REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; influenza; co-infections; risks; vaccine.
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:13:17 CEST)
The 2022-2023 influenza season in Romania was characterized by high pediatric hospitalization rates, predominated by influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Lowered population immunity to influenza after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent stoppage of influenza circulation, particularly in children who had limited pre-pandemic exposures, influenced hospitalization among children immunosuppressed, and patients with concurrent medical conditions who are at increased risk for developing severe forms of influenza. This study focused on the characteristics of influenza issues among paediatric patients, as well as the relationship between different influenza virus types and viral and bacterial coinfections and illness severity in the 2022-2023 season after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We conducted a retrospective clinical analysis on 301 cases of influenza in pediatric inpatients (age ≤ 18 years), hospitalized at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Balș" IX Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinical Section between October 2022 and February 2023. The most significant age group was 57.8% representing children between one to four years old and female. The average clinical forms were found in 61.7%, whereas severe versions represented 18.2% of cases. Most of the complications were respiratory (acute interstitial pneumonia, 76.1%), hematological (72.1%), represented by intra-infectious and deficiency anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), 33.6% were digestive, such as diarrheal disease, liver cytolysis syndrome, and the acute dehydration syndrome associated with electrolyte imbalance (71.4%). Severe complications were associated with a risk of unfavorable evolution: acute respiratory failure and neurological complications (convulsions, encephalitis). No deaths were reported. We noticed that the flu season 2022-2023 was characterized by the association of co-infections (viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic) more frequent than in previous years (26.2% vs. 16%), which evolved more severely, with prolonged hospitalization and more complications (p<0.05), and time of use of oxygen therapy was statistically significant (p > 0.05); influenza vaccination in this group was zero. In conclusion, coinfections with respiratory viruses increase the severity of the pediatric population's immunity to influenza, especially among young children who are more vulnerable to developing a serious illness. All people above the age of six months should get vaccinated against influenza to prevent the illness and its severe complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1341.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SRDS; Co-infections; COVID-19 fatality; co-evolution of virulence
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:49:30 CEST)
The severe respiratory distress syndrome (SRDS) has been a significant clinical issue in modern respiratory medicine. Its role in COVID-19 pandemic is not well defined. Outside-the-hospital SRDS is usually community-acquired septic pneumonia; however, in-hospitals incidences are complicated by co-infections. While SRDS is genetically selected in European and African origins, these are not clear in Middle East, particularly in COVID-19 backgrounds. There is a severe paucity in high quality data on correlations between COVID-19, ARDS, co-infectome, and patient demographics. We have conducted a comprehensive investigation on 298 patients for associations of SRDS, coinfections, and patient demographics on COVID-19 patients’ outcomes. Of these, 9.4% (n=28) had SRDS, and the rest (90.6%) had not. 54% of those with SRDS died while 84% survived; SRDS fatality was highly significant (Chi-square test P-value = 0.00000246). Irrespective of gender, the age of patients was significantly associated with SRDS (72.9 +/-8.9) compared to those without it (56.2 +/-15.1). However, there was no significant difference neither in the age of admitted patients before COVID-19 (58.5 +/-15.3) and during COVID-19 (57.2 +/-15.5) nor in the gender and COVID-19 fatality (Fisher Exact test 2-sided 1.000, 1-sided .546) ruling out that SRDS age-specificity were selected by virus susceptibility. A 100% of SRDS patients without bacterial co-infections survived while only 25% of those with co- infectome did not; this association was highly significant (P value= 0.00041). Co-infections alone without underlying SRDS was also associated with high fatality among patients (P value= 0.00000000076). Almost all COVID-19 patients without co-infectome (99.2%) survived while 28% of those with bacterial co-infection died. The major bacterial pathogens that potentially predisposed to SRDS, were Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli either alone or in a mixed infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae were predominant species identified during SRDS attack. Thus, Gram-negative co-infectome potentially induced fatal SRDS aggravating COVID-19 outcome. These findings have significant clinical implications in specific differential diagnosis of SRDS syndromes for subsequent empiric therapy and patient management strategies. Future vertical investigation for similar mechanisms of cytokine-induced SRDS by Gram negative pathogens is imperative since hypervirulent strains are rapidly circulating in the region. The study is limited by a single center study confined to Ha’il hospitals; large scale investigation in major national hospitals would gain more insights.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0236.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Microsporidia, Metchnikovellida, hyperparasites, co-occurring infections, host-parasite relationships
Online: 13 December 2022 (09:48:50 CET)
