ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0494.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Landmass expansion; India Coast; Landsat Images
Online: 19 March 2021 (08:56:01 CET)
This study explores the changes in the landmass bounded by the coast of India during 1975-2005 by using on-screen visual interpretation technique (with 100m resolution and 1:50,000 scale) from NASA Landsat Imagery in three different time periods viz. 1975, 1990, and 2005. The result indicated an overall expansion of 130 sq. km area of the landmass that surrounded by the Indian coast during 1975-2005 (74 sq. km during 1975-1990 and 56 sq. km during 1991-2005). These estimations are based on the preliminary analysis and may be estimated more accurately by reducing the scale and using further higher resolution images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0136.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: cutaneous melanoma; altitude; coast-plain-hill gradient
Online: 14 April 2022 (14:54:11 CEST)
The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has been increasing in the last decades among fair-skinned population. Despite etiology is complex and multifactorial, the exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is the most consistent modifiable risk factor associated with melanoma. Several factors influence the amount of UVR reaching Eart’s surface. The aim of our study is to explore the association between melanoma and altitude in an area characterized by a mixed geographic morphology, such as in the Veneto region. For this purpose, 2752 melanoma patients, who referred to our attention between 1998 and 2014, were included in this study. For each patient we extracted demographic, histological and clinical-survival data. Head/neck and acral melanoma were more common in patients from the hills and the mountains, while the prevalence of limb and trunk melanoma was higher in patients living in plain and coastal areas. With increase of altitude, the Breslow thickness, ulceration and mitotic rate get worse but no significant difference was observed in overall and disease free-survival. Geographical area of origin of melanoma patients and the “coast-plain-hill gradient” could help to estimate the influence of different sun exposure and to explain the importance of vitamin D level in skin-cancer control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0036.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: alkalinity; carbon; coast; Wadden Sea; German Bight
Online: 1 February 2021 (13:52:55 CET)
High alkalinity values on the seaside can influence the exchange of carbon dioxide between seawater and the atmosphere. Still, there are many uncertainties about biogeochemical processes responsible for alkalinity generation in the coastal area. One example of coastal areas with high alkalinity is the German Bight. The German Bight is the south-east part of the North Sea. The literature suggests that high summer alkalinity values in the German Bight result from the exchange of the German Bight with the Wadden Sea (an intertidal zone along Dutch, German, and Danish coasts). We show that the origin of high alkalinity values in the German Bight can be sulfate reduction in sediments of the Wadden Sea and that it can increase alkalinity from March to August up to approximately 220 micromoles per liter. Also, we show that sulfate reduction does not cause any significant year alkalinity flux from the Wadden Sea to the German Bight; instead, nitrogen compounds ( and ) are responsible for it and cause an alkalinity flux about 13 GM a year from the Wadden Sea to the German Bight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0091.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coast; chlorophyll-a; COVID 19; social distancing; water
Online: 6 May 2020 (04:05:08 CEST)
