ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0268.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: environmental health science; community engagement; community based participatory research; community-university partnerships
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:07:29 CET)
Community-engaged research is understood as existing on a continuum from less to more community engagement, defined by participation and decision-making authority. It has been widely assumed that more is better than less engagement. However, we argue that what makes for good community engagement is not simply the extent but the fit or alignment between the intended approach and the various contexts shaping the research projects. This article draws on case studies from three Community Engagement Cores (CECs) of NIEHS-funded Environmental Health Science Core Centers (Harvard University, UC Davis and University of Arizona,) to illustrate the ways in which community engagement approaches have been fit to different contexts and the successes and challenges experienced in each case. We analyze the processes through which the CECs work with researchers and community leaders to develop place-based community engagement approaches and find that different strategies are called for to fit distinct contexts. We find that alignment of the scale and scope of the environmental health issue and related research project, the capacities and resources of the researchers and community leaders, and the influences of the socio-political environment are critical for understanding and designing effective and equitable engagement approaches. These cases demonstrate that the types and degrees of alignment in community-engaged research projects are dynamic and evolve over time. Based on this analysis, we recommend that CBPR scholars and practitioners select a range of project planning and management techniques for designing and implementing their collaborative research approaches and both expect and allow for the dynamic and changing nature of alignment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0337.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: participatory research; pre-intervention; community-based intervention; alcohol use; adolescents
Online: 14 July 2021 (14:04:01 CEST)
This study explores the impact of the ‘pre-intervention effects’ of a community-based interventions. This refers to participatory research processes and parallel publicity in the media on changes in alcohol use and relevant mechanisms (rules and norms about alcohol, accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting) among adolescents before any intervention is implemented. In a quasi-experimental study, adolescent data were collected twice by means of self-report among adolescents living in two municipalities (control and experimental condition). Regression analysis showed pre-intervention main effects on adolescents’ perceived accessibility of alcohol in a formal setting. Moreover, among adolescents aged 15 years and older, the normative decline in strictness of rules and norms was less steep in the experimental condition compared to the control condition. Also, adolescents aged 14 years and younger in the experimental condition reported more weekly drinking compared to their peers in the control condition. No differential effects across gender were found. To conclude, applying a co-creational approach in the development of an intervention, not only contributes to more effective interventions in the end, but involvement of and discussions in the community at the start of intervention planning are contributing to changes in targeted factors. This implies that public discussions about the development of intervention strategies should be considered as an essential feature of co-creation in community-based interventions.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Fungi; Mycology; Canada; Research; Community
Online: 3 June 2020 (13:45:17 CEST)
Fungi critically impact the health and function of global ecosystems and economies. In Canada, fungal researchers often work within silos defined by sub-discipline and institutional type, complicating the collaborations necessary to understand the impacts fungi have on the environment, economy, and plant and animal health. Here, we announce the establishment of the Canadian Fungal Research Network (CanFunNet, https://fungalresearch.ca) whose mission is to strengthen and promote fungal research in Canada by facilitating dialogue among scientists. We summarize the challenges and opportunities for Canadian fungal research that were discussed at CanFunNet’s inaugural meeting in 2019, and identify four priorities for our community: 1) increasing collaboration among scientists; 2) studying diversity in the context of ecological disturbance; 3) preserving culture collections in the absence of sustained funding; and 4) leveraging diverse expertise to attract trainees. We have gathered additional information to support our recommendations, including a survey identifying underrepresentation of fungal-related courses at Canadian universities, a list of Canadian fungaria and culture collections, and a case study of a human fungal pathogen outbreak. We anticipate that these discussions will help prioritize fungal research in Canada, and we welcome all researchers to join this nationwide effort to enhance knowledge dissemination and funding advocacy.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0351.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: lecture based instruction; actual community-based instruction; maternal and child care; social competency skills; community awareness
Online: 13 April 2021 (12:47:52 CEST)
Maternal-child care is one of the foundations of primary health care. Nurses’ competency skills they have been taught. Community awareness is an important part of preventive healthcare, and nurses must be aware of the factors that impact the health of the community. This study examines the effectiveness of lecture-based instructions in maternal and child care and its implications to students' social competency skills and community awareness in Nursing Colleges in Nueva Ecija, Philippines. The researcher uses survey questionnaire and employed the descriptive design where fifteen (15) nursing students and five (5) teachers were purposively selected. The findings revealed that the weighted mean for the effectiveness of lecture based instruction in maternal and child care is 3.91 with verbal description of “Effective”, the effects of lecture based instruction in maternal and childcare to students’ social competency skills and community awareness got the weighted mean of 3.87 and interpreted as “very satisfactory” and the effectiveness of actual community-based instruction is very effective with weighted mean of 4.25 and is higher compare to lecture based instruction. The results also revealed that students and teachers were challenged in lecture-based instruction in maternal and chi8ldcare during distance learning. Recommendations for the enhancement of lecture-based instruction in maternal and childcare in social competency skills and community awareness were also made.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0095.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Regression; AI based Tornado Analysis; Decision Support System; Mobile Application
Online: 9 May 2022 (03:15:11 CEST)
Tropical cyclones devastate large areas, take numerous lives and damage extensive property in Bangladesh. Research on landfalling tropical cyclones affecting Bangladesh has primarily focused on events occurring since AD1960 with limited work examining earlier historical records. We rectify this gap by developing a new tornado catalogue that include present and past records of tornados across Bangladesh maximizing use of available sources. Within this new tornado database, 119 records were captured starting from 1838 till 2020 causing 8,735 deaths and 97,868 injuries leaving more than 1,02,776 people affected in total. Moreover, using this new tornado data, we developed an end-to-end system that allows a user to explore and analyze the full range of tornado data on multiple scenarios. The user of this new system can select a date range or search a particular location, and then, all the tornado information along with Artificial Intelligence (AI) based insights within that selected scope would be dynamically presented in a range of devices including iOS, Android, and Windows. Using a set of interactive maps, charts, graphs, and visualizations the user would have a comprehensive understanding of the historical records of Tornados, Cyclones and associated landfalls with detailed data distributions and statistics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0150.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: water-based polyurethane; hyaluronic acid; cartilage tissue engineering; scaffold
Online: 30 November 2016 (04:28:15 CET)
Diseases in articular cartilages have affected millions of people globally. Although the biochemical and cellular composition of articular cartilages is relatively simple, there is the limitation in self-repair ability of cartilage. Therefore, developing the strategies for cartilage repair is very important. Here, we reported a new manufacturing process of water-based polyurethane based photosensitive materials with hyaluronic acid and applied the materials for 3D printed customized cartilage scaffolds. The scaffold has high cytocompatibility and is one that closely mimics the mechanical properties of articular cartilages. It is suitable for culturing human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) and the cells showed an excellent chondrogenic differentiation capacity. We consider that the 3D printing hybrid scaffolds may have potential in customized tissue engineering and facilitate the development of cartilage tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0632.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: suicide; men; help-seeking; engagement; community-based intervention
Online: 26 May 2021 (11:12:38 CEST)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to compare help-seeking among younger and older men who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this case series study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE-OM there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001) for both younger and older men. At initial assessment, younger men were less affected by entrapment (46% v 62%; p=.02), defeat (33% v 52%; p=.01), not engaging in new goals (38% v 47%; p=.02), and positive attitudes towards suicide (14% v 18%; p=.001) than older men. At discharge assessment, older men were significantly more likely to have an absence of positive future thinking (15% v 8%; p=0.03), have less social support (45% v 33%; p=.02) and feelings of entrapment (17% v 14%; p=.02) than younger men. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0526.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: suicide, men, help-seeking, engagement, community-based intervention
Online: 22 March 2021 (12:04:18 CET)
Due to the continuing high suicide rates among young men, there is a need to understand help-seeking behaviour and engagement with tailored suicide prevention interventions. The aim of this study was to explore help-seeking behaviour and engagement for young men aged 18 to 30 years who attended a therapeutic centre for men in a suicidal crisis. In this prospective cohort study, data were collected from 546 men who were referred into a community-based therapeutic service in North West England. Of the 546 men, 337 (52%) received therapy; 161 (48%) were aged between 18 and 30 years (mean age 24 years, SD=3.4). One third (n=54; 34%) of the men were seen within 48 hours of their referral. Analyses included baseline differences, symptom trajectories for the CORE-34 Clinical Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and engagement with the therapy. For the CORE 34 there was a clinically significant reduction in mean scores between assessment and discharge (p<0.001), with all outcomes demonstrating a large effect size. Future research needs to assess the long-term effects of help-seeking using a brief psychological intervention for young men in order to understand whether the effects of the therapy are sustainable over a period of time following discharge from the service.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0411.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: community participatory asset mapping; asset-based approaches to health; health inequalities; basic healthcare services; community-based healthcare; democratic republic of congo
Online: 6 September 2023 (10:32:40 CEST)
Populations with healthcare needs often reside in post-conflict settings where basic services needed to maintain good health may be non-existent or hard to access. Therefore, there is a need for better identification and reallocation of resources as part of the post-conflict health rehabilitation effort. This study applies an asset-based approach to explore the more optimal design of health services and to identify the resource constraints for basic health service delivery to the most vulnerable communities in eastern Congo. We implemented the asset mapping in two phases. Firstly, we combined a qualitative survey with community walks to identify the assets already present in the communities. Secondly, we conducted group discussions to map out assets that are the core of Asset-Based Community Development (ABCD) practice. We finally documented all assets in a Community Asset Spreadsheet. Overall, 209 assets were identified as available and potentially valuable resources for the communities in eastern Congo. Among them, 60 were local associations, 24 were land and physical environment, 43 were local institutions, 46 were individuals, 32 to economy and exchange, and only 6 were related to culture, history, and stories. Drawing upon the findings from the qualitative survey, community walks, and group discussions, we conclude that an important number of resources were in place for basic health service delivery. By activating the existing and potential resources, the most vulnerable populations in eastern Congo might have the required resources for basic health service delivery. Our findings support the use of an asset-mapping research method as appropriate to identify existing and potential resources for basic health services in a post-conflict setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0439.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Participation; Wildlife; Community–Based Conservation; India; Interaction; Northeast India
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:42:21 CEST)
Participation by local communities in wildlife conservation projects have long been advocated since it is socially just and is effective to reach conservation and development goals. Socio–economic variables that drive participation and impact of participation have been studied, but the contextual process that stir up local community participation remains understudied. In this paper, we studied factors facilitating community participation in three wildlife conservation projects in Northeast India. Through ethnographic fieldwork at these sites we identified conservation actors and examined interactions between them.We found common modes of participation at these sites and these were related to gaining material incentives, providing labour, attending consultative workshops. Levels of interaction and coercion were found to be different in three sites. Three critical factors that drive participation were: (1) trigger, (2) negotiation and (3) sustenance. Trigger factors kickstart participation through establishment of a crisis narrative and facilitation by external actors. Negotiation factors emerge from day–to–day interaction between local community and external actors and involve effective entry stage activities, income opportunity, mediating voices within the community and intra–community dynamics. Sustenance factors affect the long term participation by community in the conservation project and involve tangible/intangible results, capability development of locals, funding and availability to critical information. In our paper we argue that investment of time and fund to understand the stakeholders and their concept of participation, periodic feedback sessions, capacity development of locals for self–mobilization, innovative information dissemination and securing long term funding are necessary for effective local community participation.
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: systematic review; community intervention; greenhouse gas emissions; climate change
Online: 3 September 2020 (02:54:04 CEST)
This paper reviews research on community efforts to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We conducted a systematic search of relevant literature and supplemented our findings with an analysis of review papers previously published on the topic. Results indicate that there have been no peer-reviewed experimental evaluations of community-wide interventions to reduce greenhouse gases involving electricity, refrigeration, or food. The lack of findings limits the conclusions which can be made about the efficacy of these efforts. As a result, we are not accumulating effective interventions and some communities may be implementing strategies that are not effective. We advocate the funding of experimental evaluations of multi-sector community interventions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Such interventions would attempt to engage every sector of the community in identifying and implementing policies and practices to reduce emissions. Comprehensive multi-sector interventions are likely to have synergistic effects, such that the total impact is greater than the sum of impact of individual components. We describe the value of interrupted time-series designs as an alternative to randomized trials because these designs confer particular advantages for evaluating strategies in entire communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0519.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Digital Mental Health community; Peer Online Community; Experience measure; Forums; User testing; Quality of Care; Measure design and development; Peer support; Affinity maps
Online: 31 December 2021 (12:34:46 CET)
Online digital mental health communities can contribute to users’ mental health positively and negatively. Yet the measurement of outcomes and impact relating to digital mental health communities is difficult to capture. In this paper we demonstrate the development of an online experience measure for a specific children and young people’s community inside a digital mental health service. The development is informed by three phases: (i) item reduction through Estimate-Talk-Estimate modified Delphi methods, (ii) user testing with participatory action research and (iii) a pilot within the digital service community to explore its use. Rounds of experts talks help to reduce the items. User experience workshops helped to inform the usability and appearance, wording, and purpose of the measure. Finally, the pilot results highlight completion rates, difference in scores for age and community roles and a preference to ‘relate to others’; as a mechanism of support. Outcomes frequently selected in the measure show the importance of certain aspects of the community, such as safety, connection, and non-judgment previously highlighted in the literature. Self-reported helpfulness scales like this one could be used as indicators of meaningful engagement within the community and its content but further research is required to ascertain its acceptability and validity. Phased approaches involving stakeholders and participatory action research enhances the development of digitally enabled measurement tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0061.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Social engagement; social rehabilitation; community-based; financial analysis; Momentum Center
Online: 2 May 2023 (05:28:57 CEST)
Cost-effective community engagement is needed to address causes of mental illness related to social issues (i.e. isolation, stigma and lack of purpose) that are typically outside the scope of healthcare. This pilot study evaluated the relationship between clinical healthcare resources and a community-based social engagement organization in a medium-sized community in the midwestern US. Analyses were based on a retrospective longitudinal comparison of clinical visit frequency from two cohorts that joined the Momentum Center for Social Engagement (MC) and either frequently participated (Engaged; n = 9) or had extenuating circumstances limiting participation (Non-engaged; n = 3). The frequency of >1800 visits to the member’s primary mental healthcare provider were compared during the period from November 2016 - May 2021. Engaged MC members reduced frequency of regular visits to their primary mental healthcare provider by 50%, while Non-engaged MC members maintained clinical visit frequency. The financial value of reduced healthcare visits and associated wellbeing improvements was estimated to be $1.0 million, 95% CI: [$0.6-1.4 million], or roughly four times the budget received by the MC from the healthcare provider. Thus, the MC appears to be a valuable approach to improving mental health in conjunction with existing community healthcare services. Clinical implications include considering the unique MC-style community-based support as a component of practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0763.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Community-based medical education; primary healthcare physicians; Bisha; Saudi Arabia
Online: 23 April 2023 (04:17:14 CEST)
Background: Community-based medical education (CBME) is an essential component of medical education, where primary healthcare physicians (PHPs) play a crucial role. This study explores PHPs' awareness and engagement in CBME and investigates the factors influencing their participation. Methods: This mixed study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, a qual-itative study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with PHPs, and thematic analysis related to their awareness and engagement in CBME. In the second phase, a quantitative survey was conducted among 72 PHPs pre- and post-training programs. Results: Primary healthcare physicians had a positive attitude toward community-based medical education. The participants have an acceptable level of awareness and engagement, which increased substantially (p-value = 0.03) and (p-value = 0.003), respectively. Logistic analysis indicated that non-Saudi physicians were likelier to participate in the CBME (p-value=0.001). Professions and academic experiences influence their willingness and engagement to participate in CBME (OR= 7.5, p-value=0.001) and (OR=0.21, p-value=0.001), respectively. Conclusion: The study findings highlighted the importance of increased awareness and the factors that enhance PHPs' engagement in CBME. This positive perspective of the PHPs helps build effective partnerships and facilitates the extension of the curriculum to apply CBME.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0001.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Sacred groves; biodiversity conservation; Community-based conservation; Indigenous People; Nigeria.