Metchnikovellids (Microsporidia: Metchnikovellida) are poorly studied hyperparasitic micro-sporidia that live in gregarines inhabiting the intestines of marine invertebrates, mostly poly-chaetes. Our recent studies showed that the diversity of the metchnikovellids might be signifi-cantly higher than previously thought, even within a single host. Four species of metchnikovellids were found in the gregarines inhabiting the gut of the polychaete Pygospio elegans from littoral populations of the White and Barents Seas: the eugregarine Polyrhabdina pygospionis is the host for Metchnikovella incurvata and M. spiralis, while the archigregarine Selenidium pygospionis is the host for M. dogieli and M. dobrovolskiji. The most common species in the White Sea is M. in-curvata, while M. dobrovolskiji prevails in the Barents Sea. The gregarines within a single worm could be infected with different metchnikovellid species. However, co-infection of one and the same gregarine with several species of metchnikovellids has never been observed. The difference in prevalence and intensity of metchnikovellid invasion apparently depends on the features of the life cycle and on the development strategies of individual species.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.2138.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Northeast India; scrub typhus; Orientia tsutsugamushi; clinical presentations; co-infections; diagnosis; genetic diversity; entomology
Online: 31 July 2023 (15:59:53 CEST)
Scrub typhus (ST) is one of the most neglected tropical diseases, a leading cause of acute undifferentiated febrile illness in areas of the ‘tsutsugamushi triangle’, diagnosed frequently in South Asian countries. The bacteria Orientia tsutsugamushi is the causative agent of the disease, which enters to human body through the bite of trombiculid mite (Chigger) of the genus Leptotrombidium deliense.The diagnosis of the disease becomes challenging as its early symptoms mimic other febrile illnesses like dengue, influenza, and corona viruses. Lack of rapid, reliable, and cost-effective diagnostic methods further complicates the identification process. Northeast India, a mountainous region with a predominantly rural tribal population, has witnessed a resurgence of scrub typhus cases in recent years. Various ecological factors, including rodent population, habitat characteristics, and climatic conditions, influence its prevalence. Entomological investigations have confirmed the abundance of vector mites, highlighting the importance of understanding their distribution and the probability of transmission of scrub typhus in the region. Proper diagnosis, awareness campaigns, and behavioral interventions are essential for controlling scrub typhus outbreaks and reducing its impact on public health in Northeast India. Further research and community-based studies are necessary to accurately assess the disease burden and implement effective prevention strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0573.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; HCAIs; hospital acquired infections; nosocomial infections; statistical analysis
Online: 24 September 2020 (08:19:38 CEST)
Statistical data on officially registered cases of health care-associated infections (HCAIs) in Ukraine in the period 2009-2019 have been analysed. On average, 5089±756 cases of HCAIs were registered annually. Odessa region of Ukraine is the leading country in the number of reported cases. The majority of HCAIs cases involve surgical and therapeutic invasive interventions and perinatal HCAIs. On average, 78.0±5.8 % of HCAIs cases involved adults. The estimated minimum number of HCAIs in Ukraine was expected to be about 1 million per year. Official statistics on registered cases of HCAIs in Ukraine do not reflect reality, so the system of registration and investigation of HCAIs in Ukraine needs to be reformed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0672.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: breakthrough invasive fungal infections; invasive candidiasis; invasive mold infections; endemic mycoses; diagnostics
Online: 30 August 2020 (15:13:51 CEST)
Breakthrough invasive fungal infections (bIFI) cause significant morbidity and mortality. Their diagnosis can be challenging due to reduced sensitivity of conventional culture techniques, serologic tests, and PCR-based assays in patients on antifungal therapy, and their diagnosis can be delayed contributing to poor patient outcomes. In this review, we provide consensus recommendations on behalf of the European Confederation for Medical Mycology (ECMM) for the diagnosis of bIFI caused by invasive yeasts, molds, and endemic mycoses, to guide diagnostic efforts in patients receiving antifungals and support the design of future clinical trials in the field of clinical mycology. The cornerstone of lab-based diagnosis of breakthrough infections for yeast and endemic mycoses remain conventional culture, to accurately identify the causative pathogen and allow for antifungal susceptibility testing. The impact of non-culture-based methods are not well-studied for the definite diagnosis of breakthrough invasive yeast infections. Non-culture-based methods have an important role for the diagnosis of breakthrough invasive mold infections, in particular invasive aspergillosis, and a combination of testing involving conventional culture, antigen-based assays, and PCR-based assays should be considered. Multiple diagnostic modalities, including histopathology, culture, antibody and/or antigen tests and occasionally PCR-based assays may be required to diagnose breakthrough endemic mycoses. A need exists for diagnostic tests that are effective, simple, cheap, and rapid to enable the diagnosis of bIFI in patients taking antifungals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1093.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Bacteria; microbiota; pathogens; dysbiosis; infections
Online: 17 July 2023 (13:41:01 CEST)
The trillions of bacteria that live in and on our bodies make up the human microbiota, which is a very important part of keeping us healthy and protecting us from pathogenic infections. Dysbiosis is when there are changes in the composition and variety of the microbiota. This can upset the delicate balance between the host and its microbes, making the host more vulnerable to pathogens. Understanding the complicated link between microbiota and pathogens is important for coming up with effective ways to change microbiota and boost the body's defenses against infections. This study looks at how microbiota modulation affects the spread of pathogens and infections. It talks about how the makeup of microbiota affects how susceptible you are to pathogens. It shows how a healthy microbiota can protect you by making it hard for pathogens to grow and take over. The review also goes into detail about how the microbiota protects against pathogens, such as through competitive exclusion, the production of antimicrobial compounds, and the regulation of immune reactions. The study also looks at the idea of dysbiosis and how it is linked to pathogenic shifts. Disruptions in the microbiota can make it easier for pathogens to grow and make it harder for the host to fight