ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0006.v4
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: biomonitor; environmental assessment; elemental competition; bioconcentration factor
Online: 9 December 2016 (16:31:32 CET)
Levels of trace element pollution in surface soil can be estimated using soil analyses and leaching tests. These methods may reveal different results due to the effect of soil properties, such as grain size and mineral composition, on elemental availability. Therefore, this study advocates an alternative method for monitoring and assessment of trace element pollution in surface soil using terricolous fruticose lichens. Lichens growing at abandoned mine sites and unpolluted areas in southwest Japan and their substrata were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to clarify the relationships between Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations in lichens and soils, including their absorption properties. Concentrations of these elements in the lichens were positively correlated with those in the soils regardless of lichen species, location, habitat, or conditions of soils. The analyzed lichens had neither competitive nor antagonistic properties in their elemental absorption, which made them good biomonitors of trace element pollution in surface soil. The distribution maps of average Cu, Zn, As, and Pb concentrations at each sampling region detected almost all of the Cu, Zn, and As pollution of the soils. Therefore, lichens could be used in practical applications to monitor Cu, Zn, and As pollution in surface soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1711.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: competition; scale insects; mutualism; temporal dynamics; xerophytic shrubland
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:12:59 CEST)
Interspecific competition between herbivorous insects is a major selection pressure affecting the distribution, abundance, and structure of their populations. Facilitator-mediated interactions, such as mutualism, can influence competition. Furthermore, the temporal dynamics of competitive relationships affect the interaction’s outcome. Here, we re-evaluated the data on the competition for space between two herbivorous insects commonly known as scales (Toumeyella martinezae and Opuntiaspis philococcus) in either the presence or absence of Liometopum apiculatum (a mutualistic species of T. martinezae) and its variations over time. We selected 27 Myrtillocactus geometrizans plants on which the studied insects were present; the plants were classified into one of five different conditions: either of the scale species were present on the plant, without its competitor; T. martinezae with neither its mutualistic species nor the competitor; and both scale species competing in either presence or absence of the mutualistic species. We kept a photographic record of each condition, measured the size of (as an indicator of the development stage) and area occupied by the individual scales, estimated the total coverage of each scale species, and assessed their relative occupation of space and their competitive intensity. We found temporal variations in competitive intensity. T. martinezae occupied more space during the first months, whereas O. philococcus did so towards the end of the study period. The population structure changed over time and between species, affecting the competitive interactions. In conclusion, the dynamics of competition change over time, and the mutualistic species has a positive effect on T. martinezae when the scales are in competition. However, temporal variations resulting from changes in the life cycle of the scales allow the two competitors to coexist in the same place at the same time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0013.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: competition; trust; team; evaluation; vocational training; leadership education
Online: 1 March 2023 (07:59:24 CET)
The research question in this article concerns how a competitive environment affects the learner (officer cadet's) personal leadership development and their relationship to their team and with future civilian foundations. More specifically, what are the possible learning effects of the “hidden” curriculum? This article investigates how a more than 250 years of leadership education provides new army officers with new skills and how such an environment may affect the cadets' leadership training. The paper builds on ethnographic data gathered during the three-year education program in most of the relevant practical locations and contexts. Findings regarding trust in their learning environment, cadets have reported scores of (Mean 2.83) on a 1 (low trust) to 5 (high trust) Likert scale, underpinning interviewdata regarding the lack trust in the academy and in their fellow cadets. Cadets also point out that competition has hindered their learning (Mean 2.50). These findings are interpreted in relation to possible negative effects stemming from internal competition and the evaluation system as a whole. The overall output of this system is a zero–sum game, and thus effects evaluative practices and learning processes. This study is of relevance to higher education officers responsible for designing learning environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0724.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: sperm production; sperm competition; testes; socio-sexual environment
Online: 30 June 2021 (09:43:14 CEST)
Theoretic and empirical studies show that social surroundings experienced by male insects during their larval or adult stage can influence their testicular investment in diverse ways. Although insect pupae do not feed and crawl, they can communicate using sex-specific and/or non-sex specific cues. Yet, it is unknown, in any insect, whether and how male pupae can fine-tune their resource allocation to sperm production and testis size in response to socio-sexual environment. We investigated this question using a moth, Ephestia kuehniella, which produces fertile eupyrene sperm and unfertile apyrene sperm. We held male pupae individually or in groups with different sex ratios, and dissected adults upon eclosion, measured their testis size, and counted both types of sperm. We demonstrated that after exposure to conspecific pupal cues regardless of sex, male pupae increased production of eupyrenes and apyrenes at the same rate but kept testis size unchanged. We suggest that testis size is fixed after pupation because most morphological traits are formed during the larval stage, allowing little room for pupae to adjust testis size. Like adults, male pupae with fully grown testes have sufficient resources to produce more sperm of both types according to the perceived increase of sperm competition risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: biofuels; greenhouse gas; ghg; abatement cost; modelling; competition
