ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2010018
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: colour words; hue histogram; colour representation; machine learning; computer vision
Online: 24 March 2020 (00:00:00 CET)
Ancient numismatics, that is, the study of ancient currencies (predominantly coins), is an interesting domain for the application of computer vision and machine learning, and has been receiving an increasing amount of attention in recent years. Notwithstanding the number of articles published on the topic, the variety of different methodological approaches described, and the mounting realisation that the relevant problems in the field are most challenging indeed, all research to date has entirely ignored one specific, readily accessible modality: colour. Invariably, colour is discarded and images of coins treated as being greyscale. The present article is the first one to question this decision (and indeed, it is a decision). We discuss the reasons behind the said choice, present a case why it ought to be reexamined, and in turn investigate the issue for the first time in the published literature. Specifically, we propose two new colour-based representations specifically designed with the aim of being applied to ancient coin analysis, and argue why it is sensible to employ them in the first stages of the classification process as a means of drastically reducing the initially enormous number of classes involved in type matching ancient coins (tens of thousands, just for Ancient Roman Imperial coins). Furthermore, we introduce a new data set collected with the specific aim of denomination-based categorisation of ancient coins, where we hypothesised colour could be of potential use, and evaluate the proposed representations. Lastly, we report surprisingly successful performances which goes further than confirming our hypothesis—rather, they convincingly demonstrate a much higher relevant information content carried by colour than even we expected. Thus we trust that our findings will be noted by others in the field and that more attention and further research will be devoted to the use of colour in automatic ancient coin analysis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0442.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: dyslexia; reading; children; background colour; overlay colour; text colour; sensors; physiological parameters; EEG; ECG; EDA; eye tracking
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:31:47 CET)
Reading is one of the essential processes during the maturation of an individual. It is estimated that 5-10% of school-age children are affected by dyslexia, the reading disorder characterised by difficulties in the accuracy or fluency of word recognition. There are many studies which have reported that colour overlays and background could improve the reading process, especially in children with reading disorders. As dyslexia has neurobiological origins, the aim of the present research was to understand the relationship between physiological parameters and colour modifications in the text and background during reading in children with and without dyslexia. We have measured differences in electroencephalography (EEG), heart rate variability (HRV), electrodermal activities (EDA), and eye movement of the 36 school-age children (18 with dyslexia and 18 of control group) during the reading performance in 13 combinations of background and overlay colours during the reading task. Our findings showed that the dyslexic children have longer reading duration, fixation count, fixation duration average, fixation duration total, and longer saccade count, saccade duration total, and saccade duration average while reading on white and coloured background/overlay. It was found that the turquoise, turquoise O, and yellow colours are beneficial for dyslexic readers, as they achieved the shortest time duration during the reading tasks when these colours were used. Also, dyslexic children have higher values of beta and the whole range of EEG while reading in particular colour (purple), as well as increasing theta range while reading on the purple overlay colour. We have observed no significant differences between HRV parameters on white colour, except for single colours (purple, turquoise overlay and yellow overlay) where the control group showed higher values for Mean HR, while dyslexic children scored higher with Mean RR. Regarding EDA measure we have found systematically lower values in children with dyslexia in comparison to the control group. Based on present results we can conclude that both colours (warm and cold background/overlays) are beneficial for both groups of readers and all sensor modalities could be used to better understand the neurophysiological origins in dyslexic children.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Retina; Bird vision; Colour vision
Online: 11 March 2020 (16:00:46 CET)
The Avian retina is far less known than that of mammals such as mouse and macaque, and detailed study is overdue. The chicken (Gallus gallus) has potential as a model, in part because research can build on developmental studies of the eye and nervous system. One can expect differences between bird and mammal retinas simply because whereas most mammals have three types of visual photoreceptor birds normally have six. Spectral pathways and colour vision are of particular interest, because filtering by oil droplets narrows cone spectral sensitivities and birds are probably tetrachromatic. The number of receptor inputs is reflected in the retinal circuitry. The chicken probably has four types of horizontal cell, there are at least 11 types of bipolar cell, often with bi- or tri-stratified axon terminals, and there is a high density of ganglion cells, which make complex connections in the inner plexiform layer. In addition, there is likely to be retinal specialisation, for example chicken photoreceptors and ganglion cells have separate peaks of cell density in the central and dorsal retina, which probably serve different types of behaviour.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0341.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Reflectance; Ocimum basilicum; Colour sensor; Phenotyping