off infections. It focuses on the need to recover microbial balance to improve the host's defenses and lower risks caused by pathogens. There is also talk about the use of probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) as ways to change the microbiome. The goal of these interventions is to restore the diversity and function of microbes, improve the integrity of barriers, and boost the immune system's reaction to pathogens. The review shows how these methods could be used to change the microbiota and make it easier for the body to fight off infections. In conclusion, knowing how the microbiota and pathogens work together in a complicated way can help a lot when it comes to making specific interventions for microbiota modulation. Strategies that restore the balance of microbes and boost the host's defenses could stop pathogens from taking over and making people sick. More study needs to be done in this area to improve therapeutic approaches and use the microbiota to its fullest extent to fight infectious diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2165.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: sobrerol; mucolytic agent; respiratory infections
Online: 29 June 2023 (14:42:35 CEST)
Respiratory infections are usually characterized by mucus hypersecretion. This condition may worsen and prolong symptoms and signs. Mucoactive agents include different molecules with different mechanisms of action. Sobrerol is a monoterpene able to fluidify mucus, increase mucociliary clearance, and exert antioxidant activity. Sobrerol is available in various formulations (granules, syrup, nebulized, and suppository). Sobrerol has been on the market for over 50 years. Several studies investigated its efficacy and safety in acute and chronic respiratory diseases characterized by mucus hyperproduction. Seven pediatric studies have been conducted with favorable outcomes. Recently, regulatory agencies reduced the treatment duration to three days. Therefore, a future study will test the hypothesis that a combination of oral and topical sobrerol could benefit children and adults with frequent respiratory infections. The rationale considers that mucus accumulation could be a risk factor for increased susceptibility to have infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Histoplasmosis; Antigen; HIV; Opportunistic infections
Online: 17 November 2021 (12:44:23 CET)
Among people with HIV, histoplasmosis represents an important cause of mortality. Previous studies have provided estimates of the disease incidence. Here, we compared those estimates with the results obtained from a screening program implemented in Guatemala, which included histoplasmosis detection for people with HIV. To compare the results of this program, with previous estimations, a literature search was done and reports about histoplasmosis incidence were analyzed. The screening program enrolled 6,366 patients. The overall histoplasmosis incidence in the screening program was 7.4%, which was almost double than those estimated by the previous studies. From 2017 to 2019, the screening program showed an upward trend in histoplasmosis cases from 6.5% to 8.8%. Histoplasmosis overall mortality among those who were newly HIV diagnosed showed a decrease at 180 days from 32.8% in 2017 to 21.2% in 2019. The screening approach using rapid diagnostic assays detects quickly more cases of histoplasmosis, allowing a specific treatment, which decreases the mortality of the disease. Therefore, the use of these new techniques, especially in endemic areas of histoplasmosis, must be implemented.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0569.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: phytomedicine; viral infections; antivirals; phytoantiviral
Online: 28 October 2020 (08:34:07 CET)
Plants have had historical significance in medicine since the beginning of civilization. The oldest medical pharmacopeias of the African, Arabian, and Asian countries solely utilize plants and herbs to treat pain, oral diseases, skin diseases, microbial infections, multiple types of cancers, reproductive disorders among a myriad of other ailments. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that over 65% of the world population solely utilize botanical preparations as medicine. Due to the abundance of plants, plant-derived medicines are more readily accessible, affordable, convenient, and have safer side-effect profiles than synthetic drugs. Plant-based decoctions have been a significant part of Jamaican traditional folklore medicine. Jamaica is of particular interest because it has approximately 52% of the established medicinal plants that exist on earth. This makes the island particularly welcoming for rigorous scientific research on the medicinal value of plants and the development of phytomedicine thereof. Viral infections like human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2), hepatitis virus B and C, influenza A virus, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS CoV-2) have significant global burden. This is a review of some important Jamaican medicinal plants, with particular reference to their antiviral activity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0422.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Hematological parameters; cardiac implantable electronic device-related infections; extension of CIED-related infections; vegetations
Online: 7 November 2023 (09:46:06 CET)
Background: Patients with infectious complications related to the presence of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) constitute a heterogeneous group, including local pocket infection (PI) and lead related infectious endocarditis (LRIE). The diagnosis of CIED-related infection is often difficult and requires complex imaging and microbiological tests. