ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0502.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Classroom; Taif City; Visual Comfort; Thermal Comfort; Acoustical Comfort; holistic environmental assessment; Green Building Rating Systems
Online: 8 May 2023 (10:00:16 CEST)
According to architectural standards, the common proportion of a rectangular-shaped classroom is the shallow proportion, which has a longer external room facade versus the perpendicular internal sides. Even in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), the same proportion is used in school projects. Environmentally, this proportion is logical when considering the role of adequate natural lighting for classroom visual functions, which could be more easily achieved if its longest side is the external one. But, the environmental efficiency of any architectural space cannot be only judged according to a single human comfort achievement, especially with the diverse environmental characteristics of places around the world. This diversity can show a defect in other human comfort achievements or other environmental issues in different ways when achieving a certain function in a unified way. A holistic study should be done for any common architectural shape or proportion to ensure their priority among other options in achieving maximum green architectural principles for a specific location before confirming and using it. The manuscript compares a rectangular classroom of different external/internal wall proportions to search for their preference to be used in Taif city schools in KSA. The compared case studies have different window variations and similarities to include their effect too. According to the overall green principles assessment, the results showed that the common proportion of classrooms didn’t give the higher green credits, which alerts us that the traditional rectangular classroom proportion is not always optimum for all regions including Taif city in KSA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0370.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Seasonal Variance; Pedestrians Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET); Adaptive Thermal Comfort
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:14:58 CET)
Season plays a key role in the development of outdoor spaces for pedestrians in hot humid cities. This research studies the influence of seasonal variations on pedestrian thermal comfort on the pedestrian level by means of meteorology and field observations of selected footpaths in the major tourist area of Malacca. This experiment was carried out on selected clear calm days indicative of each season during the development of a research project, and hourly meteorological transects from 10:00 am to 6:00 pm and questioned 200 respondents on their thermal awareness, comfort, and preferences were conducted. Adaptation, thermal comfort vote, thermal preference, age, season and hour of the day were significant non-meteorological factors, apart from meteorological information. The findings of analyzes showed that the thermal experience and expectation existed and in different seasons people changed perceptions for the outside thermal environment. Almost 80% local tourist and 55 % international tourist was accepted Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) range affected by the local climate and thermal adaptation. The subjective thermal sensation on physiological equivalent temperature generated an acceptable physiological equivalent temperature of 32.6°C to 36.8°C based on the seasonal variations for Malacca tourist zone in Malaysia. These findings shed light on the optimal design of outdoor spaces for increasing the utilization rate. The seasonal variation must be taken into account so that the outdoor landscape design provides more opportunities for different seasons to communicate with the atmosphere and so enhance thermal comfort and utilization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0155.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: cooling effect; urban park; thermal comfort; physiological equivalent temperature; perceived thermal comfort
Online: 16 September 2019 (01:17:53 CEST)
This empirical study investigates large urban park cooling effects on the thermal comfort of occupants in the vicinity of the main central park, located in Madrid, Spain. Data were gathered during hot summer days, using mobile observations and a questionnaire. The results showed that the cooling effect of this urban park of 140 ha area at a distance of 150 m is able to reduce temperature by an average of 0.63°C and 1.28°C for distances of 380 m and of 665 meters from the park. Moreover, the degree of the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) index at a distance of 150 meters from the park is on average 2°C PET and 2.3°C PET less compared to distances of 380 m and 665 m, respectively. Considering distance from the park, the correlation between occupant Perceived Thermal Comfort (PTC) and PET is inverse. That is, augmenting the distance from park increases PET, while the extent of PTC reduces accordingly. The correlation between these two factors at the nearest and furthest distances from the park is meaningful (P-value <0/05). The results also showed that large-scale urban parks generally play a significant part in creating a cognitive state of high-perceived thermal comfort spaces for residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0417.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Sock; infrared thermography; temperature; comfort
Online: 27 October 2022 (02:13:40 CEST)
Socks with the same three-dimensional plantar design, but with different compositions in the separation of their weaves could have different thermoregulatory effects. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the temperatures on the sole of the foot after a 10-km run, using two models of socks with different weave separations. In a sample of 20 individuals (14 men and 6 women), plantar temperatures were analysed using a Flir E60bx® (Flir Systems) thermographic camera before and after a run of 10 km wearing two models of socks that had different separations between the fabric weaves (5 mm versus 3 mm). After the post-exercise thermographic analysis, the participants responded to a Likert type survey to evaluate the physiological characteristics of the two models of socks. There was a significant increase in temperature in the areas of interest (p<0.001) after the 10-km run with both models of sock. The temperature under the 1st metatarsal head was higher with the AWC 2.1 model than with the AWC 1 (33.6±2.0°C vs 33.2±2.1°C) (p = 0.014). No significant differences were found in the scores on the physiological characteristics comfort survey (p>0.05 in all cases. The two models presented similar thermoregulatory effects on the soles of the feet, although the model with the narrowest weave separation generated greater temperatures (+0.4°C) under the first metatarsal head.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0307.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: comfort; vibration; biomechanics; postural stabilization
Online: 23 May 2022 (12:14:30 CEST)
In future automated vehicles we will often engage in non-driving tasks and will not watch the road. This will affect postural stabilization and may elicit discomfort or even motion sickness in dynamic driving. Future vehicles shall accommodate this by properly designed seats and interiors whereas comfortable vehicle motion shall be achieved with smooth driving styles and well de-signed (active) suspensions. To support research and development in dynamic comfort, this paper presents validation of a multi-segment full body human model including visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback for postural stabilization. Dynamic driving is evaluated using a “sicken-ing drive” including a 0.2 Hz 4 m/s2 slalom. Vibration transmission is evaluated with compliant automotive seats, applying 3D platform motion and evaluating 3D translation and rotation of pelvis, trunk and head. The model matches human motion in dynamic driving and reproduces fore-aft, lateral and vertical oscillations. Visuo-vestibular and muscle spindle feedback are shown to be essential in particular for head-neck stabilization. Active leg muscle control at the hips and knees is shown to be essential to stabilize the trunk in the high amplitude slalom condition but not in low amplitude horizontal vibrations. However, active leg muscle control can strongly affect 4-6 Hz vertical vibration transmission. Compared to the vibration tests, the dynamic driving tests show enlarged postural control gains to minimize trunk and head roll and pitch, and to align head yaw with the driving direction. Human modelling can create the required insights to achieve breakthrough comfort enhance-ments while enabling efficient development for a wide range of driving conditions, body sizes and other factors. Hence, modelling human postural control can accelerate innovation of seats and vehicle motion control strategies for (automated) vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0284.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Park cooling effect; Urban Heat Island; Thermal comfort; Perceived Thermal Comfort; Physiological Equivalent Temperature; Cognitive Maps
Online: 12 August 2020 (11:32:18 CEST)