Online: 25 March 2022 (08:44:33 CET)
Modern agriculture demands for comprehensive information about the plant itself. Conventional chemistry-based analytical methods - due to their low throughput and high associated cost - are no longer capable of providing these data. In recent years, remote reflectance-based characterization has developed as one of the most promising solutions for rapid assessments for plant attributes. However, in many cases, expensive equipment is required because accurate quantifications need assessment of the full reflectance spectrum. We examined the versatility of visible colour sensors as reflectance measuring devices for biological / biochemical quantifications on sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Our results indicate for the wide potential of spectral colour sensors for quantitative determination of leaf phenolic compounds, flavonoids in particular, and non-invasive plant phenotyping in agricultural applications by low-cost sensors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0167.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: daltonisation; colour vision deficiencies; anisotropic diffusion
Online: 8 October 2020 (09:33:55 CEST)
Daltonisation refers to the recolouring of images such that details normally lost by colour vision deficient observers become visible. This comes at the cost of introducing artificial colours. In a previous work, we presented a gradient-domain colour image daltonisation method that outperformed previously known methods both in behavioural and psychometric experiments. In the present paper, we improve the method by (i) finding a good first estimate of the daltonised image, thus reducing the computational time significantly, and (ii) introducing local linear anisotropic diffusion, thus effectively removing the halo artefacts. The method uses a colour vision deficiency simulation algorithm as an ingredient, and can thus be applied for any colour vision deficiency, and can even be individualised if the exact individual colour vision is known.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0011.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: thiazolyl dyes; anticancer; antioxidant; colour assessment
Online: 2 November 2018 (04:28:50 CET)
This work is aiming to motivation on the prospect of evolving new thiazole dyes with respectable application properties, expected pharmacological activities. Curcumin Coupling with diverse diazonium salts of 2-amino thiazole derivatives as 2-aminobenzothiazole, 2- amino-5-phenylthiazole, 2 amino-5-methylthiazole and 2 amino-5-nitrothiazole to produce novel azo dyes. All synthesised dyes were completely confirmed their structures via elemental and spectroscopic techniques. The synthesised thiazole derivatives were examined for their “antimicrobial, anticancer and antioxidant” activities. All of the synthesized dyes were applied on synthetic fabrics as polyester and successively their dyeing properties, “light, washing, perspiration, rubbing and sublimation” fastness were evaluated. Prepared dyestuffs are suitable for dyeing polyester fabrics. It was initiate that all of prepared dyes own extraordinary colour hue, along with respectable fastness properties. Also the synthesised thiazole derivatives display moral pharmacology activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0178.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Citizen science; Colour pattern; geographic diversity; phylogeography
Online: 13 June 2022 (09:55:52 CEST)
The geographic variability of the dorsal pattern (DP) of the Italian wall lizard, Podarcis siculus, across its native range was studied with the aim to understand whether the distributions of this phenotypic trait were more shaped by allopatric differentiation rather than adaptive processes. A total of 1298 georeferenced observations scattered across the Italian peninsula and the main islands (Sicily, Corsica and Sardinia) were obtained from citizen science databases and five DPs were characterized by different shapes of the dark pattern (“reticulated”, “campestris”, “reticulated/campestris” and “striped”) or by absence of it (“concolor”). Frequencies of different DP phenotypes differ between the two main mtDNA lineages settled in central-northern and in southern Italy respectively. This pattern may be indicative of a role of long-term allopatric historical processes in determining the observed pattern. The analysis also identified a putative wide area of secondary contact, in central southern Italy, characterized by high diversity of the DP. Generalized Linear Models (GLMs), used to estimate a possible association between bioclimatic variables and the observed phenotypic variation, showed that each of the five DPs is correlated to different environmental factors and show different distribution of areas with high probability of occurrence. However, for all but one of the DPs, the area with the greatest probability does not correspond exactly to the real distribution of the DP. Conversely, the “concolor” phenotype does not seem related to any particular mtDNA lineage and it shows a preference for areas with high temperature and low rainfall. This is in agreement with the expectation of low amount of melanin of the dorsal pattern that, in the study areas, is characterized by a light uniform coloration which could confer a better thermoregulation ability in high temperatures environments avoiding overheating.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0009.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Foot orthoses; Orthotics; Colour psychology; Podiatry; Biopsychosocial
Online: 4 January 2021 (10:44:06 CET)