The COVID 19 related social distancing is hypothesized can affect the environmental quality including the air and water quality. Correspondingly, this study aims to study how the reduction of activities of people living near the rivers and the coastal areas due to social distancing may decrease the discharges of materials and nutrients to the water body. The chlorophyll-a was used as bio indicators of nutrient contents related to the anthropogenic activities in the coast. The study was conducted in the Jakarta coast considering that this coast was surrounded by populated cities with total population equal to 16 million people. The chlorophyll-a was measured in mg/m3 and monitored using remote sensing data from January to April 2020 representing the period before and after the implementation of social distancing. The determinant environmental factor measured was sea surface temperature (0C). The study considered that there were reductions of levels and areas of chlorophyll-a in the coast. The chlorophyll-a levels were reduced from January to April (p<0.05). The chlorophyll-a levels for January, February, March, and April were 7.36 mg/m3 (95%CI: 6.34-8.37), 7.90 mg/m3 (95%CI: 7.32-8.47), 6.52 mg/m3 (95%CI: 5.37-7.66), and 4.21 mg/m3 (95%CI: 3.34-5.07) respectively. However, the differences of chlorophyll-a were not influenced by the sea surface temperature factor (p>0.05). Based on remote sensing data in January and February, the sizes of coastal areas with chlorophyll-a levels >7.00 mg/m3 were larger than areas observed in March and April. Contrarily, the coastal area sizes with low chlorophyll-a levels <5.00 mg/m3 were increasing in April. To conclude the dynamic of anthropogenic activities in coastal setting is responsible and associated with the water quality and nutrient contents as indicated by chlorophyll-a levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0085.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coast; erosion; urbanisation; airborne imagery; spaceborne imagery; French Polynesia
Online: 3 November 2021 (14:23:15 CET)
Coastal urbanisation is a widespread phenomenon throughout the world and is often linked to increased erosion. Small Pacific islands are not spared from this issue, which is of great importance in the context of climate change. The French Polynesian island of Bora Bora was used as a case study to investigate the historical evolution of its coastline classification and position from 1955 to 2019. A time series of very-high-resolution aerial imagery was processed to highlight the changes of the island’s coastline. The overall length of natural shores, including beaches, decreased by 46% from 1955 to 2019 while man-made shores such as seawalls increased by 476%, and as of 2019 represented 61% of the coastline. This evolution alters sedimentary processes: the time series of aerial images highlights increased erosion in the vicinity of seawalls and embankments, leading to the incremental need to construct additional walls. In addition, the gradual removal of natural shoreline types modifies landscapes and may negatively impact marine biodiversity. Through documenting coastal changes on Bora Bora through time, this study highlights the impacts of man-made structures on erosional processes and underscores the need for sustainable coastal management plans in French Polynesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0146.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: Salt Marshes, Google Earth Engine, SVM, Distribution, China’s coast
Online: 5 April 2021 (14:28:19 CEST)
Based on the cloud platform of Google Earth Engine (GEE), this study selected Landsat 5/8 and Sentinel-2 remote sensing images and used Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification method to classify the 35 years of intertidal salt marshes in China, and verified the classification results in combination with field survey. Finally, combining with various driving factors, the reasons and laws affecting the changes of salt marshes species and area were discussed and analyzed. The main results of the study are as follows:The main types of salt marshes plants in China include Phragmites australis, Spartina alterniflora, Suaeda salsa, Scirpus mariquete, Tamarix chinensis, Cyperus malaccensis and Sesuvium portulacastrum. The results salt marshes classification indicated that 166999.32 ha in 1985, 172893.87 ha in 1990, 174952.29 ha in 1995, 125567.51 ha in 2000, 93257.97 ha in 2005, 102539.04 ha in 2010, 96302.92 ha in 2015, and 115722.75 ha in 2019. The main driving factors of salt marsh change from 1985 to 2015 are reclamation, mudflat aquaculture, climate change, coastal zone erosion, invasion of alien species, and natural competition and succession among salt marshes species. The results can be used to quantitatively analyze the salt marshes carbon storage in space and time, and provide data support for the protection of salt marsh wetlands, the restoration of ecological functions and the implementation of "carbon neutral".
