CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0296.v3
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: competency framework; professional competency; competency development; CBME
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:17:06 CET)
Competency frameworks are developed for a variety of purposes, including describing professional practice and informing education and assessment frameworks. Despite the volume of competency frameworks developed in the healthcare professions, guidance remains unclear and is inconsistently adhered to (perhaps in part due to a lack of organising frameworks), there is variability in methodological choices, inconsistently reported outputs, and a lack of evaluation of frameworks. As such, we proposed the need for improved guidance. In this paper we outline a six-step model for developing competency framework that is designed to address some of these shortcomings. The six-steps comprise  identifying purpose, intended uses, scope, and stakeholders;  theoretically informed ways of identifying the contexts of complex, ‘real-world’ professional practice, which includes  aligned methods and means by which practice can be explored;  the identification and specification of competencies required for professional practice,  how to report the process and outputs of identifying such competencies, and  built-in strategies to continuously evaluate, update and maintain competency framework development processes and outputs. The model synthesizes and organizes existing guidance and literature, and furthers this existing guidance by highlighting the need for a theoretically-informed approach to describing and exploring practice that is appropriate, as well as offering guidance for developers on reporting the development process and outputs, and planning for the ongoing maintenance of frameworks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0127.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: competency framework; reporting guideline; competency development
Online: 13 April 2022 (13:37:11 CEST)
Competency frameworks outline the perceived knowledge, skills and other attributes required for professional practice. Competency frameworks have gained in popularity, in part for their ability to inform health professions education, assessment, professional mobility, and other activities. Previous research has shown inadequate reporting within reports describing their development and that may jeopardize their use and application. We aimed to develop a set of minimum criteria that provides guidance to authors (and consumers) in an effort to improve reporting of the development of competency frameworks. The checklist was developed by a 35-member expert panel and a five-member research team following published guidance from the Enhancing the QUAlity and Transparency Of health Research (EQUATOR) Network. The final checklist contains 20 essential reporting items including guidance on reporting title and abstract, framework development, the development process, testing and funding/conflicts of interest. The intent of the COmpeteNcy FramEwoRk Development in Health Professions (CONFERD-HP) reporting guideline is to help readers (including researchers, educators, regulators, health professionals, and patients) develop a greater understanding of relevant terminology, core concepts, and key items to report for competency framework development in health professions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0554.v1
Subject: Keywords: Pilot; competency; competency development; competency development model; Indonesian Naval Aviation Center
Online: 21 November 2020 (10:44:23 CET)
The Indonesian Navy's military condition in facing the globalization era of the industrial revolution 4.0 underwent many significant changes, both in policies and coaching practices that were implemented in regulating developments over the past decade. The competency model was an important basis of human resource functions such as recruitment, training and development, and performance management. The purpose of this study was to identifying and analyzing the pilot competency development model in the Naval Aviation Center. This research was a descriptive study with a qualitative approach. The results of this study concluded that the pilot of the Indonesian Naval Aviation Center requires the development of competency models that were quite significant in various areas of competence such as 1.) Interpersonal Pilot Communication Competencies; 2.) Competence of Aviation Security Personnel; 3.) Competency Constraint Satisfaction Optimization Problem; 4.) Competency of Flight Control Systems that have been tested, licensed, and well implemented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0169.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: paramedic; Emergency Medical Services; competency; competency framework; professional com-petency
Online: 12 December 2022 (04:12:02 CET)