Colours act as stimuli capable of inducing physiological and psychological responses, impacting on human life by influencing behaviour, cognition and emotion. Designers frequently draw upon colour association cues in designing products, packaging and marketing materials to exploit the reported human reactions to them. To date, clinicians and foot orthoses manufacturers appear to have given little thought to how the colour of foot orthoses may have impact within the broader context of a biopsychosocial model of healthcare. Here we examine research regarding colour perception and association and provide rationale for how the use of colour in foot orthoses therapy might be better exploited to improve patient outcomes and to form a focus for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0308.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: Colour Model; Steganography; Medical Image; C4S; distortion
Online: 27 May 2019 (10:13:02 CEST)
Visible light photography diagnostic images are coloured ex vivo medical images popularly used in Dermatology and Endoscopy for diagnosis and monitoring. The need to protect the integrity of these images as well as associated patient data calls for techniques such as image steganography and watermarking. This research explores and compares the effect of watermarking on the YIQ and YCbCr colour transforms used in processing digital coloured images and video in recent times. Using a new spread spectrum watermarking algorithm, it was found that YIQ has better distortion performance than YCbCr in the order of 3dB while YCbCr had lower BER for accurate watermark retrieval and tamper detection in the order of 1.3 x 10-3.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0174.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: optical, green, colour difference, chromaticity, just noticeable difference
Online: 10 September 2018 (14:10:34 CEST)
Among colours, the green has the most sensitivity in human vision so that green defects on displays can be effortlessly perceived by a photopic eye with the most intensity in the wavelength 555 nm of the spectrum. With the market moving forward to high resolution, displays can have resolutions of 10 million pixels. Therefore, the task detects the appearance the panel using ultra-high resolutions in TFT-LCD. The machine vision associated with reflective chromaticity spectrometer quantises the defects are explored, such as blackening and whitening. The result shows the significant phenomena to recognize the non-uniformity film-related chromatic tendency. In contrast, the quantitative assessment illuminates that the chromaticity CIE xyY at 0.001 is a just noticeable difference (JND) and detects even more sensitivity. Moreover, an optical device associated with a 198 Hg discharge lamp calibrates the spectrometer accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0944.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Food Chemistry Keywords: colour; meat; rheological properties; sous vide; texture analysis; Thiamine
Online: 13 July 2023 (14:55:26 CEST)
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sous-vide and pressure-cooker heating of pork muscles (Longissimus lumborum) on the physicochemical and technological characteristics of pork. The study included an analysis of the basic composition, colour, texture, nutritional value (vitamin B1 content), and rheological properties of meat heated at 60°C for 6-18h and, for comparison, in an autoclave at 121.1°C. The heating conditions affected the weight loss, colour, thiamine content, texture, and rheological properties of the meat. As the heating time increased, the texture determinants of firmness and chewiness decreased, which resulted in softer meat. The differences in the rheological properties of the sous-vide- and autoclave-heated meat resulted from different organ-isation of the spatial matrix of proteins and changes in the structure of muscle fibres caused by the high temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0270.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: biotrophic interactions; invasive species; colour polymorphism; harlequin ladybird; harmonine
Online: 21 May 2018 (11:41:07 CEST)
Harmonia axyridis is an invasive ladybird (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) with the potential to outcompete native ladybird species in its invasive distribution area. It was introduced as a biological control agent in many countries but has also spread unintentionally in many others. Hesperomyces virescens (Ascomycota, Laboulbeniales) is a minute (200–400 µm in size) biotrophic fungus that infects over 30 species of ladybirds. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether elytral colour pattern, size, and sex of Ha. axyridis affect infection by H. virescens. Colouration in Ha. axyridis has been linked to the presence of an antimicrobial alkaloid (harmonine). In fall 2016, we collected 763 Ha. axyridis individuals in Cambridge, Massaschusetts, of which 119 (16%) bore H. virescens fruiting bodies. We analysed 160 individuals concerning prevalence and intensity of infection by H. virescens. Elytral sizes and colouration patterns were quantified using digital photography and analytical methods. Smaller ladybirds had a higher prevalence and higher intensity of parasitism. Additionally, male ladybirds bore more thalli compared to female ladybirds. Elytral colour patterns had an effect on neither prevalence nor intensity of infection by Laboulbeniales in our dataset. This suggests that development of Laboulbeniales may be unaffected by certain insect alkaloids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1704.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Vision And Graphics Keywords: colour rendering index; light-shaping attachment; light modifier; light; photography
Online: 27 November 2023 (12:09:16 CET)