Online: 1 September 2021 (08:42:18 CEST)
Globally, sacred groves represent a traditional form of community-based conservation system, recognized for their capacity to preserve areas that are of cultural and religious importance to local people. In most cases, the entire community takes on a watchdog role to guard against encroachment and unauthorized access either by its members or outsiders who might desecrate such sites. Our paper investigates the effects of different governance arrangements on three sacred groves in southwest Nigeria⎯Osun Osogbo Sacred Grove (UNESCO World Heritage Site); Idanre Hills (Nigerian National Monument) and Igbo-Olodumare (local cultural site)⎯on their socio-economic and religio-cultural benefits and contribution to biodiversity conservation. Using a mixed-methods design of a semi-structured questionnaire (n=167), key informant interviews (n=2), and focus groups (n=7), we collected data from local community members, traditional priests, sacred grove devotees and tourism officials. We found that customary institutions have guided reverence for sacralized spaces and wise utilization of their unique resources. The growing recognition of sacred groves has paved the way for socioeconomic rewards for individuals and government as cultural tourism increases. We found that the involvement of formal institutions alongside customary institutions in sacred grove management reinforces compliance with conservation laws within the sacred groves, especially where traditional norms are weak or may be disregarded. We discuss the implications of these observations and offer suggestions to improve community engagement, uphold traditional ecological knowledge, and develop ecotourism within the groves. We conclude that the co-existence of community-based conservation through a system of established traditional norms and prohibitions as well as formal government legislation and management, offers assurance for the long-term preservation of sacred groves and their biodiversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0146.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: early childhood caries; mouth pain; malnutrition; ecuador; community-based intervention
Online: 24 April 2017 (05:43:03 CEST)
Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1,407 children from birth through age 6 in the “Alli Kiru” program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for underweight (AOR: 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02 – 1.54) and decreased odds for overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58 – 0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children’s risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: community health; rural Latino immigrants; mental well-being; network analysis; spatial statistics; intervention
Online: 23 May 2018 (07:40:58 CEST)
Social and spatial characteristics of a population often interact to influence health outcomes, suggesting a need to jointly analyze both to offer useful insights in community health. However, researchers have used either social or spatial analyses to examine community-based health issues and inform intervention programs. We propose a combined socio-spatial analytic approach to develop a social network with spatial weights and a spatial statistic with social weights, and apply them to an ongoing study of mental and physical well-being of rural Latino immigrants in North Florida, USA. We demonstrate how this approach can be used to calculate measures, such as social network centrality, support contact dyads, and spatial kernel density based on a health survey data. Findings reveal that the integrated approach accurately reflected interactions between social and spatial elements, and identified community members (who) and locations (where) that should be prioritized for community-based health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0109.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: child; diarrhea; water sanitation and hygiene; rehydration solution; zinc; case management; antibacterial agents; drug utilization; community participation; India
Online: 14 May 2019 (11:46:53 CEST)
Childhood diarrhea continues to be a major cause of under-five (U-5) mortality globally and in India. In this study, 1571 U-5 children residing in nine rural villages and four urban slums in Ujjain, India were included with the objective to use community participation and drug utilization research to improve diarrheal case management. The mean age was 2.08 years, with 297 (19%), children living in high diarrheal index households. Most mothers (70%) considered stale food, teething (62%), and hot weather (55%) as causes of diarrhea. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH)-related characteristics revealed that most (93%) households had toilets, but only 23% of the children used them. The study identified ineffective household water treatment by filtration through cloth by most (93%) households and dumping of household waste on the streets (89%). The results revealed low community awareness of correct causes of diarrhea (poor hand hygiene, 21%; littering around the household, 15%) and of correct diarrhea treatment (oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc use, 29% and 11%, respectively) and a high antibiotic prescription rate by healthcare providers (83%). Based on the results of the present study, context-specific house-to-house interventions will be designed and implemented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0499.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; disaster preparedness; disaster response; natural disasters; community-based organizations
Online: 21 December 2020 (10:43:50 CET)
Background: This year has seen the emergence of two major crises, a significant increase in frequency and severity of hurricanes and the COVID-19 pandemic. However, little is known as to how each of these two events have impacted the other. A rapid qualitative assessment was conducted to determine the impact of the pandemic on preparedness and response to natural disasters and the impact of past experiences with natural disasters in responding to the pandemic. Methods: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 representatives of 24 different community-based programs in southern Louisiana. Data were analyzed using procedures embedded in the Rapid Assessment Procedure – Informed Community Ethnography methodology, using techniques of immersion and crystallization and focused thematic analysis. Results: The pandemic has impacted the form and function of disaster preparedness, making it harder to plan for evacuations in event of a hurricane. Specific concerns included being able to see people in-person, providing food and other resources to residents who shelter in place, finding volunteers to assist in food distribution and other forms of disaster response, competing for funds to support disaster-related activities, developing new support infrastructures, and focusing on equity in disaster preparedness. However, several strengths based on disaster preparedness experience and capabilities were identified, including providing a framework for how to respond and adapt to COVID and integration of COVID response with their normal disaster preparedness activities. Conclusions: Although prior experience has enabled community-based organizations to respond to the pandemic, the pandemic is also creating new challenges to preparing for and responding to natural disasters.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0034.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Maize, Food Safety, Community-based Support systems, Integrated Mycotoxin Control Strategies
Online: 8 April 2019 (13:21:53 CEST)
Grain production and storage are major components in food security. In the ancient times, food security was achieved through gathering of fruits, grains, herbs, tubers, and roots from the forests by individual households. Advancements in human civilization led to domestication of crops and a need to save food for not only a household, but the nation. This extended need for food security led to establishment of national reservoirs for major produces and this practice varies greatly in different states. Each of the applied food production, handling and storage approaches has got its benefits and challenges. In sub-Saharan Africa, several countries have a public funded budget to subsidize production costs, to buy grains from farmers and to store the produce for a specific period and/or until the next harvests. During the times of famine, the stored grains are later given free to the citizens. If there is no famine, the grain is sold to retailers and/or processors (e.g., millers) who later sell it to the consumers. This approach works well if the produce (mainly grain) is stored under conditions that do not favor growth of molds, as some of these could contaminate the grain with toxic and carcinogenic metabolites called mycotoxins. Conditions that alleviate contamination of grains are required during production, handling and storage. Most of the grain is produced by smallholder farmers under sub-optimal conditions, which make vulnerable to colonization and contamination by toxigenic fungi. Further, the grain is stored in silos at large masses, where it is hard to monitor the conditions at different points of these facilities, and hence it becomes vulnerable to additional contamination. Production and storage of grain under conditions that favor mycotoxins poses major food health and safety risks to humans and livestock who consume the grain. This concept paper focuses on how establishment of local grain production and banking system (LGPBS) could enhance food security and safety in East Africa. The concept of LGPBS provides an extension of advisory and finance support within warehouse receipting system to enhance grain production under optimal conditions. The major practices at the LGPBS, and how each could contribute to food security and safety are discussed. While the concept paper gives more strength on maize production and safety, similar practices could be applied to enhance safety of other grains in the same LGPBS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0068.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: community-based health insurance; cooperative; benefit package; social inclusion; healthcare; Nepal
Online: 6 August 2016 (11:54:03 CEST)
Background: Health insurance (HI) run by government is providing health care service to large population. Due to poor accountability, participation and sustainability, cooperative health insurance is becoming more popular and effective in low and middle income and some high-income countries too. In Nepal, there are public and cooperative HI is in practice. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of public (government) and cooperative HI in relation to benefit packages, population coverage, inclusiveness, health care utilization, and promptness for treatment in these two health insurance models in Nepal. Method: This is an institution based concurrent mixed study consists of qualitative and quantitative variables from public and cooperative groups. We included all public HI operated by government hospitals and cooperatives groups those purchased hospital service in contract. Two separate study tools were applied to access the effectiveness of insurance models. The key questions were asked for the representatives of government and private health insurance. The numeric information consisted of in quantitative data and subjective response was included in qualitative approach. Descriptive statistics and Mean Whitney U test was applied in numeric data and qualitative information were analyzed by inductive approach Results: The study revealed that new enrolment was not increased, health care utilization rate was increased and the benefit package was almost same in both groups. The overall inclusiveness was higher for the government HI, but enrolment from the religious minority, proportion of negotiated amount during treatment were significantly higher (p<0.05). During illness, the response time to reach hospital was significantly faster in cooperative health insurance than government health insurance. Qualitative findings showed that level of participation, accountability, transparency and recording system was better in cooperative health insurance than public. Conclusion: Cooperative HI could be more sustainable and accountable to the community for all; low, middle and high-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0050.v1
Online: 2 August 2021 (14:45:06 CEST)
A project-based module on Sustainable Development Goal number 5, Gender Equality, was im-plemented on 5 different groups of Business English students consisting of a total number of 62 students in higher education. The main purpose of this project was to raise awareness of this goal by means of a flipped method in which students were required to carry out some research on specific areas of the aforementioned goal and work in teams to elaborate oral presentations. Once their findings were shared in class, students were expected to answer a written questionnaire of open-ended questions which were part of a qualitative analysis. Results of this survey showed that not only 90% of the students gained in depth knowledge of this goal, but also 85% had built a positive attitude to take initiative and 80% were optimistic about future gender equality. Finally, 70% of students suggested further social action to curb the problem of gender discrimination. On the whole, the flipped classroom method of learning combined with project-based group work have proven to be an effective way to raise awareness of this goal, create a more positive attitude, in-crease their willingness to take action as well as widening their English lexical resources.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0303.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community engagement; health disparities; precision medicine; participant recruitment
Online: 17 July 2018 (10:21:34 CEST)
In response to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) All of Us Medicine Research Initiative, the Precision Medicine Research (PreMeR) Diversity Consortium was formed by four institutions from the Research Centers in Minority Institutions (RCMI) Translational Research Network (RTRN). This synergistic approach proposed evidence-based, best practices used by experienced researchers to engage, recruit and retain diverse populations in the All of Us initiative. Conceptualization of the proposed approach was aided by social influence theories to better understand how people’s beliefs and opinions should be modified to affect change leading to action . The Social-Ecological Model (SEM), for Health Promotion , from Stokols  and Community-Based Participatory (CBPR) Models, guided proposed engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies contextualized with the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy spheres of influence. The PreMeR produced a partnership to evaluate and improve the effectiveness of current engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies for minority participation in scientific studies. This approach illustrates the need to incorporate multiple methods of engagement to reach a diverse audience to participate in scientific research. Engagement, recruitment, and retention strategies in community and biomedical research must be viewed as community engaged public health interventions, utilizing the same theoretical principles and approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0536.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE); repetition; iteration
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:37:54 CET)
Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) provide students with opportunities for the same gains that apprenticed research with faculty members offer. As their popularity increases, it is important that critical elements of CUREs are supported by thoughtful design. Student experiences in CUREs can provide important insights into why CUREs are so effective. We present evidence from students who participated in CUREs at the introductory, intermediate, and advanced levels, as well as from graduate teaching assistants for an introductory lab course that included a CURE. Students and teaching assistants describe repetition as a valuable element in CUREs and other laboratory experiences. We used student work and open-ended interviews to identify which of five previously described elements of CUREs students found important. Because repetition was particularly salient, we characterized how students described repetition as they experienced it in courses that contained full-length or “micro”-CUREs. In prompted interviews, students described how repetition in CUREs provided cognitive (learning concepts) and practical (learning technical skills) value. Recent graduates who had participated in CUREs at each level of their Biology education were particularly aware that they placed value in repetition and acknowledged it as motivational in their own learning. Many students described repetition in metacognitive terms, which also suggests that as students advance through laboratory and CURE curricula, their understanding of how repetition supports their learning becomes more sophisticated. Finally, we integrated student descriptions to suggest ways in which repetition can be designed into CUREs or other laboratory courses to support scientific learning and enhance students’ sense of scientific identity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0149.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: adaptive co-marketing; social marketing; community-based social marketing; social license to operate; community engagement; corporate social responsibility; marketing strategy
Online: 30 November 2016 (05:13:35 CET)
The concept of a Social License to Operate (SLO) has become increasingly important in the sustainability literature in recent years. Having its origins in the business discourse of the mining industry with respect to limiting opposition to mining projects, the notion of a social contract above and beyond legal requirements has since become applied across a number of different industries. Despite the concepts adoption confusion exists over the practices and outcomes of SLO, and particularly the nature of engagement. Given this situation it is surprising that not more attention to the role of marketing, and social marketing in particular, in operationalizing the concept. The paper discusses the potential of social marketing to contribute to SLO. Economic, political and social relations are complex in SLO and exchange is intricate in such relational environments. A community-based social marketing orientation is proposed as a means to improve exchange relations and enhance engagement. Seven models of SLO related social marketing models are discussed with community-based social marketing and adaptive co-marketing models being regarded as the most positive for the achievement of an SLO. Potential barriers to adoption of these approaches are noted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0128.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: research-based training; methodological characteristics; development of research skills.
