ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1720.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Trebouxia; lichen; symbiosis; association; coevolution
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:09:53 CEST)
Biotic and abiotic factors influence the formation of fungal-algal pairings in lichen symbiosis. It is poorly known which factors determine the specific associations, especially when distantly related fungi are considered. Here, we investigated the effect of different drivers on the association patterns of taxonomically diverse lichenized fungi and their trebouxioid symbiotic partners. In 200 samples collected across three biomes, we found 41 species of lichenized fungi, associating with 16 species of trebouxioid green algae, of which 62% were previously unreported. Species identity of the fungal and algal partner had the greatest effect on the outcome of the symbiosis compared with abiotic factors such as climatic variables and geographic distance. Partner specificity was found to be higher in tropical regions than in temperate and arctic regions. Co-phylogenetic analyses indicated congruent phylogenies of trebouxioid algae and associated fungi, rejecting their random associations. Evolutionary mechanisms contributing most to the observed phylogenetic patterns were ‘loss’ and ‘failure to diverge’ of the algal partners. This study broadens our knowledge of fungi-algae symbiotic patterns in view of Trebouxia-associated fungi.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0463.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Design model; Interactions; Coevolution; Study of objects
Online: 27 March 2023 (13:47:04 CEST)
Design has often been interpreted as a practice of creating novel objects. However, the relationships between objects analysed upstream the process of creation have been under-studied. Here it is presented a model for enhancing the design practice by fostering a deep work on the relationships of mundane objects. The Three-dimensional Narratives (TdN) model comprises a stepwise five phases work package that facilitates a varied range of analyses to improve the creativity and innovation of any project led by any type of participants. One particular feature of the TdN model is the appropriation of concepts coming from non-design fields such physics and biology to both developing the work of the model and to improve the comprehension and outcomes of the enrolled participants. During three Case Studies with children, youngsters, and older participants the TdN model was validated, and its usability was successfully assessed. The TdN model shows that there is a need for a deeper design practice and that it is relevant to improve the lexicon of designers in order to facilitate a broader and design practice, irrespectively of the aim of the proposed project and nuances of the audience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0215.v4
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: coevolution; herbivory; host-plant specialization; phylogeny; speciation
Online: 17 October 2019 (10:12:05 CEST)
During the last two decades, ecological speciation has been a major research theme in evolutionary biology. Ecological speciation occurs when reproductive isolation between populations evolves as a result of niche differentiation. Phytophagous insects represent model systems for the study of this evolutionary process. The host-plants on which these insects feed and often spend parts of their life cycle constitute ideal agents of divergent selection for these organisms. Adaptation to feeding on different host-plant species can potentially lead to ecological specialization of populations and subsequent speciation. This process is thought to have given birth to the astonishing diversity of phytophagous insects and is often put forward in macroevolutionary scenarios of insect diversification. Consequently, numerous phylogenetic studies on phytophagous insects have aimed at testing whether speciation driven by host-plant adaptation is the main pathway for the diversification of the groups under investigation. The increasing availability of comprehensive and well-resolved phylogenies and the recent developments in phylogenetic comparative methods are offering an unprecedented opportunity to test hypotheses on insect diversification at a macroevolutionary scale, in a robust phylogenetic framework. Our purpose here is to review the contribution of phylogenetic analyses to investigate the importance of plant-mediated speciation in the diversification of phytophagous insects and to present suggestions for future developments in this field.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Complexity; population dynamics; Red Queen; scales; coevolution; extinction
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:02:26 CEST)
