ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0227.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Other Keywords: coal fly ash; leachates; chemical species; pot culture experiments; translocation; bioconcentration
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:12:39 CET)
This study evaluated the physicochemical, mineralogical properties, mobile chemical species’ bioavailability and translocation in Brassica juncea and Spinacea oleracea L plants of a South African coal fired power utility. Coal fly ash (CFA) disposal is associated with various environmental and health risks including air, soil, surface and ground water pollution due to the leaching of toxic chemical species; these ends up in food webs affecting human health, while repeated inhalation causes bronchitis, silicosis, hair loss and lung cancer. The morphology, chemical, and mineralogical composition of CFA were determined using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray Diffraction, respectively. In pot culture experiments, S. oleracea L and B. juncea plants were grown in three sets of pots containing CFA (set 1), soil (set 2) and a mixture of CFA plus soil at ratio 1:1 (50% CFA: 50% soil) (set 3), while no plants were grown in set 4 as a control for the leachate samples. SEM showed that surface morphology of CFA has a lower degree of sphericity with irregular agglomerations of many particles. The XRF results revealed that CFA contains 43.65%, 22.68% and 10.89% of SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 respectively which indicate that the CFA is an alumino-silicate material. While XRD showed that the coal CFA contains mullite as a major phase followed by quartz mineral phases. Chemical species such as Fe, Mn, B, Ba and Zn were accumulated highly in most parts of the plant species. However, B. juncea showed higher potential to accumulate chemical species as compared to S. oleracea L. The bioconcentration and translocation factors (BF and TF) showed that B. juncea was the most effective in terms of bioconcentration and translocation of most of the chemical species. This indicates that B. juncea has potential in application for phytoremediation of CFA dumps and could contribute to remediation of CFA dumps and reduction of potential health and environmental impacts associated with CFA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0141.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: Vertical coal bunker; Coal given chamber; Floor heave; Wall-mounted coal bunker; Reinforcement; Self-bearing system
Online: 20 October 2017 (15:31:57 CEST)
Serious damage caused by floor heave in the coal given chamber of a vertical coal bunker is one of the challenges faced in underground coal mines. Engineering practice shows that it is more difficult to maintain the coal given chamber (CGC) than a roadway. More importantly, repairing the CGC during mining practice will pose major safety risks and reduce production. Based on the case of the serious collapse that occurred in the bearing structure of the CGC at the lower part of the 214# coal bunker in Xiashijie mine, China, this work analysed (i) the main factors influencing floor heave and (ii) the failure mechanism of the load-bearing structure in the CGC using FLAC2D numerical models and expansion experiment. The analysis results indicate that: the floor heave, caused mainly by mine water, is the basic reason leading to the instability and repeated failure of the CGC in the 214# coal bunker. Then a new coal bunker, without building the CGC, is proposed and put into practice to replace the 214# coal bunker. The FLAC3D software program is adopted to establish the numerical model of the wall-mounted coal bunker (WMCB), and the stability of the rock surrounding the WMCB is simulated and analysed. The results show that: (1) the rock surrounding the sandstone segment is basically stable. (2) The surrounding rock in the coal seam segment, which moves into the inside of the bunker, is the main zone of deformation for the entire rock mass surrounding the bunker. Then the surrounding rock is controlled effectively by means of high-strength bolt–cable combined supporting technology. According to the geological conditions of the WMCB, the self-bearing system, which includes (i) H-steel beams, (ii) H-steel brackets, and (iii) self-locking anchor cables, is established and serves as a substitute for the CGC to transfer the whole weight of the bunker to stable surrounding rock. The stability of the new coal bunker has been verified by field testing, and the coal mine has gained economic benefit to a value of 158.026174 million RMB over three years. The new WMCB thus made production more effective and can provide helpful references for construction of vertical bunkers under similar geological conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0333.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: steeply inclined and extremely thick coal seam; horizontal sublevel top-coal caving; gas prediction; numerical simulation
Online: 29 September 2019 (10:53:02 CEST)
In the steeply inclined and extremely thick coal seams (SIETCS) mined using the horizontal sublevel top-coal caving (HSTCC) method, the uncertainty of gas emission is a safety threat to the mining operations. In order to reduce the occurrence of accidents, the determination of gas emission is crucial. In this paper, we first proposed a prediction model for workers at the floor coalbed to calculate gas emission on site. We then put forward a finite element numerical simulation for researchers to predict gas emission from the floor coalbed. At last, we measured gas emitted from the floor coalbed of SIETCS in Wudong Coal Mine in a specific mining period and used the data to verify the applicability and accuracy of these two gas-emission prediction methods. The results showed that the gas emission from Wudong Coal Mine was 1.08 m3/min calculated based on the prediction model and 1.07 m3/min obtained using the user-defined integration method. Both methods have their own advantages, disadvantages and applicable objects, and are important in predicting gas emission from SIETCS mined using HSTCC method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0355.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Thermogravimetry; Thermal Degradation; Behaviour; Afuze; Coal; Nigeria
Online: 14 May 2021 (17:08:42 CEST)
This study presents a preliminary analysis of the chemical and thermal fuel properties of Afuze (AFZ) coal extracted from coalfields in Owan East Local Government Area of Edo State, Nigeria. The chemical properties of AFZ were examined by combined scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), whereas the thermal properties were deduced by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) under flash (50 °C/min heating rate) oxidative (combustion) and non-oxidative (pyrolysis) conditions. The microstructure and morphology analysis of AFZ revealed has a compact structure comprising small-to-large, irregular shaped and exfoliated grains with a vitreous appearance typically ascribed to metal elements (Ti and Fe) kaolinite, quartz, and other clay minerals. Chemical analysis revealed carbon, oxygen, aluminium, silicon, sulphur, calcium, titanium, and iron in major and minor (trace) quantities. Thermal analysis under oxidative and non-oxidative conditions revealed degradation occurs in three stages, namely; drying or demineralisation, devolatilization or maceral degradation and the formation of char/coke or ash. Lastly, the findings showed that the temperature range for the oxidative thermal degradation process (338.58 - 756.76 °C) was higher than the non-oxidative process (378.43 - 615.34 °C). This observation can be explained by the exothermic nature of the oxidative (combustion) process, which ensures greater heat supply required to thermally soften or degrade the maceral coal components. Overall, the oxidative process yielded the residual mass (RM = 21.97%) and mass loss (ML = 78.03%). The lower ML (49.03%) but higher RM (50.97%) observed during non-oxidative degradation of AFZ could be ascribed to the largely endothermic nature of the process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Obomkpa; macerals; vitrinite; coal; combustion; pyrolysis; Nigeria