Online: 26 September 2017 (08:10:13 CEST)
The purpose of the article is to determine the peculiarities of using of teaching elements of research-based training at the Institute of Human Sciences of Borys Grinchenko Kyiv University. Based on the focus group methodology, the authors identify the key methodological characteristics of research-based training, which have been put into basis of analysis of educational programs for the purpose of determining the application of tasks that contribute to the development of research skills of students. The study used a method of focus group. Its purpose was to obtain the necessary information from the participants to describe the methodological basis and justification of methods, forms, indicators, etc. of research-based training system among people who are competent, have experience in this field. After that, the method of "theoretical sampling" was used, which enabled to formulate generalized characteristics according to the results of focus groups. The practical value of the study is determination of the methodological characteristics of research-based training which is the basis for the application of tasks by university teachers that promote the development of research competence of students. The research is one of the first attempts to determine the methodological characteristics of research-based training in Ukraine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0132.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Cointegrated VAR methodology, Linking theory and evidence, Empirically based macroeconomics.
Online: 9 July 2018 (11:34:19 CEST)
This survey paper discusses the Cointegrated VAR methodology and how it has evolved over the last 30 years. The first section is a description of major steps in the econometric development of the CVAR model that facilitated serious real world applications. The next three sections are primarily methodological and discuss (i) difficulties and puzzles when confronting theory with the data, (ii) the formulation of a viable link between theory and the data, a so called theory-consistent CVAR scenario, and (iii) how all this was inspired by Trygve Haavelmo and his Nobel prize winning monograph "The Probability Approach to Economics". The next two sections discuss early applications of the Cointegrated VAR model to monetary transmission mechanisms, international transmission mechanisms and wage, price and unemployment dynamics. They report puzzling evidence, discuss the need for new theory, and propose a method for combining partial CVAR analyses into a larger macroeconomic model. The following sections propose a new, empirically-based, approach to macroeconomics in which imperfect knowledge based expectations replace so called rational expectations and in which the financial sector plays a key role for understanding the long persistent movements in the data. The last section argues that the CVAR can act as a "design of experiment for passive observations" and illustrates with several applications including unemployment dynamics under crises periods and aid effectiveness in South Saharan African countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201706.0112.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: HE course management； evidence-based practice； professionalism； practice
Online: 26 June 2017 (04:33:02 CEST)
This paper outlines evidence-based practice in the context of professionalism, and highlights the contribution evidence-based practice can make to the professional practice of higher education course managers. Implications of the changing HE landscape for the status of academics as professionals are reviewed, and evidence-based practice is proposed as a solution for both enhanced course management and to remedy perceived deprofessionalisation. Finally, questions regarding researching professional practice within one’s own institution are addressed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1331.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: inclusive park; disabilities; research-based design; research through designing
Online: 23 October 2023 (05:13:53 CEST)
Public parks are a community resource with an important role in improving liveability, physical, and mental wellbeing. However, exercise facilities that are suitable for people with disabilities typically have been neglected in public park design. As such, people with disabilities often are unable to independently or safely use the park. To address this shortcoming, the objective of this paper was to employ a pragmatic research through designing process in developing the design for an inclusive park. We used a mixed-methods approach in the research that included review of previous studies, semi-structured interviews, and questionnaire surveys with stakeholders were applied as design integration. Persons with disabilities specifically were consulted to express their views on all matters of inclusive park design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0128.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: men's sheds; men's health; health promotion; evaluation; community based health promotion; physical activity
Online: 9 March 2022 (09:36:03 CET)
Abstract Issue Addressed: Men’s Sheds (‘Sheds’) have been identified as inherently health promoting and as potential settings to engage ‘hard-to-reach’ men in more structured health promotion initiatives. However, little is known about the sociodemographic or health and wellbeing characteristics of Shed members (‘Shedders’) on which such initiatives might be based. This study captures a baseline cross sectional analysis of Shedders (n=384) who participated in ‘Sheds for Life’, a health promotion initiative tailored to Sheds. Methods: Objective health measure, (body composition, blood pressure, blood lipids) captured via health screening as well as sociodemographic and health and wellbeing measures (physical activity, subjective wellbeing, mental health, social capital, cooking and diet) via questionnaires were assessed. Results: Participants were mostly over 65 years, retired with limited educational attainment. The majority were in the ‘at-risk’ categories for objective health measures, with most being referred to their GP following health screening. Older Shedders were also more likely to meet physical activity guidelines. Mental wellbeing was positively correlated with life satisfaction and increased social capital and these were also positively correlated with physical activity. Conclusions: Findings highlight the potential of Sheds in reaching a ‘hard-to-reach’ and ‘at-risk’ cohort of men. Despite a high prevalence of ‘at-risk’ objective health measures, participants report their health in positive terms. Future health promotion initiatives should capitalise on the inherent health promoting properties of Sheds. So what? Findings raise important implications for prioritising and designing health promotion initiatives in Shed settings.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0440.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: value-based care; healthy ageing; frailty; social care; barriers; health promotion; community; digital solution
Online: 4 August 2023 (14:45:00 CEST)
A new intervention model for promoting healthy ageing grounded on integrated value-based care was developed and tested in the city of Valencia (Spain). Its implementation raised relevant barriers for older adults in their access to health, health promotion, and health self-management linked with their health and digital literacy. This new intervention model included several aspects. On the one hand, researchers together with older adults and their informal caregivers participating in the study, designed personalised care plans, based on older adults’ specific needs, to be implemented with the support of a digital solution. On the other hand, researchers and health and social professionals implemented a series of six workshops in different locations of the city to encourage the sense of community among participants, reinforcing their trust in the new care model and increasing their adherence. Social activities were at the core of the workshops to understand older people’s interaction with the health and social services provided in the neighbourhood. Qualitative and quantitative methods were combined to extract information from older participants on how to engage them as active actors of their own health and understanding their values and preferences. Qualitative results show that after a post-pandemic situation, they were more concerned about social isolation and desired face-to-face contact with their professional care team; however, feelings of loneliness and/or sadness were not considered amongst the reasons to visit health professionals. Some of the conclusions reveal that the use of technology as a supportive tool is well received but with a stress on its role as “supportive”, and not replacing the close contact with healthcare professionals. Professionals recognised the benefits of this new approach but required more time and incentives to dedicate the effort needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1727.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Governance Assessment Tool (GAT); waste management; community-based solid waste management (CBSWM); waste bank
Online: 26 July 2023 (03:26:42 CEST)
Indonesia's government anticipates waste problems by managing them through a large number of waste reduction programs. From a governance perspective in Indonesia, it is known that actors from diverse governmental levels and across sectors are involved in waste management, and their involvement largely depends on their institutional goals and problems. Hence, they are expected to coherently collaborate together by developing and implementing sustainable instruments and resources for improving waste management problems. However, it is necessary to understand how supportive and restrictive the governance of waste reduction programs is to encourage successful trash reduction. This study is designed to evaluate and examine the application of Community-Based Solid Waste Management (CBSWM) in Makassar. In this research, The Governance Assessment Tool (GAT) was applied to analyze the governance context of the waste reduction programs in Makassar qualitatively. From the assessment, contexts can be described as either supportive or restrictive of the processes of implementing public policies on waste management. As a result of such an assessment, this study shed light on some opportunities to improve the governance of waste management implementation's impact on reducing waste in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The conclusion of this study depicts that the most important actors are affiliated with the local government and the community. Moreover, this study shows that the assessment of contextual governance is predominantly restrictive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0344.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community-based transportation; para-transit; school going children; social security; participa-tory rural appraisal
Online: 28 February 2022 (02:57:13 CET)
Social safety, security, and comfort of school-going children during the travel time to school becomes a subject of anxiety to the parents and is a crucial issue in recent times. In this regard, community-based transport can be a significant way to address social security issues in travel at a reasonable cost and reduce the burden on private mode. In Dhaka city, school van service already exists but due to some sort of problems the service has not been proved an efficient and formal mode of transport for solving mobility problems. This study seeks to identify the existing problems and prospects of the school van service and provide a unique, healthy, safe, and reliable transport mode for children. Applying different tools of the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method, the problems and solutions have been drawn from the community. The recommendations of this study will help the school van services (a community-managed para-transit system) to be more functional in playing a vital role in solving the problems of short-distance travel. This service has great potentialities to be adopted in other trips such as trips to and from offices which will lessen the road congestion at the peak periods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0169.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Collaboration; annotate; WormBase; C. elegans; Course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE); genetics; scientific community
Online: 8 January 2021 (16:55:14 CET)
Course-based Undergraduate Research Experiences (CUREs) provide the same benefits as individual, mentored faculty research while expanding the availability of research opportunities. One important aspect of CUREs is student’s engagement in collaboration. We developed a partnership with the Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) database, WormBase, in which students submitted annotations of published manuscripts to the website. This activity provided students with a collaborative research activity that benefitted the greater scientific community and enhanced students’ understanding of molecular genetics during the COVID-19 pandemic. WormBase relies on community annotators to read published articles and input phenotypic data. Students submitted a total of nine annotations directly to WormBase, which were curated by WormBase to ensure correctness and to reduce overlap from redundant annotations. Due to the stress on students during this time of crisis, qualitative data were collected in lieu of quantitative pre-post analyses. Students described their learning experiences in terms of interactions with the scientific community and the “real world”, content knowledge and competencies, and changes in perspectives and use of resources. Students also reported that this activity was helpful in their understanding of critical molecular genetics concepts. Most students reported on cognitive processes that represent mid-level Bloom’s categories. The shift to online learning during the COVID-19 pandemic created an immediate need for meaningful, collaborative experiences in CUREs. By partnering with WormBase, students gained insight into the scientific community and contributed as community members. We describe possible modifications for future courses, potential expansion of the WormBase collaboration, and future directions for quantitative analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0036.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Cultural Heritage; Adaptive Reuse; Urban Regeneration; Community-Based Approach; Decision-Making Process, Intrinsic Value
Online: 2 November 2020 (11:36:31 CET)
The international debate on the adaptive re-use of cultural heritage sites following the Sustainable Development Goals becomes more central than ever in the implementation of circular economy models for urban policies. The new values that characterise the cultural assets, considered as the result of a collaborative process, can enhance both the manufactured capital and the human capital, and to carry out the system of relationships that bind them. At the same time, the values of historical-artistic assets and produced by community-based regeneration processes are particularly relevant when they characterise abandoned commons and cult buildings, to which communities attribute an identity and symbolic value. Starting from the definition of the concept of Complex Social Value, we propose a methodological process that combines approaches and techniques typical of deliberative evaluations and collaborative decision-making processes. The aim is to identify the complex value chains generated by adaptive re-use, in which intrinsic values can play a driving role in the regeneration strategies of discarded cultural heritage. The experimentation, tested with the project “San Sebastiano del Monte dei Morti Living Lab” (SSMOLL), activates a creative and cultural Living Lab in the former church of “Morticelli”, in the historic centre of Salerno, in southern Italy. The re-use project is part of a more comprehensive process of social innovation and culture-led urban regeneration triggered in Salerno starting from SSMOLL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0089.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Educational action research; unregistered community design; shared intellectual property; cooperative learning; K-16 students; net-zero emissions
Online: 6 March 2023 (04:35:22 CET)
Education is one of the most important tools available to policymakers and non-governmental bodies to promote a change in the behavior of society and to address the climate crisis, in line with the 4th and 13th Sustainable Development Goals of the United Nations 2030 Agenda. Project-based learning (PBL) addresses real and global challenges and allows the academic and professional formation of students. As part of the reflection stage of the educational action research method using the Business Canvas Model (BMC), pedagogic deficiencies were identified in the PBL and a didactic proposal was elaborated to emulate the interaction of students with the ecosystems of society. A prototype for improving the management of organic manures as soil amendments was initially developed, to provide the students with a quick start on the first steps of the proposed project. In the 10 sessions designed for the PBL (Make it happen!), the students elaborate a more sophisticated artifact in response to the demands of potential clients, as per the outcomes of the primary market research (5th session). Active teaching methods and tools, such as a modified template of the BMC with the Rumsfeld’s matrix, aid the metacognition of students and their competences development. In a double session of the PBL, the primary market research is organized with key stakeholders of the agroindustry to enquire about the feasibility of the implementation of the technological solution and the logistics at farm level. Finally, the evaluation relies on the suitability of the upgraded prototype to respond customers’ demands.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0464.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Evidence based practice; Pharmaceutical care; Community pharmacy; France; Over-the-counter medication; sources of information
Online: 7 August 2023 (10:45:26 CEST)
We assessed the use of Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) among pharmacists working in community pharmacies in France, and the factors linked to this practice. During 3 months in 2018 an online survey was sent to over 7,000 active pharmacists, and posted on pharmacist social media sites. The 40-item questionnaire described four clinical cases reflecting typical situations (conventional med-icine and Complementary and Alternative Medicine) encountered daily by community pharma-cists. Multiple-choice responses were proposed and scored according to whether they reflected EBP. A high total score indicated behavior in line with EBP. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate factors that might explain adherence to EPB (pharmacy’s characteristics, the pharmacist’s status, mode of continuing education and sources of information). 595 pharmacists completed the questionnaire. The majority relied on pharmaceutical industry and other biased and/or non-evidence-based sources, particularly concerning information on homeopathic products. The consultation of independent reviews, health agency recommendations, and peer-reviewed scientific journals, was associated with evidence-based decisions. In contrast, reliance on phar-maceutical industry documents, personal experience and informal handbooks was linked to lower EBP scores. The level of EBP use by French community pharmacists needs to be improved to ensure that good quality scientifically-based advice is given to customers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0946.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Madagascar; conservation; wildlife trade; wildlife tourism; wildlife valorisation; wildlife economics; community-based conservation; resource management
Online: 13 June 2023 (14:42:56 CEST)
Wildlife tourism and wildlife trade may appear juxtaposed, but are two, potentially aligning, income generators that could benefit conservation in developing countries. Utilising data sets collated from Madagascar’s Ministère du Tourisme and CITES respectively for the period 2007 to 2018, this study estimated levels of income from wildlife tourism and wildlife trade for Madagascar. Between 2007-2018, tourism reported yearly incomes ranging from a low of US $1.4 million up to a high of US $15.7 million. However, it was unclear what percentage of this figure flowed to benefit local communities. Alternatively, using reported networks for the live wildlife trade, the estimated economic value reaching collectors and/or intermediaries on Madagascar was US $72,299.80 for the period 2007 to 2018. Both revenue generators operated within different geographical areas, with tourism opportunities presenting themselves to communities adjacent NPs, while wildlife trade networks were not restricted to NPs and operated sporadically across Madagascar. Hence, the economic benefits reached different Malagasy participants across the country. The management of both activities needs great care to ensure that environmental impacts and sustainability are core measures on any such activities. Whilst this study shines light on economic values and novel perspectives regarding these two trade types, it also highlighted knowledge gaps. Thus, indicating where much greater research attentions was required to allow better understanding of the specific benefits and risks from engaging with both trade types for local Malagasy people and their environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0392.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Art Keywords: Reflective art practice; affective reflexivity; art-based research; art therapy; response art; embodied observation; interdisciplinarity; ethics
Online: 7 November 2023 (11:31:00 CET)