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0767.v1
Subject: Keywords: onchocerciasis; perception; socio-environmental determinants; human ecology; coast; Tanzania
Online: 31 December 2020 (06:56:40 CET)
Onchocerciasis volvulus is the second highest infectious cause of blindness in the world, and is estimated to affect 37 million people, of whom 99% reside in sub-Saharan Africa. As a public health problem the disease is most closely associated with Africa, where it constitutes a serious obstacle to socio-economic development. Using the human ecology triad, this paper evaluates the dynamic interplay of population, habitat and behavioural factors in predicting perceived exposure to onchocerciasis among coastal inhabitants in Tanzania. Generalized linear models with log-log link function were fitted to cross-sectional survey data on 1253 individuals in three contiguous coastal regions. A significant proportion of respondents (28%) perceived that they were exposed to onchocerciasis. Residents in urban locations irrespective of wealth status were less likely to report living in onchocerciasis endemic environment compared with their rural counterparts. This is understandable given that urban areas of Tanga and Dar es Salaam are definitely non-endemic and perceived risk of onchocerciasis is related to the fact of living in an endemic area with active onchocercasis transmission. Individuals who had attained secondary (OR=0.51, p<0.01) or tertiary education (OR=0.37, p<0.001), and reported easy access to health facility (OR=0.53, p<0.001) were all less likely to report perceived exposure to onchocerciasis. This is not surprising because higher level of education and easy access to health facilities are characteristics of urban compared with rural areas. Policy implications suggest the need for the Tanzanian national neglected tropical disease control programme (TZNTDCP) to intensify health and educational campaigns at the community level and address susceptibility of vulnerable populations to the disease especially, for rural dwellers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: distance from coast; air temperature; land use; city size; Japan; Germany
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:57:14 CEST)
The relationship between city size, coastal land use and air temperature rise with distance from coast during summer day is analyzed using the meso-scale Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in five coastal cities in Japan with different sizes and coastal land use (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima and Sendai) and inland cities in Germany (Berlin, Essen and Karlsruhe). Air temperature increased as distance from the coast increased, reached its maximum, and then decreased slightly. In Nagoya and Sendai, the number of urban land use in coastal areas is less than the other three cities, where air temperature is a little lower. As a result, air temperature difference between coastal and inland urban area is small and the curve of air temperature rise is smaller than those in Tokyo and Osaka. In Sendai, air temperature in the inland urban area is the same as in the other cities, but air temperature in the coastal urban area is a little lower than the other cities, due to about one degree lower sea surface temperature influenced by the latitude. In three German cities, the urban boundary layer may not develop sufficiently because the fetch distance is not enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0215.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Cymothoida; marine fish parasite; South China Sea; east coast Malaysia; crustacean fish parasite
Online: 10 May 2021 (15:32:00 CEST)
A checklist of parasitic cymothoids from Malaysian waters is presented based on available literature and material collected from 2010 to 2020. Most of the collected specimens were recorded from waters of Terengganu, east coast of Peninsular Malaysia (facing South China Sea), whereas literature records were represented from Sarawak, along the Miri coast of northwest Borneo. The checklist comprises 18 species under 10 genera, seven of which are new records from Malaysia, which includes Anilocra nemipteri Bruce, 1987; Ceratothoa barracuda Martin, Bruce and Nowak, 2015; Ceratothoa carinata (Bianconi, 1869); Cymothoa epimerica Avdeev, 1979; Elthusa sigani Bruce, 1990; Joryma engraulidis (Barnard, 1936) and Renocila richardsonae Williams and Bunkley-Williams, 1992. Eight new host records are based on collected specimens: Anilocra nemipteri was dorsally attached on Nemipterus nemurus (Bleeker 1857), Nemipterus nematophorus (Bleeker 1854), Nemipterus tambuloides (Bleeker 1853), and Nemipterus thosaporni Russell 1991 (family Nemipteridae); Ceratothoa carinata was found in the buccal cavity of Decapterus macrosoma Bleeker 1851 (family Carangidae); Cymothoa eremita (Brunnich, 1783) was attached in the buccal cavity of Nemipterus tambuloides and Nemipterus furcosus (Valenciennes 1830); Elthusa sigani was found attached on Pterois russelli Bennett 1831 (family Scorpaenidae); and Renocila richardsonae was attached on the caudal fin of Upeneus japonicus (Houttuyn 1782) (family Mullidae). All cymothoid species listed here are known to have a Central Indo Pacific distribution, with some ranging as far as the western Indian Ocean. The cymothoid-host association is here listed from 28 fish families, with the most common reported from Carangidae (pompanos, jack mackerels, runners, scads), Engraulidae (anchovies) and Leiognathidae (ponyfishes, slipmouths). This paper is the first comprehensive treatment to update both verified literature data and deposited specimens, with a key for the family Cymothoidae in Malaysian waters.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: cross-shore profile; sediment transport rates; semi-enclosed sea; sandy coast; coastal erosion; dune development.
