REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0421.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: OCd; obsessive-compulsive disorder; microbiota; gut; gut-brain axis; probiotics; fecal transplants; microbial reprogramming
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:53:21 CEST)
This review examines the evidence supporting the role of dysbiosis in the development of obses-sive-compulsive disorders (OCD). We review the molecular mechanisms and role of the microbiota in the microbiota-gut-brain axis, focusing on the endocrine, nervous, and immune pathways. We then propose a model that positions dysbiosis as the central unifying element in the neurochemi-cal, immunological, genetic, and environmental factors leading to OCD. Based on this, we review the animal and human clinical evidence for the use of microbial reprogramming strategies such as probiotic or fecal microbiota transplants to treat OCD. Finally, we discuss the unique challenges that must be addressed in future clinical interventions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0013.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: selenium; oxidative stress; serotonin; glutamate; anxiety disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorders; post-traumatic stress disorder
Online: 3 October 2022 (15:17:24 CEST)
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental disorders worldwide, and often respond incompletely to existing treatments. Selenium, a micronutrient that is a component of several biologically active selenoproteins, is also involved in several aspects of brain functioning, and may exert antidepressant and anxiolytic effects through multiple pathways. The current paper is a scoping review of translational, observational and interventional evidence on the potential role of selenium and its compounds in the management of anxiety and related disorders. Evidence from animal models suggests that this approach may be promising. Though evidence from observational studies in humans is inconsistent and affected by several confounding factors, the available evidence from randomized controlled trials suggests that selenium supplementation may be beneficial in the management of certain anxiety-related conditions, such as anxiety in medically ill patients, prevention of anxiety following exposure to traumatic stress, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This paper provides a critical evaluation of the existing evidence base, including unanswered questions that could serve as the focus of further research, and outlines the potential benefits and risks associated with the use of selenium in anxiety disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: binge eating; body image; cognitive control; compulsive behavior; eating disorders; emotional regulation; impulsive behavior; non-suicidal self-injury; self-injurious behavior; urgency
Online: 15 December 2019 (14:26:45 CET)
Eating disorder (ED) symptoms often co-occur with nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI). This comorbidity is consistent with evidence that trait negative urgency increases risk for both of these phenomena. We previously found that impaired late-stage negative emotional response inhibition (i.e., negative emotional action termination or NEAT) might represent a neurocognitive mechanism for heightened negative urgency among people with NSSI history. The current study evaluated whether relations between negative urgency and ED symptoms similarly reflect deficits in this neurocognitive process. One hundred and five community adults completed an assessment of ED symptoms, negative urgency, and an emotional response inhibition task. Results indicated that, contrary to predictions, negative urgency and NEAT contributed independent variance to the prediction of ED symptoms, while controlling for demographic covariates and NSSI history. Worse NEAT was also uniquely associated with restrictive eating, after accounting for negative urgency. Our findings suggest that difficulty inhibiting ongoing motor responses triggered by negative emotional reactions (i.e., NEAT) may be a shared neurocognitive characteristic of ED symptoms and NSSI. However, negative urgency and NEAT dysfunction capture separate variance in the prediction of ED-related cognitions and behaviors, distinct from the pattern of results we previously observed in NSSI.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1260.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: PANDAS; Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections; PANDAS syndrome; neuropsychiatric disorder; streptococci; molecular mimicry; CaM kinase; striatal cholinergic interneurons; obsessive-compulsive disorder; streptococcal infection; tic; tics
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:09:19 CEST)
Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal Infections (PANDAS) is one of the most controversial diseases in pediatric rheumatology. Despite its first description being published more than 25 years ago as the sudden and rapid onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and/or tic disorder symptoms as complications of a Group A beta-hemolytic Streptococcus (GAS) infection, precise epidemiological data are still lacking, and there are no strong recommendations for its treatment. Recent advances in the comprehension of PANDAS pathophysiology are largely attributable to animal model studies and the understanding of the roles of Ca++/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) II, disrupted dopamine re-lease in the basal ganglia, and striatal cholinergic interneurons. The diagnosis of PANDAS should be made after an exclusion process and should include prepubescent children with a sudden onset of OCD and/or a tic disorder, with a relapsing/remitting disease course, a clear temporal association between GAS infection and onset or exacerbation of symptoms, and the association with other neurological abnormalities such as motoric hyperactivity and choreiform movements. Antibiotic medications are the primary therapeutic modality. Nonetheless, there is a paucity of randomized studies and validated data, resulting in a scarcity of solid recommendations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0332.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS); children and adults; motor and vocal/phonic tics; obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD); non-coeliac gluten sensitivity (NCGS); gluten-free diet; one-year adherence
Online: 26 April 2018 (06:26:55 CEST)
The Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and Non-Coeliac Gluten Sensitivity (NCGS) may be associated. We analyse the efficacy of a gluten-free diet (GFD) in 29 patients with GTS (23 children; 6 adults) in a prospective pilot study. All of them followed a GFD for one year. The YGTSS, Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS and GTS-QOL questionnaires were compared before and after the GFD. 74% of children and 50% of adults were males, not significant (NS). At the beginning of the study, 69% of children and 100% of adults had associated OCD (NS). At baseline, the YGTSS scores were 55.0 ± 17.5 (children) and 55.8 ± 19.8 (adults) (NS), the Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS scores were 15.3 (SD = 12.3) (children) and 26.8 (9.2) (adults) (p = 0.043), and the GTS-QOL scores were 42.8 ± 18.5 (children) and 64 ± 7.9 (adults) (p = 0.000). NCGS was frequent in both groups, with headaches reported by 47.0% of children and 83.6% of adults (p = 0.001). After one year on a GFD there was a marked reduction in measures of tics (YGTSS) (p = 0.001), and the intensity and frequency of OCD (Y-BOCS/CY-BOCS) (p = 0.001), along with improved QOL (p = 0.001) in children and adults. In conclusion, a GFD maintained for one year in GTS patients led to a marked reduction in tics and OCD both in children and adults.