Online: 19 April 2020 (13:00:08 CEST)
This study presents preliminary findings on the physicochemical, calorific, and thermal properties of a newly discovered coal from Obomkpa town in Aniocha-North Local Government Area of Delta State in Nigeria. The Obomkpa (BMK) coal sample was subjected to fuel characterisation through ASTM standards and techniques for determining elemental, proximate, and calorific coal properties. The results indicated that BMK coal contains high carbon, oxygen, volatile matter, fixed carbon, and ash. The higher heating value of BMK was 19.66 MJ/kg, which indicates it could be ranked as either lignite A or subbituminous C coal. The thermal properties indicated that BMK experienced significant mass loss (ML) under oxidative (combustion) and non-oxidative (pyrolysis) conditions due to thermal degradation of organic rock macerals (inertinite and vitrinite). Furthermore, BMK experienced mass loss (ML=59.27%–76.56%) along with residual mass (RM = 23.44–40.73%) under oxidative (combustion) and non-oxidative (pyrolysis) conditions. Thermal degradation occurred in three (3) stages; drying (30 °C to 200 °C), devolatilization (200 °C – 500 °C and 600 °C), and lastly, coke degradation and ash formation. Furthermore, the DTG peaks for the drying and devolatilization of BMK during the oxidative (combustion) process occurred at lower temperatures compared to the non-oxidative (pyrolysis) process. Hence, the results submit oxidative (combustion) is a more thermally efficient process compared to the non-oxidative (pyrolysis) process. Lastly, the findings indicate BMK is a potential feedstock material for future coal power generation, steel, iron ore or cement production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0477.v1
Subject: Materials Science, General Materials Science Keywords: hyper-coal, hydrogenation, spinnable pitch, carbon fiber
Online: 25 July 2018 (10:19:51 CEST)
The proper hydrogenation of Hyper-coal (HPC) using 1, 2, 3, 4-tetrahydroquinoline (THQ) was able to decrease the oxygen content and adjust the molecular structure of HPC for preparing the spinnable pitch with high softening point (SP). The spinnable pitch prepared from the THQ-soluble (QS) fraction of HPC as a precursor consisted more naphthenic carbon groups than that prepared from the 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) soluble (MNS) fraction of HPC. The HPC-QS derived pitch showed excellent spinnability even the SP of 260°C, and the tensile strength of the resultant carbon fiber was up to 1350 MPa with a diameter around 8 µm by only heat treatment at 800°C for 5 min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: mining coal mine; multi-loop magnetisation; array radiation
Online: 9 June 2019 (03:31:14 CEST)
Existing methods for detecting magnetic leakage signals from damaged wire ropes require axial saturation magnetisation, and the accuracy of the detection equipment depends on the saturation degree of magnetisation. Moreover, the expected magnetisation effect is usually difficult to achieve owing to the special characteristics of the rope structure, diameter, and operating environment of the wire rope. Consequently, in addition to other issues, the detection accuracy and versatility of the equipment are low. In this study, a method based on spatial multidimensional orthogonal array loop magnetisation for detecting mine wire rope defects is proposed. Firstly, a new sensor excitation structure model is developed. Then a method of radiant magnetic flux of permanent magnet array is analysed, and the influence law of the number of permanent radiant magnetic blocks on the magnetisation effect is studied. In addition, a method of wire rope detection based on the principle of clustering is investigated, according to which the influence law of the shape, structure, and size of the polyurethane device on the effect of magnetisation is discussed. Finally, through laboratory experiments, the test model and proposed method are verified. The results show that the magnetisation effect is better and more cost-effective when the number of permanent magnet radiation magnetic block is n=8, and the proposed detection method can effectively distinguish damaged wire rope joints. Furthermore, the proposed equipment achieved signal-to-noise ratio of the signals, improving the reliability of damage detection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0269.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: aerosols; carbonaceous spherical particles; coal braziers; morphology; stoves
Online: 22 May 2019 (08:46:34 CEST)
Residential coal combustion is one of the most significant sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the Highveld region of South Africa, significantly affecting the local and regional climate. In this study, we investigated single coal-burning particles emitted when using different fire-ignition techniques (top-lit up-draft vs bottom-lit up-draft) and air ventilation rates (defined by the number of air holes above and below the fire grate) in selected informal braziers. Aerosol samples were collected on nucleopore filters at the Sustainable Energy Technology and Research Centre Laboratory, University of Johannesburg. Individual particles (~700) were investigated using a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Two distinct forms of spherical organic particles (SOPs) were identified, one less oxidized than the other. The particles were further classified into "electronically" dark and bright. EDS analysis showed that 70% of the dark spherical organic particles had higher (~60%) relative oxygen content than in the bright SOPs. We quantified the morphology of spherical organic particles and classified them into four categories: ~50% are bare single particles; ~35% particles are aggregated and form diffusion accretion chains; 10% have inclusions, and 5% are deformed due to impaction on filter material during sampling. We conclude that there are two distinct kinds of coal burning spherical organic particles and that dark SOPs are less volatile than bright SOPs. We also show that these spherical organic particles are similar in nature and characteristics to tar balls observed in biomass combustion and that they have the potential to absorb sunlight thereby affecting the earth’s radiative budget and climate. This study provides insights into the mixing states, morphology, and possible formation mechanisms of these organic particles from residential coal combustion in informal stoves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0306.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coal; BTEX; hazardous air pollutants; domestic fuel burning
Online: 13 November 2018 (09:59:45 CET)