A capacity to reflect on experience and learn through it (reflective and reflexive practice) is deemed an essential part of ethical practice and research. Challenging traditional research approaches this arts-based, inter-disciplinary, Ph.D. project explores artistic practice as a research methodology, and how learning through experiences of ‘making’ things may enhance and amplify our understanding of the more affective aspects of human situations and experience. Grounded in the author’s artistic practice and learning through experiences of ‘making’, the author assembles and adapts frames from psychoanalysis, art (psycho)therapy, and the arts with/through which to observe and document their experience of an organisational situation. Describing the development of their method in three phases, analysis takes place through returning to revisit and rework artistic material produced, and engaging in conversation with the emergent material and others in response. Results take the form of artworks and artistic projects, including documentation of process. Emergent threads draw attention to the speculative, entangled, and affective nature of the research process, the reflexivity generated through moving and handling material, and the reflexive work of undergoing, foregrounding an ethics of responsibility, attention, and care for/of the body. As a space for imaginative encounter and performative enactment, and a site for reflexivity through which one may be pressed to notice and feel more acutely, the author argues that the research value resides in the capacity of this method to embrace complex relationalities, and engage our affective, ethical sensibilities in ways that may not emerge through more traditional approaches to reflective/reflexive practice(s). This has implications for both art therapy practice and research, amplifying the learning opportunities afforded by moving, modifying, and assembling things differently, the embodied ‘work’ of art as a method of enquiry, the cultural sensitivity of documentary fragments captured in/through various media and voices, and the value of collaborative endeavours where meaning is co-constructed in conversation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1513.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Humanities Keywords: awgbu; assessment; community; community development; government; sustainability
Online: 24 October 2023 (10:53:39 CEST)
This study assesses the impact and sustainability of community development initiatives in Awgbu, Anambra State, spanning from 2015 to 2023. Using qualitative research methods, including interviews with key informants from the Awgbu community and government personnel. The observatory method is also applied which helped the researcher to see activities executed in the community. The research investigates the specific contributions of the Awgbu community to the overall development of Anambra State, how the community has benefitted from state government initiatives, and the extent to which the community responds to government requests and initiatives. The study also explores challenges in the relationship between the state government and Awgbu in terms of community development initiatives and offers recommendations for enhancing this relationship. The findings reveal that the Awgbu community has made significant contributions to the development of Anambra State, particularly in areas such as security, education, and infrastructure. The community has actively responded to government calls, participating in initiatives like the Choose Your Project Initiative (CYPI) and vigilante groups, thus fostering a positive and mutually beneficial relationship with the state government. However, challenges such as leadership crises and communication gaps exist, hindering the community's progress. Recommendations include improving community leadership, enhancing communication, and promoting peace to ensure sustainable community development. This research contributes to a deeper understanding of the dynamics between communities and government in achieving sustainable development and highlights the importance of collaborative efforts for positive outcomes. The findings have managerial and policy implications for both local communities and governments seeking to enhance community development initiatives and foster mutually beneficial relationships.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anesthesiology And Pain Medicine Keywords: visual patient; patient monitoring; avatar-based technology; situation awareness; user-centered design
Online: 2 March 2020 (00:56:03 CET)
Visual Patient technology is a situation awareness–oriented visualization technology that translates numerical and waveform patient monitoring data into a new user-centered visual language. Vital sign values are converted into colors, shapes, and rhythmic movements—a language humans can easily perceive and interpret—on a patient avatar model in real time. In this review, we summarize the current state of the research on the Visual Patient, including the technology, its history, and its scientific context. We also provide a summary of our primary research and a brief overview of research work on similar user-centered visualizations in medicine. In several computer-based studies under various experimental conditions, Visual Patient transferred more information per unit time, increased perceived diagnostic certainty, and lowered perceived workload. Eye tracking showed the technology worked because of the way it synthesizes and transforms vital sign information into new and logical forms corresponding to the real phenomena. The technology could be particularly useful for improving situation awareness in settings with high cognitive demand or when users must make quick decisions. This comprehensive review of Visual Patient research is the foundation for an evaluation of the technology in clinical applications, starting with a high-fidelity simulation study in early 2020.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1328.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: community-based conservation; conservation; Madagascar; resource management; wildlife eco-nomics; wildlife trade; wildlife tourism; wildlife valorisation.
Online: 18 August 2023 (07:26:26 CEST)
Wildlife tourism and wildlife trade may appear juxtaposed, but are two, potentially aligning, in-come generators that could benefit conservation in developing countries. Utilising data sets collated from Madagascar’s Ministère du Tourisme and CITES respectively for the period 2007 to 2018, this study estimated levels of income from wildlife tourism and wildlife trade for Madagascar. Between 2007-2018, tourism reported yearly incomes ranging from a low of US \$1.4 million up to a high of US \$15.7 million. However, it was unclear what percentage of this figure flowed to benefit local communities. Alternatively, using reported networks for the live wildlife trade, the estimated eco-nomic value reaching collectors and/or intermediaries on Madagascar was US $72,299.80 for the period 2007 to 2018. Both revenue generators operated within different geographical areas, with tourism opportunities presenting themselves to communities adjacent NPs, while wildlife trade networks were not restricted to National Parks and operated sporadically across Madagascar. Hence, the economic benefits reached different Malagasy participants across the country. The management of both activities needs great care to ensure that environmental impacts and sus-tainability are core measures on any such activities. Whilst this study shines light on economic values and novel perspectives regarding these two trade types, it also highlighted knowledge gaps. Thus, indicating where much greater research attentions was required to allow better understanding of the specific benefits and risks from engaging with both trade types for local Malagasy people and their environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0367.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: young people experiencing homelessness; disadvantaged youth; engagement; community-based research; positive youth development; mental skills training
Online: 22 August 2022 (03:25:19 CEST)
Underpinned by the new world Kirkpatrick model and in the context of a community-based, sport psychology program (My Strengths Training for Life™) for young people experiencing homelessness, this process evaluation investigated: (1) young peoples’ reactions (program and facilitator evaluation, enjoyment, attendance, and engagement) to and learning (mental skills and transfer intention), (2) the relationship between reaction and learning variables, and (3) the mediators underpinning this relationship. 301 young people living in a West Midlands housing service completed questionnaires on demographics, reaction and learning variables. Higher levels of program engagement were positively associated with more favorable reactions to the program. Enjoyment positively predicted learning outcomes, which was mediated by transfer intention. Recommendations are made for: (1) a balance between rigor and flexibility for evaluation methods with disadvantaged youth, (2) including engagement as well as attendance for indicators of meaningful program participation, (3) measuring program experiences (e.g., enjoyment) to understand program effectiveness, and (4) providing opportunities for skill transfer during and after program participation. Findings have implications for researchers, program commissioners, and policy makers working designing and evaluating programs in community-based settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0335.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Archaeology Keywords: Amah Mutsun Tribal Band; Indigenous archaeology; Collaborative archaeology; Community-based participatory research; California archaeology; Indigenous stewardship
Online: 12 November 2020 (09:43:15 CET)
This paper summarizes over a decade of collaborative eco-archaeological research along the central coast of California involving researchers from the University of California, Berkeley, tribal citizens from the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band, and California Department of Parks and Recreation archaeologists. Our research employs remote sensing methods to document and assess cultural resources threatened by coastal erosion and geophysical methods to identify archaeological deposits, minimize impacts on sensitive cultural resources, and provide tribal and state collaborators with a suite of data to consider before proceeding with any form of invasive archaeological excavation. Our case study of recent eco-archaeological research developed to define the historical biogeography of threatened and endangered anadromous salmonids demonstrates how remote sensing technologies help identify dense archaeological deposits, remove barriers, and create bridges through equitable and inclusive research practices between archaeologists and the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band. These experiences have resulted in the incorporation of remote sensing techniques as a central approach of the Amah Mutsun Tribal Band when conducting archaeology in their traditional territories.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0619.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: CRISPR-Cas9; course-based undergraduate research experience; CURE; remote learning; plant biology
Online: 27 August 2020 (12:29:53 CEST)
Gene editing tools such as CRISPR-Cas9 have created unprecedented opportunities for genetic studies in plants and animals. We designed a course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) to train introductory biology students in the concepts and implementation of gene editing technology as well as develop their soft skills in data management and scientific communication. We present two versions of the course that can be implemented with twice-weekly meetings over a five-week period. In the remote-learning version, students perform homology searches, design guide RNAs and primers, and learn the principles of molecular cloning. This version is appropriate when access to laboratory equipment or in-person instruction is limited, such as closures that have occurred in response to the Covid-19 pandemic. In the in-person version, students design guide RNAs, clone CRISPR-Cas9 constructs, and perform genetic transformation of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The highly parallel nature of the CURE makes it possible to target dozens to hundreds of genes, depending on the number of course sections available. Applying this approach in a sensitized mutant background enables focused reverse genetic screens for genetic suppressors or enhancers. The course can be readily adapted to other organisms or projects that employ gene editing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0691.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Alerts; Village Health Teams; Community Based Surveillance; Integrated Disease Surveillance and Reporting; Elgon; Climate Change; One Health
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:20:13 CEST)
In mountain communities like Sebei, Uganda, that are highly vulnerable to emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, community-based surveillance plays an important role in the monitoring of public health hazards. In this survey, we explored capacities of Village Health Teams (VHTs) in Sebei communities of Mount Elgon in undertaking surveillance tasks for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases in the context of a changing climate. We used participatory epidemiology techniques to elucidate VHTs’ perceptions on climate change and public health and assess their capacities in conducting surveillance for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases. Overall, VHTs perceived climate change to be occurring with wider impacts on public health. However, they have inadequate capacities in collecting sur-veillance data. The VHTs lack transport to navigate through their communities and have in-sufficient capacities in using mobile phones for sending alerts. They do not engage in reporting other hazards related with the environment, wildlife and domestic livestock that would ac-celerate infectious disease outbreaks. Records are not maintained for disease surveillance ac-tivities and the abilities of VHTs to analyze data are also limited. However, VHTs have access to platforms that can enable them to disseminate public health information. The VHTs thus need to be retooled to conduct their work effectively and efficiently through equipping them with adequate logistics and knowledge on collecting, storing, analyzing, and relaying data, which will improve infectious disease response and mitigation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: ethics; community; refusal; consent; peer review; community peer review
Online: 7 June 2018 (07:35:48 CEST)
Community peer review is a method that extends the ethics of consent into scientific practices. It gives communities affected by scientific research the ability to determine whether research may cause them harm and be part of determining how knowledge should best circulate to reduce or eliminate that harm. This paper introduces the method of community peer review by first looking at the concepts of consent and refusal, then outlining the steps to community peer review, using a case study of community meetings on a study of plastic ingestion by fish to elucidate the details of each step. Steps include: hiring a community member to the team; researching the social, cultural, and economic contexts of the community; identify the community; ensure skills for community conversation are in place; call the community meeting; conduct the community meeting; and analyze feedback for consent and refusal. Community peer review is premised on the idea that research is not inherently good and can cause harm, and that the best people to know whether and what kinds of harms are likely to occur are community members rather than researchers. The second premise is that the researcher’s “right” to research never supersedes a community’s right to not be harmed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0543.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: mining unloading valve; high pressure; large flow; high-water-based fluid; digitally controlled unloading valve
Online: 8 September 2023 (05:09:06 CEST)
In order to create a smart mine, it is necessary to digitize the existing emulsion pumping station. Existing research does not achieve this task, this paper designs and manufactures a high-pressure, high-flow, high-water-based mining digital controlled unloading valve (abbreviated as HLHMDCUV), which achieves good results in both theoretical analysis and experimental testing. In order to obtain the accurate dynamic characteristics, this valve was analyzed by simulation using AMESim. Based on the dynamic performance analysis and the flow field analysis inside the valve body, the structure has been optimized to improve the performance of HLHMDCUV. The results show that the HLHMDCUV has a better dynamic characteristics, which were also demonstrated in the experiment. At the same time, the HLHMDCUV is easy to disassemble and maintain. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the design of such valves, which is conducive to the subsequent promotion of intelligent mine transformation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0017.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: childhood malnutrition; community-based management of acute malnutrition–CMAM; moderate acute malnutrition–MAM; supplementary feeding programs–SFP; Zambia
Online: 1 June 2018 (12:04:50 CEST)
Background: Evaluation of nutrition programs is essential to guarantee the effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM). Methods: The Rainbow Project Supplementary Feeding Programs (SFPs) in Zambia were evaluated between years 2015-17, following implementation of new recommendations based on previous evaluations (years 2012-14). Outcomes of the program were compared with International Standards and with those of 2012-14. Cox proportional risk regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of mortality and defaulting. Results: Data for 900 under age 5 years malnourished children (48.8% male; mean age 19.7months ±9.9) were analyzed. Rainbow 2015-17 program outcomes met International Standards, for general malnutrition or stratified moderate acute malnutrition (MAM) and severe acute malnutrition (SAM). When comparing with 2012-14 outcomes, better performance was noted: mortality rates were reduced by half (5.6% vs 3.1%, p = 0.01; for SAM: 12.4% vs 6.7%, p = 0.006), with significant improvement in average weight gain and mean length of stay (p<0.001), and increased awareness of HIV status (+30%; p < 0.001). HIV infection (5.5; 1.9–15.9), WAZ < −3 at baseline (4.6; 1.3–16.1) and kwashiorkor (3.5; 1.2–9.5) remained the major predictors of mortality. Conclusion: The effectiveness of the Rainbow SFPs for child malnutrition treatment and prevention in Zambia has significantly improved after evaluation and implementation activities, with impressive outcomes which resulted in a 50% reduction in mortality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0086.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: watershed ecological restoration; nature-based solutions; Shan-Shui Initiative; scenario evaluation; adjustment of measures
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:40:46 CET)
Nature-based solutions (NbS) rapidly develop globally to address societal challenges and provide human well-being and biodiversity. Watershed restoration plays an essential role in enhancing the ecological and socio-economic benefits of the region. The design and implementation of watershed restoration projects play a crucial role in their effectiveness, and NbS has been applied as a concept in ecosystem-related projects. This paper provides an idea to evaluate the design or implementation of watershed restoration projects based on the eight criteria proposed by the IUCN Global Standard for Nature-Based Solutions and to adjust the projects based on the evaluation results. The aim is to standardize the implementation process of watershed restoration projects to achieve more significant benefits and practically apply the concept of NbS in watershed restoration. implementation scheme of the Shan-Shui Initiative in the Jiulong River Watershed and concludes that the method is feasible in evaluating and improving the design and implementation scheme of ecological restoration projects in the actual basin. According to the assessment results, the degree of matching based on NbS for the implementation scheme of the Jiulong River Watershed Shan-Shui Initiative is 73%, which meets the criteria of NbS but needs to be improved in terms of monitoring and assessment, synergistic management, and benefit trade-offs.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: lactation; physiology-based lactation models; drug exposure prediction; fasting; drug safety; newborn; infant; human milk
Online: 6 April 2020 (09:11:05 CEST)
There are guidelines on lactation following maternal analgo-sedative exposure, but these do not consider the effect of maternal fasting, nor fluid abstention on human milk macronutrient composition. We therefore performed a structured search (PubMed) on ‘human milk composition’ and screened title, abstract and full paper on ‘fasting’ or ‘abstention’ and ‘macronutrient composition’ (lactose, protein, fat, solids, triglycerides, cholesterol). This resulted in 6 papers and one abstract related to religious fasting (n=129 women) and observational studies in lactating women (n=23, healthy volunteers, fasting). These data reflect two different ‘fasting’ patterns: an acute (18-25h) model in 71 (healthy volunteers, Yom Kippur/Ninth of Av) women and a chronic fasting (Ramadan) model in 81 women. Changes were most related to electrolytes and were moderate, with almost no changes in macronutrients during acute fasting. We therefor conclude that neither short term fasting nor fluid abstention (18-25h) affect human milk macronutrient composition, so that women can be reassured when this topic were raised during consulting. Besides the nutritional relevance, this also matters as clinical research samples – especially to estimate analgo-sedative exposure by lactation - are commonly collected after maternal procedural sedation, associated with maternal fasting and physiology-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models assume stable human milk composition.