Online: 15 December 2020 (10:22:52 CET)
We report cross-shore profile evolution at Palanga, eastern Baltic Sea where short period waves dominate. Cross-shore profile studies began directly after a significant coastal erosion caused by storm “Anatoly” in December of 1999 and continued for a year. Further measurements were undertaken sixteen years later. Cross-shore profile ∆V(x) changes were described, and cross-shore transport rates Q(x) were calculated. A K-means clustering technique was applied to determine sections of the profile with the same development tendencies. Profile evolution was strongly influenced by the depth of closure which is constrained by a moraine layer and the presence of a groyne. The method used divided the profile into four clusters: the 1st cluster in the deepest water represents profile evolution limited by the depth of closure, and the 2nd and 3rd mostly are affected by processes induced by wind, wave and sea-water level changes. The most intensive sediment volume changes were observed directly after the coastal erosion. The largest sand accumulation was in the 4th profile cluster, which includes the upper beach and dunes. Seaward extension of the dune system caused a narrowing of the visible beach which has led to an increased sand volume (accretion) being misinterpreted as erosion
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0366.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: European Directive 2007/60/EC; sea level rise; coastal vulnerability; GIS; Portugal Coast; WMS; WebViewer
Online: 27 December 2019 (10:58:21 CET)
The sea level rise, a consequence of climate change, is one of the biggest challenges that countries and regions with coastal lowland areas will face in the medium term. This study proposes a methodology for assessing the vulnerability to sea level rise (SLR) on the Atlantic coast of Portugal mainland. Some scenarios of extreme sea level for different return periods and extreme flooding events were estimated for 2050 and 2100, as proposed by the European Union Directive 2007/60/EC. A set of physical parameters are considered for the multi-attribute analysis technique implemented by the Analytic Hierarchy Process, in order to define a Physical Vulnerability Index fundamental to assess coastal vulnerability. For each SLR scenario, coastal vulnerability maps, with spatial resolution of 20 m, are produced at national scale to identify areas most at risk of SLR, constituting key documents for triggering adaptation plans for such vulnerable regions. For 2050 and 2100, it is estimated 903 km2 and 1146 km2 of vulnerable area, respectively, being the district of Lisbon the most vulnerable district in both scenarios. Results are available through a Web Map Service, for Portuguese public entities, and through a web map viewer for public and communities in general.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0107.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: maximum storm tide; two-dimensional tide-surge modeling system; east coast of Taiwan; intensity of typhoon; bathymetric rise
Online: 28 February 2017 (13:00:56 CET)
A typhoon-induced storm surge is considered one of the most severe coastal disasters in Taiwan. However, the combination of the storm surge and the astronomical tide called the storm tide can actually cause extreme flooding in coastal areas. This study implemented a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model to account for the interaction between tides and storm surges on the coast of Taiwan. The model was validated with observed water levels at Sauo Fish Port, Hualien Port, and Chenggong Fish Port under different historical typhoon events. The model results are in reasonable agreement with the measured data. The validated model was then used to evaluate the effects of the typhoon's intensity, bathymetric change, and the combination of the typhoon’s intensity and bathymetric change on the maximum storm tide and its distribution along the east coast of Taiwan. The results indicated that the maximum storm tide rises to 1.92 m under a typhoon with an intensity of a 100-year return period. The maximum storm tide increased from a baseline of 1.26 m to 2.63 m for a 90% bathymetric rise at Sauo Fish Port under the conditions of Typhoon Jangmi (2008). The combination of the intensity of a typhoon with a 100-year return period and a 90% bathymetric rise will result in a maximum storm tide exceeding 4 m, 2 m, and 3 m at Sauo Fish Port, Hualien Port, and Chenggong Fish Port, respectively. We also found that the distribution of the maximum storm tide on the east coast of Taiwan can expand significantly subject to the bathymetric rise.