Online: 18 December 2017 (11:47:05 CET)
Transport biofuels derived from biogenic material are used for substituting fossil fuels, thereby abating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Numerous competing conversion options exist to produce biofuels, with differing GHG emissions and costs. In this paper analysis and modelling of the long-term development of GHG abatement and relative GHG abatement cost competitiveness between crop-based biofuels in Germany is carried out. Presently dominant conventional biofuels and advanced liquid biofuels were found not to be competitive compared to the substantially higher yielding options available: sugar beet based ethanol for the short to medium term least-cost option and Substitute Natural Gas (SNG) for the medium to long term. The competitiveness of SNG was found to depend highly on the emissions development of the power mix. Silage maize based biomethane was found competitive on a land area basis, but not on an energetic basis. Due to land limitations as well as cost and GHG uncertainty, a stronger focus on the land use of crop-based biofuels should be laid in policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1010.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: behavior ecology; interspecific competition; interference; community structures； camera-trapping
Online: 17 October 2023 (05:44:09 CEST)
This study presents a comprehensive ecological evaluation of avian species based on 5,322 photographs obtained through camera-trap sampling. We identified 1,427 independent bird sightings, encompassing 26 families and 49 species. The study focused on temporal activity patterns, nesting behaviors, habitat preferences, and the overlap coefficient of activity patterns among 22 species of Passeriformes. Two species exhibited predominant morning activity, while five species were active in the afternoon, and 15 exhibited cathemeral activity (activity throughout the day). A cross-analysis revealed varying degrees of overlap in the activity patterns of pairs of species with similar behavioral ecology. Our findings indicate that despite exhibiting similar ecological behavior, these species display unique activity patterns, likely influenced by factors such as resource availability, competition avoidance, and thermoregulation strategies. The results highlight the richness and complexity of avian temporal niches and emphasize the need for further research into their correlation with environmental factors. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of niche separation within Passeriformes and expands our knowledge of avian behavioral ecology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0551.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: bioassay; chemical weeding; nutrient competition; straw compost; weed suppression
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:51:55 CEST)
This study examines the impact of weeds on sweet corn, where weeds compete with the main agricultural crops for essential elements such as nutrients, water, sunlight, and space for growth. In general. the use of herbicides is meant to suppress weed growth. Organic matter is important for plant growth and affects herbicide persistence. The study was aimed to explore the interdependence between ametryn herbicide and organic matter content and its impacts on weed growth, herbicide persistence, and sweet corn yield. The experiment was initiated in 2022 at the Experimental Station of the Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Indonesia, using a Split Plot Design in a Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with three replicates. The experiments consisted of three levels of organic matter, i.e. low, medium, and high and 6 levels of ametryn herbicide at 0.0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 kg a.i./ha. The results indicated that the apparent interdependence between ametryn herbicide doses of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kg a.i./ha and the three levels of the organic matter content totally suppressed the weed growth. However, the effects of interdependence between ametryn herbicide and organic matter content on the herbicide persistence and on the sweet corn yield were not obvious. The ametryn herbicide gave excellent effects on sweet corn yield. Bioassay analysis showed that the lowest persistence of ametryn herbicide was in line with the highest content of the organic matter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0663.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Discrete Mathematics And Combinatorics Keywords: Orienteering problems; local-search metaheuristics; parallelism; competition; evolution; Benchmark
Online: 21 April 2023 (03:17:49 CEST)
A number of challenging combinatorial optimization problems in logistics, transportations, aeronautics, and astronautics can be modeled as orienteering problems (OPs). To address the classic OP and its real-world variants, a parallel adaptive local-search algorithm based on competition and evolution (Palace) is proposed in this paper. In this algorithm, the parallelism runs proper local-search metaheuristics and operators to obtain the population per generation; then the competition grades those metaheuristics and operators to highlight the outperforming and eliminate the underperforming; also, the evolution explores large solution space and reproduces the best solutions for next generation. In this manner, the parallelism, competition, and evolution are organized in an easy-to-use algorithm and enable the expansibility, adaptivity, and exploration abilities, respectively. The Palace is examined on the classic and real-world Benchmarks about the OP, the time-dependent/independent OP with time windows, and the unmanned aerial vehicle and agile earth observation satellite planning. As a result, the Palace shows good performance in applicability and effectiveness in comparison with the state-of-the-art algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0428.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: Innovation; Informal competition; credit access; Business plan; emerging countries
Online: 28 September 2022 (03:39:39 CEST)
This paper examines the influence of informal competition on SMEs innovation in the Eastern European transition economies. It investigates whether credit constraints mediate this relation. SMEs innovation is presented through four measures: Product innovation, Process innovation, Radical innovation and Green innovation. Using the BEEPs VI that covers the period from 2018-2020, we show that informal competition affects positively the product, process and radical innovation. Yet, it has a non-significant effect on green innovation. Besides, the informal sector increases SMEs credit constraints, which indirectly leads to less corporate innovation. The negative indirect effect restrains the positive direct effect. Hence, a partial mediation effect of credit constraints on the informal competition and the innovation proxies is reported with the exception of green innovation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0062.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Type VI Secretion System; antieukaryotic effectors; interkingdom competition; virulence