The combined effects of global warming and increasing urban heat islands (UHIs) on air temperature and heat stress in cities are notable physical and mental health implications for citizens. With research having shown the effective role of urban green spaces in decreasing urban heat, this study investigated the cooling effect of a large urban park on thermal comfort outside the park area, from psychological and physiological perspectives. The studied park is located in the center of Madrid and adjacent to UHI. The study was performed by conducting field measurements and a survey with questionnaires. The measurements made on six summer days (with two-week intervals) showed that the park’s cooling effect could decrease the air temperature by 2.4-2.8°C right up to the edge of the heat island (600m), and decrease the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) by about 3.9°C. By decreasing air temperature and PET, this park was also shown to increase the perceived thermal comfort (PTC) of the citizens from the psychological perspective in the defined area of effect. This perceived thermal comfort was found to have a significant inverse relationship with PET (P-value <0.05). The examination of cognitive maps drawn by citizens showed that out of the 145 respondents, 68.3% marked the park as the area that they perceive as having the greatest thermal comfort, and prefer as the place to spend time enjoying thermal comfort, irrespective of its distance from their location.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: thermal comfort; draught; cooling period; open office
Online: 24 December 2019 (08:42:03 CET)
Local thermal comfort (TC) and draught rate (DR) has been studied widely. There has been more meaningful research performed in controlled boundary condition situations than in actual work environments involving occupants. TC conditions in office buildings in Estonia have been barely investigated in the past. In this paper, the results of TC and DR assessment in five office buildings in Tallinn are presented and discussed. Studied office landscapes vary in heating, ventilation and cooling (HVAC) system parameters, room units and elements. All sample buildings were less than six years old, equipped with dedicated outdoor air ventilation system and room conditioning units. The on-site measurements consisted of TC and DR assessment with indoor climate questionnaire (ICQ). The purpose of the survey is to assess the correspondence between HVAC design and the actual situation. Results show, whether and in what extent the standard-based criteria for TC is suitable for actual usage of the occupants. Preferring one room conditioning unit type or system may not guarantee better thermal environment without draught. Although some HVAC systems observed in this study should create the prerequisites for ensuring more comfort, results show that this is not the case for all buildings in this study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0814.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: HVAC; thermal comfort; green buildings; outdoor air conditioning
Online: 13 November 2023 (11:26:08 CET)
This research investigates the compatibility of conventional air conditioning with the principles of green building, highlighting the need for systems that enhance indoor comfort while aligning with environmental sustainability. Conventional cooling systems, though proficient in regulating indoor temperatures, encounter several issues when incorporated into green buildings. These include energy waste, high running costs, and a misalignment with eco-friendly practices, which may also lead to detrimental environmental effects and potentially reduce occupant comfort, particularly in retrofit situations. Given the emphasis on sustainability and energy conservation in green buildings, there is a pressing demand for heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) solutions that support these goals. This study emphasizes the critical need to reconsider traditional HVAC strategies in the face of green building advances. It advocates for the adoption of innovative HVAC technologies designed for eco-efficiency and enhanced comfort. These technologies should integrate seamlessly with sustainable construction, use greener refrigerants, and uphold environmental integrity, driving progress towards a sustainable and occupant-friendly built environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0357.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: tractor; active seat suspension; MPC; vibration; ride comfort
Online: 21 March 2023 (01:21:21 CET)
In order to reduce the influence of ground vibration generated by tractor during driving and operation on driving stability and driver ride comfort, this paper proposes a control method of tractor active seat suspension based on model predictive control. By establishing a 3-degree of freedom tractor active seat suspension model and a ground excitation input model, a new model predictive controller for the active seat suspension system is designed. The vertical acceleration of the seat center of mass, the seat suspension stroke and the tire dynamic displacement are optimized by limiting the dynamic deflection of the seat suspension and the active force output of the actuator. The control model of MPC tractor active seat suspension system is built and its performance is simulated and verified. The results show that compared with the passive seat suspension and the PID seat suspension, the tractor active seat suspension based on model predictive control (MPC) has better damping characteristics and improves ride comfort.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Thermally Activated Building System; thermal comfort; thermal mass
Online: 19 January 2022 (14:18:14 CET)
In recent years, several alternatives for improving the thermal comfort conditions inside buildings have been proposed. Among these alternatives, Thermally Activated Building Systems (TABS) have become of interest due to the benefits this technology brings to the building sector. The TABS are embedded in different building components and exchange heat with building envelope to improve the indoor air temperature. This review presents relevant results presented in the literature on the thermal behavior of TABS, the different types of TABS configurations, and the main parameters of TABS studied such as pipe separation, fluid inlet temperature, fluid velocity, and volumetric flow rate. The potential of TABS to improve thermal comfort conditions and provide energy savings is also discussed. Further, this study presents the different modes of application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0528.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Carbohydrate; Menthol; Thermal Comfort; Thermal Sensation; Thirst; Water
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:30:10 CET)
Carbohydrate and menthol mouth-swilling have been used to enhance exercise performance in the heat. However, these strategies differ in mechanism and subjective experience. Participants (n=12) sat for 60 min in hot conditions (35°C; 15±2%), following a 15 min control period, participants undertook three 15 min testing blocks. A randomised swill (Carbohydrate; Menthol; Water) was administered per testing block (one swill every three minutes within each block). Heart rate, tympanic temperature, thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thirst were recorded every three minutes. Data were analysed by ANOVA, with carbohydrate intake controlled for via ANCOVA. Small elevations in heart rate were observed after carbohydrate (ES: 0.22 ± 90% CI: -0.09 to 0.52) and water swilling (0.26; -0.04 to 0.54). Menthol showed small improvements in thermal comfort relative to carbohydrate (-0.33; -0.63 to 0.03) and water (-0.40; -0.70 to -0.10), and induced moderate reductions in thermal sensation (-0.71; -1.01 to -0.40 and -0.66; -0.97 to -0.35, respectively). Menthol reduced thirst by a small to moderate extent. These effects persisted when controlling for dietary carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate and water may elevate heart rate, whereas menthol elicits small improvements in thermal comfort, moderately improves thermal sensation and may mitigate thirst; these effects persist when dietary carbohydrate intake is controlled for.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0125.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: human thermal comfort-discomfort; Fanger’s model; PMV; PPD
Online: 25 December 2016 (08:48:27 CET)
The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) and the Predicted Percentage of Dissatisfied (PPD) indices are used to assess the indoor environment in terms of human thermal comfort-discomfort. In this study, an experimental combined objective and subjective investigation of thermal comfort perception has been performed in students between 16-18 years old, in a non-air-conditioned school building. The objective approach included instrumentation measurements and data processing according to ISO 7730, whereas, the subjective one was based on answers collection following ISO 10551. The study is mainly devoted to the verification of Fanger’s approach in a building, in free running conditions, under a mild (moderate) climate.The comparison between instrumentation data and questionnaire results presented an underestimation of the mean vote, predicting a cooler sensation than the actual one.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1438.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Brazilian labelling regulation; energy efficiency; thermal comfort; university buildings.