A D-grade type coal was burned under simulated domestic practices in a controlled laboratory set-up, in order to characterize emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); viz. benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX). Near-field concentrations were collected in a shack-like structure constructed using corrugated iron, simulating a traditional house found in informal settlements in South Africa. Measurements were carried out using the Synspec Spectras GC955 real-time monitor over a three-hour burn cycle. The 3-hour average concentrations (in µg/m3) of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, p-xylene and o-xylene were 919 ± 44, 2051 ± 91, 3838 ±19, 4245 41 and 3576 ± 49, respectively. The cancer risk for adult males and females in a typical SA household exposure scenario, was found to be 1.1 -1.2 and 110-120 folds higher than the US EPA designated risk severity indicator (1E-6), respectively. All four TEX compounds recorded the Hazard Quotient (HQ) of less than 1, indicating a low risk of developing related non-carcinogenic health effects. The HQ for TEX ranged from 0.001– 0.05, with toluene concentrations being the lowest and ethylbenzene the highest. This study has demonstrated that domestic coal burning may be a significant source of BTEX emission exposure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0030.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Other Keywords: Coal mine; Underground reservoir; Reservoir capacity; Theoretical model
Online: 3 September 2018 (11:55:39 CEST)
The coal mine underground reservoir is an appropriate solution between coal mining and groundwater resource protection and utilization. By calculating the storage capacity of a groundwater reservoir, the storage coefficient has been proved to be always an empirical value. Based on the mathematical derivation of the vertical fracture area ratio and the horizontal fracture area rate of the collapse zone and the fissure zone in the goaf area of the coal seam, the mathematical models of tem are derived, and the model for calculating the water storage coefficient is derived. The water storage coefficient derived from the theoretical model had more basis and more advanced than the traditional empirical value. By using this method, the practical calculation of No.1 underground reservoir of the DaLliuta Coalmine in Shenhua Shendong, has got a perfect matching with the actual groundwater storage capacity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0171.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coal tailing; cement; pozzolan; sleepers; slab track; railway
Online: 27 November 2017 (07:31:37 CET)
One source of kaolinite-rich wastes is from mine tailings and the generation of enormous volumes of mine tailings waste is standard practice in this industry. These volumes of waste are, at present, dumped, provoking significant environmental impact and transforming the environment. The impact of storing coal waste requires the study of eco-innovative solutions for the assessment of waste types. The present investigation has the objective of expanding the knowledge on the behavior of new siliceous-aluminum minerals with pozzolanic activity, of added value in the manufacture of similar cements. Four samples were characterized to determine their chemical, morphological and mineralogical composition. The samples were subjected to different thermal activation conditions for the transformation of an inert waste into a material with cementitious properties. XRD analysis have confirmed the total transformation of kaolinite into metakaolinite. The results have shown that after the activation process, the coal refuse presented good pozzolanic activity, meaning that it may be used as a pozzolanic addition in industrial cements, thereby removing high levels of contaminated waste from the environment. In subsequent investigations, research work will continue with the replication of cements with this pozzolanic addition for use in the manufacture of sleepers and slab track railway system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0678.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: coal wettability; microemulsion; contact angle; functional group; clay mineral
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:34:51 CEST)
To improve water injection effect, microemulsions (MEs) were used to wet coal seam compared with water and sodium dodecyl sulfate solution (SDS). Wetting effects were characterized by contact angle, X-ray diffraction, Fourier infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that the microemulsion has better spreadability on coal surface and has stronger wettability for coals of different ranks and different particle sizes than traditional wetting agents. The W/O type microemulsion is more affinity to coal than the O/W type and the bicontinuous type.Oxygen and hydrogen contents contributed to wetting. Different wetting agents have the greatest impact on the oxygen-containing functional group absorption zone of coal, but have little impact on the change of clay mineral composition.As the content of quartz increased, the content of montmorillonite was decreased, and the hydrophilicity of coal was increased. This research proposes new ideas for solving coal dust problems and reducing coal mine disasters.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: methane emissions; coal seam mining; gas engines; greenhouse gas
Online: 30 November 2019 (14:27:52 CET)
During the extraction of hard coal in Polish conditions, methane is emitted, which is referred to as mine gas. As a result of the desorption of methane, a greenhouse gas is released from coal seams. In order to reduce atmospheric emissions, methane from coal seams is captured by a methane drainage system. On the other hand, methane, which has been separated into underground mining excavations, is discharged into the atmosphere with a stream of ventilation air. For many years, Polish hard coal mines have been capturing methane to ensure the safety of the crew and the continuity of mining operations. As a greenhouse gas, methane has a significant potential, as it is more effective at absorbing and re-emitting radiation than carbon dioxide. The increase in the amount of methane in the atmosphere is a significant factor influencing global warming, however, it is not as strong as the increase in carbon dioxide. Therefore, in Polish mines, the methane-air mixture captured in the methane drainage system is not emitted to the atmosphere, but burned as fuel in systems, including cogeneration systems, to generate electricity, heat and cold. However, in order for such use to be possible, the methane-air mixture must meet appropriate quality and quantity requirements. The article presents an analysis of changes in selected parameters of the captured methane-air mixture from one of the hard coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland. The paper analyses the changes in concentration and size of the captured methane stream through the methane capturing system. The gas captured by the methane drainage system, as an energy source, can be used in cogeneration, when the methane concentration is greater than 40%. Considering the variability of CH4 concentration in the captured mixture, it was also indicated which pure methane stream must be added to the gas mixture in order for this gas to be used as a fuel for gas engines. The balance of power of produced electric energy in gas engines is presented. Possible solutions ensuring constant concentration of the captured methane-air mixture are also presented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0058.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: risk distribution; Mulawarman village; coal mining; environmental justice; Indonesia
Online: 5 August 2019 (08:27:43 CEST)