Online: 10 November 2020 (16:10:18 CET)
The type 6 protein secretion system (T6SS) is prevalently utilized by Gram-negative bacteria to compete for resources and space. Upon activation, toxic effectors from this secretion system are translocated into the competitor prokaryote or eukaryote in a contact-dependent manner. While much has been reported on T6SS-mediated prokaryotic competition, very little is understood about the mechanisms of bacterial interactions with eukaryotic hosts. Likewise, many virulent T6SS effectors are known to be antibacterial. In recent years, however, evidence has emerged on numerous T6SS effectors that interact with related immunity proteins in a range of eukaryotic hosts. Insights into how this effector-immunity pairing alters the physiological responses of the recipient organism might provide opportunities relating to the T6SS agricultural and biotherapeutic applications. We, therefore, summarize the impacts of the T6SS effectors with a special focus on bacterial interactions with animals, plants, and fungi. We further briefly discuss pipelines that are currently used to characterize antieukaryotic T6SS effectors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0044.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: systems theory; economic systems; social structure; competition; strategy; culture
Online: 9 October 2017 (05:27:13 CEST)
This theoretical article reviews the model describing processes in social systems based on the analysis of their resource base. Application of the system theory can help to explain why some systems are aimed at prevention of type I errors, while other seek to decrease quantity of type II errors. Such differences are manifested in investment of resources either into deep interaction or into wide coverage. Some examples of such strategies in economic, market and production systems are provided in the article. The article introduces some provisions of the system theory in the context of the resource flows. The main indicators that are considered in this article are the characteristics of the sources of the exchanging flows of resources. Their relative frequency and quality are investigated, on the basis of which the most effective strategy of the system is derived, as a mechanism for redistributing resources. The rigor of the system's strategy depends on the magnitude of the difference in characteristics. It is explained how exactly it influences the exchange processes, that in reality systems do not interact simultaneously, and one of the opposite resource flows is always delayed. It is shown how the system strategy depends on the risks linked with interactions. Also, there are grounds for the need to accumulate resources, including in the situation of their surplus. The model helps also explain shift of economic centers throughout history. Additionally, there is an analogy between systems strategies and the competitive strategies described by M. Porter, and outsourcing versus integration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0216.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Ten ASEAN countries; Bilateral trade; Lotka-Volterra model; commensalism; competition
Online: 11 November 2022 (04:05:04 CET)
The bilateral trade relationship between PRC and ASEAN is close. As early as 2012, China has been the largest trading partner of ASEAN, and ASEAN has also taken the place of the United States as PRC’s second largest trading partner in 2019.This paper uses the theory of ecological population evolution, selects the total import and export volume of PRC and the ten ASEAN countries from 2000 to 2019 as the data sample, studies the bilateral trade relations between PRC and the ten ASEAN countries, analyzes the competition and symbiotic relationship of bilateral trade between PRC and the ten ASEAN countries and the possibility of trade friction according to the results, and proposes corresponding improvement strategies. According to the results of the population evolution competition model, China has a competitive relationship with Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand, which is most likely to cause trade friction. China has a biased relationship with Brunei, Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar and Vietnam, which is more likely to cause trade friction. On this basis, in order to further strengthen the trade relations between PRC and the ten ASEAN countries, this paper puts forward policy suggestions on improving infrastructure, strengthening independent innovation, seeking cooperation fields and actively investing abroad.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1604.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Interspecific competition; Spatial ecological niche; Ensemble model; Habitat selection; Xinlong County
Online: 25 July 2023 (03:24:10 CEST)
Large terrestrial carnivores play a crucial role in top-down control within terrestrial ecosystems, maintaining ecosystem stability and biodiversity. However, intense interspecific competition often arises among sympatric large carnivores, leading to population reductions or even extinctions. Spatial partitioning through divergent habitat selection helps mitigate such competition. In Xinlong County, Sichuan Province, we used 293 infrared cameras for monitoring from September to May 2016 and March to October 2022. By employing the Generalized Linear Model (GLM) and the Maximum Entropy Model (MaxEnt), we developed an ensemble model predicting the suitable habitat distribution of leopards (Panthera pardus) and wolves (Canis lupus). We analyzed the main environmental factors influencing habitat selection and the fragmentation of suitable habitats. We found that suitable habitat distribution differed significantly between them. Both species preferred areas with gentle slopes close to settlements. While leopards' habitat selection primarily depended on the distance from settlements, the slope was predominant for wolves. Suitable habitats displayed aggregation, yet wolves exhibited higher fragmentation and more complex patch shapes, indicating greater susceptibility to human activities. These results suggest that sympatric large carnivores, such as leopards and wolves, can reduce spatial competition intensity and promote spatial partitioning by selecting divergent suitable habitats, thereby facilitating species coexistence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0112.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: Atenolol; caffeine; sulfadiazine; dissolved organic matter; sewage; specific sorption; sorption competition
Online: 3 May 2023 (07:55:31 CEST)
Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) enter soil with organic substrates such as manure. Such complex substrates differently affect PhACs’ soil sorption. To elucidate the effects, batch experiments were conducted using five selected chemicals as model constituents. Urea, KH2PO4, acetic acid, phenol and nonadecanoic acid (C:19) altered the sorption strength and/or nonlinearity of sulfadiazine, caffeine and atenolol in a topsoil. The nonlinear Freundlich model best described sorption. Overall, the PhACs’ sorption coefficients increased in the sequence urea<phosphate<phenol<C:19<acetic acid. The sorption nonlinearity also increased in most cases. The effects on sulfadiazine and caffeine were rather similar, but in many cases different from atenolol. Phosphate mobilized sulfadiazine and caffeine and urea mobilized sulfadiazine, which was explained by sorption competition resulting from specific preference of similar sorption sites. Soil sorbed phenol strongly increased the sorption of all three PhACs; phenolic functional groups are preferred sorption sites of PhACs in soil. The large increase in sorption of all PhACs by acetic acid was attributed to a loosening of the soil organic matter and thus the creation of additional sorption sites. The effect of C:19 fatty acid, however, was inconsistent. These results help to better understand the sorption of PhACs in mixtures of soil and manure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: anuran; competition; disruptive selection; diversification; fear; phenotypic plasticity; resource polymorphism; specialization
Online: 14 March 2023 (06:17:07 CET)
Disruptive selection arises when extreme phenotypes have a fitness advantage compared to more intermediate phenotypes. Theory and evidence suggest that intraspecific resource competition is a key driver of disruptive selection. However, while competition can be indirect (exploitative) or direct (interference), the role of interference competition in disruptive selection has not been tested, and most models of disruptive selection assume exploitative competition. We experimentally investigated whether the type of competition affects the outcome of competitive interactions using a system where disruptive selection is common: Mexican spadefoot toads (Spea multiplicata). Spea tadpoles develop into alternative resource-use phenotypes: carnivores, which consume fairy shrimp and other tadpoles, and omnivores, which feed on algae and detritus. Tadpoles intermediate in phenotype have low fitness when competition is intense, as they are outcompeted by the specialized tadpoles. Our experiments revealed that the presence of carnivores significantly decreased foraging behavior in intermediate tadpoles, and that intermediate tadpoles had significantly lower growth rates in interference competition treatments with carnivores but not with omnivores. Interference competition may therefore be important in driving disruptive selection. As carnivore tadpoles are also cannibalistic, the ‘fear’ effect may have a greater impact on intermediate tadpoles than exploitative competition alone, similarly to non-consumptive effects in predator-prey or intraguild relationships.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0159.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: animal ecology; conservation; raptors; telemetry; spatial ecology; management; Spain; behaviour; competition
Online: 14 December 2022 (01:15:36 CET)
High-resolution GPS/GSM dataloggers provide spatial information of the highest quality, which outperform previous tracking methods, such as Argos telemetry or conventional VHF ground-tracking. As a result, this has improved our knowledge of home-range behavior and spatial ecology of many species, including large raptors. In this paper, we use high-resolution GPS/GSM dataloggers to assess the home-range size and the role of sex, season (breeding or non-breeding season), and breeding status (reproductive or non-reproductive individuals) on the space use of Bonelli’s eagle (Aquila fasciata). To this end, 51 territorial individuals (25 females and 26 males) were equipped with GPS/GSM transmitters and were tracked over 7 years (2015–2021) in eastern Spain. Overall, we recorded 4,791,080 fixes that were analyzed through kernel density methods (50%, 75%, and 95% fixed kernels). The average individual home-range size according to the 95%, 75%, and 50% kernels was 54.84 ± 20.78 km2, 24.30 ± 10.18 km2, and 11.17 ± 4.90 km2, respectively. Overall, the home-range size of individuals occupying the same territory was similar, mainly due to the cooperative hunting behavior exhibited by the species. We did not find interannual differences in the home-range size (95% fixed kernel) of the majority of individuals, showing a strong territorial fidelity of the breeding pairs. In general, females’ home-range size was slightly smaller than males’ size due to the decrease in activity in the breeding season as a result of laying, incubation, and chick attendance at nests. No seasonal variation in the 95% kernel was found, but it was found in the 75% and 50% kernels. In regard to the breeding status, higher home-range size was recorded in the non-reproductive individuals. Moreover, we found a low neighbor overlap among the territories (4.18% ± 3.06%), which evidences a high level of intraspecific competition in the Bonelli’s eagle. Finally, this study highlights the advantages of the use of accurate telemetry information to improve our understanding of the spatial ecology of the endangered Bonelli’s eagle, which ultimately will serve to better inform management actions for its conservation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: biological invasion; interspecific competition; mosquitoes; trash; urban greenspace; West Nile virus
Online: 1 October 2021 (11:58:15 CEST)
Condition-specific competition, when environmental conditions alter the outcome of competition, can foster the persistence of resident species after the invasion of a competitively superior invader. We test whether condition-specific competition can facilitate the areawide persistence of the resident and principal West Nile virus vector mosquito Culex pipiens with the competitively superior invasive, Aedes albopictus, in water from different urban container habitats. (2) Methods: We tested the effects of manipulated numbers of A. albopictus on C. pipiens survival and development in water collected from common functional and discarded containers in Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The experiment was conducted with typical numbers of larvae found in field surveys of C. pipiens and A. albopictus and container water quality. (3) Results: We found increased densities of A. albopictus negatively affected the survivorship and development of C. pipiens in water from discarded containers but had little effect in water from functional containers. This finding was driven by water from trash cans, which allowed consistently higher C. pipiens survival and development and had greater mean ammonia and nitrate concentrations that can promote microbial food than other container types. (4) Conclusions: These results suggest that the contents of different urban containers alter the effects of invasive A. albopictus competition on resident C. pipiens, that trash cans, in particular, facilitate the persistence of C. pipiens, and that there could be implications for West Nile virus risk as a result.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: far-red light; kin recognition; light quality; shade avoidance; weed competition