The National Occupational Competency Profile (NOCP) – the competency framework for paramedics in Canada – is presently undergoing revision. Since the NOCP was published in 2011, paramedic practice, healthcare and society have changed dramatically. To inform the revision, we sought to identify emerging concepts in the literature that would inform the development of competencies for paramedics. We conducted a restricted literature review and content analysis of all published and grey literature pertaining to or informing Canadian paramedicine from 2011 to 2022. Three authors performed a title and abstract, and full-text review to identify and label concepts informed by existing findings. A total of 302 articles were categorized into eleven emerging concepts related to competencies: Inclusion, Diversity, Equity, and Accessibility (IDEA) in paramedicine; Social responsiveness, justice, equity and access; Anti-racism; Healthy Professionals; Evidence Informed Practice and Systems; Complex Adaptive Systems; Learning Environment; Virtual Care; Clinical Reasoning; Adaptive Expertise; and Planetary Health. This review identified emerging concepts to inform the development of the 2023 National Occupational Standard for Paramedics (NOSP). These concepts will inform data analysis, development group discussions, and competency identification.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0197.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: mathematics; videogame; education; self-competency; randomized controlled trial
Online: 29 May 2017 (10:32:30 CEST)
Development of early math skills is linked to future success in mathematics and other academics. Educational videogames have been shown to promote academic achievement; however, few rigorous studies have evaluated the use of educational videogames in supporting math development, especially in early primary education. In the current study, an open-label randomized controlled trial was conducted involving 134 first grade students to determine, using standardized assessments, the impact of the educational mathematics tablet-based videogame, Knowledge Battle, on math scores and self-competency. Overall, Knowledge Battle did improve math skills in participants who played the game. Among those with lower pre-game math skills, the Knowledge Battle group’s mean math score increased more than the control group’s mean math score (9.7 vs. 6.0; p=0.02). There was no association between perceived sense of self-competency and total math score (p=0.8141). However, players who had a higher sense of self-competency were more likely to enjoy playing the game. In conclusion, our findings suggest that Knowledge Battle was an acceptable and enjoyable educational mathematical videogame for first grade students, and may be most impactful for those with low math skills.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0078.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: entrepreneurship; entrepreneurial competency; entrepreneurial intention; entrepreneurial mindset; SEM; sustainable entrepreneurship
Online: 6 September 2022 (03:28:34 CEST)
Entrepreneurship has been viewed as an opportunity for economic development and changing economic scenarios in global markets. Women are viewed as a reservoir of entrepreneurial talent, so they can be growth engines in novel markets. Previous studies have considered entrepreneurship as the most effective way towards the economic empowerment of women. Female students engaged in entrepreneurial education have been addressed persistently, while what transforms them in an education process is still unclear. Considering the transforming global economy and its influence on higher education, this study aims to detect female students transforming entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention into sustainable entrepreneurship. Using a self-compiled survey, we targeted 752 female students to investigate their entrepreneurial competency, mindset, and intention. SPSS and AMOS were used to transform the data for interpretation. We assumed that the impact of female students’ entrepreneurial competency could be modified by an entrepreneurial mindset and result in entrepreneurial intention. To detect this causal relationship, this study employed reliability, factor, structural equation modeling (SEM), and bootstrap-ping analyses to verify the evidence. The result of the SEM confirms that female students’ entrepreneurial competency will, through their entrepreneurial mindset, impact entrepreneurial intention. With bootstrapping, 5000 samples were collected, and it was demonstrated that the measure constructs were still reliable in the model. This study found that there is a mediation effect between entrepreneurial competency and entrepreneurial intention. The entrepreneurial mindset plays a crucial role in the transformation process. Without an entrepreneurial mindset, entrepreneurial competency cannot exert a significant effect on entrepreneurial intention. The findings can help reinvent related entrepreneurial education in higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0421.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: intellectual capital; intellectual capital model; performance; competency; critical thinking analysis
Online: 21 January 2021 (13:26:14 CET)
The era of globalization of the industrial revolution 4.0 was also marked by rapid economic, social, scientific, and technological developments. Currently, the company was demanded to maximize all its potential to compete with other companies. For this reason, it was hoped that companies could understand the importance of knowledge management-based intellectual capital through outreach, externalization, internalization, and combinations that had implications for improving employee performance and competency. This study was to identify and describe the enhancement of performance and competency-based on the optimization of the intellectual capital model in terms of critical thinking analysis. This study used a qualitative approach with critical thinking analysis through literature study methods. The findings results of this study were to improve performance and competency were the basic measurement models of intellectual capital, new intellectual capital measurement models in empirical studies, intellectual capital measurement models with bottlenecks, and environmental-based intellectual capital models. This study concluded that intellectual capital measurement should be determined as accumulation and interpretation in the proposed model for a company that was an applied subject with a qualitative intellectual capital index system, to provide a good tool for companies to managed intellectual capital.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0074.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Acanthaster; coral reefs; food limitation; larval competency; planktonic larval duration (PLD)