Online: 21 August 2023 (08:58:00 CEST)
Thermal comfort is extremely important in architecture, especially in environments with more people spending longer on studies or intellectual activities. This research describes a case study to investigate university buildings' energy and thermal performance as a part of the ANEEL program. Due to this importance, and the need to save energy in Brazilian public buildings, the ANEEL-the Brazilian Energy Electricity Regulatory Agency, launched 2016 a national program focusing on energy efficiency in public universities around the country. University offices and classrooms require high intellectual effort; thus, environmental comfort is critical for maintaining its users' physical and mental health. This study included a pre-diagnosis of the performance of the envelope, lighting, and air conditioning systems and a survey about the quality of the environments from the users' point of view. The Prescriptive Method of the Brazilian Labeling Program (PBE) for Commercial, Service, and Public Buildings (RTQ-C) assessed the building performance. Statistical analysis was applied to correlate the quality and thermal preference of the users from the PMV/PPD. The results showed a high rate of thermal discomfort in both environments of the studies, even when using air conditioning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: heat-escape tourism; destination selection; climate comfort; Shanghai Disneyland
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:57:54 CEST)
Climate and its fluctuations have wide-ranging impacts on the tourism industry. High temperatures, as a typical meteorological and climatic factor, influence tourists' travel intentions and spatial behavior. This study conducted a descriptive analysis and market trend analysis of Chinese tourism during periods of high temperatures, revealing several key findings. Firstly, tourists seeking respite from summer heat exhibit a preference for short-distance trips and resource-rich destinations. Secondly, heat-escape tourism products undergo changes over time, gradually shifting towards mountainous areas and waterfront locations. Furthermore, taking Shanghai Disneyland as a case study demonstrates that the holiday system holds greater significance than temperature constraints. Despite experiencing a significant decline in the quality of their tourist experience in high-temperature environments, long-distance travelers are not deterred from choosing pre-booked tourism products by sudden bouts of hot weather.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1147.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: ASHRAE; climate change; passive cooling; thermal comfort; thermal sensation
Online: 16 May 2023 (10:06:20 CEST)
A variety of factors ranging from ethnicity and occupants’ lifestyles to local climatic characteristics of any studied location and people’s age factors can affect thermal comfort assessment globally. Due to the detrimental impact of climate change, the building industry has started to implement energy efficiency schemes while considering the thermal comfort of vulnerable population both for the society and any sphere of economy. Although, considering human-based approaches have been neglected by other scholars in thermal comfort studies. This paper reviews energy effectiveness of state-of-the-art passive systems in providing neutral adaptive thermal comfort for elderly people, through exploring passive design strategies in four distinct climates namely, Canada, India, Abu Dhabi and the South-eastern Mediterranean basin. The aim of the study is to analyze the available data provided by the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II version record 2.1. The main objective of the study is to develop an effective methodological framework for the on-going development of adaptive thermal comfort theory. To this extend, this study presents a comprehensive review on the assessment of energy effectiveness of passive design systems. To accomplish this, the impact of climate change factor in passive design systems was investigated. The meta-analysis method was adopted to determine the input variables for the statistical analysis. Cramer’s V and Fisher’s Exact tests were used to assess occupants’ thermal sensation votes (TSVs). The findings revealed that there are discrepancies detected between the in-situ field experiments and the data recorded in the ASHRAE Global Thermal Comfort Database II. According to the Köppen-Geiger climate classification, it was found from the study that the slightly high temperature fluctuations were identified in India where the weather is dry and savanna climate. The study findings contribute to the development of adaptive thermal comfort theory by reviewing the existing methodologies globally. Furthermore, a critical review on the significance of occupants’ age differences should be conducted in the identification of neutral adaptive thermal comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Footwear; Carbon Fiber Insole; Sports Performance; Comfort; Muscle Fatigue
Online: 20 December 2022 (03:15:29 CET)
Carbon fiber insole (CFI), which is lightweight and stiff to reduce energy loss and help wearers perform better in sports, has recently been introduced. However, there are scarce reports on the effects of CFI on sports performance, muscle fatigue and wearing comfort. This study investigat-ed the short-term effects of CFI on sports performance, lower extremity muscle activity, and sub-jective comfort. Thirty young healthy males performed various sports tasks and treadmill runs with wearable sensors under two experimental insole conditions (benchmark insole as a baseline, CFI). The results showed that compared to the benchmark insole, CFI significantly improved sports performance in terms of power generation and agility. However, it activated more of the Tibialis Anterior and Gastrocnemius Medialis muscles and was perceived stiffer, and less com-fortable. These findings suggested that CFI can improve sports performance, but it could cause more lower extremity muscle fatigue and subjective discomfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0337.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: thermal sensation; ageing; infrared thermography; frailty; assessment; comfort; extremities
Online: 15 August 2020 (04:56:17 CEST)
The temperature of the indoor environment is important for health and wellbeing especially at the extremes of age. The study aim was to undertsand the relationship between self-reported thermal sensation and extremity skin temperature in care home residents with and without dementia. The Abbreviated Mental Test (AMT) was used to discriminate residents to two categories, those with and those without dementia. After acclimatisation, measurements included: tympanic membrane temperature, thermal sensation rating followed by infrared thermal mapping of non-dominant hand and forearm. Sixty-nine afebrile adults (60-101 years of age) were studied in groups of two to five, in mean ambient temperatures of 21.4oC-26.6oC (median 23.6oC). Significant differences were observed between groups; thermal sensation rating (p=0.02), tympanic temperature (p=0.01), fingertip skin temperature (p=0.01) and temperature gradients; fingertip-wrist p=0.001 and fingertip-distal forearm, p=0.001.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0630.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Integrated energy systems (IES); Buildings, Optimization; Indoor somatosensory comfort; PV consumption
Online: 9 November 2023 (11:04:47 CET)
Building energy consumption is the main urban energy consumption component, which mainly serves people-centered work and living energy demands. Based on the physical requirements of humans in urban buildings and to determine the comfortable body temperature in each season, this paper establishes a sizing optimization model of building-type integrated energy systems (IES), where the cooling and heating loads required to maintain indoor somatosensory body comfortable temperature are calculated. Depending on the external energy price, internal power balance and other constraints, the model develops an optimal sizing and capacity panning method of energy conversion and storage unit in a building-type IES with PV generation. The operating principle is described as follows: the PV generation is fully consumed, a gas engine satisfies the electric and thermal base load requirements, while the power system and a heat pump supply the remaining loads. The gas price, peak-valley electricity price gap and heat-topower ratio of gas engines are considered as important factors for the overall techno-economic analysis. The developed method is applied to optimize the economic performance of building-type IES and verified by practical examples. The results show that using the complementary characteristics of different energy conversion units is important to the overall IES cost.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0634.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Train-induced vibration; Over-track buildings; Sound comfort; Rail transit development
Online: 8 August 2023 (08:36:08 CEST)