This study is aimed to explore the environmental risk posed by the unsustainable mining activities in Mulawarman village, East Kalimantan, and articulate the disproportionate impact from the perspective of environmental justice on how mining regulations affect the lives of a vulnerable community. A qualitative comparative analysis based on the legislation and administrative rules on coal mining, and a case study of Mulawarman village were adopted. The information was framed based (participatory) observation, and in-depth interview, and purposively conducted to six selected respondents. The result shows how the laws and regulations disadvantage the community and expose them to unequal treatment. The adverse effects of mining activities change the socio-environmental dynamics in this village. Being the breadbasket in 1997, Mulawarman villagers experience the loss of food self-sufficiency, and turn to the government and mining company for social welfare, and clean water. Also, inconsistent and incomplete regulations pertaining to mining, favor to serve the business interests before the environment and the local community. This results in severe encroachment upon community rights and leads to long-term conflicts between mining companies and local communities, and has weakened the capacity of local authorities to help the affected community to recover their rights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0069.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: coal; supercritical CO2; Gaussian process regression; machine learning; adsorption model
Online: 5 February 2020 (14:09:33 CET)
Deep coal beds have been suggested as possible usable underground geological locations for carbon dioxide storage. Furthermore, injecting carbon dioxide into coal beds can improve the methane recovery. Due to importance of this issue, a novel investigation has been done on adsorption of carbon dioxide on various types of coal seam. This study has proposed four types of Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) approaches with different kernel functions to estimate excess adsorption of carbon dioxide in terms of temperature, pressure and composition of coal seams. The comparison of GPR outputs and actual excess adsorption expresses that proposed models have interesting accuracy and also the Exponential GPR approach has better performance than other ones. For this structure, R2=1, MRE=0.01542, MSE=0, RMSE=0.00019 and STD=0.00014 have been determined. Additionally, the impacts of effective parameters on excess adsorption capacity have been studied for the first time in literature. According to these results, the present work has valuable and useful tools for petroleum and chemical engineers who dealing with enhancement of recovery and environment protection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0304.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electronic nose; wireless system; gas sensors; coal mines; processing; wireless
Online: 15 October 2018 (11:30:07 CEST)
This study describes the design and implementation of an electronic nose, which was applied to classify and identify hazardous gases generated in underground coal mines. For this purpose, an electrochemical sensor array was used to detect a set of toxic gases. This work illustrates the electronic components of a wireless multisensory system for the toxic gases detection on indoor environments (i.e., underground mines), which was performed with reduced size, low cost and low electrical consumption, in order to detect different compounds using the basic principle of operation of each component to be applied to the target gas. Furthermore, the sample collection, data communication and data processing in real time obtained an excellent performance for gas sensing and even to measure the concentration level of the chemical volatile compounds transmitted from different points of the detection zone. The results demonstrated that using a wireless electronic nose for toxic gases detection was possible to reach a success rate of discrimination of 97%, using principal components analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0146.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: acid mine drainage; bioremediation technology; sulfate reducing bacteria; coal mining
Online: 17 March 2017 (22:27:05 CET)
Sulfate, the main dissolved contaminant in acid mine drainage (AMD), is ubiquitous in watersheds affected by coal and metal mining operations worldwide. Engineered passive bioremediation systems (PBS) are low-cost technologies that remediate sulfate contamination by promoting (1) precipitation of sulfate-bearing compounds, such as schwertmannite and gypsum; and (2) microbially-mediated sulfate reduction (BSR) to sulfide with subsequent precipitation of sulfide minerals. In this study, chemical and sulfur isotopic data are used to infer multiple pathways for sulfate sequestration in the Tab-Simco PBS. By simultaneously monitoring sulfate concentrations and δ34SSO4 values at four sampling points across the PBS, we (1) identified that the organic layer within the bioreactor was the primary site of BSR processes contributing to sulfate sequestration; (2) observed seasonal variations of BSR processes; (3) estimated that initially the BSR processes contributed up to 30% to sulfate sequestration in the Tab-Simco bioreactor; and (4) determined that BSR contribution to sulfate sequestration continuously declined over the PBS operational lifetime. Together, our results highlight the utility of combining geochemical and microbial fingerprinting techniques to decipher complementary processes involved in sulfur cycling in a PBS as well as the value of adding the sulfur isotope approach as an essential tool to help understand, predict, prevent and mitigate sulfate contamination in AMD-impacted systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0099.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: Zhundong coal; char; CO2 gasification; alkali and alkaline earth metals
Online: 23 January 2017 (09:27:35 CET)
Coal gasification with carbon dioxide is a process for generating clean gaseous fuels and relieving greenhouse effect. Zhundong coal has high alkali and alkali earth metals (AAEMs) content, medium volatile and low ash in nature. Isothermal CO2 gasification of char derived from Zhundong coal (R-char) and char from acid washing R-char (AR-char) are performed in thermo-gravimetric analyzer (TGA). The effect of AAEMs is investigated on the gasification behavior in the range of temperatures 1073 K to 1273 K. The carbon conversion increases rapidly with increasing reaction temperature and CO2 concentration. R-char has high gasification rate and carbon conversion compared with AR-char. The accuracy of the free-model approach for calculating activation energy at different conversions is validated by compared with different kinetic models (volume reaction model, distributed activation energy model). Moreover, R-char gasification with CO2 shows a compensation effect as the Arrhenius parameters (EA and k0) increase or decrease simultaneously.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0231.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Coal-fired Thermal Plants; CFD modelling; Pollution; Particulate matter; Sulphur dioxide
Online: 11 July 2020 (08:42:34 CEST)