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the usefulness of new simple hematological parameters in detecting infectious complications in patients with CIED and assessing their extent. Methods: The retrospective analysis of clinical data of 2909 patients (36.37% with CIED-related infections), undergoing transvenous lead extraction (TLE) procedures in three high-volume centres in the years 2006-2020, was conducted. The sensitivity and specificity of new hematological markers were evaluated: the neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), neutrophil to platelet ratio (NPR), and lymphocyte to platelet ratio (LPR) in the diagnosis of infectious complications, assessment of the spread of the infectious process and differentiation of additional structures related to the presence of leads. Results: In patients with CIED infections, compared to the non-infectious group, high inflammatory parameters were confirmed, and the highest specificity of the new markers in detecting the infectious process was demonstrated. (79.47% for NPR and 72.82% for NLR). Analysis of laboratory parameters in infectious and non-infectious patients with the presence of additional lead-related masses showed the highest specificity of NPR (82,78%) in predicting the diagnosis of vegetation. Comparison of laboratory parameters in patients with LRIE and PI showed higher NLR % (4.24 vs 2.56; p<0.001, area under curve (AUC) in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve: 0.67 and 0.78 respectively) and higher NPR (0.03 vs 0.02; p<0.001; AUC: 0,51 and 0,55) in patients with LRIE. The highest sensitivity in the detection of coexistence LRIE with PI has been demonstrated for NLR (87.33%). Conclusions: Novel hematological markers may be helpful in the recognition of the inflammatory process in patients with CIED, differentiation of vegetation and vegetation-like masses, and the extent of infection in patients with PI.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0965.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: virus spread; COVID-19; mathematical model; daily number of infections; cumulative number of infections
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:53:40 CEST)
A mathematical model is proposed to analyze the spreading dynamics of COVID-19. By using the parameters of the model, namely the basic reproduction number (R0) and the attenuation constant (k), the daily number of infections (DNI) and the cumulative number of infections (CNI) are deduced and shown to be in good agreement with experimental data. This model effectively addresses three key issues: explaining the waveform pattern of DNI, predicting the occurrence of the second wave of infection, and understanding the competitive spread of two viruses in a region. The findings demonstrate that these significant challenges can be comprehensively tackled using a simple mathematical framework. The theoretical insights derived from this model hold potential in guiding the estimation of the severity of an infection wave and formulating effective strategies for the control and mitigation of epidemic outbreaks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participatory Design, Co-operative Inquiry, Design partners, Co-design
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:10:41 CEST)
The framework proposed by Alison Druin about 20 years ago, which defined the roles children play in technology design, has been widely adopted by the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community. While some studies have adopted relevant roles as presented in the framework, others have argued for extending the framework to include newly identified roles. Still, other studies argue that Druin's framework failed to account for roles children may take up as they interact with peers or with tools. Consequently, this systematic literature review examines children’s emerging and changing roles in the codesign of new technologies. Specifically, we answered the research question: What new roles emerge in research as children co-design new technologies? Our effort aims at providing evidence of new roles children have adopted in literature, which may help researchers in the CCI community make more informed decisions about participatory design approaches with children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0143.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: ocean; big-data; cite-space; co-authorship analysis; co-citation analysis; keywords co-occurrence analysis; visualization
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:41:17 CET)
Ocean big data is the scientific practice of using big data technology in the marine field. Data from satellites, manned spacecraft, space stations, airship, unmanned aerial vehicles, shore-based radar and observation stations, exploration platforms, buoys, underwater gliders, submersibles, and submarine observation networks are seamlessly combined into the ocean’s big data. Increasing numbers of scholars have tried to fully analyze the ocean’s big data. To explore the key research technology knowledge graphs related to ocean big data, articles between 1990 and 2020 were collected from the “Web of Science”. By comparing bibliometric software and using the visualization software Cite-Space, the pivotal literature related to ocean big data, as well as countries, institutions, categories, and keywords, were visualized and recognized. Journal co-citation analysis networks can help determine the national distribution of core journals. Co-citation analysis networks for documents show authors who are influential at key technical levels. Key co-occurrence analysis network keywords can determine research hot spots and research frontiers. The three supporting elements of marine big data research are shown in the co-citation network. These elements are author, institution, and country. By examining the co-occurrence of keywords, the key technology research directions for future marine big data were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0291.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: ocular infections; bacteria contamination; antibiotic resistance
Online: 5 October 2023 (13:33:16 CEST)
Periodic assessment of bacterial contamination is necessary as it allows proper guidance in cases of eye infections through the use of appropriate antibiotics. Due to the extensive use of antibiotic treatment, most of the contamination flora is resistant to the usual ophthalmic antibiotics. The present study shows an updated picture of the susceptibility of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria found on the ocular surface to the most commonly used antibiotic agents in patients undergoing cataract surgery. A total of 993 patients were included in the study with ages between 44 and 98 years old. Conjunctival culture was collected 7 days before cataract surgery. The response of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria to various antibiotic classes like glycopeptides, cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, phenicols, tetracyclines, rifamycins, macrolides and penicillins was assessed. From the tested antibiotics, vancomycin had 97.8% efficacy on Gram-positive bacteria. In the cephalosporin category, we observed an increased resistance of the cefuroxime for both Gram-positive and negative bacteria. Antibiotics that have more than 90% efficacy on Gram-positive bacteria are: meropenem, imipenem, netilmicin, amikacin and rifampicin. On Gram-negative bacteria, we found 100% efficacy of all tested fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides (except for tobramycin), doxycycline, azithromycin, clarithromycin and chloramphenicol. The current study illustrates patterns of increased resistance of certain bacteria present on ocular surface to some of the commonly used antibiotics in ophthalmological clinical practice. One such revealing example is cefuroxime, which has been highly used as an intracameral antibiotic for the prevention of bacterial endophthalmitis after cataract surgery.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0461.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Malaria; digital; epidemic; mixed infections; reinforcement