Online: 8 October 2020 (21:17:04 CEST)
Studies on crop response to light quality [red (R) to far-red (FR) light ratio] often recommend early weed removal to reduce the effects of shade avoidance responses on crop yield. However, it is unclear whether crops are able to distinguish reflected light quality of kin from that of non-kin. We evaluated the response of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.) to reflected FR light from sugarbeet, common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and bare soil (control) under outdoor conditions in 2016 and 2017. Treatments were completely randomized with 10 replications per treatment. The study methods ensured there was no direct resource competition. The reflected R:FR of plant species ranged from 0.06 (common lambsquarters) to 0.24 (sugarbeet) compared to 0.7 for the bare soil. In both 2016 and 2017, there were 2 to 4 more leaves in the sugarbeet surrounded by soil compared to sugarbeet surrounded by neighboring species. There was up to 47, 57, 43, and 23% reduction in sugarbeet leaf area, shoot dry weight, root diameter, and root dry weight, respectively, due to reflected R:FR light from neighboring species. Sugarbeet did not respond differently to reflected light quality of kin compared to non-kin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0052.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Gilpin-Ayala competition model; globally asymptotical stability; Lyapunov function; Markovian jumping
Online: 3 September 2020 (04:26:14 CEST)
By partly generalizing the Lipschitz condition of existing results to the generalized Lipschitz one, the author utilizes a fixed point theorem, variational method and Lyapunov function method to derive the unique existence of globally asymptotical input-to-state stability of positive stationary solution for Gilpin-Ayala competition model with diffusion and delayed feedback under Dirichlet zero boundary value. Remarkably, it is the first paper to derive the unique existence of the stationary solution of reaction-diffusion Gilpin-Ayala competition model, which is globally asymptotical input-to-state stability. And numerical examples illuminate the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed methods.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0079.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: interpersonal coordination; competition; dynamical systems; discrete dynamics; continuous dynamics; sporting activity
Online: 5 November 2018 (03:30:07 CET)
Complex human behavior, including interlimb and interpersonal coordination, has been studied from a dynamical system perspective. We review the applications of a dynamical system approach to a sporting activity, which includes continuous, discrete, and switching dynamics. Continuous dynamics identified switching between in- and anti-phase synchronization, controlled by an interpersonal distance of 0.1 m during expert kendo matches, using a relative phase analysis. As discrete dynamics, return map analysis was applied to the time series of movements during kendo matches, and six coordination patterns were classified. Furthermore, state transition probabilities were calculated based on the two states, which clarified the coordination patterns and switching behavior. We introduced switching dynamics with temporal inputs to clarify the simple rules underlying the complex behavior corresponding to switching inputs in a striking action as a non-autonomous system. As a result, we determined that the time evolution of the striking action was characterized as fractal-like movement patterns generated by a simple Cantor set rule with rotation. Finally, we propose a switching hybrid dynamics to understand both court-net sports, as strongly coupled interpersonal competition, and weakly coupled sports, such as martial arts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0050.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Gilpin-Ayala competition model; LMI approach; Mountain Pass lemma; variational methods; Markovian jumping
Online: 24 February 2021 (11:05:19 CET)
Firstly, the author do dynamic analysis for reaction-diffusion Gilpin-Ayala competition model with Dirichlet boundary value, involved in harmful species. Existence of multiple stationary solutions is verified by way of Mountain Pass lemma, and the local stability result of the null solution is obtained by employing linear approximation principle. Secondly, the author utilize variational methods and LMI technique to deduce the LMI-based global exponential stability criterion on the null solution which becomes the unique stationary solution of the ecosystem with delayed feedback under a reasonable boundedness assumption on population densities. Particularly, LMI criterion is involved in free weight coefficient matrix, which reduces the conservatism of the algorithm. In addition, a new impulse control stabilization criterion is also derived. Finally, two numerical examples show the effectiveness of the proposed methods. It is worth mentioning that the obtained stability criteria of null solution presented some useful hints on how to eliminate pests and bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0715.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Biscogniauxia mediterranea; oak decline; dieback; Site of Community Importance (S.I.C.); tree competition; warming conditions
Online: 29 June 2021 (23:50:11 CEST)