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: community health; complex interventions; hierarchy of evidence; health inequalities; community engagement; community organizing; PACT; Citizens UK; evaluation; methodology
Online: 12 January 2020 (17:36:11 CET)
It is widely recognized that public health interventions benefit from community engagement and leadership, yet there are challenges to evaluating complex, community-led interventions assuming hierarchies of evidence derived from laboratory experimentation and clinical trials. Particular challenges include, first, inconsistency of the intervention across sites; and second, absence of researcher control over the sampling frame and methodology. This report highlights these challenges as they played out in the evaluation of a community-organized health project in South London. The project aimed to benefit maternal mental health, health literacy and social capital, and especially to engage local populations known to have reduced contact with statutory services. We evaluated the project using two studies with different designs, sampling frames and methodologies. In one the sampling frame and methodology were under community control, permitting comparison of change in outcomes from before to after participation in the project. In the other, the sampling frame and methodology were under researcher control, permitting a case-control design. The two evaluations led to different results however: participants in the community-controlled study showed benefits, while participants in the researcher-controlled study did not. The principal conclusions are that while there are severe challenges to evaluating a community-led health intervention using a controlled design, measurement of pre-/post-participation changes in well-defined health outcomes should typically be a minimum evaluation requirement, and confidence in attributing causation of any positive changes to participation can be increased by use of interventions in the project and in the engagement process itself that have a credible theoretical and empirical basis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Community Radio; Holistic Development; Integrated Development; Sustainable Development; Community Radio Practices
Online: 10 December 2020 (12:59:05 CET)
Community radios play a paramount role in the development of the community. Community radio stations have been highly engaged in addressing social, economic, cultural, educational, health, environmental, sanitation, and disaster issues effectively and strategically using local languages in context. Community radios are also used to express, and share indigenous views, thoughts, ideas, problems, and perspectives of local people. The purpose of this analysis is to explore the role of community radio for integrated and sustainable development in Ethiopia. It used a systematic narrative review. Nine research works and five assessments report were selected purposively and analyzed in a quantitative approach. Currently, in Ethiopia, there are 50 community radio stations that received broadcast licenses from Ethiopian Broadcast Authority with four types of licensing and broadcasting in 29 local languages. Community radio helps the community to identify their common goals, create holistic plans, monitor the progress of their developmental activities, and guide on sustainable development. It contributes to integrated and sustainable development in a collaborative and creative process that cultivates the social, economic, and political conditions needed for the community to succeed which aimed to improve and sustain the livelihoods of the community. However, the media can’t achieve its target goal to support the development activities and bring holistic development of the community. As a result; this review paper focuses on reviewing how Ethiopians use community radios for holistic development. And it suggested the way how we can use community radios for the prospective holistic development in Ethiopia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1927.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: artificial intelligence; community; fuzzy logic; natural resource conflict management; transdisciplinary-based coupled approach; remote sensing; sustainable development; sustainable peace
Online: 28 September 2023 (08:38:03 CEST)
Resource conflicts represent a significant global challenge in regions abundant with natural re-sources. Modelling the myriad factors driving natural resource-based conflicts (NRBCs), spanning environmental, health, socio-economic, and political dimensions, is a complex endeavor exacer-bated by data scarcity. Furthermore, existing quantitative studies often focus solely on large-scale conflicts. This article introduces a novel algorithm, the Spatially Explicit Fuzzy Logic-Adapted Model for Conflict Management (SEFLAME-CM), which integrates the local knowledge of stakeholders into spatial decision-making technologies to support sustainable peace efforts. The results are validated with spatial multi-criteria evaluation (SMCE) using spatial statistics. The Moran’s I scatter plots for the overall conflicts reveal significant values of 0.99 and 0.98 for both the SEFLAME-CM and SMCE, respectively, with significant spatial autocorrelation. While there re-mains room for improvement in enhancing the model's quality, SEFLAME-CM demonstrates its capacity to transparently model complex real-world problems. The findings underscore the im-perative for a holistic approach to addressing environmental degradation, socio-economic, and political drivers of resource conflicts at the community level. Our paper demonstrates the signif-icance of spatial information technologies and knowledge exchange between experts and local stakeholders in effectively managing resource conflicts. These insights should inform national policies and international interventions, ensuring that the complex underlying issues are ad-dressed while prioritizing the knowledge and needs of affected communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0111.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ichthyological community; endorheic; Chapala
Online: 8 June 2022 (03:36:20 CEST)
Small, enclosed lake is in a tourist area called "Los Negritos", by the prominences a few steps from the lake on a perimeter of tens of meters with hot pools and mud bubbles. The lake originally belonged to Lake Chapala, so the group of fish present here derives from that. This is an endorheic vessel with at least one deep water inlet to the center, with a slight salinity (2.14 to 2.38 0/00), which is precisely greater at the point of upwelling and at a depth of approximately 36 m. This study to date has continued to collect and take data, also presents the characteristic of being an area of saline soils and halophilic vegetation. This body of water we consider is as relevant as that of Alchichica in Puebla. Its study is by monthly sampling with “chinchorro” and "chango" type trawl, recording morphological parameters, also environmental variables in the water, with a Data Sonde 4 brand Hydrolab. Knowing the structure and temporal dynamics of this fish community, along with the physical and chemical characterization of the water and implementa-tion of Importance Value Index (IVI).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0377.v2
Online: 25 February 2021 (07:46:06 CET)
The scientific community of the XX and XXI centuries is a very large companionship, very fragmented and spread all over the world. Moreover, the status of the scientist, which in most cases is a member of the States’ apparati, is significantly different with respect to the one of the scientists up to the First World War.The concepts of scientific revolution of Thomas Kuhn and scientific anarchy of Paul Feyerabend should be reconsidered in this contest. In particular, the anarchist modus operandi should be shifted from the scientific method, that has become significantly standardized with protocols, to the sociology of the scientific community. A pluralism of the scientific method is possible, but an anarchy in the relationships among scientists emerges as more important. The scientist is in many cases a parrhesiastes, a person that says the truth even when he is going to pay because of that, that defends the developed theory or model, by respecting the protocols established in the scientific community. On the other side, each scientist should be a patient beholder that accepts the more solid, and intersubjectively recognized, theories of other scientists.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Data Management; Utilization and Analysis; Capacity Building; Health professionals; Workforce Development; Evidence Based
Online: 7 June 2018 (08:54:20 CEST)
The objective of the study was to investigate the gap between data and evidence-based decisions among healthcare professionals considering the enormous amount of individual and aggregate data collected. Our study assessed the capacity, skills, and knowledge of the Ministry of Health leadership staff to understand data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination. Three key components were assessed: 1) Knowledge through true/false questions, 2) Level of Skill (and Competency) using a Likert scale, and 3) Understanding of Key Concepts and Tools based on a Likert scale. The 183 study respondents were diverse healthcare professionals from Kenya, Tanzania, and Rwanda. Majority of respondents had not received any training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization techniques, further there was a significant difference between those who had received training versus those who had not(p=0.005). The respondents were competent in work-related experiences but lacked skills and knowledge on: data concepts and tools, study designs, and types of data analysis. These findings explain the gap between data management, analysis, utilization, and dissemination among health professional’s cadre. To enhance service delivery and optimal provision of health care, it is imperative to have all health care professionals receive a well-designed training on data management, analysis, interpretation, and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1568.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: water governance; rice farming; irrigation; community fisheries; community fish refuge; water conflict
Online: 25 October 2023 (11:42:26 CEST)
Cambodia faces the challenge of managing excess water during the wet season and insufficient water during the dry season. This harms human life and endangers aquatic and natural resources, agricultural practices, and food security. In order to ensure the well-being of both people and food security, water governance is crucial. However, Cambodia's water governance is hindered by various obstacles, including sectoral and centralized influences, top-down and large-scale strategies, a lack of coordination among relevant agencies, and limited involvement of local communities. This study delves into water governance across different sectors, from centralized to community-based natural resources management to tackle these challenges. Through analyzing literature and case studies of farmer water user communities (FWUC), community fisheries (CFis), and community fish refuges (CFRs) in three Mekong Delta provinces in Cambodia, the study concludes that although water governance has improved, it has resulted in a decline in fishery resources from rivers and water bodies and an increase in water conflicts among farmers and sectors in the face of climate change. To enhance water governance in Cambodia, it is critical to integrate it at the district level. This will promote sustainable water use and management across the country and pave the way for a brighter future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1155.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Problem solving; Wicked problem; Hard OR; Soft OR; Problem Structuring Methods; Decision-Making; Subdivision-based PSM
Online: 15 June 2023 (14:06:11 CEST)
Because of hyper complexity, difficulty to define, multiple stakeholders with conflicting perspectives, and lack of clear-cut solutions, wicked problems necessitate innovative and adaptive strategies. Operations Research has been a valuable tool for managers to make informed decisions for years. However, as we face increasingly complex and messy problems, it has become apparent that relying solely on either hard or soft OR approaches is no longer sufficient. We need to explore more innovative methodologies to address these wicked problems effectively. This study has bridged the research gap by proposing a structured process encompassing a subdivision-based problem structuring method for defining the wicked problem, a multi-attribute decision-making (MADM) for prioritizing sub-problems, and a hard OR technique, data envelopment analysis (DEA) for tackling one of the most critical sub-divisions. The proposed methodology, implemented in a case study, focuses on a higher education institution experiencing a decline in student admissions and involves five steps. First, a diverse group of stakeholders is formed to ensure comprehensive consideration of perspectives. Second, the wicked problem is defined, considering long-term consequences, multiple stakeholders, and qualitative stakeholder opinions. Third, a hierarchical structure is created to break down the wicked problem into manageable sub-problems. Fourth, a multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) method prioritizes sub-problems. Finally, the sub-problems are addressed one by one using a combination of soft and hard OR tools. The findings highlight the benefits of integrating hard and soft OR approaches. The article concludes with reflections on the implications of using a combined OR approach to tackle wicked problems in higher education and beyond.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0465.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: abuse; community pharmacists; Jordan; Loperamide
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:16:16 CEST)
This study aimed to assess the ability of community pharmacists to recognize cases of Loperamide abuse at the point of sale, their perspective of and experience towards potential abuse cases. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in Jordan, using a self-administered online questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 3 main parts: demographics, the experience of pharmacists with abusers' behavior, as well as their perspectives towards Loperamide abuse. Results: A total of 250 community pharmacists completed the survey, 54% (135) of which were female. Almost one-third (33.2%; 83) of the participants reported exposure to suspected cases of Loperamide abuse during the last six months. Pharmacists declared that most of the suspected Loperamide abusers were male (60.2%), of middle-low socioeconomic status (69.9%), and between 20-30 years of age (57.8%). The largest quantity (packs) of Loperamide requested by a single patient was around 33.2±14.9 at once. As reported by pharmacists, the suspected reasons behind Loperamide abuse included 50% seeking euphoria, 17% relieving anxiety, and 33% controlling addiction (weaning off other opioids). The multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between male gender (OR=1.2, 95% CI 0.12-1.59), pharmacy location in the center of Jordan (OR=21.2, 95%CI 2.45-183.59), late-night working shift (Shift C, OR=1.29, 95% CI 0.12-2.08) and abuse to Loperamide during the last six months. Conclusion: This study shed light on Loperamide abuse which is highly influenced by different sociodemographic characteristics. Accordingly, close monitoring and thorough tackling of the abuse practices are mandated through an increase in educational and awareness campaigns about proper medication use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0397.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: phage; dairy; Lactococcus; diversity; community
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:30:53 CEST)
Background: The dairy industry heavily relies on fermentation processes driven in high proportion by Lactococcus lactis. The fermentation process can be perturbed or even stopped by bacteriophage activity leading to complete loss of fermentation batch or decreased quality product. Monitoring of the phage diversity and dynamics in the process allows to implement protective measures (e.g. starter rotation) in order to maintain unperturbed production.; Methods: Universal primers were used to amplify sequences of the 936, c2, and P335 Lactococcus phage types. The amplicons were sequences with Sanger method and obtained degenerate sequences were analyzed using simple bioinformatic pipeline in R environment.; Results: The most prevalent phage type is 936, followed by P335, whereas c2 type is less frequent.; Conclusions: Curd cheeses prepared on non-pasteurized milk based on native milk microbiota had higher diversity of phages distinct of these found in dairy plants. Sanger sequencing of heterogenous amplicons generated on metagenome DNA can be used to asses low-complexity microbiota diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: COVID; lockdown; progression; community; spread
Online: 6 April 2020 (07:25:12 CEST)
COVID-19 (SARS-Cov-2) is spreading around the globe in a highly contagious manner. China has shown the way to halt the progression of the disease by totally sealing Wuhan from rest of china but they could not prevent community spread resulting in more than 4000 deaths in a short period of time. India, following example of china, ordered national Lockdown early on 23 March, 2020. But it is difficult to determine the transition Here we have changed the way we look at available data to detect an early onset of the effect of Lockdown. Here a simple method is described for the first time to determine at the earliest when a change is beginning to take effect after Lockdown on the progression/regression of the spread of novel COVID-19 virus which could help to frame strategy for intervention to prevent community spread and save lives.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0241.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Human Resources And Organizations Keywords: leadership; community leadership; job performance
Online: 9 November 2018 (04:37:32 CET)
Leadership performance by village leaders is essential to promote sustainable life among rural communities, especially fisheries community who living along coastal villages. Otherwise, previous studies found that performance issues among village’s leaders remain as serious problems, and need to find the best solution. This study was conducted to profile the job performance among village leaders based on demographic factors such as educational level, age and experiences as village leader. The data of this cross-sectional survey were collected by questionnaires on 300 respondents consist of members of village organization through stratified sampling’s technique, while the data was analysed by SPSS using items of mean, standard deviation, independent-sample t-test and anova. The finding shown that there were differences in job performance among village leaders on educational level, age and experiences. Interestingly, the finding told the best on job performance among village leaders are (i) the age between 41 to 50 years old; (iii) the experience between 11 to 20 years; and (iii) the higher educational level the higher job performance among them. This result can be using by government or any responsible parties to improve job performance among village leaders, especially for recruitment selection and for in-service training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0399.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Family and Community Nursing; Covid-19; Community health assessment; Primary Health Care; Health Promotion
Online: 22 November 2022 (02:57:35 CET)
The WHO European Region defined the role of a new central professional for primary care, the Family and Community Nurse (FCN). The introduction of FCN in the framework of health policies highlight a key role of nurses in addressing the families’ and communities’ needs. A scoping review was conducted in order to identify and describe the available tools which has been adopted for the assessment of the community health needs by FNC. A comprehensive literature review on Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus and PsycInfo databases was conducted including all studies up to May 2021. A total of 1563 studies were identified and 36 of them were included. The literature review had made possible to identify studies employing twelve different community assessment's tools or modalities. Referring the WHO framework proposed in 2001 some common themes have been identified with an uneven distribution, as profiling the population, deciding on priorities for action and public healthcare programmes, implementing the planned activities, evaluation of health outcomes, multidisciplinary activity, flexibility and involving the community. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first attempt to provide an overview of community assessment tools, keeping the guidance provided by the WHO as a reference.