Transit-oriented development (TOD), such as metro depot and over-track building complexes, has expanded rapidly in China. Over-track building construction has the advantage of comprehensive utilization of land resources, ease of commuting to work, and provide funds for subway construction. However, there still has a pending problem, disturbance of railway vibration, for TOD. Excessive noise and vibration seriously affect people’s life. To address this challenge, field measurements are used to obtain the vibration source characteristics and vibration propagation of the ground and the superstructure in this study. And the typical metro depot with over-track building in Wuhan was selected. The effects of vibration on the surrounding ground and adjacent buildings caused by the operation of trains have been measured, and the propagation law of train-induced ground vibration acceleration in the time and frequency domains has been analyzed. The distribution and propagation laws of vibration noise, structural noise and secondary structure noise in sensitive areas such as the throat area, depot area, test section and access section of the over-track buildings and their impact laws on the over-track buildings are obtained. And the effectiveness of the vibration and noise reduction methods used were evaluated. Results show that within 43 m from the train running track, the train running induced vertical vibration acceleration level in the high-rise building peak size of 58.8 dB, the average value of 55.62 dB; vibration frequency components are mainly 40-60 Hz. The findings might provide useful insight for designing vibration mitigation systems in new metro depots with over-track buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: prototype; automation and control; monitoring; devices; energy efficiency; thermal comfort; IEQ
Online: 3 July 2023 (14:57:49 CEST)
Many buildings built before the energy performance regulations are in a situation of thermal discomfort and energy inefficiency. The creation of intelligent environments advances towards new opportunities, based on real-time monitoring and on the development of sensors and technologies. Furthermore, the standards for building automation and electronic systems enable interoperability and interconnection between control devices and systems. The application of soft computing has significantly improved the energy efficiency, however, requires prior assessment to design the automation functions. Temperature, humidity, air quality, occupancy and energy consumption are the most common measured parameters, but the relationship with other operational variables such as occupancy or some building states remains as a research challenge. This article presents a methodology to develop the automatization of an existing large public building. The methodology consists of three stages: 1. Assessment and diagnosis to set appropriate actions using EN ISO 52120-1. 2. EN 50090 for open communication networks, and EN ISO 52120-1 to assign the technical building management. 3. System control deploying of low-cost and low-consumption input and output devices. It has been proved that it is possible to effectively automate an obsolete building with a low cost, open source system that can be easily applied in other buildings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1052.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: Evaporative cooling; Solar energy; Performance analysis; Simulation; human comfort; environmental impact
Online: 14 June 2023 (13:49:13 CEST)
Solar energy is a renewable and sustainable source of energy, and it has been used in addition of specified technologies, such as solar cooling. The demand for cooling continues to increase in line with environmental changes and a greater desire for human comfort. This study primarily aimed to analyze the performance of an evaporative cooling system powered by solar energy and assess the economic and environmental impact of this system. In this system, hot, dry incoming air is used to evaporate water, thus transforming part of its sensitive heat into latent heat without any variation in enthalpy or total heat. The outputted air then has a lower temperature and a greater humidity, thus providing a more comfortable, healthier environment for its users. To achieve this study’s objectives, numerical code was developed and implemented in MATLAB. The obtained results reveal that the efficiency of the evaporative cooler exceeds 90%, with maximum efficiency being reached at a high wet-bulb depression, while minimum efficiency was observed when the dry air has a high relative humidity and a low dry-bulb temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0275.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: intertropical cities; physiologically equivalent temperature; thermal comfort indices; urban heat island
Online: 20 June 2022 (16:20:47 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) is mostly due to urbanization. This phenomenon in concert with the high temperatures caused by global climate change may profoundly affect human thermal comfort, which can influence human productivity and morbidity especially in spring/summer period. The main objective of this investigation was to determine changes in degree of thermal comfort of Mexico City’s inhabitants and compare it with the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) to evaluate whether PET and its categorization are adequate to be applied in Mexico City. A series of microclimatological measurements to estimate PET were made in four sites including the city´s center. Concomitantly, a series of surveys of thermal perception were applied to 1300 passersby. The results show that PET has increased from 1990 to 2020 from 0.1208 °C/year to 0.1498 °C/year in the study sites, besides overestimating the degree of thermal comfort of people according to the stablished categories or classes. It is concluded that it is necessary to adjust thermal stress categories. Knowing the percentage of people without thermal comfort will lead us to determine different ranges in environmental parameters to define an acceptable environment for most people.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0654.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Thermal Comfort; Outdoor Space; Microclimate Simulation; Street Orientation; Physiological Equivalent Temperature
Online: 27 May 2021 (08:02:05 CEST)
Lack of due attention to the orientation of streets and establishment of urban blocks without regard for climatic characteristics and conditions of the environment have an adverse effect on thermal comfort in open urban spaces. Construction of new settlements without taking into account climatic requirements undermines thermal comfort for pedestrians and other users, especially in cold regions. Considering the coldness of the region under study and the significance of the orientation of streets in absorbing radiation and providing heat to outdoor urban spaces, this study investigates the effect of the orientation of streets on microclimatic comfort in one of the residential towns of Hamadan City in Iran. For this purpose, microclimate simulation was performed using ENVI-met software. A residential block with four different orientations (the most common orientations of its surrounding buildings) were simulated in the coldest day of winter and the hottest day of summer. The results suggest that streets have different thermal behavior in different orientations. Orientation affects mean radiant temperature (Tmrt), the duration of exposure to direct sunlight, wind speed, and physiological equivalent temperature (PET), which are all important factors in thermal comfort. Based on these findings, north-south streets in Hamedan receive more radiant temperature during winter compared to other simulated orientations and provide more desirable thermal comfort. The average PET value on a winter day at a point on the north-south passage was 4.5-8 °C warmer than other orientations. In summer, streets with intercardinal orientations (i.e., northeast-southwest and northwest-southeast) provided the lowest PET (about 2 °C cooler than other orientations) and better thermal comfort
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0613.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Green Infrastructure (GI); Human Thermal Comfort (HTC); ENVI-met; microclimate; modelling
Online: 24 November 2020 (10:58:39 CET)
This study assesses Human Thermal Comfort in two selected areas: a Green Infrastructure (GI) area represented by a garden and a high-rise building area, in the Central Business District (CBD) of Melbourne, Australia. Three-dimensional microclimatic modelling software, ENVI-met version 4 was used to simulate the microclimate. The indices of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV), Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET) and Universal Temperature Climate Index (UTCI) were used to quantify the level of thermal comfort in the research areas. The simulation results showed that at midday, the difference in temperature between the garden area and the high-rise building area was approximately 1°C. Increasing temperatures at midday led to a change in the level of thermal comfort for both the areas, even though it was not significant. In general, the thermal perception in the GI area was slightly ‘cooler’ than in the high-rise building area. The results of the study indicated the important role of GI in improving the thermal comfort in urban areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0730.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Structure component, occupant behaviour, energy savings, lightweight building and comfort enhancement
Online: 30 September 2020 (08:23:16 CEST)
