; extended hypergeometric function; con uent hypergeometric function; extended con uent hyperge- ometric function; Mellin transform; beta distribution; transformation formula; summation formula.
Online: 5 February 2018 (14:30:15 CET)
A new generalization of extended beta function and its various properties, integral representations and distribution are given in this paper. In addition, we establish the generalization of extended hypergeometric and con uent hypergeometric functions using the newly extended beta function. The properties these extended and con uent hypergeometric functions such as integral representations, Mellin transformations, dif- ferentiation formulas, transformation and summation formulas are also investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0272.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: Product-Service System (PSS); Circular economy; Luggage; sustainable travel; sustainable con-sumption; sustainable production
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:30:48 CEST)
The travel-goods industry is an essential part of the larger travel and tourism sector, but it creates significant environmental impacts due to resource and energy consumption. This study investigates the feasibility and sustainability potential of servitisation concepts within the travel-goods industry, and the Product-Service System (PSS) models, in particular, to identify steps towards a more sus-tainable travel industry in the future. It explores the sustainability-related drivers within the luggage industry and identifies barriers to the adoption of servitisation models, and opportunities for value creation for both consumers and commercial organisations. Business models are mapped into a ty-pology to highlight different pathways to PSS adoption, underpinned with empirical data collected via a consumer sentiment survey and semi-structured interviews with industry experts. Even though the analysis revealed shifting consumer attitudes towards servitisation concepts within the travel-goods market, with a significant level of interest emerging for specific PSS models, at present, the widespread adoption of PSS is hindered. This is due to the fragmented nature of global supply chains and entrenched ownership values. Addressing supply chain issues regarding end-of-life systems to sustainably manage products beyond functional obsolescence is critical. In parallel, product-oriented PSS models are more likely to increase, driven by a burgeoning resale market and supported by digi-tal technologies, which in turn can lead to greater prospects for use-oriented PSS adoption and even-tually, reduced environmental impacts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1090.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: aqueous calcium battery; titanium disulfide; electrochemical potential window; electrolyte con-centration; solid electrolyte interphase; anion
Online: 18 September 2023 (13:54:47 CEST)
This study explores the potential of titanium disulfide (TiS2) as an active material for aqueous calcium-ion batteries (CIBs). We investigate the electrochemical redox reactions of calcium ions within TiS2 and assess its suitability for use in aqueous CIBs. Additionally, we examine the im-pact of different electrolyte concentrations on TiS2 electrode reactions. Our findings reveal that TiS2 exhibits distinct charge-discharge behaviors in various aqueous calcium-ion electrolytes. Notably, at higher electrolyte concentrations, TiS2 effectively suppresses the hydrogen genera-tion reaction caused by water decomposition, demonstrating its potential as an active material for aqueous CIBs. In-situ X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the intercalation of Ca2+ ions be-tween TiS2 layers during charging. This confirmation is groundbreaking, as it represents the first experimental evidence of calcium ions being electrochemically inserted between TiS2 layers from aqueous solutions, signifying a previously unreported achievement and strongly suggesting TiS2's applicability in aqueous CIBs. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis further supports the formation of a solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) on the TiS2 electrode surface, contributing to the suppression of electrolyte decomposition reactions. Furthermore, we investigate the influ-ence of anions in the electrolyte on charge-discharge behavior. Our findings suggest that the choice of anion coordinated with Ca2+ ions affects SEI formation and cycling performance. Un-derstanding the role of anions in SEI formation is crucial for optimizing aqueous CIBs. In con-clusion, this research underscores TiS2's potential as an active material for aqueous calcium-ion batteries and emphasizes the importance of electrolyte composition in influencing SEI formation and battery performance. These findings contribute to the development of more sustainable and efficient energy storage technologies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0118.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: protein-DNA interactions; DNA recognition; transcription factors; DNA binding domains; con-formational change; nuclear magnetic resonance; circular dichroism; control of gene expression; homeodomains.
Online: 8 February 2022 (14:53:06 CET)
Transcription factors must scan genomic DNA, recognize the cognate sequence of their control element(s), and bind tightly to them. The DNA recognition process is primarily carried out by their DNA binding domains (DBD), which interact with the cognate site with high affinity and more weakly with any other DNA sequence. DBDs are generally thought to bind to their cognate DNA without changing conformation (lock-and-key). Here we used nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism to investigate the interplay between DNA recognition and DBD conformation in the Engrailed homeodomain (EnHD), as model case for the homeodomain family of eukaryotic DBDs. We found that the conformational ensemble of EnHD is rather flexible and becomes more structured as ionic strength increases following a Debye-Hückel’s dependence. Our analysis indicates that EnHD’s response to ionic strength is mediated by a built-in electrostatic spring-loaded latch that operates as conformational transducer. We also found that, at moderate ionic strengths, EnHD changes conformation upon binding to cognate DNA. This change is of larger amplitude and somewhat orthogonal to the response to ionic strength. As a consequence, very high ionic strengths (e.g. 700 mM) block the electrostatic-spring-loaded latch and binding to cognate DNA becomes lock-and-key. However, the interplay between EnHD conformation and cognate DNA binding is robust across a range of ionic strengths (i.e. 45 to 300 mM) that covers the most physiologically-relevant conditions. Therefore, our results demonstrate the presence of a mechanism for the conformational control of cognate DNA recognition on a eukaryotic DBD. This mechanism can function as a signal transducer that immediately locks the DBD in place upon encountering the cognate site during active DNA scanning. The electrostatic-spring-loaded latch of EnHD can also enable the fine control of DNA recognition in response to local/temporal changes in ionic strength induced by variate physiological processes.