Leigh Van Valen was an American evolutionary biologist who made major contributions to evolutionary theory and is particularly remembered by his groundbreaking paper "A New Evolutionary Law" (1973) where he provided evidence from fossil record data that this law maintains that the probability of extinction within any group remains essentially constant through time. In order to explain such unexpected result, Van Valen formulated a very influential idea that he dubbed the "Red Queen hypothesis". It states that the constant decay must be a consequence of evolutionary interactions among connected species within ecological networks. In Van Valen's picture, species do not merely evolve: they also coevolve with other species. As a consequence, when thinking in adaptation to an external environment, the other species must be considered as part (may be a major part) of such external world. Van Valen's law provided the first complex systems theory of coevolutionary dynamics and inspired a whole range of theoretical and experimental developments and scholars from very diverse fields, from economics to physics. In that respect, Leigh Van Valen's contribution percolated far beyond its original formulation. Red Queen arms races are nowadays considered a widespread feature of complex adaptive systems.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Leishmania; Leishmania viruses; Phylogeny; Coevolution; endosymbiont protozoan viruses
Online: 18 January 2021 (15:00:54 CET)
The description of the genus Leishmania as causative agents of leishmaniasis occurred during this modern age. But evolutionary studies suggest that the origin of Leishmania can be traced back to the Mesozoic era. Subsequently, during its evolutionary process, it sustained a worldwide dispersion predating the breakup of the Gondwana supercontinent. It is assumed that this parasite evolved from monoxenic Trypanosomatidae. Phylogenetic studies locate the dixenous Leishmania in a well-supported clade, recently named subfamily Leishmaniinae, which includes also monoxenous trypanosomatids. Virus-Like Particles were reported in many species of this family. So far, several Leishmania species have been reported as infected by Leishmania RNA Virus (LRV) and Leishbunyavirus (LBV). Since the first descriptions of LRV decades ago, differences in its genomic structure have been highlighted, leading to the designation of a LRV1 in L. (Viannia) species and a LRV2 in other L. (Leishmania) species. There are strong indications of virus infecting Leishmania spp. ability to enhance parasitic survival both in human and experimental infections, through highly complex and specialized mechanisms. Phylogenetic analyzes of these viruses have shown that their genomic differences correlate with the infected parasite species, suggesting a coevolutionary process. Herein, we will present unpublished results regarding the relationship Leishmania – endosymbiotic Leishmania viruses and will explore what has been described in the literature, and what is known about this association that could contribute to discussions about the worldwide dispersion of Leishmania.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antimicrobial resistance; infection control practices; antibiotic resistance; pathogens; coevolution
Online: 5 August 2018 (10:18:40 CEST)
The antibiotic or antimicrobial resistance is rapidly spreading in microbes relevant to human health. Two visible major contributory factors have been the indiscriminate overuse of antimicrobials for preventing diseases in human and to enhance the productivity in agriculture sector. To mitigate the potential threat posed by post-antibiotic era, the global health stakeholders have been making extra efforts at a war footing to formulate and implement global and national plans of action. In the current article, an endeavour is made to provide a perspective to look beyond the current focus on just use of the antimicrobials. Attention has been drawn towards various obvious and not-so-obvious self-preservation infection-prevention practices in vogue from the pre-antibiotic era whose usage has been on decline in the antibiotic era for various reasons. Particularly, the practices with a clear potential to effectively decrease the spread of pathogens through contact, curtail the evolution and dissemination of the antimicrobial resistance in local environment and its introduction into the global community, should be Identified and strengthened to make them part of comprehensive hygiene and quarantine practices. Broadly, the suggestions pertaining to the personal and community hygiene including bereavement practices, isolation and quarantine of suspected pathogen carriers, and water and environment security have been made to invoke a constructive debate and discussion among various stakeholders for their evaluation and implementation to effectively delay the development of antimicrobial resistance wherever possible and disrupt its spread to pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0204.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: adaptive radiation; sympatric speciation; pollination by sexual swindle; plant insect coevolution; asymmetric coevolution; chemical ecology; Ophrys orchids; unifying species definition; pseudocopulation; key innovation
Online: 17 October 2019 (15:12:38 CEST)
Adaptive radiations occur mostly in response to environmental variation through the evolution of key eco-morphological innovations that allow emerging species to occupy new ecological niches. However, rapid phenotypic evolution and the evolution of key novelties are likely to also occur when a couple or few species are engaged into narrow ecological interactions. To demonstrate coevolution is a difficult task; only elusive evidences confirm that coevolution is a driver of speciation and diversiﬁcation. Here we propose that the adaptive radiation of the Mediterranean orchid genus Ophrys, which gave rise to ca. 350 species since the apparition of the genus is due to the particular co-evolutionary dynamics between these plants and their pollinators. We suggest that the pollination by sexual swindle used by Ophrys orchids is the main driver of this coevolution. Flowers