Coal-fired thermal plants (CTPP) are known to pollute the atmosphere with emission of many greenhouse gases and particulate matter. The power generation from these thermal plants cannot be stopped completely because it forms the backbone of the grid power supply. It is necessary to study the dispersion patterns of pollutants that affect the health of the people. The dispersion patterns are location specific since they depend on local meteorological conditions. In this study, the dispersion of particulate matter (PM) and sulphur dioxide (SO2) from a CTPP with 275 m high stack are studied under different atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) of neutral, stable and unstable conditions up to a distance of 30 km from the stack. The plume of the PM spreads under all conditions. During some parts of the day, PM settles around the stack while at other times PM keeps suspending in the air for the full distance under study. Sulphur dioxide dilutes to concentrations below the detection limits in about 12-13 km from the stack for neutral and unstable ABL whereas for the stable ABL, the dispersion is up to 30 km. The 24 h weighted average concentration of sulphur dioxide, at 10 m height from the ground, is 14.2 mg/m3 at a distance of 25 kms from the CTPP, which is comparable with the value of 9.2 mg/m3 measured at the Air Quality Stations located around the same distance. Based on the results policy changes that need to be implemented are suggested.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geology Keywords: pore-fracture networks; coal-facies; coalbed methane reservoir; Sanjiang-Mulinghe basin
Online: 18 January 2020 (10:15:20 CET)
Pore-fractures network play a key role in coalbed methane (CBM) accumulation and production, while the impacts of coal facies on the pore-fractures network performance are still poorly understood. In this work, the research on the pore-fracture occurrence of 38 collected coals from Sangjiang-Muling coal-bearing basins with multiple techniques including mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), micro-organic quantitative analysis, and optic microscopy, and its variation controlling of coal face were studied. The MIP curves of 38 selected coals indicating pore structures were subdivided into three typical types including type I of predominant micropores, type Ⅱ of predominant micropores and macropores with good connectivity and type Ⅲ of predominant micropores and macropores with poor connectivity. For coal facies, there are three various coal facies were distinguished, which include lake shore coastal wet forest swamp, the upper delta plain wet forest swamp, tidal flat wet forest swamp with Q-cluster analysis and tissue preservation index - gelification index (TPI-GI) and Wood index - groundwater influence index (WI -GWI). The results show there is positive relationship between tissue preservation index (TPI), wood index (WI) and mesopores (102nm-103nm), while a negative relationship between TPI, WI and macropores/fractures. In addition, groundwater level fluctuations can control the development of type C and D fractures, and the frequency of type C and D fractures shows an ascending trend with increasing GWI, which may be caused by the mineral hydration of the coal. Finally, from the perspective of the pore-fractures occurrence in CBM reservoirs, the wet forest swamp of upper delta plain is considered to be the optimization areas for Sanjiang-Mulinghe coal-bearing basins by a comparative study of various coal facies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Complicated structural region; Directional drilling; Grouting reinforcement; Coal floor; Karst aquifer
Online: 7 June 2018 (16:07:36 CEST)
Water inrush from coal floor constitutes one of the main disasters in mine construction and mine production, which always brings high risks and losses to the coal mine safe production. As the mining depth of coal fields in North China gradually increased, especially in the complicated structural region, the threat posed by limestone karstic water of coal floor to the safe stoping of mines has become increasingly prominent. In this paper, the Taoyuan coalmine was taken as an example, for which, the directional borehole grouting technology was utilized to reinforce the coal seam floor prior to mining. Also, the factors affecting the grouting effect were analyzed. These were the geological structure, the crustal stress and the range of slurry diffusion. The layout principle of grouting drilling was put forward and the directional drilling structure was designed. The water level observations in the end hole indicated that the target stratum was accurate and reliable. The effect of grouting was validated through the audio frequency electric perspective method and the holedrilling in the track trough. The results demonstrated that the effect of grouting in third limestone and the rock stratum above the third limestone of coal seam floor was apparent. Simultaneously, no water inrush occurred following the actual mining of the working face, which further demonstrated that the grouting reinforcement effect was apparent. The research findings were of high significance for the prevention and control of floor water disaster and water conservation in deep complex structural areas.
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: transplanted trees; soil microbe diversity; coal mining subsidence areas; the loess plateau
Online: 23 September 2019 (00:44:51 CEST)
Soil microbial diversity in areas affected by coal mining subsidence is closely associated with vegetation restoration. In this study, we compared the diversity of soil bacteria and fungi under different vegetation restoration modes in the subsidized Daliuta coal mining region in western China. The dominant bacteria, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria, were found at abundances of 29.43–34.68%, 15.87–24.75%, 13.09–19%, and 12.06–15.36%, respectively. The dominant fungi, Ascomycetes and Zygomycetes, had abundances of 23.96–71.08% and 10.42–56.26%, respectively. The diversity indices (Sobs, Shannon, and Chao1) of the rhizosphere soil bacteria and fungi were significantly lower in the primary Stipa breviflora phytocommunity than in the phytocommunities of transplanted trees. Among physicochemical soil parameters, total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), water content (WC), and pH affected soil bacterial diversity, and available phosphorus (AP) and TN affected bacterial community structure the most. Furthermore, WC affected soil fungal diversity, whereas TP and TN mostly affected the fungal community structure. However, edaphic factors did not uniformly affect all microbial groups. Although TN, WC, and AP significantly influenced the species richness of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria (p<0.05), TP was significantly negatively correlated with species richness in Acomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota (p<0.05). However, TN influenced the species richness of Zygomycota (p<0.05) . Furthermore, we found that the rhizosphere microbial diversity of the CK phytocommunity differed from that of the transplanted tree communities in the study area; i.e., the transplanted trees promoted soil microbial diversity in phytocommunities, and moreover, different edaphic factors varied in their effect on the community composition of rhizosphere bacteria and fungi. We will continue to monitor the soil microbial diversity in the study area with the goal to provide guidance for environmental remediation of areas affected by coal mining subsidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0073.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Artificial restoration; ecological restoration; coal mining subsidence; semi–arid; soil microbial community
Online: 3 August 2018 (15:48:23 CEST)