A characteristic feature of lightweight constructions is their low thermal mass which causes high internal temperature fluctuations that require high heating and cooling demand throughout the year. Phase Change Materials (PCMs) is effective in providing thermal inertia to low thermal mass buildings. The aim of this paper is to analyse the thermal behaviour of two proposed lightweight buildings designed for homeless people and to investigate the potential benefit achievable through the use of different types of PCM in the temperate climatic conditions of Christchurch, New Zealand. For this purpose, over 300 numerical simulations have been conducted using the simulation software DesignBuilder®. The bulk of the simulations were carried out under the assumption that the whole opaque building envelope is equipped with PCM. The results showed significant energy saving and comfort enhancement through the application of PCMs. Thereby, annual energy saving of over 50 % was reached for some of the PCMs considered. Additionally, the effectiveness of single, PCM-equipped structure components was investigated and substantial benefits between 19 and 27 % annual energy saving were achieved. However, occupant behaviour in terms of ventilation habits, occupancy of zones etc. remains one of the biggest challenges in any simulation work due to insufficient data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0105.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: High-Rise Building; Wind Comfort; Building Arrangement; Pedestrian Level; CFD; Tehran
Online: 6 March 2020 (04:35:48 CET)
High-Rise buildings with their particular features can affects on surrounding environment and makes new microclimates. In the windy conditions, the spaces that are between building blocks changes to passages and affects on the wind velocity, intensity and it’s other parameters.The importance of this effect is different in each level of building height. The Pedestrian-Level is the lowest and one of important areas. Markets, playgrounds and pedestrian access had located in this area and any unwanted microclimate changes like high velocity and turbulence in this level can makes discomfort and dangerous condition for residents. So this research tries to consider the pedestrian- level wind comfort in some High-Rise building complexes arrangement that had located in Tehran district 22 with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling and reaching to a suitable arrangement pattern. It had collected the required data through field study and librarian databases and then compared them with standard guidelines and analyzed them by comparative comparison method. As a result a linear arrangement that placed crossover to wind direction for providing wind comfort and preventing wind danger is been suggested in this region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0195.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: thermal comfort; green spaces; South American city; urban morphology; climate perception
Online: 23 March 2018 (05:03:39 CET)
This paper presents a research carried out in the city of Chillan, a medium size city located on the southern limit of the Chilean Mediterranean domain, at 36º 36`s south latitude. Chillán provides a good representative example of warm summers in central and southern Chilean cities. Five public spaces were selected, representing different typologies and relating to different urban background conditions. Users in these public spaces were observed, counted and photographed five times a day (12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 hours, local time) during a heat wave event in the summer of 2016, while meteorological parameters were established at different points within the public space. The variables evaluated were impervious surfaces, Skyview factor, H/W, azimuth, shadow and radiation. Local public environmental management should pay attention to the complex relations between urban climate, public spaces and thermal comfort since they affect the quality of life of the most vulnerable sectors of the population. This is particularly important given the increasing episodes of high temperatures and intense heat waves occurred in the city of Chillán in recent summers, which are related to urban heat islands and climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1312.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: Non-motorized lane; Riding vibration comfort; Triaxial acceleration; Random forest; Logistic regression
Online: 21 November 2023 (10:24:59 CET)
In order to enhance the comfort of cycling, it is imperative to investigate the effects of vibration on non-motorized bicycle riding from the perspectives of road characteristics and traffic features. Through an analysis of the mechanisms by which road and traffic conditions influence cycling vibrations, 13 influencing factors were identified. Subsequently, the non-motorized bicycle lanes in Wuhan city were selected as the subject of empirical research, where three-axis accelerometers attached to the rider's torso were employed to measure and categorize vibration comfort levels. The experimental road segments were found to exhibit comfort levels falling between slightly uncomfortable and relatively uncomfortable. Further analysis of the influencing factors was conducted using the Random Forest algorithm and Logistic Regression. The results revealed that six factors significantly impact the comfort of cycling: the presence of dedicated non-motorized bicycle lanes, the absence of physical separation between non-motorized and motorized traffic, cycling speed, the number of road surface irregularities, the presence of parking areas within the non-motorized bicycle lane, and the type of non-motorized bicycle. This study provides valuable insights into the factors affecting non-motorized bicycle lane usage and contributes to the refined design of urban non-motorized bicycle infrastructure, thereby facilitating better support for sustainable urban transportation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1965.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Heat metering; Heat using behavior; Thermal comfort; Heating end valve; Operating window
Online: 29 August 2023 (09:32:09 CEST)
Heat using behavior has a large impact on in heating energy in heat metering system, and therefore a better understanding can assist in behavior guidance to reduce energy. To understand the current situation of indoor thermal environment and heat using behavior for heat metering households in northern China, including adjusting heating end valves and operating windows, 30 households were measured and surveyed. The factors influencing heat using behavior, including outdoor and indoor environmental parameters and time of the day, were analyzed. The results are :1) Thermal neutral temperature for heat metering households is relatively high, up to 24.5℃; 2) The heat using behavior of households is lack of rationality: low proportion of active households; high indoor temperature setting; more frequency of window opening. Improving indoor comfort is the main reason for households to adjust the heating end valve, and only 7.15% of households have considered the economic benefits brought by adjusting the valve. " Thermostat control valve does not work" is the main reason for households without adjustment; 3) Time of the day and indoor temperature affect active households’ willingness to adjusting heating end valve. Time of the day, indoor temperature and outdoor temperature have impacts on opening window during heating period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1244.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Intelligent Data Analyzing; energy consumption; thermal comfort; inclusion; exclusion criteria; Delphi method
Online: 18 August 2023 (10:45:39 CEST)
This paper evaluates norms and assesses the level of knowledge in air conditioning project management within the construction industry. A total of 25 questions were distributed to multiple candidates, who were filtered based on pre-established inclusion and exclusion criteria. Thirty-nine candidates were ultimately approved to participate in the survey. The questions were designed to address five hypotheses, with each set of five questions corresponding to one hypothesis. The results were obtained after pre-processing the data using Matlab software. The data was pre-processed using Matlab software, and the results were analyzed using the Delphi method. The analysis revealed that only two hypotheses were approved: No matter whether there are nationalized safety rules or not, the impact of data sciences and smart technologies, including air conditioning management systems, is critical for human life in the building business.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: air quality; carbon dioxide (CO2); thermal comfort; office buildings; mixed-mode buildings.
Online: 11 June 2021 (14:55:27 CEST)
Since people spend most of their time in indoor environments, the objective of this work was to study indoor air quality perception and its effects on users’ thermal comfort. Based on previous data from a building with a central air-conditioning system and two mixed-mode buildings located in the humid subtropical climate of Florianópolis, southern Brazil, statistical analyses were performed. Each user subjective answer obtained through a questionnaire was combined with the corresponding environmental conditions – measured using microclimate stations, a portable thermo-anemometer and a CO2 analyser. Results showed that improvement in air quality was associated with the reduction of air temperature and humidity ratio. Also, there was a significant influence of thermal, air movement and humidity sensation and acceptability of air quality perception. Users felt more satisfied or neutral with air quality for being in thermal comfort, and not because of the CO2 level – which means that air quality perception is influenced by factors other than CO2. This study recommends the implementation of an air exchange device in split air-conditioners with air recirculation used in mixed-mode buildings in Brazil. It is important to provide suitable indoor ventilation to reduce pollutants concentration, ensure good air quality and prevent respiratory diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0018.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: green infrastructure; urban heat island; human thermal comfort, modelling tools; ENVI-met.