Online: 14 November 2016 (07:49:50 CET)
The dispersal potential of crown-of-thorns starfish (CoTS) larvae is important in understanding both the initiation and spread of population outbreaks, and is fundamentally dependent upon how long larvae can persist while still retaining the capacity to settle. This study quantified variation in larval survivorship and settlement rates for CoTS maintained at three different chlorophyll concentrations (0.1, 1.0 or 10.0 µg.L-1), achieved by varying densities of single-celled flagellate phytoplankton, Proteomonas sulcata. Based on the larval starvation hypothesis we expected that low to moderate algal concentrations would significantly constrain both survival and settlement. CoTS larvae were successfully maintained for up to 50 days post-fertilization, but larval survival differed significantly between treatments. Survival was greatest at intermediate (1.0 µg.L-1) chlorophyll concentrations, and lowest at highest (10.0 µg.L-1) chlorophyll concentrations. Rates of settlement were also highest at intermediate (1.0 µg.L-1) chlorophyll concentrations and peaked at 22 days post-fertilization. Peak settlement was delayed at low chlorophyll concentrations, probably reflective of delayed development, but there was no evidence of accelerated development at high chlorophyll concentrations. CoTS larvae were capable of settling 17-43 days post-fertilization, but under optimum conditions with intermediate chlorophyll concentrations, peak settlement occurred at 22 days post-fertilization. Moderate increases in nutrient concentrations and algal densities may increase the number of CoTS that effectively settle, but are unlikely to influence dispersal dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: startup failure; competency approach; Critical Incident Technique; Information seeking; Customer service orientation
Online: 28 January 2020 (10:37:41 CET)
Purpose: There is limited research on the reasons behind startup failure, and none of the available studies use a competency approach. In this study we applied Spencer’s competency model to identify the competencies in startups which, according to their CEOs, contributed to failure. Methodology: Three coders analyzed the stories of 50 startup failures published online using modified Critical Incident Technique. Findings: Two salient competencies were identified playing a fundamental role in startup failures if missing: Information seeking and Customer service orientation. A network pattern of 9 more prevalent competency deficits was created: Technical/professional/managerial expertise, Analytical thinking, Flexibility, Self-control, Concern for order, quality and accuracy, Interpersonal understanding, Self-confidence, Team leadership and Teamwork and cooperation. Besides startup-specific behavior descriptions were added to Spencer’s competencies. Research implications: Competency approach and Critical Incident Technique method proved to be feasible to identify competency deficits in failed startups. Practical implications: The identified competency deficits offer relevant focus areas for the assessment and development of startup teams. Originality: The study provided research evidence to describe the competency deficits of startup teams that are connected to their failure.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Competence; competency; competence based education; educational planning; scientific competence; scientific literacy; skills
Online: 1 November 2018 (17:57:30 CET)
Traditional educational approaches have been more concerned with the transmission of knowledge and skills than with the introduction of values and attitudes, or, in other words, with the holistic upbringing of learners “competent for life”. However, already by the end of the XX century it became clear that education should have a more relevant role in fostering achievement of individuals’ personal aims and also social and economic welfare. All this created the breeding ground for the emergence of the concept of “competence”. However, for the time being, there is not a unique, distinct definition of “competence”, which makes it scarcely operative and hinders application in educational planning. In this context, competence is being used non-uniformly, and often as a mere declaration of intent, and this is creating ambiguity regarding the design of competence based teaching. Taking into account all the above, we are proposing the development of a practical evaluation scheme, based on specific indicators (tags), which allows analysing the contribution of specific didactic resources to the development of the scientific competence. We define our framework for the definition of scientific competence, define its relevant dimensions and set the criteria and intended steps for the development of the system of indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Dentistry Keywords: Clinical Skills; Clinical Training; Competency; Cross-sectional Studies; Dental Education; Dentistry; Self-perception.