of each Ophrys species mimic sexually receptive females of one particular insect species, mainly bees. Male bees are attracted by pseudo-pheromones emitted by Ophrys flowers that are similar to the sexual pheromones of their females. Males lured by the flower shape, color and hairiness attempt to copulate with the flower, which glues pollen on their bodies. Pollen is eventually transferred to the stigma of another flower of the same Ophrys species during similar copulation attempts. Three observations led us to propose the scenario of an asymmetric co-evolutionary relationship between Ophrys and their pollinators. Firstly, there is a strong intra-specific competition among Ophrys individuals for the attraction of their species-specific pollinators, which is due to the high learning and memorization abilities of bees that record the pheromone signatures of kin or of previously courted partner to avoid (further) copulation attempts. Mnemonic pollinators induce thus a strong selective pressure for variation in the pseudo-pheromones emitted by individual flowers, which will potentially generate shifts in pollinator species, and hence Ophrys speciation. These pollinator shifts are adaptive for new Ophrys species because they may benefit from a competitor-free space. Secondly, such shifts in pollinator species are due to the random crossing of peaks in the olfactory landscape of the pollinator guild that is syntopic to each particular Ophrys population. This selective process on individual, random variation in pseudo-pheromone bouquets is followed by directional selection on flower phenotypes that will reinforce the attraction of the new pollinator. Thirdly, pollinators use the pseudo-pheromones emitted by Ophrys to locate suitable habitats from a distance within complex landscapes. Pollinators stay fixed for a while in these habitats by the local diversity of pseudo-pheromones, which increases their probability of encounter with a receptive female and hence the reproduction probability of both sexes. Conversely, pollinators disperse out of small suitable habitats once they have memorized the local diversity of sexual pseudo-pheromone bouquet or if fecundated Ophrys flowers repel pollinators, which decreases the probability of geitonogamy (plant advantage) but limit pollinator mating with locally emergent insect females, thus limiting inbreeding and favoring gene flow (pollinator advantage). Finally, we propose several research avenues that emerged according to this scenario of adaptive radiation by assymetric coevolution between Ophrys species and their pollinators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0703.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Leishmania (Viannia); Leishmania RNA Virus 1; phylogeny; host-specificity; coevolution.
Online: 9 August 2023 (09:51:39 CEST)
A relevant aspect in the epidemiology of Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (TL) is the Leishmania parasites carrying a viral endosymbiont Leishmania RNA Virus 1 (LRV1), a dsRNA virus. Leishmania parasites carrying LRV1 are prone to causing more severe TL symptoms, increasing the likelihood of unfavorable clinical outcomes. LRV1 has been observed in cultured strains of five L. (Viannia) species, and host specificity was suggested when studying LRV1 from L. braziliensis and L. guyanensis strains. The coevolution hypothesis of LRV1 and Leishmania was based on phylogenetic analyses, implying an association between LRV1 genotypes, Leishmania species, and their geographic origins. This study aimed to investigate LRV1 specificity to Leishmania (Viannia) species hosts by analyzing LRV1 from L. (Viannia) species. To this end, LRV1 was screened in L. (Viannia) species other than L. braziliensis or L. guyanensis, and it was detected in 11 out of 15 L. naiffi and in 2 out of 4 L. shawi. Phylogenetic analyses based on partial LRV1 genomic sequencing supported the hypothesis of host specificity, as LRV1 clustered according to their respective Leishmania species hosts. These findings underscore the importance of investigating Leishmania and LRV1 coevolution and its impact on Leishmania (Viannia) species dispersion and pathogenesis in the American Continent.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0045.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: tuberculosis severity; M. tuberculosis; population genetics; lineage-based GWAS; M. tuberculosis-human coevolution
Online: 4 October 2021 (10:56:53 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major public health threat globally, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. Both human and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTBC) genetic variation affect TB outcomes, but few studies have examined if and how the two genomes interact to affect disease. We hypothesize that long-term coexistence between human genomes and MTBC lineages modulate disease to affect its severity. We examined this hypothesis in our TB household contact study in Kampala, Uganda, in which we identified 3 MTBC lineages of which one, L4.6-Uganda, is clearly derived and hence recent. We quantified TB severity using the Bandim TBscore and examined the interaction between MTBC lineage and human single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genome-wide, in two independent cohorts of TB cases (N=149 and N=127). We found a significant interaction between a SNP in PPIAP2 and the Uganda lineage (combined p=4x10-8). PPIAP2 is a pseudogene that is highly expressed in immune cells. Pathway and eQTL analyses indicated potential roles between coevolving SNPs and cellular replication and metabolism as well as platelet aggregation and coagulation. This finding provides further evidence that host-pathogen interactions affect clinical presentation differently than host and pathogen genetic variation independently, and that human-MTBC coevolution is likely to explain patterns of disease severity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: life; paralife; utility-products; UP-paralife; utility-selection; UP-evolvability; coevolution; intelligence; stone tools; language-catalysis; creativity; exoplanet; intelligent life