Online: 1 September 2020 (12:19:13 CEST)
Research on urban heat mitigation has been growing in recent years with many of the studies focusing on green infrastructure (GI) as a strategy to mitigate the adverse effects of Urban Heat Island (UHI). This paper aims at presenting a review of the range of findings from GI research for urban heat mitigation through a review of scientific articles published during the years 2009-2019. This research includes a review of the different types of GI and its contribution for urban heat mitigation and human thermal comfort. In addition to analyzing different mitigation strategies, numerical simulation tools that are commonly used are also reviewed. It is seen that ENVI-met is one of the modelling tools that is considered as a reliable tool to simulate different mitigation strategies and hence has been widely used in the recent past. Considering its popularity in urban microclimate studies, this article also provides a review of ENVI-met simulation results that were reported in the reviewed papers. It was observed that the majority of the research was conducted on a limited spatial scale and focused on temperature and human thermal comfort.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0342.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: air-conditioned bed system; heat conduction heating; convection heating; thermal comfort; Energy conservation
Online: 5 July 2023 (14:36:25 CEST)
In this paper, the experimental study of heating in 2 h lunch mode of air-conditioned bed system is carried out. The results show that the power consumption of heat conduction heating is only 0.34 kW·h, and the average heat dissipation is 81.3 W, while the power consumption of convection heating is 1.43 kW·h, with an average heat dissipation of 748.7 W. Regardless of power consumption or heat dissipation, convection heating is significantly higher than heat conduction heating, resulting in the room air temperature of the former increased from 12.3 °C to 17.3 °C, while the latter only increased from 14.4 °C to 15.2 °C. The study found that the water temperature of heat conduction heating can meet the thermal comfort needs of the human body in the range of 38~40 °C, while convection heating requires a higher temperature range, In contrast, the grade of hot water required for heat conduction heating is lower. Through the experiment, it is also found that the temperature of convection heating rises fast, but it is easy to appear dry feeling after a long time, while heat conductive heating has a slow temperature rise. there is a cool feeling within 20 min after the heating starts, and then the thermal comfort is better. The air conditioning system in this paper is used for the heating experiment in the winter lunch break mode, compared with convection heating, the overall thermal comfort of heat conduction heating is better and more energy efficient. it is suggested to adopt heat conduction heating mode in the winter heating of this system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0343.v1
Subject: Engineering, Telecommunications Keywords: IoT; OpenHAB; Sensors; Wireless communication; Energy efficiency; Occupant comfort; Smart building; Data analysis
Online: 5 June 2023 (16:04:07 CEST)
This paper presents the design and implementation of a versatile IoT testbed utilizing the openHab platform along with various wireless interfaces, including Z-Wave, ZigBee, WiFi, 4G-LTE, and IR, and an array of sensors for motion, temperature, luminance, humidity, vibration, UV, and energy consumption. First, the testbed architecture, setup, basic testing, and collected data results are described. Then, by showcasing a typical day in the laboratory, we illustrate the testbed's potential through the collection and analysis of data from multiple sensors. The study also explores the capabilities of the openHab platform, including its robust persistence layer, event management, real-time monitoring, and customization. The significance of the testbed in enhancing data-collection methodologies for energy assets and unlocking new possibilities in the realm of IoT technologies is particularly highlighted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0045.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Surface Urban heat island; Northeastern region; Sentinel 3; Eco-environmental spaces; Thermal comfort
Online: 4 April 2023 (12:37:09 CEST)
The Surface Urban Heat Island (UHI) is caused by the difference in temperature between the urban and its surrounding areas. However, in the scientific literature, there is no solid methodology defining urban and non-urban areas, which is essential to estimate the SUHI with greater accuracy. This study uses the official national urban areas limit, to obtain the SUHI more accurately on the nine northeastern Brazilian capitals. The land surface temperature was obtained using the Sentinel 3 satellite data for the years 2019 and 2020. Afterward, the maximum and average SUHI, and the complementary indexes were calculated, such as the Urban Thermal Field Variation Index (UTFVI) and the Thermal Discomfort Index (TDI) for the urban areas and their surrounding areas. The Maximum and Average SUHI, obtained values between 1.85 and 8.25 and -4.92 and 2.59 degree difference, respectively, proving the SUHI existence in the study areas. The UTFVI, with values between 0.010 and 0.040, expresses how bad the eco-environmental spaces of urban are. The TDI, with values between 24.61 and 28.89 ºC, expresses the population’s thermal comfort. Therefore, this study provides a better understanding of the surface UHI pioneeringly for the Brazilian Northeast Region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0181.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: geographical location; relief; climate; hydrographic; biological; comfort; grid index; 9 assessment; tourist route
Online: 13 September 2022 (13:39:08 CEST)
The article describes the methodology of the experimental analysis of operational and cost-effective assessment using geographic information system (GIS) technologies, as opposed to the assessment of the tourism potential of the nature of the Fergana Valley in Uzbekistan using long term and costly classical approaches. Based on the ArcGIS (10.8) grid index approach of 20 natural geographical indicators of the valley, such as geographical location, relief, climate, hydrographic and biological, the level of tourism comfort was determined and the location of 6 tourist-recreation zones were defined. The level of accuracy of the tourist-recreational zones all situated utilizing GIS technologies was confirmed by field-expedition approaches.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0140.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: climate comfort index; temperature-humidity index; wind-effect index; clothing index; population exposure
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:04:16 CET)
Regional Climatic Comfort Index (CCI) deteriorated significantly due to the climate change and anthropogenic interference. Knowledge regarding the long-term temporal dynamics of CCI in typical regions should be strengthened. In this study, we analyze the temporal and spatial evolution of CCI from 1969 to 2018 in Guangdong Province, based on meteorological indicators, including heat, humidity, wind and cloth loading etc.. Additionally, the population exposure to climate unconformity was examined since 1990 with the help of population data. Our study found that: (1) the warming and humidifying of the summer climate served as the main driving force for the continuous deterioration of CCI, with the comfortable days decreased by 1.06d/10a and the extremely muggy days increased by 2.83d/10a; (2) spatially, the lowest climate comfortability concentrated in southwestern Guangdong with more than 50 uncomfortable days each year, while the climate comfortability in northeastern Guangdong tends to deteriorated whit higher rate, which can reach as high as 6d/10a; (3) in summer, the population exposure to uncomfortable climate highly centralized in the Pearl River Delta, Shantou, Jieyang, and the surrounding areas, and both area and population exposure showed increasing trends. Particularly, Shenzhen held the highest growth rate of population exposure with an increase rate of 2.94 million/10a; (4) although the discomfort distribution and deterioration rate vary across the province, the spatial heterogeneity of comfortability is diminishing in Guangdong Province. This study will provide scientific reference for regional urban planning, thermal environment improvement, local resident health risk analysis, and key strategy implementation, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0440.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: air quality; thermal comfort; air quality index; heat index; wind chill; Bulgaria; Europe
Online: 16 June 2021 (11:18:02 CEST)