Online: 29 July 2022 (11:25:46 CEST)
Malaria is a long-standing disease and one of the top life-threatening diseases, yet its treatment has not changed, while the world has already embraced the Fourth Industrial Revolution (4IR). A wave of research on digitizing monitoring mechanisms of such a deadly disease has surfaced. Automated malaria screening is one of the detection processes which are gaining popularity in the research domain. However, the process needs to be coupled with other processes aiming a nationally or regionally contextualised malaria monitoring system. This paper proposes a digital malaria monitoring system in the context of an African country or region. One advantage of such a digital system is that is enables a novel disease spread forecasting model based on the dynamics of different malaria types. The architecture of the diagnosis system is described, and the disease spread model is mathematically modelled in terms of a SPITR (Susceptible- Protected- Infected-Treated- Recovered) epidemic model which is further analysed. The forecasting model is expressed and analysed whereas experiments are conducted using a Monte Carlo simulation method. The design of the monitoring system has inspired how predictions can be made in the complex cases such as mixed infections. Results show that reinforcing the model parameter makes a significant improvement on the disease prediction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Urinary tract infections (UTIs); opportunistic pathogens
Online: 1 February 2022 (21:26:23 CET)
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain one of the most important problems of modern urology and medicine. Infections bring great discomfort and significantly reduce the quality of life. UTIs rank second after respiratory tract infections in outpatients. The most common pathogen of UTI are E.coli. The study of the etiology of UTI has great clinical and epidemiological importance in routine practice. Objective: To assess the etiological significance of pathogens in the occurrence of urinary tract infections in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. Methods: A total of 2378 patients presenting UTIs were enrolled and each provided a urine sample. The study was carried out in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory MediTEC-NS between 2 January and 29 December 2018. Identification of isolated microorganisms was carried out on a WalkAway 96 Plus microbiological analyzer, Microscan model manufactured by Beckman Coulter (USA). Statistical Analysis was performed using the STATISTICA-6 package. Results: Out of 2378 patients a total of 1177 (49,5%) urine samples tested positive by culture test. From these samples, 1356 strains of microorganisms were isolated, of which 84.79% were monoculture and 21% were of a mixed culture. Gram-positive bacteria 690 (50, 88%), Gram-negative bacteria 630 (46, 46%), and Candida 36 (2.65%) were identified. Gram-negative rods were represented by Enterobacterales 557 (88.41%) and non-fermenting bacteria 73 (11.59%). In the Enterobacterales group included Escherichia coli 371 (66.61%) of which 108 (29,1%) ESBL strains. The next etiologically significant uropathogens were Klebsiella- 99 (17, 77%), Enterobacter-36 (6,46%) and Proteus-32 (8,09). K.pneumoniae prevailed in comparison with other Klebsiella spp. ESBL producing was 34 (57, 6%) out of 59 K.pneumoniae isolates. Gram-negative non-fermenting rod were represented by Acinetobacter spp-34 (46.57%) and Pseudomonas spp 31 (42.47%). Of 34 Acinetobacter spp. isolates 22 (64.7%) were identified as Acinetobacter lwoffii. Among the gram-positive pathogens of UTI, Staphylococcus spp prevailed - 411 (59.57%), followed by Enterococcus spp 197 (28.55%) and Streptococcus spp 81 (11.73%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci 381 (92,7%) isolates out of total 411 staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis 245 (59,61%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus 81 (21,17%) were the most frequent isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of 411 staphylococcal isolates, 182 (44.28%) were MRS Conclusion: We found that UTIs among our study population were predominantly caused by ten opportunistic pathogens. The most common uropathogens with a frequency of 66.9% were E. coli- 30.53%, S. epidermidis -20.16%, and Enterococcus spp. -16.21%. Frequently isolated pathogens included Klebsiella, S. haemolyticus spp., and Streptococcus spp. which amounted to 21.98%. The distribution within the patient group was equable and ranged from 6,67% to 8,15%. Etiologically significant pathogens included Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria accounted for 11.11%. The distribution within the group was again equable and ranged within 2,55% to 2,96%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Urinary tract infections (UTIs); opportunistic pathogens
Online: 31 January 2022 (21:38:17 CET)
Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain one of the most important problems of modern urology and medicine. Infections bring great discomfort and significantly reduce the quality of life. UTIs rank second after respiratory tract infections in outpatients. The most common pathogen of UTI are E.coli. The study of the etiology of UTI has great clinical and epidemiological importance in routine practice.Objective: To assess the etiological significance of pathogens in the occurrence of urinary tract infections in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan.Methods: A total of 2378 patients presenting UTIs were enrolled and each provided a urine sample. The study was carried out in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory MediTEC-NS between 2 January and 29 December 2018. Identification of isolated microorganisms was carried out on a WalkAway 96 Plus microbiological analyzer, Microscan model manufactured by Beckman Coulter (USA). Statistical Analysis was performed using the STATISTICA-6 package.Results: Out of 2378 patients a total of 1177 (49,5%) urine samples tested positive by culture test. From these samples, 1356 strains of microorganisms were isolated, of which 84.79% were monoculture and 21% were of a mixed culture. Gram-positive bacteria 690 (50, 88%), Gram-negative bacteria 630 (46, 46%), and Candida 36 (2.65%) were identified. Gram-negative rods were represented by Enterobacterales 557 (88.41%) and non-fermenting bacteria 73 (11.59%). In the Enterobacterales group included Escherichia coli 371 (66.61%) of which 108 (29,1%) ESBL strains. The next etiologically significant uropathogens were Klebsiella- 99 (17, 77%), Enterobacter-36 (6,46%) and Proteus-32 (8,09). K.pneumoniae prevailed in comparison with other Klebsiella spp. ESBL producing was 34 (57, 6%) out of 59 K.pneumoniae isolates. Gram-negative non-fermenting rod were represented by Acinetobacter spp-34 (46.57%) and Pseudomonas spp 31 (42.47%). Of 34 Acinetobacter spp. isolates 22 (64.7%) were identified as Acinetobacter lwoffii. Among the gram-positive pathogens of UTI, Staphylococcus spp prevailed - 411 (59.57%), followed by Enterococcus spp 197 (28.55%) and Streptococcus spp 81 (11.73%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci 381 (92,7%) isolates out of total 411 staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis 245 (59,61%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus 81 (21,17%) were the most frequent isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of 411 staphylococcal isolates, 182 (44.28%) were MRSConclusion: We found that UTIs among our study population were predominantly caused by ten opportunistic pathogens. The most common uropathogens with a frequency of 66.9% were E. coli- 30.53%, S. epidermidis -20.16%, and Enterococcus spp. -16.21%. Frequently isolated pathogens included Klebsiella, S. haemolyticus spp., and Streptococcus spp. which amounted to 21.98%. The distribution within the patient group was equable and ranged from 6,67% to 8,15%. Etiologically significant pathogens included Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria accounted for 11.11%. The distribution within the group was again equable and ranged within 2,55% to 2,96%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0473.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: Urinary tract infections (UTIs); opportunistic pathogens
Online: 31 January 2022 (21:18:06 CET)
Abstract Introduction: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) remain one of the most important problems of modern urology and medicine. Infections bring great discomfort and significantly reduce the quality of life. UTIs rank second after respiratory tract infections in outpatients. The most common pathogen of UTI are E.coli. The study of the etiology of UTI has great clinical and epidemiological importance in routine practice. Objective: To assess the etiological significance of pathogens in the occurrence of urinary tract infections in the Karaganda region of Kazakhstan. Methods: A total of 2378 patients presenting UTIs were enrolled and each provided a urine sample. The study was carried out in the Clinical Microbiology Laboratory MediTEC-NS between 2 January and 29 December 2018. Identification of isolated microorganisms was carried out on a WalkAway 96 Plus microbiological analyzer, Microscan model manufactured by Beckman Coulter (USA). Statistical Analysis was performed using the STATISTICA-6 package. Results: Out of 2378 patients a total of 1177 (49,5%) urine samples tested positive by culture test. From these samples, 1356 strains of microorganisms were isolated, of which 84.79% were monoculture and 21% were of a mixed culture. Gram-positive bacteria 690 (50, 88%), Gram-negative bacteria 630 (46, 46%), and Candida 36 (2.65%) were identified. Gram-negative rods were represented by Enterobacterales 557 (88.41%) and non-fermenting bacteria 73 (11.59%). In the Enterobacterales group included Escherichia coli 371 (66.61%) of which 108 (29,1%) ESBL strains. The next etiologically significant uropathogens were Klebsiella- 99 (17, 77%), Enterobacter-36 (6,46%) and Proteus-32 (8,09). K.pneumoniae prevailed in comparison with other Klebsiella spp. ESBL producing was 34 (57, 6%) out of 59 K.pneumoniae isolates. Gram-negative non-fermenting rod were represented by Acinetobacter spp-34 (46.57%) and Pseudomonas spp 31 (42.47%). Of 34 Acinetobacter spp. isolates 22 (64.7%) were identified as Acinetobacter lwoffii. Among the gram-positive pathogens of UTI, Staphylococcus spp prevailed - 411 (59.57%), followed by Enterococcus spp 197 (28.55%) and Streptococcus spp 81 (11.73%). Coagulase-negative staphylococci 381 (92,7%) isolates out of total 411 staphylococcal isolates. Staphylococcus epidermidis 245 (59,61%) and Staphylococcus haemolyticus 81 (21,17%) were the most frequent isolated coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of 411 staphylococcal isolates, 182 (44.28%) were MRS Conclusion: We found that UTIs among our study population were predominantly caused by ten opportunistic pathogens. The most common uropathogens with a frequency of 66.9% were E. coli- 30.53%, S. epidermidis -20.16%, and Enterococcus spp. -16.21%. Frequently isolated pathogens included Klebsiella, S. haemolyticus spp., and Streptococcus spp. which amounted to 21.98%. The distribution within the patient group was equable and ranged from 6,67% to 8,15%. Etiologically significant pathogens included Enterobacter spp., Proteus spp., Acinetobacter spp., Pseudomonas spp. These bacteria accounted for 11.11%. The distribution within the group was again equable and ranged within 2,55% to 2,96%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pseudomonas aeruginosa; nosocomial infections; decontamination; phage
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:23:49 CEST)
Nosocomial infections can be transmitted by contaminated hospital surfaces with resistant pathogens. conventional sanitations are not efficiently contributing to removing resistant pathogens. Bacteriophages suggest as decontaminating agents, safe, their selective ability to kill specific bacteria. This work aimed to assess the efficiency of a phage in removing Pseudomonas aeruginosa from different hard surfaces. The decontamination ability of phages w was tested in vitro against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain. Cystoviridae Phages with titer (2 × 1012 PFU/mL) can efficiently reduce viable bacterial cells on contaminated surfaces. The treated surfaces with alcohol 70% and phage showed an evident drop of bacterial cell number from 1 h to 24 h. These results suggest that bacteriophages are biocontrol agents removing nosocomial infection pathogens transmitted by contaminated surfaces in the hospital environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0152.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI); Klebsiella pneumoniae; Hospital-acquired infections; Proteus mirabilis; Pseudomonas aeruginosa; antibiogram