When lighting photographic scenes, light sources are often coupled with light-shaping attachments to alter the original light. While the colour rendering properties of the light sources are known, the effect of the added modifiers has not yet been fully investigated. In this research, the effects of light-shaping attachments such as snoot, beauty dish and a range of softboxes on the colour rendering index of the original light sources are investigated using a series of spectrophotometric measurements. The results outline the effects of each light-shaping attachment and provide guidance on the usability of the modifiers used when it comes to accurate colour rendering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: fruit transport; mechanical damage; physiological disorders; fruit maturity; colour; firmness
Online: 7 December 2020 (16:00:33 CET)
The study assessed the changes in the quality and physical and chemical parameters of apples of four cultivars (‘Gala’, ‘Idared’, ‘Topaz’, ‘Red Prince’) subjected to mechanical vibrations during transport under model conditions and after storage (shelf-life). Quality changes in apples were evaluated based on skin and flesh colour, total soluble solids, dry matter, firmness, titratable acidity, pH value, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. The applied vibrations at a frequency of 28 Hz caused changes in the above parameters, which were visible also after storage and depended on cultivar, but did not show any clear trend or direction. Skin colour varied whereas flesh colour remained stable. Vibrations resulted in a decrease in firmness. The greatest stability of quality parameters, the highest content of bioactive compounds and the highest antioxidant capacity were observed for ‘Red Prince’ and ‘Topaz’ apples – this refers to the control and treated samples before and after storage. However, total polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity increased in all studied cultivars as a result of vibrations and storage, which suggests that 28 Hz mechanical vibrations and short-term cold storage did not reduce the health promoting potential of the apples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0242.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: phytoplankton; PFT; ocean colour; satellite radiometry; radiative transfer; optical modelling
Online: 14 June 2018 (16:36:46 CEST)
There is increasing interdisciplinary interest in phytoplankton community dynamics as the growing environmental problems of water quality (particularly eutrophication) and climate change demand attention. This has led to a pressing need for improved biophysical and causal understanding of Phytoplankton Functional Type (PFT) optical signals, in order that satellite radiometry may be used to detect ecologically relevant phytoplankton assemblage changes. This understanding can best be achieved with biophysically and biogeochemically consistent phytoplankton Inherent Optical Property (IOP) models, as it is only via modelling that phytoplankton assemblage characteristics can be examined systematically in relation to the bulk optical waterleaving signal. The Equivalent Algal Populations (EAP) model is used here to investigate the source and magnitude of size- and pigment- driven PFT signals in the water-leaving reflectance, as well as the potential to detect these using satellite radiometry. This model places emphasis on explicit biophysical modelling of the phytoplankton population as a holistic determinant of IOPs, and a distinctive attribute is its comprehensive handling of the spectral and angular character of phytoplankton scattering. Selected case studies and sensitivity analyses reveal that phytoplankton spectral scattering is the primary driver of the PFT-related signal. Key findings are that the backscattering-driven signal in the 520 to 600 nm region is the critical PFT identifier at marginal biomass, and that while PFT information does appear at blue and red wavelengths, it is compromised by biomass/gelbstoff ambiguity in the blue and low signal in the red, due primarily to absorption by water. These findings are hoped to provide considerable insight into the next generation of PFT algorithms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0582.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Actinidia arguta; Actinidia kolomikta; colour; firmness; fruit quality; mineral content; polyphenols
Online: 21 April 2021 (13:12:36 CEST)
Recently, there has been a trend towards healthy food. Consumers are looking for products that have health-promoting properties in addition to their taste. Actinidia fruit, apart from being tasty, contains valuable nutrients. They are high in vitamin C, polyphenols, and pectins and low in calories. These pro-health properties allow kiwiberry fruit to qualify in the group of so-called superfoods. All tested cultivars belong to two species of Actinidia, well tolerating conditions of moderate climate with negative temperatures in winter. The cultivars differed significantly in mineral content, color, firmness, weight and content of antioxidant substances. Summer pruning (lightening) increased the content of N, P, K, extract, and NO3 and resulted in darker fruit color. However, it slightly decreased the content of polyphenols. 'Sientiabrskaja' can be recommended for consumption as the cultivar richest in polyphenols and with the highest health-promoting values.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0238.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Ocean colour; phytoplankton ecology; Earth Observation; Inland Waters; Lakes; phenology change
Online: 11 July 2020 (09:59:49 CEST)