Increased attention has been paid to the influence of coal mining subsidence on ecological environment. Restoration of ecosystem in damaged mining area is critical for restoring disturbed environment. The comparing of plant communities and microbial communities in the artificial restoration and natural restoration areas provides an effective method for evaluating the restoration effects. However, such studies are limited in coal mining subsidence restoration areas. Subsidence area in Shendong mining area, located in the semi-arid region of Western China, was restored from 2003 with 5 ecological restoration plant species. In July 2017, the comparison and analysis of plant and microbial communities were conducted at the artificial restoration areas (AR) and the natural remediation areas (NR). The results showed that the artificial ecological restoration in Shendong mining area has achieved some success, but it has not recovered to a similar ecosystem before the destruction. A higher plant species, coverage and bacterial community diversity were observed in AR. However, these features have lower similarity compared with those in NR sites. Potential soil factors, such as pH, moisture content, total carbon content, organic matter, nitrogen and bulk density, have a greater impact on soil bacterial community structure and diversity. In the ecological restoration of the mining area, attention should be paid to the restoration of soil properties in the mining area. This study can provide theoretical guidance for more scientific ecological restoration in the damaged mining area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0296.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: semi-arid steppe region; large-scale coal-power base; landscape ecological classification
Online: 23 April 2018 (12:48:59 CEST)
The ecological background condition of the semi-arid steppe region (SASR) is extremely fragile. It is recognized that the development of coal and electricity power is a kind of strong human interference behavior for regional landscape ecology. Landscape ecological classification (LEC) is the premise of landscape ecology research of the mining area. The current research on the SASR and grassland LEC of coal-power base is relatively less, but still remains uncertainty concerning how to stratify and classify urban mining landscapes into units of ecological significance at spatial scales appropriate for management. This study is based on hierarchy theory, scale theory, landscape process, the patch-corridor-matrix model, the network, the theory of multiple planning integration and the principle of remote sensing. According to the comprehensive principle, principles of the combining of structure and function, principle of the combining human-ominated and natural landscape, principle of emphasis, and principle of combining qualitative analysis with quantitative research of LEC in large-scale coal-power base(LSCPB). On the basis of occurrence method land classification, fully consider the ecological attributes of the land, integration pattern, processes and function theory of the landscape ecology, the LEC system of the LSCPB in the SASR has been constructed by using top-down decomposition classification method. Empirical research of the Victory and Mindong No.1 mining areas of Shenhua Group shows that the classification system constructed in this paper can meet the requirements of LEC and fully reflect the status of landscape ecology of LSCPB in SASR. This study can provide theoretical guidance for the landscape ecology of LSCPB, while also supporting a theoretical reference for the LEC research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0197.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: carbon intensity; coal consumption; co-integration test; Granger causality; error correction model
Online: 27 March 2017 (10:33:34 CEST)
Co-integration and Causality was built to conduct studies on causality relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption leading to providing important basis for the transition to a low carbon economy. The EG two-step method was performed to study the relation between carbon intensity and coal consumption of China during 1990-2015 and the co-integration and Granger test was constructed to build up the co-integration and error correction models for analysis of the interaction between carbon intensity and coal consumption. The results showed that in long term there is a stable co-integration relation and a positive correlation between carbon intensity and coal consumption; whereas fluctuations exist in short term and there is a one-way Granger causality of carbon intensity with respect to coal consumption.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0068.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Composite ecosystem; Carbon neutralization; Coal-fired power; Environmental management zoning; Coordination and control
Online: 3 November 2021 (09:00:42 CET)
The total amount of greenhouse gas emissions directly or indirectly generated by thermal power enterprises at any given time can be offset through afforestation, energy conservation and emission reduction. The present situation and control methods of CO2 emission in China's coal-fired thermal power industry are introduced. The complex ecosystem is a unity of ecological functions composed of human society, economic activities and natural conditions. In the context of carbon neutrality and based on the theory of composite ecosystem, this paper divides the coal-fired thermal power plants in China into environmental management zones, calculates the atmospheric environmental capacity, and puts forward the concept of regional atmospheric environmental capacity, classification and zoning control. Finally, the management and control units are classified, and differentiated management and control requirements are put forward to provide a reference for regional air quality standard planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0536.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: open-pit coal mine; dewatering; groundwater level; vadose zone; moisture movement; capillary water
Online: 24 February 2021 (09:55:58 CET)
Long-term dewatering of groundwater is a necessary operation for mining safety in open-pit coal mines, while extensive dewatering might cause ecological problems due to dramatical changes of moisture movement in the soil, especially in ecological-fragile areas. This paper presents a quantitative methodology to evaluate the impact of the coal mining operation on moisture movement in the vadose zone by taking the Baorixile open-pit coal mine as an example. A long-term in-situ experiments（from 2004 to 2018), laboratory analysis and numerical modelling were conducted to analyse the mechanisms and relationship among the dropping groundwater level, the vadose-zone moistures, and the ecological responses in the grassland area. The experiment data and modelling results suggest that groundwater level dropping during open-pit mining operation has limited influence on the vadose zone, exhibiting a variation of capillary water zone within a depth of 3 m while the vadose zone and soil water zone were at least 16 m deep. The critical evaporation depth of ground water is 8 m. The long-term influence radius of groundwater dewatering is about 2.72 km during the Baorixile mining operation, and the groundwater level change mainly influences the lower part of the intermediate vadose zone and the capillary water zone below 16 m, with little influence on the moisture contents in the soil water zone where the roots of shallow vegetation grow. The results from this study provide useful insight for sustainable development of coal mining in ecological-fragile areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0222.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; Nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; Automobile, Coal combustion, Seasonal change; Long-range transport
Online: 12 January 2021 (14:06:16 CET)