Oaks are a dominant and key tree species in Mediterranean forest ecosystems. However, in recent decades, oak forests have been heavily impacted by oak decline, a worldwide phenomenon exacerbated by climate change. The charcoal disease agent Biscogniauxia mediterranea is involved in the decline of Mediterranean oak formations in a variety of contexts. Here, we investigated the impact and role of B. mediterranea in decline of oaks in Castelfidardo Forest, a relict wood of the late Holocene and a Site of Community Importance. We established five plots within which we recorded the tree positions, any symptoms and signs of decline, association of B. mediterranea to declining trees, and the deadwood and associated mycota. Of 471 oaks inspected, 7.0% showed brownish exudates on the stems, 46.9% showed epicormic shoots along the main trunk, and 24.4% showed black carbonaceous stromata on diseased branches and trunks. The decline was most severe for Quercus cerris, which comprised plots #4 and #5, at 50.0% (81/162 trees) and 29.0% (33/114), respectively; then for Quercus robur for plot #3, at 40.0% (38/95); and finally for Quercus pubescens for plots #1 and #2, at 13.7% (7/51) and 12.3% (6/49), respectively. Bark tissue was collected from trees with charcoal cankers, with microscopy examination and identification by mycological and molecular methods. This investigation revealed close association between oaks with pronounced reduction of vitality and incidence of B. mediterranea. The deadwood was equally distributed among the five plots, and was heavily colonized by Basidiomycota. The high incidence of this oak-weakening pathogen B. mediterranea appears to be related to stress conditions (e.g., water scarcity, prolonged drought). However, absence of silvicultural management, high competition among physiologically mature trees, and the geographic isolation of this residual forest might have predisposed these oaks to decline.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0662.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Aesculus hippocastanum; insect pest; fungal disease; invasive species; leaf damage; model; competition; urban environment
Online: 26 April 2021 (12:13:43 CEST)
The horse chestnut leaf miner Cameraria ohridella (Lepidoptera: Gracillariidae) is an invasive pest of horse chestnut and has spread through Europe since 1985. The horse chestnut leaf blotch Guignardia aesculi (Botryosphaeriales: Botryosphaeriaceae) is a fungal disease that also seriously damages horse chestnut trees in Europe. The interaction between the leaf miner and the fungus has not yet been sufficiently described. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess leaf damage inflicted to horse chestnut by both C. ohridella and G. aesculi during the vegetation season and to model their interaction. The damage to leaf area was measured monthly from May to September 2013 in České Budějovice, the Czech Republic. A simple phenomenological model describing the expected dynamics of the two species was developed. The study revealed a significant effect of sampling site and sampling period on the damage caused by both the pest and the fungus. The mathematical model indicates that infestation by C. ohridella is more affected by G. aesculi than vice versa. The possible mechanisms affecting the relationship between G. aesculi and C. ohridella are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0065.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: acute HIV infection; vaccines; CD8$^+$ T cells; immune response; multiple epitopes; competition; mathematical model
Online: 8 January 2019 (11:22:41 CET)
Multiple lines of evidence indicate that CD8$^+$ T cells are important in the control of HIV-1 (HIV) replication. However, CD8$^+$ T cells induced by natural infection cannot eliminate the virus or reduce viral loads to acceptably low levels in most infected individuals. Understanding the basic quantitative features of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses induced during the course of HIV infection may therefore inform us about the limits that HIV vaccines, which aim to induce protective CD8$^+$ T-cell responses, must exceed. Using previously published experimental data from a cohort of HIV-infected individuals with sampling times from acute to chronic infection we defined the quantitative properties of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses to the whole HIV proteome. In contrast with a commonly held view, we found that the relative number of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses (response breadth) changed little over the course of infection (first 400 days post-infection), with moderate but statistically significant changes occurring only during the first 35 symptomatic days. This challenges the idea that a change in the T-cell response breadth over time is responsible for the slow speed of viral escape from CD8$^+$ T cells in the chronic infection. The breadth of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses was not correlated with the average viral load for our small cohort of patients. Metrics of relative immunodominance of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses such as Shannon entropy or the Evenness index were also not significantly correlated with the average viral load. Our mathematical-model-driven analysis suggested extremely slow expansion kinetics for the majority of HIV-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell responses and the presence of intra- and interclonal competition between multiple CD8$^+$ T-cell responses; such competition may limit the magnitude of CD8$^+$ T-cell responses, specific to different epitopes, and the overall number of T-cell responses induced by vaccination. Further understanding of mechanisms underlying interactions between the virus and virus-specific CD8$^+$ T-cell response will be instrumental in determining which T-cell-based vaccines will induce T-cell responses providing durable protection against HIV infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0073.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: imperfect competition; wholesale electricity market; non-cooperative game theory, smart grid; optimal bidding strategy
Online: 18 September 2017 (08:41:51 CEST)
This paper proposes a game-theoretic framework for quantifying effects of strategic bidding behavior of load aggregators (LAs) on wholesale electricity market equilibrium. The independent system operator (ISO) employs double-sided auction design to settle transactions in the wholesale electricity market. Generating companies (GENCOs) and LAs submit their bids to the ISO in the economic model of supply function equilibrium. Under the smart grid paradigm, a LA participates in the electricity market on behalf of end-consumers to minimize their total payment for purchasing electricity. In this paper, bi-level programming (BLP) method is employed to determine optimal bidding strategy of self-interested market participants. In the upper level, the profit of intended market participant is maximized and in the lower level, the ISO clears the market via a bid-based security constrained economic dispatch (SCED). Also, competition of GENCOs and LAs is modeled as a non-cooperative game. To examine the effects of strategic bidding behavior of LAs on market equilibrium, the proposed model is applied to the IEEE 9-bus and the IEEE 30-bus test systems. According to numerical results, to allow the LAs to behave strategically along with the GENCOs makes the former better off and the latter worse off, while the net effect of this on total social welfare turns out to be case-contingent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0174.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Game theory; Plant behavioral ecology; Plant competition; Plant interaction mechanisms; Root foraging strategies; Root methods