Monitoring lakes in high-latitude areas can provide a better understanding of freshwater systems sensitivity and accrete knowledge on climate change impacts. Phytoplankton are sensitive to various conditions: warmer temperatures, earlier ice-melt and changing nutrient sources. Satellite imagery can monitor algae biomass over large areas. The detection of chlorophyll a (chl-a) concentrations in small lakes is hindered by the low spatial resolution of conventional ocean colour satellites. The short time-series of the newest generation of space-borne sensors (e.g. Sentinel-2) is a bottleneck for assessing long-term trends. Although previous studies have evaluated the use of high-resolution sensors for assessing lakes' chl-a, it is still unclear how the spatial and temporal variability of chl-a concentration affect the performance of satellite estimates. We discuss the suitability of Landsat (LT) 30-m resolution imagery to assess lakes' chl-a concentrations under varying trophic conditions, across extensive high-latitude areas in Finland. We use in situ data obtained from field campaigns in 19 lakes and generate remote sensing estimates of chl-a, taking advantage of the long-time span of the LT 5 and 7 archives, from 1984 to 2017. Our results show that linear models based on LT data can explain approximately 50 % of the chl-a interannual variability. However, we demonstrate that the accuracy of the estimates is dependent on the lake's trophic state, with models performing in average twice as better in lakes with higher chl-a concentration (> 20 µg/l) in comparison with less eutrophic lakes. Finally, we demonstrate that linear models based on LT data can achieve high accuracy (R2 = 0.9; p-value < 0.05) in determining lakes' annual mean chl-a concentration, allowing the mapping of the trophic state of lakes across large regions. Given the long time-series and high spatial resolution, LT-based estimates of chl-a provide a tool for assessing the impacts of environmental change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2107.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Serratia marcescens; cheese, blue-veined cheese; technological defect; colour defect; traditional cheeses
Online: 30 May 2023 (10:15:27 CEST)
Technological defects in the organoleptic characteristics of cheese (odour, colour, texture and flavour) reduce quality and consumer acceptance. A red colour defect in Cabrales cheese (a traditional, blue-veined, Spanish cheese made from raw milk) occurs infrequently but can have a notable economic impact on family-owned, artisanal cheesemaking businesses. This work reports the culture-based determination of Serratia marcescens strain R01 as the microbe involved in the appearance of red spots on the surface and nearby inner areas of such cheese. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a cluster of 16 genes involved in the production of prodigiosin, a tripyrrole red pigment. HPLC analysis confirmed the presence of prodigiosin in methanol extracts of S. marcescens RO1 cultures. The same was also observed in extracts from red areas of affected cheeses. The strain showed low survival rates under acidic conditions, but was not affected by concentrations of up to 5% NaCl (the usual value for blue cheese). The optimal conditions for prodigiosin production by S. marscescens RO1 on agar plates were 32 ºC and aerobic conditions. Prodigiosin has been reported to possess antimicrobial activity, which agrees with the here-observed inhibitory effect of RO1 supernatants on different bacteria, its inhibition of Enterobacteriaceae, and the delayed development of Penicillium roqueforti during cheesemaking. The association between S. marcescens and the red colour defect was strengthened by recreating the fault in experimental cheeses inoculated with RO1. The data gathered in this study points towards the starting milk to be the origin of this bacterium in cheese. These findings should help in the development of strategies that minimize the incidence of pigmenting S. marcescens in milk, the red defect the bacterium causes in cheese, and its associated economic losses.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0480.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: In-field; Spectroscopy; Image analysis; Machine Learning; Protein; Grain size.; Grain colour
Online: 28 March 2023 (09:39:53 CEST)
This review focuses on developments that quantify grain quality with a range of spectral sensors in an on-farm setting. If the application of sensor technologies were expanded and adopted on-farm, growers could identify the impact and manage the harvesting operation to meet a range of quality targets and provide an economic advantage to the farming enterprise.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0083.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: olive oil; sunflower oil; spicy olive oil; canned eel; colour; sensory analysis
Online: 9 April 2022 (01:36:15 CEST)
The different vegetable oils used in canned fish as filling medium have a preserving effect and contribute to the palatability of the product. In this study, the colour of European eels and the filling medium (sunflower oil, olive oil or spicy olive oil) was measured at different steps of the canning process. The sensorial characteristics of canned eels packed in the different oils were also evaluated. Colour scores (CieLab values) were higher in canned eels packed in sunflower and spicy olive oil than in canned eels packed in olive oil. The changes in colour parameters depended on the type of oil, the stage of the process and the storage time. Colour changes in canned eels packed in olive oil were highest during the sterilization process. Spicy olive oil was the filling medium in which the colour change was greatest, probably due to the migration of some of the spice components into the oil. Organoleptic properties were directly related to the type of oil used as the filling medium. The canned eels packed in sunflower oil were those awarded the highest scores in consumer tests, although the preferences varied depending on the age and gender of the consumers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0185.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Behavioral Sciences Keywords: anxiety; cognition; colour of drink; dehydration; electrolytes; fluid intake; mood; placebo; rehydration