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: Nutritional Surveillance; Public Health; Community Health Nursing; Public Health Nursing; Children’s health; Community Participation
Online: 17 August 2020 (10:08:36 CEST)
Effectively responding to children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique requires a community-based care approach grounded in sound nursing research that is evidence-based. The Community Assessment, Intervention, and Empowerment Model (MAIEC) is a nursing theoretical model that bases clinical decision-making for community health nurses using communities as a unit of care. We used the MAIEC to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis to address children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in Mozambique. Objectives: (1) To conduct a descriptive study of children’s nutritional status and eating behaviors in a school community in Mavalane, Mozambique, and (2) to identify a community-based nursing diagnosis using the MAIEC clinical decision-making matrix in the same school community. Method: A cross-sectional, quantitative study was conducted to assess the nutritional status of children using anthropometric data, including brachial perimeter and the tricipital skinfold, and standard deviation for the relation of weight-height, in a sample of 227 children. To assess community management of the problem and identify a community-based nursing diagnosis, we surveyed 176 parents/guardians and 49 education professionals, using a questionnaire based on the MAIEC clinical decision matrix as a reference. Results: Malnutrition was identified in more than half of the children (51.3%). We also identified a community-based nursing diagnosis of impaired community management related to the promotion of child health and healthy eating as evident by lack of community leadership, participation, and processing among more than 70% of the community members (parents/guardians and education professionals). Conclusion: A nursing diagnosis and diagnostic criteria for nutritional status and community management were identified. The need to intervene using a multidisciplinary public health approach is imperative, with the school community as the unit of care. In addition, reliable anthropometric data were used to complement the nursing diagnosis and guide future public health interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1525.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Fan community platform; Mental well-being; Sense of virtual community; Fan interaction; Parasocial relationship; Weverse
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:15:51 CEST)
Activities in the digital economy driven by information technology have rapidly increased in scope and speed in the aftermath of COVID-19. Meanwhile, social isolation accelerated by quarantine measures has increased concerns about individuals’ mental health. However, little is known about the specific consequences of online interactions, especially when applied in online fan community-based relationships where loyal community members are prevalent. Therefore, we examined whether a sense of virtual community (SOVC) can link fans’ online activities with their mental well-being and behavioral loyalty to the platform. For this purpose, we focus on BTS fandom “Adorable Representative MC for Youth” (ARMY) behaviors and attitudes on the fan community platform Weverse. With 202 valid data samples acquired from global ARMY, this study conducted a partial least squares–structural equation modeling analysis. The empirical findings reveal that SOVC in Weverse is significantly influenced by the intensity of online interactions with other fans and parasocial relationships with celebrities. SOVC is found to be the direct predictor of fans’ behavioral loyalty and mental well-being. When considering fans’ perceptions of other social media platforms, dissatisfaction with previous online fan communities enhances the intensity of online interactions with other fans in Weverse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0367.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Community health workers; Competence in prevention of non-communicable diseases; Associated factors literacy; Community commitment
Online: 21 March 2023 (02:39:23 CET)
Background Community health workers (CHWs) drawn from the general population are an important human resource in health care systems, preventing non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and contributing to an increase in healthy life expectancy in Japan. Thus, we have developed the COmmunity health workers perceptual and behavioral Competency Scale for preventing Non-communicable diseases (COCS-N) to measure CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs. The purpose of this study is to examine individual and community factors affecting CHWs’ COCS-N scores. Methods Municipal public health nurses and other public health professionals are responsible for training and supporting CHWs in Japan. Therefore, the existence of CHWs and their willingness to participate in the study were confirmed with the municipalities, who were asked to distribute the self-administered questionnaire to CHWs where consent was obtained (N = 6,480). Variables used included demographic characteristics, COCS-N scores, and individual- and community-related factors. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess associations between variables. Results A total of 3,120 people completed the questionnaire, a valid response rate of 48.1%. The respondents’ mean age was 67.0 years (standard deviation = 9.0), and 88.0% were female. Comparison of the high- and low- competence groups in terms of NCD prevention based on COCS-N scores identified 13 factors associated with significant differences, including years spent working as a CHW (p < 0.001), subjective sense of health (p = 0.005), European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) scores (p < 0.001), and community commitment scale (CCS) scores (p < 0.001). Logistic regression analysis revealed that HLS-EU-Q47 scores (odds ratio [OR]: 1.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.02–1.03) were a significant individual factor, while CCS scores (OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.11–1.16) were a significant community factor. Conclusions We found that the COCS-N score was associated with the individual factors overall health literacy (HL), perceptions of HL, and subjective sense of health, and with the community factor CCS scores. These results suggest that strengthening individual factors such as HL and subjective sense of health, and community factors such as sense of community is an effective strategy for increasing CHWs’ competence in preventing NCDs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0140.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: common lands; baldios; wild mushrooms; non-timber forest products; Portugal; community; community forestry; forest governance
Online: 24 May 2017 (17:01:57 CEST)
Forest community connections are crucial to ensure forest stewardship and sustainability. We explored the potential of mushrooming to enable such connections in contexts where these connections have been historically broken, alienating local people from forests. Taking the case of the recent devolution of a community forest (baldios) in central Portugal to the local population, we present a five-year pilot project to rework mycology from a mushroom-centered approach to a mushroom-in-baldios approach. Mushrooms were used as an entry-point to connect the forest ecology with the challenges of governance and community building. The devised activities provided an opportunity for people inside and outside the local community to adventure into the woods and find out more about their socio-ecological history, develop communal and convivial relationships and engage in the responsible gathering of wild mushrooms. However, the hosting of mushroomers to know, value and engage with the community forest recovery has constantly working against the enclosure of mushrooms to provide marketable forms of leisure. The outcome of these activities depends on the relationships established between mushrooms, mycologists, local administrators, commoners and poachers, all operating within a framework that favors the eradication of resources instead of long-term relationships that sustain places.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0634.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: SIAKAD; Implementation; SERVQUAL; Satisfaction; Academic community
Online: 9 November 2023 (10:18:15 CET)
SIAKAD is a system developed to meet the needs of the academic community as a whole. Implementation of SIAKAD is based on three satisfaction indicators: access speed, ease of access and timeliness. Qualitative and quantitative methods on SERVQUAL analysis. Then analysed with statistical data as a comparison of satisfaction implementation in each academic community in IAKN and UIN universities. This study shows that the purpose of satisfaction affects the value of the academic community in providing an excellent and destructive impact on the value of work in higher education as well as the involvement of various elements in higher education to determine how the academic information system (SIAKAD) should be built to meet the expectations of its users and following SIAKAD standards in general in higher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1237.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Ecology Keywords: lotic ecosystems; community ecology; biodiversity indices
Online: 20 September 2023 (07:58:38 CEST)
The aim of this paper is to compare the taxonomic composition and species diversity of the macrozoobenthos in Maritsa River (Bulgaria) and Han River (South Korea). Samples were collected at 15 selected sites in each river, including some of their main tributaries in 2020 and 2021. The number of the taxa recorded in Maritsa River was more than twice as great as in Han River: 192 taxa belonging to 19 systematic groups compared to 88 taxa belonging to 18 groups respectively. The order Ephemeroptera had the highest species richness: 31 taxa in the Bulgarian rivers and 26 taxa in the South Korean ones. The macrozoobenthic communities responded and adapted to the various conditions and impacts in the water environment with changes in the species composition and structure. The analysis of the similarity in the taxonomic composition showed low resemblance between all study sites but displayed distinct separations between the rivers and the two years. In general, the species structure of the macrozoobenthic communities in Maritsa River and its studied tributaries was better than in Han River. In both years, high species diversity was recorded at the reference sites in the rivers, characterized by conditions closely resembling natural environments. The species richness and the evenness of macrozoobenthos were very low at sites downstream subjected to considerable anthropogenic pressure. Some of the communities in Han River were almost destroyed completely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0472.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Religious Studies Keywords: Biopolitics; Philosophical Immunology; Political Theology; Community
Online: 7 August 2023 (03:46:20 CEST)
The relationship between religion and politics is a constant in the history of humanity. In the specific case of Western culture, it is possible to trace an archeology of the political as an effect of theological-political devices (essentially Christian-inspired). If we add to this the evolution of politics, in modern times, towards biopolitics, then the relationship focuses on very concrete topics. This is the case of the immunological process – from a personal, social, and philosophical perspective – thoroughly analyzed by Italian philosopher Roberto Esposito. In the context of his philosophical immunology, the place of religion is mainly archaeological and is interpreted critically. This article also aims to critically analyze his position, proposing a reading close to his thought but which is, at the same time, somewhat different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0007.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Quantum Computing; Community Detection; QUBO; NISQ
Online: 3 July 2023 (08:03:06 CEST)
The analysis of network structure is essential to many scientific areas, ranging from biology to sociology. As the computational task of clustering these networks into partitions, i.e., solving the community detection problem, is generally NP-hard, heuristic solutions are indispensable. The exploration of expedient heuristics has led to the development of particularly promising approaches in the emerging technology of quantum computing. Motivated by the substantial hardware demands for all established quantum community detection approaches, we introduce a novel QUBO based approach that only needs number-of-nodes many qubits and is represented by a QUBO-matrix as sparse as the input graph's adjacency matrix. The substantial improvement on the sparsity of the QUBO-matrix, which is typically very dense in related work, is achieved through the novel concept of separation-nodes. Instead of assigning every node to a community directly, this approach relies on the identification of a separation-node set, which - upon its removal from the graph - yields a set of connected components, representing the core components of the communities. Employing a greedy heuristic to assign the nodes from the separation-node sets to the identified community cores, subsequent experimental results yield a proof of concept. This work hence displays a promising approach to NISQ-ready quantum community detection, catalyzing the application of quantum computers for the network structure analysis of large scale, real world problem instances.}
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0019.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: sufficiency economy philosophy; community enterprises; sustainability
Online: 2 February 2023 (01:52:25 CET)
Sustainability is essential for every business and organization, but how can it be achieved? This work is a study of sustainability based on the sufficiency economy philosophy, a valuable concept introduced by the Thai people. We apply it to the notion of sustainability in 400 agricultural community enterprise owners in Thailand, who participated in the study. An oblique rotation component analysis was performed, finding that the variables on the same side are related, and a confirmative component analysis with structural equation models was conducted. The results showed that the approach to applying the sufficiency economy philosophy among community enterprises consists of 11 components, as follows: 1) financial control, 2) planning, 3) member management, 4) morals, 5) prevention plan, 6) moderation, 7) knowledge and expertise, 8) market development, 9) care, 10) quality control and 11) value of investment. The confirmative component analysis with structural equation modeling was consistent with the empirical data. Agricultural community enterprises and entrepreneurs focus on the moral component, conduct business with honesty and avoid causing problems for others, value justice without taking advantage with diligence and adhere to moral principles in life, because all of the above will lead to sustainability in the future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0402.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cultural space; indigenous community; Indonesia; methodology
Online: 21 December 2022 (11:53:49 CET)
Indigenous knowledge is proven to be one of the foundations of sustainable land and marine management. While indigenous knowledge is acknowledged as of important factors on maintenance of biodiversity of the planet, it also ensures the sustenance of social and economic system of indigenous community. To facilitate the application of indigenous knowledge on management of customary forest in Indonesia, since 2012, the Government of Indonesia has been providing formal access for indigenous communities to their forests to maintain forest sustainability and to enhance the welfare of indigenous community. Nonetheless, the achievement of sustainable development goals in the scope of forest and conservation area management is threatened by various competing interests and power imbalance, which mostly leads to conversion of naturally vegetated area, as well as the inability of the community to integrate new economic opportunities to its institution. Moreover, the Government of Indonesia has not been regulating the involvement of indigenous community on the management of conservation area. Most importantly, such a program provides no reference on indigenous community, especially on the assessment of authenticity of indigenous community’s forest. Cultural space methodology may fill the aforementioned gaps. The methodology was developed based on the notion of cultural space and land administration, particularly the people-and-land/marine space relationship. Moreover, such a methodology was also constructed based on the experiences of agricultural and maritime communities in Indonesia on the administration of their territories. The methodology provides a procedure to convert information on the interrelation of indigenous community, its cultural space in forest and conservation area, and indigenous knowledge into geospatial information and data that represent the cultural space unit as a geographic feature. Therefore, such methodology may be utilised to assess the authenticity of a long-existing relationship between a community, especially an indigenous one, and its land, particularly that serves conservational function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0353.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: chlorothalonil; dissipation; enzyme activity; microbial community
Online: 28 March 2022 (03:46:35 CEST)
To get a better knowledge of the effects of residual chlorothalonil on soil characteristics and soil microbial communities, we evaluated the dissipation of chlorothalonil and the effects of different chlorothalonil concentrations on soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure in yellow-brown loam soils. Bacterial and fungal soil communities were examined using traditional plate counting and polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR–DGGE) methods. Soil properties and the results of DGGE band analysis were both used to estimate the status of the soil microbial ecosystem. The results show that residual chlorothalonil has considerable effects on soil respiration, enzymatic activities, and microbial community structure. In particular, soil respiration and phosphatase activities were increased, while saccharase activity, microbial biomass, and microbial community diversity were decreased by increasing levels of chlorothalonil treatment. Correlation analyses revealed that the application of chlorothalonil was significantly correlated with the change of the soil respiration, urease activity, sucrase activity, soil culturable bacteria and culturable fungi biomass. We conclude that residual chlorothalonil is directly related to soil respiration, enzyme activities, and microbial community structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0715.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: closure; interior; network generation; community; eigenvector