Online: 14 February 2022 (11:29:43 CET)
Understanding how plants change their root foraging strategy in the presence of neighbors is of paramount importance for plant ecology and agriculture. The root tragedy of the common (RToC) is a plant behavior predicted by game theory models in which competing plants forage for soil resources inefficiently. The RToC is generally assumed to be induced by non-self root recognition, and researchers consider root overproliferation and reduced fitness with respect to a plant growing solo as the trace left by plants engaging in an RToC in experiments and model results. Herein, I first challenge both notions, and argue that the RToC is a suboptimal phenotypically plastic response of plants that is based in soil resource information exclusively. Second, I discuss how this new perspective carries important implications for the design of experiments investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying observable plant root responses. Finally, I discuss why placing the RToC theory in the context of more general root research is fundamental: The RToC represents a mechanistic foundation for understanding the belowground behavior of plants interacting with neighbors, and a spatially explicit approach to RToC may produce more comprehensive results.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0076.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Complex Network Theory; Social Network Analysis; High-Tech Enterprises; Co-Competition Relationship; Innovation Ecological Niche
Online: 5 July 2021 (08:00:56 CEST)
The fusion of "innovation theory" and "ecology" gave birth to a large number of studies on "innovation ecology", which mainly studies how to build an industrial ecological chain at the regional level, focusing on self-evolution, achieving ecological balance, and enabling the regional economy to take the path of sustainable innovation. This type of research borrows a lot of concepts from ecology, and very vividly describes the competition and cooperation relationships formed by various agents in the innovation system, laying a good foundation for qualitative analysis of the inherent dynamics of innovation development. However, many studies focus on the analogous description of ecosystems and economic systems, lacking scientifically and rigorously quantitative empirical research as a support. This paper uses network-based indicators such as degree, cluster coefficient, and betweenness centrality to measure the function and position of high-tech enterprises in the Z-Park in a business environment, so as to clarify the socio-economic meaning of the topological structure of the regional innovation system. On this basis, it provides theoretical references for regional innovation development and sustainable development policy formulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0456.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Gilpin Ayala competition model; Lyapunov function; Mountain Pass Lemma; Palais Smale condition; Dirichlet boundary value
Online: 19 September 2020 (10:07:43 CEST)
In this paper, the existence of two nontrivial stationary solutions for the nonlinear Gilpin Ayala two species competition model is given by using the mountain pass lemma, and the local stability criterion of the trivial solution is given by using Lyapunov function method. Based on the local stability criterion, we give some suggestions on how to avoid the population extinction. This is, when the population is on the verge of extinction, we should try our best to avoid the diffusion behavior and reduce the diffusion coefficient, otherwise the species are easy to go extinct. Numerical example shows the effectiveness of the proposed method.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0211.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Thermoregulation; microbial metabolism; overflow metabolism; biofilms; public goods; social evolution; ecological competition; fever; bacteriophage defense
Online: 17 July 2020 (09:35:22 CEST)
Many microbes live in habitats below their optimum temperature. Retention of metabolic heat by aggregation or insulation would boost growth. Generation of excess metabolic heat may also provide benefit. A cell that makes excess metabolic heat pays the cost of production, whereas the benefit may be shared by neighbors within a zone of local heat capture. Metabolic heat as a shareable public good raises interesting questions about conflict and cooperation of heat production and capture. Metabolic heat may also be deployed as a weapon. Species with greater thermotolerance gain by raising local temperature to outcompete less thermotolerant taxa. Metabolic heat may provide defense against bacteriophage attack, by analogy with fever in vertebrates. This article outlines the theory of metabolic heat in microbial conflict and cooperation, presenting several predictions for future study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0132.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: enemy release hypothesis; multitrophic interactions; Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis; competition; alien species; exotic species; mesocosm experiment
Online: 11 October 2019 (07:40:52 CEST)
1. Darwin’s naturalization hypothesis predicts that alien species closely related to native species are less likely to naturalize because of strong competition due to niche overlap. Closely related species are likely to attract similar herbivores and to release similar plant volatiles following herbivore attack, thus could attract the same predators. However, the importance of phylogenetic relatedness on the interaction between alien and native plants has never been tested in a multitrophic context. 2. In a mesocosm experiment we grew six alien target plant species alone and in competition with nine native plant species of varying phylogenetic relatedness. To test the effects of multitrophic interactions on the performance of alien target species, we used enclosure cages to expose plants to the presence and absence of herbivorous arthropods, predatory arthropods and nematodes. 3. Surprisingly, biomass and number of flowering structures increased with presence of competitors for some of the alien species, but overall there was no consistent competition effect. Similarly, we found that none of the multitrophic-interaction treatments affected survival, biomass or number of flowering structures of the alien species. 4. We conclude there was no significant relationship between performance measures of the alien species and their phylogenetic relatedness to the native competitors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0214.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: corporate social responsibility; environment; employment; R&D; annual reports; financial and non-financial statements; competition.