Air pollution is responsible for any adverse effects on human beings. Thermal discomfort, on the other hand, is able to overload the human body and eventually provoke health implications due to the heat imbalance. Methods: The aim of the present work is to study the behavior of two bio-climatic indexes and statistical characteristics of the air quality index for Sofia city - the capital of Bulgaria for the period 2008 - 2014. The study is based on WRF-CMAQ model system simula-tions with a spatial resolution of 1 kilometer. The air quality is estimated by the air quality index, taking into account the influence of different pollutants and the thermal conditions by two indi-ces, respectively, for hot and cold weather. Results: It was found that half of the heat and cold index categories are present in the simulations. Their distribution has some spatial features. All air quality categories are present in the domain, with dominance only of the O3 and PM10. Conclu-sions: It was found that Sofia is not so hot and air polluted place, but in some situations, people have to have some concerns when intend to be outdoors for a prolonged time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0443.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Energy management; smart grid; sustainability; heuristic optimization algorithm; peak to average rations; user comfort
Online: 6 June 2023 (10:19:02 CEST)
The use of smart grids has enabled a number of planning methods to be developed to optimize energy costs, Peak to Average Ratios (PARs), and consumer satisfaction for load management in industrial, commercial, and domestic sectors. From a technical point of view, achieving optimal outcomes requires Demand Side Management (DSM). In smart grids, utility companies and electric users communicate two-way using digital technology to make a sustainable and economic system. This paper proposes a novel framework within which an Energy Management Controller (EMC) keeps track of each appliance, its operational time, and the costs associated with them. Customers of smart grids are motivated to shift their Off-Peak Hours (OPH) from Peak Hours by presenting incentives in OPH. The metering devices would also save customers costs by preventing load shifting between high- and low-cost periods. In addition, the study proposes the bacterial foraging algorithm and grasshopper optimization algorithm for lessening power price and PAR without compromising user comfort (UC) through appliance planning. The simulation results on a practical test system advocate the high effectiveness and reliable performance of the proposed model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0370.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: gravel pavement; roughness; straightedge; power spectral density; international roughness index; vehicle response; driving comfort
Online: 16 July 2021 (11:58:32 CEST)
The gravel road pavement has a lower construction cost but poorer performance than the asphalt surface. It also emits dust and deforms under the impact of vehicle loads and ambient air factors. The resulting ripples and ruts are constantly deepening, increasing vehicle vibrations and fuel consumption, reducing safe driving speed and comfort. In this article, existing pavement quality evaluation indexes are analysed, and a methodology for their adaptation for roads with gravel pavement is proposed. This article reports the measured wave depth and length of the gravel pavement profile by the straightedge method of a 160 m long road section in three road exploitation stages. The measured pavement elevation was processed according to ISO 8608, and vehicle frequency response has been investigated using simulations in MATLAB/Simulink. The applied International Roughness Index (IRI) analysis showed that a speed of 30-45 km/h instead of 80 km/h provides the objective results of IRI calculation on the flexible pavement due to a decreasing velocity of vehicle's unsprung mass on a more deteriorated road pavement state. The influence of the corrugation phenomenon of gravel pavement has been explored, identifying specific driving safety and comfort cases. Finally, an increase in the Dynamic Load Coefficient (DLC) at a low speed of 30 km/h on the most deteriorated pavement and a high speed of 90 km/h on the middle-quality pavement demonstrates the demand for timely gravel pavement maintenance and the complicated prediction of a safe driving speed for drivers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0014.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Pavement Monitoring; Inertial Measurement Unit; Urban Road; International Roughness Index; Ride Number; Ride Comfort.
Online: 1 April 2021 (11:38:37 CEST)
Road networks are monitored to evaluate their decay level and the performances regarding ride comfort, vehicle rolling noise, fuel consumption, etc. In this study, an Inertial Measurement Unit is proposed by using a low-cost three-axis Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems accelerometer and a GPS instrument, which are connected to a Raspberry Pi Zero W board and embedded inside a vehicle to monitor indirectly the road condition. To assess the level of pavement decay, the comfort index awz defined by the ISO 2631 standard was considered. Considering 21 km of roads, with different levels of pavement decay, validation measures made using the proposed IMU, another pre-assembled IMU, and a Road Surface Profiler were performed. Therefore, comparisons between awz determined with accelerations measured on the two different IMU are made; in addition, also correlations between awz, International Roughness Index (IRI), and Ride Number (RN) were performed. The results were shown very good correlations between the awz calculated with the proposed IMU and ones in the other IMU. In addition, the correlations between awz and IRI and RN were showed promising results, considering the use and the costs of the proposed IMU as a reliable method to assess the pavements decay in road networks where the use of traditional systems is difficult and/or not cheap.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0090.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems; thermal comfort
Online: 7 December 2019 (01:48:05 CET)
Growing popularity of buildings with integrated sub-systems, requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using geothermal heat storage parallel to the direct outdoor air intake with additional treatment in the mechanical room as a part of building automatic control system. Earth Air Heat Exchanger (EAHX) has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we have examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, one placed in ground next to the building and the other under the basement slab. In another project, we have reinforced the ground storage action by heat exchanger placed on the return pipes of the hydronic heating system. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX could be placed under the house or near the basement foundation that is using an exterior basement insulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0088.v2
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: earth-air heat exchanger; energy efficiency; using thermal mass; smart and integrated control systems, thermal comfort
Online: 29 October 2019 (09:58:31 CET)
Growing popularity of smart and integrated buildings requires a review of methods to optimize the preheat of ventilation air. An integrated system permits using heat ex-changers located in the mechanical room or in the future even using an exterior wall as a heat exchanger. One may ask the question how does the earth-air heat exchanger (EAHX) technology fitts into this function. EAHX has many advantages but also has many unanswered questions. Some of the drawbacks are: a possible entry of radon gas, high humidity in the shoulder seasons as well as the need for two different air intake sources with a choice that depends on the actual weather conditions. While in winter, the EAHX may be used continuously to ensure thermal comfort, in other seasons, its operation must be automatically controlled. To generate the missing information about the EAHX technology we reviewed literature and examined two nearly identical EAHX systems, placed either in ground next to the building or under the basement slab. Effectively, the information provided in this paper, shows advantages of merging both these approaches while the EAHX shoud be placed under the house or near the basement foundation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0164.v2
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: speed planning; convex optimisation; autonomous driving; friction circle; driving safety; dynamic obstacle avoidance; ride comfort; mobility
Online: 16 May 2018 (11:08:49 CEST)