Online: 17 August 2019 (15:53:08 CEST)
Traditionally it has been thought necessary to lose 2% of body mass due to dehydration, before functioning is disrupted, although recently adverse effects have been reported with a loss of 0.5-0.7%. It is, however, unclear whether the response to small decreases in mass reflects dehydration, mechanisms that help to adapt to a loss of bodily fluid, or a placebo effect. Individuals were therefore subject to a temperature of 30°C for three hours, and mood and cognition monitored. To explore the possibility of a placebo response, the consumption of plain or coloured water was compared. To consider changes in hydration status, drinks known to differ in their ability to rehydrate were contrasted. Not drinking was disruptive, although a combination of plain water and electrolyte’s most effectively prevented a decline in functioning, indicating a role for rehydration after a loss of 0.52% body mass. There was, however, also evidence of a placebo response: a combination of plain water and electrolytes was better able to prevent a decline in functioning than coloured plain water and electrolytes. As increased anxiety was a robust response, it was discussed whether the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system might be part of the mechanism.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0730.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: TSS; fruit quality; firmness; ammonium thiosulphate; skin colour; tree vigour; thinning of flowers
Online: 31 July 2020 (04:54:38 CEST)
The study’s objective was to evaluate the influence of thinning on the quality and regularity of yield of 'Regina' cherries grown on a dwarf Gisela 5 rootstock. The experiments were conducted in the years 2009-2012 in Western Poland. Trees were thinned using a chemical agent, ammonium thiosulphate (ATS) at doses of 20g ATS × L-1, 30g ATS × L-1 and 40g ATS × L-1, and by hand, and the results of chemical and hand thinning were compared with those obtained for unthinned trees. The course of weather conditions in winter and during flowering had a significant impact on yield. Chemical thinning is known to be an effective method to regulate fruiting of pome trees, but it can also be successful if applied to cherry trees, as reflected by the alternate bearing index, which was the lowest after applying ATS at a dose of 40g. ATS treatment improved fruit quality in full crop years. Thinning resulted in, among other things, larger and darker fruit and higher content of total soluble solids and titratable acidity. Treatment with 40g ATS × L-1 significantly stimulated the vegetative growth of trees.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0452.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Cape Lob Ear; Cape Speckled; meat goat breeds; meat tenderness; meat colour; collagen; chevon
Online: 24 November 2021 (10:47:43 CET)
Meat tenderness, water holding capacity (WHC) and colour attributes of six muscles (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL), Semimembranosus (SM), Biceps femoris (BF), Supraspinatus (SS), Infraspinatus (IS), Semitendinosus (ST)) from large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG) and Boer Goats (BG) were studied. Weaner male Boer Goats (BG; n = 18; 10 bucks and 8 wethers) and large frame Indigenous Veld Goats (IVG; n = 19; 9 bucks and 10 wethers) were raised on hay and natural grass, and on a commercial pelleted diet to a live weight of 30 - 35 kg. All goats were slaughtered at a commercial abattoir and the dressed carcasses chilled at 4°C within 1-hour post-mortem. The muscles were dissected from both sides 24-hours post-mortem and aged for 1-day and 4-days. Variations in meat characteristics such as ultimate pH, WHC, percentage purge, myofibril fragment length, intramuscular fat, connective tissue characteristics, and Warner-Bratzler shear force. Bucks had higher L* and Hue-angle values, whereas wethers had increased a* and Chroma values. The muscle baseline-data will allow informed decisions to support muscle-specific marketing strategies, which may be used to improve consumer acceptability of chevon.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: fish; canning; cold storage; lipid oxidation; lipid hydrolysis; fatty acid profile; colour changes; trimethylamine; degradation
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:36:19 CET)
The combined effects of the thermal processing (i.e., sterilisation treatment) and the prior frozen storage time (3 or 6 months at –18 ºC) on the quality loss in canned Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) were determined. Thus, the sterilisation step led to a remarkable (p<0.05) formation in canned fish muscle of fluorescent compounds, free fatty acids (FFAs) and trimethylamine and to an increase of the L* and b* colour parameters; meantime, a decrease (p<0.05) of the total ω3 FA/total ω6 FA ratio and the a* colour value were detected. The prior frozen storage period led to an increased (p<0.05) lipid oxidation (peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and fluorescent compound formation) and hydrolysis (FFA formation) development and to increased L* and b* colour values in the corresponding canned samples; additionally, a lower (p<0.05) polyene index and phospholipid content were observed in canned fish previously subjected to frozen storage. In most indices, physico-chemical changes related to quality loss were found higher if the previous storage period was increased. According to the marked effects of the sterilisation step and the prior frozen storage period, optimisation of such processing conditions is recommended to maximise the quality of canned horse mackerel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0108.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Plant phenotyping, Plant pixel classification, Colour space, , Gaussian mixture model, Earth mover distance, Variance ratio, Plant segmentation.