Online: 8 November 2018 (12:06:32 CET)
The commitment of the EU to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is projected in the EU law about annual reporting by businesses. Since EU member states further develop this framework by their own domestic laws, annual reporting with CSR information is not unified and just partially mandatory in the EU. Do all European businesses report CSR information and what public declaration to society do they provide with it? The main dual purpose of this paper is identifying the parameters of this annual reporting duty and studying the CSR information provided by the ten largest Czech companies in their annual statements for 2013-2017. Based on legislative research and the teleological interpretation, the current EU legislative framework with Czech particularities is presented and, via a case study exploring 50 annual reports, the data about the type, extent and depth of the CSR is dynamically and comparatively assessed. It appears that, at a minimum, large Czech businesses satisfy their legal duty and e-report on CSR in a similar extent, but in dramatically different quality. Employee matters and adherence to international standards are used as a public declaration to society more than the data on environmental protection, while social matters and R&D are played down.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0783.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cancer, cancer survivor, exercise, athletes, competition, long-term effects, late effects, living with and beyond cancer
Online: 31 May 2021 (14:02:13 CEST)
Athletes living with and beyond cancer can continue to train and, in some cases, compete during treatment. Following cancer treatment, athletes can return to competitive sport but need to learn to adapt their physical strength and training to lingering effects of cancer. It is critical for oncology healthcare providers to use the principles of assess, refer and advise to exercise oncology programs that are appropriate for the individual. Managing side effects of treatment is key to being able to train during and immediately following cancer treatment. Keen attention to fatigue is important at any point in the cancer spectrum to avoid overtraining and optimize the effects of training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1737.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: interspecific competition; character displacements; behavioral syndrome; foraging; pecking; probing; sweeping; ballistic transport; surface tension transport; lingual transport
Online: 26 October 2023 (16:12:43 CEST)
Keywords: Interspecific competition; Character displacements, Behavioral syndrome; Foraging; Pecking; Probing; Sweeping; Ballistic transport, Surface tension transport; Lingual transport
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0252.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Curculionidae; Cossoninae; Rhyncolini; Rhyncolina; taxonomy; new species; mature larva; morphology; host plant; Cape Verde; biogeography; microclimate; species competition
Online: 29 March 2018 (14:53:47 CEST)
The genus Aphanommata in the Old World is reviewed. Aphanommata kuscheli sp. nov. from São Nicolau and A. strakai sp. nov. from Fogo (both Cape Verde islands) are described. Aphanommata euphorbiarum (Wollaston, 1867) from Santo Antão in the Cape Verde islands is redescribed and its lectotype is designated. All three Aphanommata species from the Cape Verde islands as well as A. filum (Mulsant & Rey, 1859) from Old World are diagnosed, illustrated, and keyed. Mature larva of A. kuscheli sp. nov. is described, larval morphology is discussed and the current state of knowledge about immature stages of Cossoninae is summarized. Vertical and inter-insular distributional pattern of Cape Verde Aphanommata and Pselactus is reviewed and discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0290.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: plant diversity; plant productivity; humped pattern; intrinsic rate of species richness; complementary effect; resource availability; disturbance; species pool effect; competition exclusion; process integration
Online: 10 November 2020 (08:28:28 CET)
The plant productivity-richness relationship (PPR) is one of the most debated and important issues in ecology. There have been distinct stages in the research of this issue, including the discovery of the different PPR shapes, respective tests of influencing processes, and integrative research with vegetation investigation, manipulation experiments, and theoretical analysis. The debate largely focuses on what the dominant shapes and underlying mechanisms are. Recent integrative research works following analyses of respective processes affecting PPR have found that the humped, asymptotic, positive, negative, and irregular shapes of PPR are linked to each other. One shape of PPR may change into another. The balance between positive and negative processes determines the different shapes of PPR. Plant diversity has a globally positive effect on plant productivity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0188.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: reaction-diffusion Gilpin-Ayala competition model (RDGACM); Saddle Theorem; orthogonal decomposition of Sobolev space; the second eigenvalue of Laplacian operator; impulsive event-triggered mechanism
Online: 7 June 2021 (14:39:21 CEST)
In this paper, the author utilizes Saddle Theorem and variational methods to deduce existence of at least six stationary solutions for reaction-diffusion Gilpin-Ayala competition model (RDGACM). To obtain the global stabilization of the positive stationary solution of the RDGACM, the author designs a suitable impulsive event triggered mechanism (IETM) to derive the global exponential stability of the the positive stationary solution. It is worth mentioning that the new mechanism can exclude Zeno behavior and effectively reduce the cost of impulse control through event triggering mechanism. Besides, compared with existing literature, the restrictions on the parameters of the RDGACM are relaxed so that the methods used in existing literature can not be applied to the relaxed case of this paper, and so the author makes comprehensive use of Saddle Theorem, orthogonal decomposition of Sobolev space $H_0^1(\Omega)$ and variational methods to overcome the mathematical difficulty. Numerical examples show the effectiveness of the methods proposed in this paper.