Online: 30 March 2021 (09:31:31 CEST)
Three computer algorithms are presented. One reduces a network $\CALN$ to its interior, $\CALI$. Another counts all the triangles in the network, and the last randomly generates networks similar to $\CALN$ given just its interior $\CALI$. But these algorithms are not the usual numeric programs that manipulate a matrix representation of the network; they are set-based. Union and meet are essential binary operators; contained_in is the basic relational comparator. The interior $\CALI$ is shown to have desirable formal properties and to provide an effective way of revealing ``communities'' in social networks.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0176.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: community cyberinfrastructure; accessibility; reproducibility; interoperability; models
Online: 17 January 2020 (04:28:34 CET)
In an era of rapid global change, our ability to understand and predict Earth's natural systems is lagging behind our ability to monitor and measure changes in the biosphere. Bottlenecks in our ability to process information have reduced our capacity to fully exploit the growing volume and variety of data. Here, we take a critical look at the information infrastructure that connects modeling and measurement efforts, and propose a roadmap that accelerates production of new knowledge. We propose that community cyberinfrastructure tools can help mend the divisions between empirical research and modeling, and accelerate the pace of discovery. A new era of data-model integration requires investment in accessible, scalable, transparent tools that integrate the expertise of the whole community, not just a clique of ‘modelers’. This roadmap focuses on five key opportunities for community tools: the underlying backbone to community cyberinfrastructure; data ingest; calibration of models to data; model-data benchmarking; and data assimilation and ecological forecasting. This community-driven approach is key to meeting the pressing needs of science and society in the 21st century.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart community; smart dashboard; smart governance
Online: 4 November 2019 (02:54:13 CET)
Information and communication technologies play an increasingly important role in the process of knowledge and management of places at different scales. ICTs allow a rapid diffusion of data not only through institutional channels but also through social networks where the smart community share experiences and perceptions. In this sense, ICTs become strategic tools to support the promotion of sustainable tourism development of territories, especially if the digital data are organised within a circular smart dashboard. This research focuses on the case study of the Santa Barbara Walk (SBW), an ancient mining route in the Sulcis Iglesiente region (Sardinia, Italy), where the authors have recognized a state of disorganization in slow tourism promotion activities. In fact, if the SBW represents a network - material infrastructure - which connects the main points of interest along the Walk, its digital network - intangible infrastructure - is fragmented in terms of policies and contents. The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive set of data and to propose the architecture and design for a circular dashboard of the SBW, capable of organizing information concerning the main features of the walk, in order to facilitate a shared governance for an effective tourism promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0015.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: community pharmacy; pharmacists; kap; travel health
Online: 2 October 2019 (05:50:05 CEST)
(1) Background: Travel medicine practice has not been a part of practice in the community pharmacies in Japan. However, it’s getting more common for pharmacists to run travel clinic in North America. With ongoing globalization, Japanese pharmacists might be practicing travel medicine in future. This descriptive study is to examine the current knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Japanese community pharmacists. (2) Methods: Invitation to the study was sent to all pharmacies or corporates listed on Nippon Pharmacist Association member list plus one another large size pharmacy chain that was not member of NPhA. Community pharmacists working under those companies received a weblink to the survey. The survey was conducted from June to July 2017 by online questionnaire. (3) Results: The self-declared knowledge level of infectious diseases as well as travel vaccinations was generally low. The frequency of correct answer of the antibiotic resistance in South East Asia was 48.5%. Knowledge level of qunine resistance to Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Ghana and Nicaragua was very low. (4) Conclusions: Japanese community pharmacists are not familiar with travel related infectious diseases and vaccines used in travel medicine. The knowledge on the antibiotic resistance in traveler’s diarrhea and malaria prophylaxis was all low that is consistent with low degree of exposure to travel health questions from patients in daily practice and low percentage of intention to earn travel health certificates.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0012.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: role-based access control; attribute-based access control; attribute-based encryption
Online: 8 July 2016 (10:12:21 CEST)
Cloud Computing is a promising and emerging technology that is rapidly being adopted by many IT companies due to a number of benefits that it provides, such as large storage space, low investment cost, virtualization, resource sharing, etc. Users are able to store a vast amount of data and information in the cloud and access it from anywhere, anytime on a pay-per-use basis. Since many users are able to share the data and the resources stored in the cloud, there arises a need to provide access to the data to only those users who are authorized to access it. This can be done through access control schemes which allow the authenticated and authorized users to access the data and deny access to unauthorized users. In this paper, a comprehensive review of all the existing access control schemes has been discussed along with analysis. Keywords: role-based access control, attribute-based access control, attribute-based encryption
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1170.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geography Keywords: Susceptibility; Pluvial flood; Risk perception; Local community
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:30:05 CET)
Pluvial flooding (PF), triggered by intense short-duration rainfall events, poses a growing challenge in urban areas due to climate change and rapid urbanization. To mitigate the risk, it is imperative to identify flood-prone areas and implement mitigation strategies collaboratively with the public. This study aims to create a GIS-MCDA model of PF susceptibility zones based on topographical, environmental, and hydrological criteria and investigate the public perception of risk in Gospić. The survey included 5% of the city population (N=64), and data were obtained via face-to-face interviews. Five factors were examined: (F1) risk awareness, (F2) anthropogenic and (F3) natural causes of PF, (F4) potential consequences, and (F5) preparedness. All factors have moderate mean values, i.e., awareness, causes of PF, expectations of consequences, and preparedness is moderate. The reliability of questionnaire is very high (> 0.71). The PF susceptibility zones were derived with an accuracy of 76%. The most susceptible zone covers 10% of the city, including agricultural land, forests, meadows, and residential properties. Of all respondents, 36% live in the most flood-prone area. In conclusion, mitigation measures for decision-makers were proposed. Results from this research can be a starting point for further research in Croatia and guidelines for decision-makers in implementing a risk mitigation strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0478.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Aged vinegar; Microbial community; Physicochemical characteristics; Correlation
Online: 7 August 2023 (04:59:59 CEST)
In this paper, the main physicochemical characteristics and evolutionary laws of microbial community structure during the fermentation of aged vinegar were discussed, and the correlation between Cuqu and microorganisms and physicochemical characteristics during fermentation was explored. The results showed that there are significant differences in genera at different stages of fermentation, the main dominant bacteria in R1 are Bacillus, Lactobacillus, Aspergillus and Issatchenkia. At R2 fermentation stage, Lactobacillus, Acetobacter and Saccharomyces showed an upward trend and finally became absolute advantage bacteria. The main genus of bacteria at the end of overall fermentation is Aspergillus. Correlation analysis shows that in Cuqu, the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with reducing sugars and amino acid nitrogen are the same, while the bacterial genera that are significantly positively and negatively correlated with pH and saccharification power are the same. During the fermentation process, pH, reducing sugar and saccharification ability are mainly positively correlated with bacterial genera. And research has found that during the fermentation process, the overall correlation between fungal communities and physicochemical characteristics is weaker compared to bacteria.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1592.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: Acinetobacter; pneumonia; community-acquired; tropical; infection; bacteramic
Online: 24 July 2023 (11:02:23 CEST)
Background: Community acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia (CAAP) typically presents with rapid progression to fulminant disease, and is complicated by high mortality. Australian epidemiological studies are few. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on bacteraemic cases of CAAP over twenty years, (2000-2019) in North Queensland. Cases were selected on microbiologic, clinical, and radiographic parameters. Data on patient demographics were obtained, along with microbial, antibiotic, mortality, and climatic data. Results: 28 cases of CAAP were included. Nineteen (67.9%) were male, twenty-three (82.1%) were Indigenous Australians, and mean age was 45.9 years. Most presentations were of moderate to severe pneumonia, 25/28 (89.3%). 90% of cases had two or more risk factors. The strongest risk factors for CAAP were alcohol excess and tobacco use. No statistically significant difference in presenting severity, ICU admission or mortality was seen between dry and wet season disease. Dry season disease accounted for 35.7% of cases. Overall mortality was 28.6%. Early use of meropenem or gentamicin reduced mortality irrespective of presenting severity (mortality 17.6%) Non-targeted antibiotic therapy was associated with a non-significant difference in mortality of 44.4%. Conclusions: Early administration of targeted antibiotics can mitigate a high mortality rate. Choice of antibiotic therapy for community acquired pneumonia should be based upon severity, risk factors and clinical suspicion of CAAP rather than seasonality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0304.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: agro-ecotourism; sustainability; community; West Java; Indonesia
Online: 5 June 2023 (10:19:16 CEST)
Agro-ecotourism is a tourism development activity in a location with ecological and agricultural advantages, leading to business utilization to generate economic value. Agro-ecotourism in West Java has a selling point in the form of natural potential, agriculture, arts, handicrafts, to the traditional culinary processing typical of the village. This research aims to analyze the sustainability level and the sensitive factors or attributes that affect the level of sustainability of community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java. The study used a survey method on 237 agritourist actors. Data were analyzed using Multi-Dimensional Scaling in the Rapid Appraisal-Tourism technique. The study results show that community-based agro-ecotourism in West Java is quite sustainable (57.07). This study analyzed sustainability through economic, social, cultural, institutional, ecological, and technological dimensions. The social dimension has the highest value because agriculture-based village tourism is carried out in the community. Meanwhile, the lowest value is the technology dimension. The availability of infrastructure influenced the value obtained and means of transportation as well as environmentally friendly farming techniques.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Community; Health Risk; Awareness; Knowledge; Air Pollution
Online: 30 May 2023 (13:15:46 CEST)
Exposure to air pollution have detrimental effects on the elderly, women, people with pre-existing medical conditions, people living in poverty and children. The aim of the study was to investigate the extent of community awareness and knowledge on the health risks associated with exposure to air pollution. A cross-sectional study design was used for the study, using self-administered questionnaires. A simple random sampling technique was used to select 376 respondents. Systematic sampling method was applied to select the households. SPSS version 26 was used to analyze data. Of 376 respondents, 221 were males and 154 females. 113 were aged between 23-47years and 353 were aware that if they don’t protect themselves against polluted air, they may get sick, with age and educational status associated with their awareness (p < 0.05). About 361 knew what air pollution is and 188 think the air they breathe in Annadale is moderate. A total number of 278 said they feel sick/uncomfortable when the quality of air is bad. About 293 knew that people are exposed to air pollution by breathing contaminated air and 237 identified sewage smell as the main cause of air pollution. Respondents who identified internet and television as the main source of information were 199 and 177 respectively. Those who were not aware of actions implemented to reduce air pollution were 180. Based on the results of the study, respondents are aware of the dangers of exposure to polluted air, and it is necessary that air pollution risk communication strategies be implemented to empower residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0582.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Keywords: Sustainable Tourism; community preparedness; Lombok; Indonesia
Online: 9 May 2023 (07:26:26 CEST)
This research aims to examine the level of readiness of the community to carry out sustainable tourism development, especially community-based tourism on small islands, such as Lombok Island, Indonesia. More specifically, the objectives of this study are as follows: (1) Knowing the level of community readiness in carrying out sustainable tourism development. (2) Knowing the various dimensions that influence sustainable tourism development. (3) Knowing the role of stakeholders in sustainable tourism development. The method applied in this research is mixed methods, a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches. Quantitative methods are used to determine community readiness for sustainable tourism development. A qualitative approach is used to determine the various factors that influence the development of community-based tourism and to determine the role of stakeholders in the development of community-based tourism. The level of community readiness for sustainable tourism development is high in terms of economic, social, cultural, environmental, and symbolic capital aspects. Aspects that influence the development of sustainable tourism are economic, social, and cultural. Stakeholders who play a role in developing sustainable tourism in the research area are the government, the private sector, universities, non-governmental organizations, and the media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0325.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Community disaster resilience; Lembang Fault; Indonesia; Japan
Online: 18 November 2021 (13:43:52 CET)
Having experienced large-scale disasters between 2004 and 2006, the fatalities due to large-scale disasters in 2018 were still high. In contrast, disaster risk management (DRM) and CDR in Japan have been continuously improved. Thus, there is a need to develop CDR for supporting DRM in Indonesia by learning from the Japanese experience, particularly in a disaster-prone area without large-scale disaster experience. This research was a pilot project on the development of CDR in Indonesia. The case study was a geological hazard-prone Lembang Fault area. People’s perception was collected using structured interviews, while demographic and local economic data was acquired from official statistical publications. Satellite imageries were utilized to acquire natural and built environment and land use/land cover and their changes between 2019 and 2021. Although the degrees of social capital, risk knowledge including indigenous knowledge and past disaster experience were high, government interventions on DRM and land administration are required to develop CDR in Lembang Fault area. Organized community development is expected rather than to solely involve NGOs. Moreover, strategies to develop economic resilience are needed to allow the community to bounce back from future disaster. Finally, a detail baseline data should be collected to develop DRM strategy and CDR.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0563.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Community-acquired pneumonia; incidence; prophylaxis; pneumococcal; vaccination
Online: 24 May 2021 (10:52:36 CEST)
Current epidemiological data reports that adults aged 65 years and older comprise the most vulnerable age group with the highest proportion of CAP-attributable hospitalizations. Pneumococcal vaccine efficacy (VE) has been shown to decrease over time, contributing to increasing incidence rates of CAP. A holistic evaluation of age, sex, seasonality, and VE are is conducted in this systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 prospective and retrospective cohort studies. The findings suggest that incidence and age are positively associated and that incidence in females is more often reported to be higher in females than in males. In studies that observed seasonality of CAP, high seasons and low seasons were reported to be in winter and summer months, respectively. Lastly, studies that reviewed the effect of vaccination on incidence consistently found decreased observance of CAP in elderly adults following reception of PCV13 or PPSV23. However, one study suggested that such vaccinations may have decreased effectiveness in elderly populations and that research examining potential explanations for this require further investigation. Furthermore, distinct diagnostic and case ascertainment standards, descriptive measures, and methods of prevention and treatment of CAP used across the US are outlined in this review. Public health guidance such as encouraging the reception of pneumococcal vaccinations and mask-wearing during high seasons of CAP, and communicating the risks of not adhering to the aforementioned preventative measures can facilitate an effort to reduce the incidence of CAP and its associated adverse outcomes in the US elderly population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0243.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: Traditional settlement; Vernacular architecture; Manipuri Community; Sylhet