Online: 4 January 2023 (08:48:49 CET)
The transition from undergraduate dental student to the actual practicing dentist is a crucial phase and ensuring the preparedness of graduates for the complexity and demands of contempo-rary dental practice is a challenging task. This study aimed to evaluate the self-perceived prepar-edness of undergraduate dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Pakistan. Cross-sectional national study was planned to collect the information from dental students and new graduates in Pakistan. The pre-validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale (DU-PAS) was used. Purposive sampling technique was utilized to recruit house officers and undergraduate dental students from 27 dental schools in Pakistan. The data analysis was car-ried out using the R statistical environment for Windows (R Core Team, 2015). The total of 862 responses with 642 females and 219 males were analyzed in the study. Overall, clinical skills score was 30.56+9.08 and score for soft skills was 30.54+10.6. The mean age of the participants was 23.42+1.28. Deficiencies were reported in various soft skills and clinical skills attributes.The results highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of dental students and new graduates in Pakistani den-tal institutions. The findings may be used to further develop and strengthen teaching and training of dental students in Pakistan.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: Leadership, management, competency-based learning, organizational performance, institutions of higher learning, university, education
Online: 15 March 2019 (10:04:47 CET)
This paper presents a brief account and rationale for implementation of competency-based learning in any form of management and leadership development programmes in South Africa. The fact that competency-based learning (CBL), also known as outcomes-based learning has been scrapped from the schooling system in South Africa is unfortunate as this method enhances critical thinking skills and practical problem-solving skills. This paper presents CBL as a model of meta-cognitive approach to learning that integrates both theory and practice into experiential learning through six dimensions, namely, active learning, constructive learning, cumulative learning, goal-oriented learning, learner-centred and curriculum design strategies. In the advent of the fast-paced global economy, managers and leaders need to seek those business schools that value real-time practical approach to curriculum for relevance and to maximize shareholder value through human resource development. This brief presentation ends by recommending an approach through CBL that fosters three critical pillars of leadership development, namely: intellectual, behavioural and emotional agenda.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0300.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Business And Administrative Sciences Keywords: health service managers; competency frameworks; capacity building; digital health; health informatics; health workforce; health management degrees
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:47:29 CEST)
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has sped up digital health transformation across the health sectors to enable innovative health service delivery. Such transformation relies on competent managers with the capacity to lead and manage. However, the health system has not adopted a holistic approach in addressing the health management workforce development needs, with many hurdles to overcome. The objectives of this paper are to present the findings of a three-step approach in understanding the current hurdles in developing a health management workforce that can enable and maximise the benefits of digital health transformation, and to explore ways of overcoming such hurdles. Methods: A three-step, systematic approach was undertaken, including an Australian digital health policy documentary analysis, an Australian health service management postgraduate program analysis, and a scoping review of international literatures. Results: The main findings will guide the formulation of strategies in developing a digitally enabled health management workforce in the digital health era. Conclusions: With the ever-changing landscape of digital health, being able to lead and manage in times of system transformation requires a holistic approach to develop the necessary health management workforce capabilities and system-wide capacity. The evidence would support that this can be achieved with the required system, policy, educational and professional organizational enablers, which drive a digital health focused approach across all the healthcare sectors, in a coordinated and contextual manner.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0026.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: reflective evaluation tool; pre-service teacher education; teaching competency; pre-service phys-ical education teacher; Delphi survey
Online: 2 June 2022 (04:44:37 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to develop a reflective evaluation tool that can enhance the teaching competency of pre-service physical education teachers. A Delphi survey was conducted to modify the questions based on the evaluation tool for the teaching competency of physical education teachers, and each evaluation standard based on teaching competency was developed. The evaluation tool consisted of 46 questions for class preparation (the creation of the learning environment), the introduction (routine activities, learning goals, and task presentation), development (class strategy, observation and interaction, and the maintenance of the learning environment), and conclusion (routine activities, summary, and closure). It was designed to increase the accuracy of evaluation by developing evaluation criteria for each question. An evaluation tool including quantitative and qualitative methods for use in pre-service physical education teacher education was developed. The significance of this study was the development of an effective evaluation tool that can evaluate the core teaching behaviors in the field of physical education. This evaluation tool should be used as a learning tool that includes planning, operation, evaluation, and seeking improvement measures through reflective activities. If pre-service teacher education institutions apply this evaluation tool in their teacher training programs, it would be a great chance to learn how to develop and sustain teaching abilities and effectiveness.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0001.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Studies Keywords: sustainable competencies; holistic competency; teacher training; project-oriented learning; cross-disciplinary workshop on sustainable food; sustainable food; higher education
Online: 1 September 2018 (13:37:48 CEST)
Since the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) came into effect, both UNESCO and other international organisations recommend empowering youth to implement the SDGs in universities. Getting started with the SDGs at university level is of special relevance in pre-service teacher training since future teachers are powerful agents of change in the lives of young people. Future teachers need to acquire competencies in sustainability to be able to promote meaningful changes in sustainable behaviour. To that end, holistic approaches to facilitate their acquirement need to be developed. The aim of this study is to explore which teaching methodologies are suitable for the development of competencies in sustainability in Higher Education (HE) and how to empower students to take a leading role in implementing the SDGs in universities. The participants in the study are a group of 23 students in pre-service teacher training. The experimental educational model used for the development of sustainable competencies consists of a methodological sequence of Project-Oriented Learning (POL) and a Cross-disciplinary Workshop on Sustainable Food. This study provides evidence that a holistic approach is appropriate for developing sustainable competencies and contributes to empowering students to implement SDG 12 at their university.