Online: 17 November 2022 (03:06:22 CET)
When animals evolve sufficient intelligence and dexterity to be able to learn to fabricate utility products (UPs) like tools, the UP's they produce become part of an induced-reproduction system that intrinsically shares many life-like traits with biological organisms, including genome-like fabrication and operation information that is physically-encoded in the animal fabricator’s neural networks. When this set of life- like traits includes a sufficient capacity for system-improving cultural evolution (UP-evolvability), the UPs become ‘para-alive’, i.e., nearly alive, or a form of non-biological UP-paralife that is equivalent to the life- status of biological viruses, plasmids, and transposons. In the companion paper I focus on the evolution of UP-paralife in the context of modern, language-capable humans and its predicted evolution going forward in time (Rice 2022). Here I look backward in time and focus on the origin of UP-paralife and its subsequent coevolution with human intelligence. I begin by determining the pathways leading to the evolution of large brains in the rare lineages of biological life that have sufficient intelligence to learn to fabricate tools –a critical first step in the evolution of UP-paralife. The simplest forms of these learning- based UPs, made by species like chimpanzees and New Caledonian crows, represent only proto-UP- paralife because they lack sufficient UP-evolvability. Expanded UP-evolvability required a combination of three attributes that enabled continuous niche-expansion of the animal fabricator via a new and advanced form of UP-mediated teamwork (TW): i) self-domestication that facilitated TW among low-related individuals, ii) learned volitional words (protolanguage) that represent ephemeral UPs that coordinate TW, and iii) learned fabrication of simple flaked-stone tools with cutting and chopping capabilities (a UP to make other structural UPs) that expanded teammate phenotypes and TW capabilities. This specific triad of attributes is synergistic because each one acts as a TW-enhancer that can gradually erode different components of the three major constraints on TW operation and expansion: too much selfishness, insufficient coordination signals, and insufficient physical traits of teammates. The increase in UP- evolvability was transformative and marked the origin of UP-paralife and the initiation of coevolution between UP-paralife (cultural evolution) and the intelligence of its hominin/human symbiont (genetic evolution) that fostered 2.5 million years of: i) continuous brain size increase and niche-expansion within the genus Homo, and ii) parallel advances in the diversity, complexity and uses of UP-paralife. This coevolution also fostered evolutionary expansion of word-based communication, and eventually language, that acted in a catalyst-like manner to facilitate the evolution of increasingly complex forms of imagination, reasoning, mentalizing, and UP-generating technology. I next focus on the evolution of creativity in the human lineage –in the form of divergent thinking and creative imagination. I conclude that the evolution of this advanced cognitive feature required a preadaptation of sufficient intelligence and is the component of human cognition that was the major causal factor generating the greatly expanded diversity and complexity of UP-paralife currently associated with modern humans. Lastly, I apply my findings to the issue of the prevalence of extraterrestrial intelligent life. I conclude that any exoplanets with detected chemical life will very rarely (e.g., probability ~10-5 for a planet closely matching Earth’s characteristics) have evolved intelligence equalling or exceeding that of humans.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0419.v9
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ATP hypothesis; origin of genetic code; life’s building block; probiotic “soup”; coevolution; biochemical system; missing “matchmaker”; energy transformation; informatization; structuralization; precellular selection; photo- chemical origin of life; virus; anti-life form; 2019-nCoV
Online: 11 September 2020 (08:39:39 CEST)