Online: 10 June 2022 (07:53:43 CEST)
Catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI) is one of the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Prolonged hospitalization, invasive devices such as catheters, and irrational use of antimicrobial agents are believed to be the major causes of high rates of HAIs. Infections such as pyelonephritis, urethritis, cystitis, and prostatitis are the main concern in catheterized ICU patients. In these cases, Gram-negative bacteria are the most common. The present study is undertaken to determine the frequency, antibiograms, disease pattern, and risk factors involved in providing an advocacy recommendation to prevent CAUTI. A total of 1078 patients were admitted to the hospital ICU, out of which healthcare-associated infection was reported in 316 patients. CAUTI was reported only in 70 patients. Klebsiella pneumoniae (20%) was the predominant isolate, with Serratia (3%) and Providencia (3%) species as the least common in this study. The present study provides CAUTI incidence rates in a tertiary care hospital in Hail, Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, information on risk factors of CAUTI common causative organism associated, and their antibiogram patterns are also presented. This study provides vital information that can be used to formulate an effective antibiotic stewardship program that can be implemented throughout the kingdom.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0198.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: human coronavirus; MERS-CoV; clinical features; upper respiratory tract infections; lower respiratory tract infections; respiratory viruses
Online: 30 January 2018 (09:52:03 CET)
Human coronaviruses cause both upper and lower respiratory tract infections in humans. In 2012 a sixth human coronavirus (hCoV) was isolated from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness. The 60-year-old man died as a result of renal and respiratory failure after admission to a hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The aetiological agent was eventually identified as a coronavirus and designated Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). MERS-CoV has now been reported in more than 27 countries across the Middle East, Europe, North Africa and Asia. As of July 2017, 2040 MERS-CoV laboratory confirmed cases, resulting in 712 deaths, were reported globally, with a majority of these cases from the Arabian Peninsula. This review summarises the current understanding of MERS-CoV, with special reference to the (i) genome structure, (ii) clinical features, (iii) diagnosis of infection and (iv) treatment and vaccine development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Degree, Coloring, Co-degree
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:24:32 CET)
New setting is introduced to study types of coloring numbers, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Different types of procedures including neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. General classes of neutrosophic hypergraphs are used to obtain chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Using colors to assign to the vertices of neutrosophic hypergraphs and characterizing representatives of the colors are applied in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using different ways of study on neutrosophic hypergraphs to get new results about number, degree and co-degree in the way that some number, degree and co-degree get understandable perspective. Neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are studied to investigate about the notions, coloring, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. In this way, sets of representatives of colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges have key points to get new results but in some cases, there are usages of sets and numbers instead of optimal ones. Simultaneously, notions chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges are applied into neutrosophic hypergraphs, especially, neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs to get sensible results about their structures. Basic familiarities with neutrosophic hypergraphs theory and hypergraph theory are proposed for this article.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; immunity; neuroinflammation; mitochondria; dysbiosis; infections.
Online: 6 November 2023 (11:09:33 CET)
Recent research has unveiled intriguing insights suggesting that the body's immune system may be implicated in Parkinson's disease (PD) development. Studies have observed disparities in pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers between PD patients and healthy individuals. This finding underscores the potential influence of immune system dysfunction in the genesis of this condition. A dysfunctional immune system can serve as a primary catalyst for systemic in-flammation in the body, which may contribute to the emergence of various brain disorders. The identification of several genes associated with PD, as well as their connection to neuroinflamma-tion, raises the likelihood of disease susceptibility. Moreover, advancing age and mitochondrial dysfunction can weaken the immune system, potentially implicating them in the onset of the dis-ease, particularly among older individuals. Compromised integrity of the blood-brain barrier could facilitate the immune system's access to brain tissue. This exposure may lead to encounters with native antigens or infections, potentially triggering an autoimmune response. Furthermore, there is mounting evidence supporting the notion that gut dysbiosis might represent an initial trigger for brain inflammation, ultimately promoting neurodegeneration. In this comprehensive review, we will delve into the numerous hypotheses surrounding the role of both innate and adaptive immunity in PD.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0718.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: Penis; Infections; Surgical flaps; Reconstructive surgical procedures
Online: 11 October 2023 (17:23:52 CEST)