Online: 15 December 2017 (16:52:23 CET)
Segmentation of a region of interest is an important pre-processing step for many colour image analysis techniques. Similarly segmentation of plant in digital images is an important preprocessing step in phenotying plants by image analysis. In this paper we present an analytical study to statistically determine the suitability of colour space representation of an image to best detect plant pixels and separate them from background pixels. Our hypothesis is that the colour space representation in which the separation of the distributions representing plant pixels and background pixels is maximized would be the best for detection of plant pixels. The two classes of pixels are modelled as a Gaussian mixture model (GMM). In our GM modelling we don't make any prior assumption about the number of Gaussians in the model. Rather a constant bandwidth mean-shift filter is used to cluster the data and the number of clusters and hence the number of Gaussians is automatically determined. Here we have analysed following representative colour spaces like $RGB$, $rgb$, $HSV$, $Ycbcr$ and $CIE-Lab$. This is because these colour spaces represent several other similar colour spaces and also an exhaustive study of all the colour space will be too voluminous. We also analyse the colour space feature from the two-class variance ratio perspective and compare the results of our hypothesis with this metric. The dataset for this empirical study consist of 378 digital images of plants and their manual segmentation. Dataset consist of various species of plants (arabidopsi, tobacco, wheat, rye grass etc.) imaged under different lighting conditions, indoor and outdoor, controlled and uncontrolled background. In results we obtain better segmentation of the plants in $HSV$ colour space, which is supported by its Earth mover distance (EMD) on the GMM distribution of plant and background pixels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0359.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: cultural sustainability; inclusive design; retail space; illuminance level; correlated colour temperature (CCT); spatial impression; user preference; Indian context
Online: 28 March 2022 (09:45:21 CEST)
This study investigates the cultural dimension in sustainable lighting design to create inclusive environments. India being one of the most culturally and ethnically diverse nations in the world, with a population of almost 18% of the world population, requires attention to include cultural dimension in the design of sustainable environments. With the changing lifestyle and growth in organized retailing, the Indian retail market needs an upgrade to create inclusive environments for shared retail experiences. Lighting is among most influencing atmospheric attribute to create simulating environment for a holistic shopping experience. Preference of lighting conditions vary across the store profiles and users’ cultural background. Very little research has been carried out to understand the lighting preferences of retail customers in India. This study investigated the effects of correlated colour temperature and illuminance levels on spatial impressions and user preferences in mid-range store profile. This study involved ninety-three participants in evaluating high definition visualisations of the sixteen lighting conditions. The observations from this study emphasizes the necessity of similar studies across various states of India to identify the lighting preferences for other functional spaces and cultural backgrounds within the country. The findings may contribute towards providing recommended guidelines in lighting design and include a cultural dimension in the design of sustainable store environments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0554.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Remote Sensing; Ocean Colour; Retrievals; Fluorescence; Optical Properties; Satellite; Spectral; Radiative Transfer; optically complex waters; chlorophyll; absorption; scattering
Online: 23 September 2020 (16:39:53 CEST)
The retrieval of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is greatly beneficial to studies of marine phytoplankton biomass, physiology, and composition and is required for user applications and services. Customarily phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence is determined from satellite measurements through a fluorescence line-height algorithm using three bands around 680 nm. We propose here a modified retrieval, making use of all available bands in the relevant wavelength range with the goal to improve the effectiveness of the algorithm in optically complex waters. For the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) we quantify a Fluorescence Peak Height from fitting a Gaussian function and related terms into the top-of-atmosphere reflectance bands between 650 and 750 nm. This algorithm retrieves, what we call Fluorescence Peak Height from fitting a Gaussian function upon other terms to top-of-atmosphere reflectance bands between 650 and 750 nm. This approach is applicable to Level-1 and Level-2 data. We find a good correlation of the retrieved fluorescence product to global in-situ chlorophyll measurements, as well as a consistent relation between chlorophyll concentration and fluorescence from radiative transfer modelling and OLCI/in-situ comparison. The algorithm is applicable to complex waters without needing an atmospheric correction and vicarious calibration and features an inherent correction of small spectral shifts, as required for OLCI measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0319.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: monocular depth cues; luminance contrast; colour; visual arts; image plane; human perception; brain; 3D structure; figure-ground; Gestalt Theory