A plenty of theories on the origin of genetic codes have been proposed so far, yet all ignored the energetic driving force, its relation to the biochemical system, and most importantly, the missing “matchmaker” between proteins and nucleic acids. Here, a new hypothesis is proposed, according to which ATP is at the origin of the primordial genetic code by driving the coevolution of the genetic code with the pristine biochemical system. This hypothesis aims to show how the genetic code was produced e.g. by photochemical reactions in a protocell that derived from a lipid vesicle enclosing various life’s building blocks (e.g. nucleotides and peptides). At extant cell, ATP is the only energetic product of photosynthesis, and is at the energetic heart of the biochemical systems. ATP could energetically form and elongate chains of both polynucleotides and polypeptides, thus acting a “matchmaker” between these two bio-polymers and eventually mediating precellular biochemical innovation from energy transformation to informatization. ATP was not the only one that could drive the formation of polynucleotides and polypeptides, but favored by precellular selection. The protocell innovated a photosynthesis system to produce ATP efficiently and regularly with the aids of proteins and RNA/DNA. The completion of permanently recording the genetic information by DNA marked the dawn of cellular life operated by Darwinian evolution. The ATP hypothesis assumes or supports the photochemical origin of life, shedding light on the origins of both photosynthetic and biochemical systems, which remains largely unknown thus far. Based on ATP hypothesis, virus (like the new coronavirus) could not be the earliest life on Earth, as it has neither biochemical systems nor lipid bilayer membrane that provided relatively isolated environment for the development of protobiochemical reactions, although it owns the genetic code of a cellular life. Virus could not be a bridge between life and non-life, but is an anti-life substance, as it depletes cellular material for its own replication, and then spreads by destroying the host cells. It can be imagined that if cellular life are completely wiped out by the virus, the complete destruction of life on Earth would be inevitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0203.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Organic Chemistry Keywords: peptide/RNA world; prebiotic information system; translation and the genetic code; coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code; MVC architecture pattern and biological information; numerical codons; AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine
Online: 17 December 2018 (16:03:16 CET)
Information is the currency of life, but the origin of prebiotic information remains a mystery. We propose transitional pathways from the cosmic building blocks of life to the complex prebiotic organic chemistry that led to the origin of information systems. The prebiotic information system, specifically the genetic code, is segregated, linear, and digital and probably appeared during biogenesis four billion years ago. In the peptide/RNA world, lipid membranes randomly encapsulated amino acids, RNA, and protein molecules, drawn from the prebiotic soup, to initiate a molecular symbiosis inside the protocells. This endosymbiosis led to the hierarchical emergence of several requisite components of the translation machine: tRNAs, aaRS, mRNAs, and ribosomes. When assembled in the right order, the translation machine created biosynthetic polypeptides, a process that transferred information from mRNAs to proteins. This was the beginning of the prebiotic information age. The molecular attraction between tRNA and amino acids led to different stages of the translation machines and the genetic code. tRNA is an ancient molecule that designed and built mRNA for storing the information of its cognate amino acid. Each mRNA strand became the storage device for the genetic information that encoded the amino acid sequences in triplet nucleotides. As information appeared in the digital languages of the codon within mRNA, and the genetic code for protein synthesis evolved, the prebiotic chemistry then became more organized and directional. The origin of the genetic code is enigmatic; herein we propose an evolutionary explanation: the demand for a wide range of specific enzymes in the peptide/RNA world was the main selective pressure for the origin of information-directed protein synthesis. We review three main concepts on the origin and evolution of the genetic code: the stereochemical theory, the coevolution theory, and the adaptive theory. These three theories are compatible with our coevolution model of the translation machines and the genetic code. We suggest biosynthetic pathways as the origin of the specific translation machines which provided the framework for the origin of the genetic code. During translation, the genetic code developed in three stages coincident with the refinement of the translation machines: GNC code developed by the pre-tRNA/pre-aaRS /pre-mRNA machine, SNS code by the tRNA/aaRS/mRNA machine, and finally the universal genetic code by the tRNA/aaRS/mRNA/ribosome machine. Our hypothesis provides the logical and incremental steps for the origin of the programmed protein synthesis. In order to understand the prebiotic information system better, we converted letter codons into numerical codons in the Universal Genetic Code Table. We have developed a software called CATI (Codon-Amino Acid-Translator-Imitator) to translate randomly chosen numerical codons into corresponding amino acids and vice versa. This conversion has granted us insight into how the translation might have worked in the peptide/RNA world. There is great potential in the application of numerical codons to bioinformatics such as barcoding, DNA mining, or DNA fingerprinting. We constructed the likely biochemical pathways for the origin of translation and the genetic code using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) software framework, and the translation machinery step-by-step. Using AnyLogic software we were able to simulate and visualize the entire evolution of the translation machines and the genetic code. The results indicate that the emergence of the information age from the peptide/RNA world was a watershed event in the origin of life about four billion years ago.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0127.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Other Keywords: hierarchical origin of life; RNA/protein world; biological information system; translation and the genetic code; coevolution of translation machine and the genetic code; MVC architecture pattern and biological information; AnyLogic software for computer simulation of translation machine