Online: 13 January 2021 (12:13:56 CET)
This study intends to study a distinct typology of vernacular architecture built by the Manipuri communities of Bangladesh. The Manipuris are one of the ethnic diasporic communities in Bangladesh commonly known for their diverse cultural practice, including their dance form. This research aims to reveal the cultural entity of Manipuri that has been transformed into their living environment and household architecture. Architectural elements adapted by the Manipuris are assessed here as a part of cultural symbols to have a rigorous view of the philosophy of living. This study is a documentation of Manipuri habitat culture through the intervention of their living environment, which will attract any future working on this issue. This research shows that despite a rapid socio-economic change of context, the Manipuri housing practice is deeply connected to their socio-cultural and religious values. As the authors used an observational and ethnographical approach to studying vernacular architecture for this research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0630.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Attitude; Community; Knowledge; Mental health; Mental illness
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:59:46 CET)
Knowledge and attitude towards mental illness play major role in the recognition, management, sociocultural factors and health seeking behavior among those with mental disorders. The study aim was to determine the knowledge and attitude among Nyamagana community members towards mental illness, Tanzania; A descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study involving 384 participants from sample population aged 18 years and above who were mentally health and semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect data. The results 110 (28.8%) respondents have good knowledge toward mental illness, about 292(76%) have negative attitude towards mentally ill people, 92(24%) respondents have positive attitude toward people who are mentally ill. More over about 318 (82.9%) respondents agreed that care and support of family and friends, could help people with mental illness to get rehabilitation while 66(17.1%) respondents disagreed on the care and support of the family and friends could help mentally ill people to get rehabilitation; The findings show most have poor knowledge and negative attitudes towards people with mental illness and may impair their social reintegration in the community. There’s need to develop strategies to enlighten the public regarding nature of mental illness so as to foster acceptance of people with mental illness by the community members.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0115.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: citrus; root rhizosphere; mancozeb; bacteria community; diversity
Online: 7 March 2020 (03:12:53 CET)
Mancozeb is extensively used fungicide to prevent citrus melanose in most Asian countries, especially in China. So far, however, there have been no reports of thet effect of Mancozeb on the citrus rhizosphere bacterial community. Therefore, this comparative experiment defined the genomic and functional related to community and soil health of 2-years old Citrus unshiu Marc. rhizosphere through amplicon sequencing and chemical analysis. This study evaluated the effect of mancozeb on the chemical properties of citrus-cultivated soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community. We also investigated the abundance response of rhizosphere bacterial groups to 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 times application of 2 g mancozeb (active ingredient content, ai.) 600 times diluted with water. Our data revealed that the abundance of rhizosphere-associated bacterial species increased significantly after planting citrus. The relative abundance of Candidatus, Saccharibacteria, Parcubacteria, and Proteobacteria increased with the increase in mancozeb watering times. Meanwhile, the abundance of Nitrospirae decreased with the increase in mancozeb application times. The findings indicated that the chemical properties of the soil and the richness and diversity of rhizosphere bacterial community did not significantly differ across the mancozeb gradients in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: sepsis; community-acquired pneumonia; very old, pneumonia
Online: 19 June 2019 (10:00:15 CEST)
Background: Little is known about risk and prognostic factors in very old patients developing sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We conducted a retrospective observational study of data prospectively collected at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona over a 13-year period. Consecutive patients hospitalized with CAP were included if they were very old (≥80 years) and divided into those with and without sepsis for comparison. Sepsis was diagnosed based on the Sepsis-3 criteria. The main clinical outcome was 30-day mortality. Results: Among the 4,219 patients hospitalized with CAP during the study period, 1,238 (29%) were very old. The prevalence of sepsis in this aged group was 71%. Male sex, chronic renal disease, and diabetes mellitus were independent risk factors for sepsis, while antibiotic therapy before admission was independently associated with a lower risk of sepsis. Thirty-day and intensive care unit (ICU) mortality did not differ between patients with and without sepsis. In CAP-sepsis group, chronic renal disease and neurological disease were independent risk factors for 30-day mortality. Conclusion: In very old patients hospitalized with CAP, in-hospital and 1-year mortality rates were increased if they developed sepsis. Antibiotic therapy before hospital admission was associated with a lower risk of sepsis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0253.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Disasters, Preparedness, Lembang Fault, Community Base, School
Online: 27 February 2019 (11:55:21 CET)
This research was conducted on the Maribaya Timur school community in Lembang Subdistrict, West Bandung Regency, Indonesia, which is an active community in the area that is threatened by the potential for earthquake disasters due to the active Lembang fault. Disaster risk reduction efforts are pursued through increasing school-based preparedness that involves members of the school community, surrounding communities and various institutions that are associated with reducing the risk of school-based earthquake. Increasing preparedness against earthquakes focuses more on aspects of capacity building of school communities in reducing disaster risk, while aspects of vulnerability and threats have not been the focus of disaster risk reduction. The steps taken refer to the element of preparedness by aligning with the conditions, needs and potential that exist in the school community. Theoretically, if the school community has preparedness to face an earthquake disaster, the risk of earthquake disaster in the school community will be reduced so that it can minimize losses, victims and suffering that will be caused by the earthquake disaster.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0041.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Crop rotation; Fertilization; Maize; Microbial community structure
Online: 2 November 2018 (09:37:31 CET)
Examining the soil microbiome structure has a great significance in exploring the mechanism behind plant growth changes due to maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max Merr.) crop rotation. This study explored the effects of soil microbial community structure after soybean and maize crop rotation by designing nine treatments combining three crop rotations (continuous cropping maize or soybean; and maize after soybean) with three fertility treatments (organic compound fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, or without fertilizer). Soil was sampled to 30 cm depth the second year at approximately the middle of the growing season, and was analyzed for physical, chemical, and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiles. Bacteria was found to be the predominant component of soil microorganisms, which mainly contain the PLFAs i15:0, 16:1 ω 7c, 16:0, 10Me16:0, and 18:1 ω 7c. The concentration of soil gram-negative bacteria from the soybean and maize rotation was less than in soybean continuous cropping when organic fertilizer was applied to both. Crop rotation reduced the percentage of fungi in the soil, among which the effect of organic compound fertilizer application was significantly reduced 24%. The combined crop rotation with organic fertilizer can reduce maximum the percentage of fungi/bacteria. In addition, the content of soil aggregate and organic matter had great influence on gram-positive bacteria and actinomyces, and soil pH had a greater impact on other fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0168.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: stakeholders; community college; value; perspectives and recommendations
Online: 26 November 2017 (13:20:28 CET)
In 2002, the Higher Learning Commission, a regional accrediting agency in the US, placed the community college in this study on academic probation for several criteria and many residents of the community believed that closing doors was the best option for addressing these concerns. This study is designed to ascertain data from external stakeholders of the community college regarding their current perceived value of the community college and suggestions about moving from the present to the future. The main question of the study is: What are external stakeholders’ perceptions of the value of the college to the service area? This qualitative approach is used consisting of interviews, focus groups, surveys, and document review to triangulate stakeholder perspectives. Participants included 176 high school seniors from different counties, four counselors, and four focus groups. The findings from the data are presented in this study are planned to be used by community college officials to incorporate into their strategic plans. They showed that the college needs to consider the value that it brings to the service area including economic benefits, specifically community support; accessibility; and cost of tuition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1781.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: US-Mexico border health; community-wide campaign; physical exercise; mental health; public health; Latino community health; health behavior promotion
Online: 27 September 2023 (05:19:20 CEST)
Hispanics are disproportionately affected by low rates of physical activity and high rates of chronic diseases. Hispanics generally and Mexican Americans specifically are underrepresented in research on physical activity and its impact on mental well-being. Some community-based interventions have been effective in increasing physical activity among Hispanics. This study examined data from a sample of low-income Hispanic participants in free community exercise classes to characterize the association between self-reported frequency of exercise class attendance, intensity of physical activity, and participant well-being. As part of two cross-sectional samples recruited from a stratified random sample of community exercise classes, 302 participants completed a questionnaire consisting of a modified version of the Godin-Shephard Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire (LTEQ) and the Mental Health Continuum Short Form (MHC-SF). Adjusted binary logistic regression analyses indicated that those who achieve moderate and strenuous self-reported physical activity have 130% higher odds (p = 0.0422) of positive mental well-being after adjustment for age, attendance, and self-reported health. This study provides evidence that physical activity intensity and time are associated with flourishing mental health among Hispanics. The study provides insight into the planning and development of community-based physical activity programming tailored to low-income populations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: hand hygiene opportunities; alcohol-based hand rub; hand wash with soap and water; WHO hand hygiene observation tool; SORT IT; operational research; antimicrobial resistance; infection prevention and control (IPC); hospital acquired infections; gloves
Online: 4 July 2023 (03:21:35 CEST)
In 2021, an operational research study in two tertiary hospitals, Freetown, showed poor hand hygiene compliance. Recommended actions were taken to improve the situation. Between February-April 2023, a cross-sectional study was conducted in the same two hospitals using the WHO Hand Hygiene tool to assess hand hygiene practices and compare hand hygiene compliance with that observed between June-August 2021. In Connaught hospital, overall hand hygiene compliance improved from 51% to 60% (P<0.001), and this applied to both handwash actions with soap and water and alcohol-based-hand-rub: significant improvements were found in all hospital departments and amongst all healthcare worker cadres. In 34 Military Hospital (34MH), overall hand hygiene compliance decreased from 40% to 32% (P<0.001), with significant decreases observed in all departments and amongst nurses and nursing students. The improvements in Connaught Hospital were attributed to more hand hygiene reminders, better handwash infrastructure and more frequent supervision assessments compared with 34MH where interventions were less well applied, possibly due to extensive hospital reconstruction at the time. In conclusion, improved distribution of hand hygiene reminders, better handwash infrastructure and frequent supervision assessments are effective, and need to be strengthened, scaled-up and combined with other innovative ways to promote good hand hygiene practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1827.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: ozone; complex network; maximum matching algorithm; community classification
Online: 28 November 2023 (16:15:34 CET)
In recent years, ozone (O3) pollution has been rapidly spreading, restricting further improvement of air quality in China. Investigating the interaction of O3 concentration and identifying their driven cities are important for the prevention and control of O3 pollution in China. However, the complex interaction between O3 pollution between the cities and their driven cities has not yet been revealed. In this study, we address this gap based on complex network methods. Specifically, an ozone relational network is constructed using an association calculation method. The driven nodes and spatial clusters were analyzed based on the maximum matching algorithm and the Louvain algorithm. The findings of the study reveal an aggregation phenomenon in the ozone network concerning distance. Furthermore, as the threshold Tc varies, the proportion of driven nodes exhibits a positive correlation. Moreover, a closer threshold value corresponds to a higher coincidence ratio of the driven nodes. The results provide scientific guidance for national O3 pollution prevention and regional synergy formatting. Furthermore, the introduced network-based approaches offer a mythological framework for the study of air pollution in key cities and clusters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0959.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: community; inner areas; (social) vulnerability; depopulation; sustainability; youth.
Online: 15 November 2023 (10:03:47 CET)
The essay focuses, from a sociological perspective, on the phenomenon of depopulation of Inner Areas in Italy. In this areas, younger generations, live a great inequality that exposed them to risk of social vulnerability. So, on the one hand, the desire to leave their community is growing among younger, on the other hand, the desire to deal with extreme adverse conditions is falling down. The research aims to explore the depopulation phenomenon in the context of Southern Italy, considering it as an emerging social vulnerability that impacts very deeply onto the sustainability of a social, economic and community systems such as the Molise region one. The following paper therefore presents an empirical web-survey conducted in the Molise region. The methodology used is Quantitative, and the research design is Exploratory. The essay underlines how proximity welfare can act as a flywheel to counter the depopulation Inner Areas of Italy enacted by the younger generations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0999.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: paramedic; community paramedicine; social needs; social isolation; equity
Online: 17 October 2023 (08:17:52 CEST)
Introduction: Health and social needs exist along a dynamic continuum. Recognizing that health status is inextricably impacted by social determinants of health, there exists opportunities and a professional responsibility to better understand how community paramedicine can address social needs in effort to reduce healthcare inequities.Aim: The primary objective of this scoping review is to systematically investigate published peer reviewed and grey literature to explore how community paramedicine supports social needs along a health and social continuum.Methods: A scoping review of English language literature was conducted using the JBI Scoping Review methodology. We searched CINAHL, EMBASE, and MEDLINE and grey literature searches in Google Scholar and organisational websites. We used search terms related to community paramedicine and social needs. Results: A total of 30 peer-reviewed and 13 grey literature articles met inclusion criteria. The main findings of this scoping review describe the evolving ways community paramedicine models are addressing health and social needs. A key recommendation across the literature was the need to meaningfully engage communities early in program development to understand how best to implement and co-design an integrated service model that addresses the needs specific to each community, though there was a lack of evidence to guide this approach. There is a notable lack of evidence pertaining to how best to optimize technologies in program design and implementation. The results highlight opportunities to determine best practices for conducting holistic community needs assessments that include equitable stakeholder engagement and enhance education to prepare paramedics for expanded roles.Conclusion: Community paramedicine provides opportunities to better meet the needs of structurally marginalised communities. However, there is a social responsibility and opportunity to engage in community needs assessments to co-design service delivery, advance paramedic education, and enhance interprofessional collaboration to better support social needs and generate upstream solutions for individuals and communities.