In this paper, we present a complete, flexible and safe convex-optimization-based method to solve speed planning problems over a fixed path for autonomous driving in both static and dynamic environments. Our contributions are five fold. First, we summarize the most common constraints raised in various autonomous driving scenarios as the requirements for speed planner developments and metrics to measure the capacity of existing speed planners roughly for autonomous driving. Second, we introduce a more general, flexible and complete speed planning mathematical model including all the summarized constraints compared to the state-of-the-art speed planners, which addresses limitations of existing methods and is able to provide smooth, safety-guaranteed, dynamic-feasible, and time-efficient speed profiles. Third, we emphasize comfort while guaranteeing fundamental motion safety without sacrificing the mobility of cars by treating the comfort box constraint as a semi-hard constraint in optimization via slack variables and penalty functions, which distinguishes our method from existing ones. Fourth, we demonstrate that our problem preserves convexity with the added constraints, thus global optimality of solutions is guaranteed. Fifth, we showcase how our formulation can be used in various autonomous driving scenarios by providing several challenging case studies in both static and dynamic environments. A range of numerical experiments and challenging realistic speed planning case studies have depicted that the proposed method outperforms existing speed planners for autonomous driving in terms of constraint type covered, optimality, safety, mobility and flexibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0103.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: in-wheel-motor electric vehicle; ride comfort; improved particle swarm optimization; linear quadratic regulator; fuzzy PID control
Online: 21 September 2017 (12:59:33 CEST)
In this paper, an in-wheel vibration absorber for In-wheel-motor electric vehicle (IWM EV) is designed, and a comprehensive control strategy of in-wheel absorber and vehicle suspension is proposed to improve vehicle ride comfort. The proposed in-wheel vibration absorber, designed for suppressing the motor vibration, is composed of a spring and a controllable damper. The values of in-wheel spring stiffness and damper initial coefficient are determined by using the improved particle swarm optimization (IPSO) algorithm, which is carried on the typical driving condition. To deal with the negative interaction effects between vehicle suspension and in-wheel absorber, the linear quadratic regulator (LQR) algorithm is utilized to control suspension damper, and the fuzzy PID method is utilized to control in-wheel damper. Based on the four evaluation indexes including vehicle body vertical acceleration, suspension dynamic deflection, wheel dynamic load and motor wallop, the simulation results show that, the proposed LQR control of suspension effectively improves vehicle ride comfort, and the fuzzy PID control of in-wheel damper exhibits superior performance of motor vibration suppressing in comparison to conventional electric wheel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0174.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Robotics Keywords: Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV); Social Robot; Feeling of Safety and Comfort; Trajectory Planning; Virtual Reality; MATLAB/Simulink®; MQTT
Online: 8 October 2020 (11:06:18 CEST)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) represent a new model of social robots for home care of dependent persons. In this regard, this article introduces a study on people’s feeling of safety and comfort while watching the monitoring trajectory of a quadrotor dedicated to determining their condition. Three main parameters are evaluated: the relative monitoring altitude, the monitoring velocity and the shape of the monitoring path around the person (ellipsoidal or circular). For this purpose, a new trajectory generator based on a state machine, which is successfully implemented and simulated in MATLAB/Simulink®, is described. The study is carried out with 37 participants using a virtual reality (VR) platform based on two modules, UAV Simulator and VR Visualiser, both communicating through the MQTT protocol. The participants’ preferences have been a high relative monitoring altitude, a high monitoring velocity and a circular path. These choices are a starting point for the design of trustworthy socially assistive UAVs flying in real homes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0329.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: hospitals; Environmental design; environmental comfort; healing environment; patient-centred care; evidence-based design; architectural space quality; health and wellbeing outcomes
Online: 25 September 2023 (07:05:33 CEST)
Today, numerous studies have shown that the physical environment in hospitals can significantly influence patients' well-being, comfort, and recovery. However, this is currently neglected in hospitals in the Global South. Therefore, there is an urgent need to increase the awareness to make it more applicable worldwide. Thus, this study focuses on improving the healing environment standards, by exploring the impact of evidence-based design and patient-centred care in hospitals for cancer patients; particularly the architectural space quality, on patient health outcomes as well as hospital staff health and wellbeing. In Global North countries, such as the UK, the Achieving Excellence Design Evaluation Toolkit (AEDET), is used by its National Health Services, to assess the effectiveness of various environmental attributes. However, these toolkits have not been designed for and do not work well within Global South countries, such as Northern Cyprus. To examine and compare the effectiveness of different physical environmental attributes and to evaluate user responses, the Post-Occupancy Evaluation Method and the AEDET toolkit have been used in the study. These were applied to both public and private hospitals in Northern Cyprus, involving cancer patients, staff, and professionals (n=220). The findings reveal the strength and weaknesses in terms of environmental comfort based on the aspects of evidence-based design of the hospitals such as natural light, air quality, noise, view, infection control, etc., to create a more optimal physical environment for better psychological outcomes. This is the first study to propose an adaptation of the AEDET toolkit to assist architects in designing healthcare facilities that are responsive to the requirements of hospital patients and staff; and to promote the quality of healing environment for improved health and well-being outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1522.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: urban microclimate; computational fluid dynamics; CFD; microclimate simulation; ENVI-met; urban mobility; urban morphology; microclimate mitigation; outdoor comfort; climate adaptation
Online: 21 June 2023 (10:07:10 CEST)
This paper investigates urban microclimate in relation to the typical major streets and mobility layout in Turin, i.e. boulevards with lateral minor roads, called “controviali”, an almost unique urban mobility layout. The aim is to examine the possibility of intervention in relation to the type and scope of mobility for microclimate mitigation and climate adaptation purposes. To this, this paper evaluates to which extent urban morphology and mobility features contribute to determining microclimatic conditions, to finally identify site-specific prioritised strategies to cope with its mitigation. This research is structured in two phases. The first phase is dedicated to urban-scale analysis of the streets with “controviali”, resulting in the creation of a database containing their properties and typology, to finally derive six clusters of boulevards. The second phase involves the selection of one representative case study per cluster and simulation of their microclimate conditions, performed by the software ENVI-met. The results are discussed in relation to the parameters proven in the prior literature review to have a major impact on the microclimate. The assessment of the results indicated which elements affect the climatic conditions the most, allowing for the proposal of different prioritised mitigation strategies in the conclusion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0228.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Cloth thermal comfort; Heat transfer between body, cloth and ambience; Changing sign of temperature gradient; Body sweating and phase change; Non-affinity between the behaviors of cloth and fibers
Online: 13 August 2018 (11:44:47 CEST)
Cloth wearing seems so natural that everyone is self-deemed knowledgeable and has some expert opinions about it. However to clearly explain the physics involved, and hence to make predictions for clothing design or selection, turns out as demonstrated below to be quite challenging even for experts. Cloth is a multiphased, porous and anisotropic material system and usually in multilayers. Unlike ordinary engineering heat transfer problems, the human body acts as an internal heat source in a clothing situation, thus forming a temperature gradient between body and ambient, and the sign of this gradient often changes as the ambient temperature varies. Our body also perspires and the sweat evaporates, an effective body cooling process via phase change. To bring all the variables into analysis quickly escalates into a formidable task. This work attempts to unravel the problem from a physics perspective, focusing on several rarely noticed yet critically important mechanisms involved so as to offer a clear and accurate depiction of the principles in clothing thermal comfort.