Online: 8 October 2018 (05:33:22 CEST)
The Late Heavy Bombardment Period (4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago) of heightened impact cratering activity on young Earth is likely the driving force for the origin of life. During the Eoarchean, asteroids such as carbonaceous chondrites delivered the building blocks of life and water to early Earth. Asteroid collisions created innumerable hydrothermal crater lakes in the Eoarchean crust which inadvertently became the perfect cradle for prebiotic chemistry. These hydrothermal crater lakes were filled with cosmic water and the building blocks of life. forming a thick prebiotic soup. The unique combination of exogenous delivery of extraterrestrial building blocks of life, and the endogenous biosynthesis in hydrothermal impact crater lakes very likely gave rise to life. A new symbiotic model for the origin of life within the hydrothermal crater lakes is here proposed. In this scenario, life arose around four billion years ago through five hierarchical stages of increasing molecular complexity: cosmic, geologic, chemical, information, and biological. During the prebiotic synthesis, membranes first appeared in the hydrothermal crater lakes, followed by the simultaneous origin of RNA and protein molecules, creating the RNA/protein world. These proteins were noncoded protein enzymes that facilitated chemical reactions. RNA molecules formed in the hydrothermal crater basin by polymerization of the nucleotides on the montmorillonite mineral substrate. Similarly, the initial synthesis of abiotic protein enzymes was mediated by the condensation of amino acids on pyrite surfaces. The regular wet-dry cycles within the crater lakes assisted further concentration, condensation, and polymerization of the RNAs and proteins. Lipid membranes randomly encapsulated amino acids, RNA, and protein molecules from the prebiotic soup to initiate a molecular symbiosis inside the protocells, this led to the hierarchical emergence of several cell components. As the role of protein enzymes became essential for catalytic process in the RNA/protein world, Darwinian selection from noncoded to coded protein synthesis led to translation systems and the genetic code, heralding the information stage. In this stage, the biochemical pathways suggest the successive emergence of translation machineries such as tRNAs, aaRS, mRNAs, and of ribosomes for protein synthesis. The molecular attraction between tRNA and amino acid led to the emergence of translation machinery and the genetic code. tRNA is an ancient molecule that created mRNA for the purpose of storing amino acid information like a digital strip. Each mRNA strand became the storage device for genetic information that encoded the amino acid sequences in triplet nucleotides. As information became available in the digital languages of the codon within mRNA, biosynthesis became less random and more organized and directional. The original translation machinery was simpler before the emergence of the ribosome than that of today. We review three main concepts on the origin and evolution of the genetic code: the stereochemical theory, the coevolution theory, and adaptive theory. We believe that these three theories are not mutually exclusive, but are compatible with our coevolution model of translations machines and the genetic code. We suggest biosynthetic pathways as the origin of the translation machine that provided the framework for the origin of the genetic code. During translation, the genetic code developed in three stages coincident with the refinement of the translation machinery: GNC code with four codons and four amino acids during interactions of pre-tRNA/pre-aaRS /pre-mRNA, SNS code consisting of 16 codons and 10 amino acids appeared during the tRNA/aaRS/mRNA interaction, and finally the universal genetic code evolved with the emergence of the tRNA/aaRS/mRNA/ribosome machine. The universal code consists of 64 codons and 20 amino acids, with a redundancy that minimizes errors in translation. To address the question of the origin of the biological information system in the RNA/protein world, we converted letter codons into numerical codons in the Universal Genetic Code Table. We developed a software called CATI (Codon-Amino Acid-Translator-Imitator) to translate randomly chosen numerical codons into corresponding amino acids and vice versa, gaining insight into how translation might have worked in the RNA/protein world. We simulated the likely biochemical pathways for the origin of translation and the genetic code using the Model-View-Controller (MVC) software framework, and the translation machinery step-by-step. We used AnyLogic software to simulate and visualize the evolution of the translation machines and the genetic code. We conclude that the emergence of the information age from the RNA/protein world was a watershed event in the origin of life about four billion years ago.