PM2.5 and PM>2.5 were separately collected in Kanazawa, Japan in every season from the spring of 2017 to the winter of 2018, and nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and six nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs) were determined by HPLC with fluorescence and chemiluminescence detections, respectively. Atmospheric concentrations of both PAHs and NPAHs showed seasonal changes (highest in the winter and lowest in the summer), which were different from the variations of TSP and PM2.5 (highest in the spring). Contributions of major sources to combustion-derived particulate (Pc) in PM2.5 were calculated by the NP-method using pyrene and 1-nitropyrene as representative markers of PAHs and NPAHs, respectively. The annual average concentration of Pc accounted for only 2.1% of PM2.5, but showed the same seasonal variation as PAHs. The sources of Pc were automobiles (31%) and coal heating facilities/industries (69%). The source of Pyr was almost entirely coal heating facilities/industries (98%). A backward trajectory analysis showed that automobile-derived Pc was mainly from Kanazawa and its surroundings and that coal heating facilities-derived Pc was transported from city areas in central and northern China in the winter and during the Asian dust event in the spring. These results show that large amounts of PAHs were long-range transported from China in the winter. Even in spring when the coal heating season was over in China, PAHs came over to Japan after Asian dust storms passed through Chinese city areas. The main contributor of NPAHs was automobiles in Kanazawa and its surroundings. The recent Pc concentrations were much lower than those in 1999. This decrease was mostly attributed to the decrease in the contribution of automobiles. Thus, changes of atmospheric concentrations of Pc, PAHs and NPAHs in Kanazawa were strongly affected not only by the local emissions but also long-range transport from China.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0207.v1
Subject: Engineering, General Engineering Keywords: deep mining; coal seam floor; unloading disturbance; space–time difference; stress shell; mechanical mechanism
Online: 16 April 2018 (11:29:05 CEST)
Failure characteristics induced by unloading disturbance and the corresponding mechanical mechanism of the coal seam floor are important theoretical bases for water-bursting prevention from the floor of the coal seam and rock burst alarm in deep mining. However, the existing two-dimensional ground-pressure-control theory based on shallow mining cannot sufficiently guide deep-mining practices. In this study, the redistribution of mining-induced stress field in rocks surrounding the longwall face and mechanical behaviors of strata in deep mining are investigated through a combination of numerical simulation, physical simulation, and field measurement. Results demonstrate that mining-induced stress fields in the floor of the longwall face differ in space and time. Vertical stress unloading from top to bottom of the floor and horizontal stress unloading are relatively low. A concentration zone of high horizontal stress exists at stope boundaries. The critical yield load of rock stratum in the floor is determined through thin plate yield theory. Under the combined effect of concentrated high horizontal and vertical resilience stresses, strata in the floor fracture from seam to seam if the load increases to the minimum critical buckling value. Fractured strata slide along the fracture surface, which leads to floor heave. The stope floor shows evident time-delay progressive failure characteristics. The stress shell in the stope floor in deep mining is found to be a sensitive mechanical parameter that produces three-dimensional ground-pressure behavior in the floor. This ground-pressure behavior in the stope floor is controlled by the existence of the corresponding stress shell and effects induced by its space–time evolution. This study provides theoretical basis for the dynamic control of a hazard-inducing environment in engineering and minimizing or altering disaster-occurrence conditions during the construction engineering of the coal seam floor.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0029.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: coal-fired power plants; waste heat utilization; thermodynamic analysis; exergy analysis; techno-economic analysis
Online: 12 July 2017 (15:18:32 CEST)
In this paper, an improved system to efficiently utilize the low-temperature waste heat (WHUS) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants is proposed based on heat cascade. The essence of the proposed system is that the waste heat of exhausted flue gas is not only used to preheat air for assisting coal combustion as usual but also to heat up feedwater and the low-pressure steam extraction. Preheated by both the exhaust flue gas in the boiler island and the low-pressure steam extraction in the turbine island, thereby part of the flue gas heat in the air preheater can be saved and introduced to heat the feedwater and the high-temperature condensed water. Consequently, part of the high-pressure steam is saved for further expansion in the steam turbine, which obtains additional net power output. Based on the design data of a typical 1000 MW ultra-supercritical coal-fired power plant in China, in-depth analysis of the energy-saving characteristics of the optimized WHUS and the conventional WHUS is conducted. When the optimized WHUS is adopted in a typical 1000 MW unit, net power output increases by 19.51 MW, exergy efficiency improves to 45.46%, and net annual revenue reaches 4.741 million USD. In terms of the conventional WHUS, these aforementioned performance parameters are only 5.83 MW, 44.80% and 1.244 million USD, respectively. The research of this paper can provide a feasible energy-saving option for coal-fired power plants.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0021.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Methane emission; Spontaneous combustion of coal; Sealing the air leakage; Mining fractures; Inorganic solidified foam
Online: 1 August 2018 (12:17:02 CEST)
Abstract: Unusual methane emission and spontaneous combustion of coal induced by the air leakage are both hazards during mining. The most common practice has been to improve mine safety is sealing the mining fractures. In this paper, the methane and geology, coal spontaneous combustion characteristics and the coexistence of methane emission and spontaneous combustion of coal were analyzed. The preparation system of inorganic solidified foam (ISF) in field applications is studied and the working principle of generating device consists of foam generator and mixer was expounded. The technical plan of site construction is that the foam fluids was injected to respectively seal the mining fractures behind hydraulic supports, the cavities of air return corner, and the fractures nearby the coal pillar. After the foam fluids injection, the two stress values in the coal pillar eventually maintained above 15.5Mpa and 13Mpa, respectively. It indicated that the ISF can enhance the bearing stress ability of the coal pillar by transforming the stress state from two dimensional to three dimensional. The methane concentration in the air return corner and air return roadway declined significantly to 0.63% and 0.25%. The differential pressure inside and outside of the 4301(1) goaf fluctuated between -100pa to 150pa and the concentration of CO and O2 declined to 9ppm and 6%. The CO concentration in the air return corner finally reached a stable level of 6ppm. What that all means, the foam fluids can seal the air leakage and inhibit spontaneous combustion of coal effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0149.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: multi-layer hard roof; failure of overlying strata; ground pressure behaviour; longwall top coal caving
Online: 11 April 2018 (12:51:34 CEST)