Online: 27 January 2020 (01:54:27 CET)
Victor Vasarely’s (1906-1997) important legacy to the study of human perception is brought to the forefront and discussed. A large part of his impressive work conveys the appearance of striking three-dimensional shapes and structures in a large-scale pictorial plane. Current perception science explains such effects by invoking brain mechanisms for the processing of monocular (2D) depth cues. Here in this study, we illustrate and explain the local effects of 2D color and contrast cues on the perceptual organization in terms of figure-ground assignments, i.e. which local surfaces are likely to be seen as “nearer” or “bigger” in the image plane. Paired configurations are embedded in a larger, structurally ambivalent pictorial context inspired by some of Vasarely’s creations. The figure-ground effects these configurations produce reveal a significant correlation between perceptual solutions for “nearer” and “bigger” when no other monocular depth cues are given in the image. In consistency with previous findings on similar, albeit simpler visual displays, a specific color may compete with luminance contrast in resolving the planar ambiguity of a complex pattern context. Vasarely intuitively understood, and successfully exploited, this kind of subtle context effect in his art, well before empirical investigations had set out to study and explain their genesis in terms of information processing by the visual brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1818.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Alternative Splicing; two-colour (GFP/RFP) Fluorescent Reporter; MAPT; Exon-Skipping; FTDP-17; High Content Screening; siRNA; Nucleic Acids Therapeutics; Drug discovery
Online: 26 June 2023 (13:55:26 CEST)
Nucleic acid therapeutics are witnessing an impressive acceleration in recent years. They work through multiple mechanisms of action, including downregulation of gene expression and modulation of RNA splicing. While several drugs based on the former mechanism have been approved, few target the latter, despite the promise of RNA splicing modulation. To improve our ability to discover novel RNA splicing-modulating therapies, we developed HCS-Splice, a robust cell-based High-Content Screening (HCS) assay. By implementing the use of a two-colour (GFP/RFP) fluorescent splicing reporter plasmid, we developed a versatile, effective, rapid, and robust high-throughput strategy for the identification of potent splicing-modulating molecules. The HCS-Splice strategy can also be used to functionally confirm splicing mutations in human genetic disorders or to screen drug candidates. As a proof-of-concept, we introduced a dementia-related splice-switching mutation in Microtubule-Associated Protein Tau (MAPT) exon 10 splicing reporter. We applied HCS-Splice to the wild-type and mutant reporters and measured the functional change in exon 10 inclusion. To demonstrate the applicability of the method to cell-based drug discovery, HCS-Splice was used to evaluate the efficacy of an exon 10-targeting siRNA, which was able to restore the correct alternative splicing balance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0688.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Biopolymers; Biocomposites; Polybutylene succinate; Itaconic Acid; Zirconium oxide; Colourant; Diazo pigment; Extrusion-compounding; Mechanical properties; Hardness; Colour fixing; Gloss; Aging effect; SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy); Wettability
Online: 27 November 2020 (12:50:24 CET)
BioPBS is gaining attention in the biodegradable polymer market due to their promising properties such as high biodegradability and processing versatility representing a potential sustainable replacement for fossil oil-based commodities. However, there is still a need to enhance its properties for certain applications, being aesthetical and mechanical properties a challenge. The aim of the present work is to improve these properties by adding selected additives that will confer bioPBS with comparable properties to that of current counterparts such as polypropylene (PP) for specific applications in the automotive and household appliances sectors. A total of thirteen materials have been studied and compared, being twelve biocomposites containing combinations of three different additives: a commercial red colourant, itaconic acid (IA) to enhance colour fixation and zirconia (ZrO2) nanoparticles to maintain at least native PBS mechanical properties. Results show that the combination of IA and the colouring agent tends to slightly yellowish the blend due to the absorbance spectra of IA and also to modify the gloss due to the formation of IA nanocrystals that affects light scattering. In addition, for low amounts of IA (4wt.%), young modulus seems to be kept while elongation at break is even raised. Unexpectedly, a strong aging affect was found after 4 weeks. IA increases the hydrophilic behaviour of the samples and thus seems to accelerate the hydrolisation of the matrix, which is accompanied by an accused disaggregation of phases and an overall softening and rigidization effect. The addition of low amounts of ZrO2 (2wt.%) seems to provide the desired effect for hardening the surface while almost not affecting the other properties; however, higher amounts tends to form aggregates saturating the compounds. As a conclusion, IA might be a good candidate for colour fixing in biobased polymers.