In the extra-thick coal seams and multi-layered hard roofs, the longwall hydraulic support yielding, coal face spalling, strong deformations of goaf-side entry, and severe ground pressure dynamic events typically occur at the longwall top coal caving longwall faces. Based on the Key strata theory an overburden caving model is proposed here to predict the multilayered hard strata behaviour. The proposed model together with the measured stress changes in coal seam and underground observations in Tongxin coal mine provides a new idea to analyse stress changes in coal and help to minimise rock bursts in the multi-layered hard rock ground. Using the proposed primary Key and the sub-Key strata units the model predicts the formation and instability of the overlying strata that leads to abrupt dynamic changes to the surrounding rock stress. The data obtained from the vertical stress monitoring in the 38 m wide coal pillar located adjacent to the longwall face indicates that the Key strata layers have a significant influence on ground behaviour. Sudden dynamically driven unloading of strata was caused by the first caving of the sub-Key strata while reloading of the vertical stress occurred when the goaf overhang of the sub-Key strata failed. Based on this findings several measures were recommended to minimise the undesirable dynamic occurrences including pre-split of the hard Key strata by blasting and using the energy consumption yielding reinforcement to support the damage prone gate road areas. Use of the numerical modelling simulations was suggested to improve the key theory accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0316.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: Horizontal well; Coal bed methane reservoir; Apparent permeability modulus; Pseudo-steady state diffusion; Pressure transient analysis
Online: 16 August 2021 (10:43:16 CEST)
Abstract: Coal bed methane (CBM) reservoirs are complex systems whose properties differ from those of conventional reservoirs. Coal seams are dual-porosity systems that comprise the porosities of the matrix and cleat system. Gas in the coal seams can be stored as free gas in the cleat system and as adsorbed gas in the porous medium. The flow mechanisms of the natural gas through the formation include desorption, diffusion, and Darcy’s flow regimes. The permeability of CBM reservoirs is more sensitive to pressure variations than conventional gas reservoirs. To study the flow behavior of CBM reservoirs it is mandatory to use a model that considers their unique characteristics. The objective of this study was to propose a physical and mathematical model of production performance for horizontal wells in CBM reservoirs whose permeability is dependent on pressure. A solution for the model was obtained by applying Pedrosa´s transformation, perturbation theory, Laplace transformation, the point source method, and Sthefest´s algorithm. The solution to this problem was validated with previous work thoroughly. The type curves of the model were built and the pressure transient behavior of the model was analyzed and discussed. The effects of several parameters on pressure behavior were also discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201705.0186.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: Air pollution; coal-fired thermal power plant; oil thermal power plant; geocoded; lung cancer; bladder cancer; North-eastern Italy
Online: 20 June 2017 (08:50:26 CEST)
This study investigated the risk of lung and bladder cancers in people residing in proximity of a coal-oil-fired thermal power plant in an area of north-eastern Italy, covered by a population-based cancer registry. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) by sex, age, and histology were computed according to tertiles of residential exposure to benzene, nitrogen dioxide (NO2), particular matter, and sulfur dioxide (SO2) among 1076 incident cases of lung and 650 cases of bladder cancers. In men of all ages and in women under 75 years of age, no significant associations were observed. Conversely, in women aged >75 years significantly increased risks of lung and bladder cancers were related to high exposure to benzene (IRR for highest vs. lowest tertile: 2.00 for lung cancer and 1.94 for bladder cancer) and NO2 (IRR: 1.72 for lung cancer; and 1.94 for bladder cancer). In these women, a 1.71-fold higher risk of lung cancer was also related to a high exposure to SO2. The findings of this descriptive study indicated that air pollution may have a role with regard to the risk of lung and bladder cancers, limited to women aged ≥ 75 years. Such increased risk warrants further analytical investigations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0223.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: carbon emissions; energy consumption; technology efficiency; Gini index; generalised entropy index; fossil fuels; non-fossil fuels; petroleum; coal; natural gas
Online: 16 February 2020 (15:20:21 CET)
Primary energy consumption is one of the key drivers of global CO2 emissions that, in turn, heavily depend on the efficiency of involved technologies. Either the improvement in technology efficiency or the expansion of non-fossil fuel consumption require large investments. The planning and financing of such investments, by policy makers or global energy firms, require, in turn, reliable measures of associated global spreads and their evolution in time. In this paper, our main contribution is the introduction of index measures for accessing global spreads (that is, measures of inequality or inhomogeneity in the statistical distribution of a related quantity of interest) of technology efficiency and CO2 emission in primary energy consumption. These indexes are based on the Gini index, as used in economical sciences, and generalised entropy measures. Regarding primary energy sources, we consider petroleum, coal, natural gas and non-fossil fuels. Between our findings, we attest some stable relations in the evolution of global spreads of technology efficiency and CO2 emission, and a positive relation between changes in global spreads of technology efficiency and use of non-fossil fuel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0098.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: atmospheric aerosol; municipal and traffic emissions; natural sources; enrichment factor; coal and gasoline combustion; 24-h concentrations; diurnal variability; PX-375; XRF analysis
Online: 5 April 2021 (11:17:30 CEST)
The paper presents data from a monthly campaign for the elemental composition of PM10 in a specific receptor Kotórz Mały (Opole Voivodeship) located in the vicinity of a moderately inhabited rural area, measured in one-hour samples with the use of the PX-375 analyzer by the Horiba company. The hourly variability of SO2, NO, NO2, CO, O3 concentrations as well as the variability of meteorological parameters were also determined. On average, during the entire measurement period, the elements related to PM10 can be arranged in the following order: As<V<Ni<Pb<Cr<Mn<Cu<Ti<Zn<K<Fe<Ca<Al<Si<S. Trace elements, including toxic elements, such as As, V, Ni, Pb, Cr, Mn, were present in low concentrations, not exceeding 10 ng/m3 (average daily value). These elements had fairly even concentrations, daily and hourly. The concentrations of the main elements in the PM10 in the receptor are subject to strong hourly changes related not only to changes in the structure of the sources identified in the statistical analysis but mainly to wind speed and direction changes (soil and sand particles pick-up and inflow of pollutants from coal combustion). It has been shown that the transport emission in the receptor can have an intense effect on PM10 in the afternoon.