Penile augmentation using filler injections is a growing trend; however, the foreign body reaction can cause complications such as ulcer and necrosis of the penis, which can requires reconstruction. The existing method of reconstruction of the penis focused on filling the deficit. We report a case involving a scrotal flap and autologous augmentation using a de-epithelialization technique for a soft tissue defect caused by delayed infection after a penile filler injection. The defect was reconstructed and an augmentation effect was achieved. The patient was a 41-year-old man who received an injection of Aquafilling® (Biomedica, Prague, Czech Republic) 7 years previously and developed a delayed infection. After debridement, the penile defect spanned the entire shaft, and the circumference of the penis was 7.5 cm. Using a bilateral scrotal flap technique, the inferior margins of both flaps were rolled inward after de-epithelialization to achieve autologous augmentation. No infection or flap necrosis occurred during the 3-month follow-up period after surgery. Additionally, the penis circumference was expanded to 12 cm, and the patient indicated that he was very satisfied with the result. This surgical technique can be widely applied as treatment for penile defects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: mpox; monkeypox; sexually transmitted infections; HIV; immunosuppression
Online: 6 September 2023 (14:19:54 CEST)
We investigated differences in mpox clinical outcomes in people with HIV (PWH) and without HIV (PWoH) and the impact of vaccination in Catalonia, Spain. We used surveillance data and the PISCIS HIV Cohort. We included all confirmed mpox cases (May-December 2022). Of 2122 mpox cases, the majority had mild disease, 56% were Spanish, and 24% from Latin-America. Forty percent were PWH, with median CD4+T-cell 715 cells/µL, 83% had HIV-RNA<50 copies/ml and 1.8% CD4+T-cell<200 cells/L. PWH had no increased risk for complications, except in cases of immunosuppression. PWH with CD4+T-cell<200 cells/µL were more likely to be from Latin-America, had more generalized exanthema, and required hospitalization more frequently (p=0.001). Diagnosis of other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) was common, both at mpox diagnosis (17%) and 2 years before (43%). Dose-sparing smallpox vaccination was accompanied by a sharp decrease in mpox incidence in both populations (p<0.0001). In conclusion, PWH were not at increased risk of severe disease or hospitalization unless immunosuppressed. Mpox is a marker of high-risk sexual behavior and was associated with high HIV and STI rates, supporting the need for screening in all mpox cases. Ethnicity disparities underscore the need for interventions to ensure equitable healthcare access. Dose-sparing smallpox vaccination retained effectiveness.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: late-onset combined immunodeficiency; psoriasis; ustekinumab; infections
Online: 3 August 2023 (07:15:16 CEST)
A 35-year-old man with a late-onset combined immunodeficiency (LOCID) variant of common variable immunodeficiency, severe plaque psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease attended Regional Hospital of Presidente Prudente and HC-FMUSP, São Paulo, Brazil. Anti-IL-12/IL-23 (ustekinumab) monoclonal antibody was prescribed due to failure of other treatments (phototherapy, oral acitretin) for psoriasis and Psoriasis Area Severity Index <10. We evaluated the impact of ustekinumab, a potent immunosuppressor, on the risk of infectious diseases in this patient followed for 8 years. Four quarterly doses of ustekinumab 90 mg and human immunoglobulin replacement (10,000 mg at 28-day intervals) were administered. Immunophenotyping, culture of lymphocytes, genetic sequencing, and whole exome sequencing were performed to investigate the primary immunodeficiency. Normal lymphocyte proliferation, absence of pathogenic variants in the genes analyzed and no clinically significant variants were detected in the whole exome. The main infections included chronic sinusitis, tonsillitis, fungal and bacterial otitis, gastroenteritis, and community-acquired pneumonia. The patient was infected with COVID-19, dengue (twice), and influenza and was hospitalized three times for intravenous antibiotic therapy. Ustekinumab did not influence susceptibility to severe infections and significantly improved psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease in a patient with LOCID.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0525.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections; Child; Bronchiolitis; Survival.
Online: 28 December 2022 (02:37:39 CET)
Background: The respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSV) spread has been unusually high during 2022 and increasing trends have been documented We aimed to assess the survival experience of children hospitalized due bronchiolitis by laboratory-confirmed RSV. Methods: A nationwide and retrospective cohort was conducted in Mexico and data from 436 children aged 5 years and younger, with symptoms onset from August 2021 to November 2022, were analyzed. Survivor functions and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were computed by using the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: The survival rates were high, particularly within the first three weeks of admission. The 3-day survival was 99.8% (CI 95% 98.4-99.9%) and went to 98.9% (CI 95% 96.5-99.7%), 97.5% (CI 95% 91.9-99.3%), 86.7% (95% CI 48.2-97.2%), and 69.4% (95% CI 24.2-91.0%) on days 7, 14, 21 and 28 of hospital stay, respectively. We documented 5 fatal outcomes, and the mortality rate was 2.1 per 1,000 person-days. Conclusions: We analyzed a large set of pediatric patients with bronchiolitis by RSV and the presented results contribute to achieving a better understanding of the in-hospital evolution of this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0348.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antibiotic; biofilm; infections; Staphylococcus aureus; therapeutic antibiofilm
Online: 20 December 2022 (03:24:37 CET)
Staphylococcus aureus is a microorganism frequently associated with implant-related infections, owing to its ability to produce biofilms. These infections are difficult to treat because antimicrobials must cross the biofilm to effectively inhibit bacterial growth. Although some antibiotics can penetrate the biofilm and reduce the bacterial load, it is important to understand that the results of routine sensitivity tests are not always valid for interpreting the activity of different drugs. In this review, a broad discussion on the genes involved in biofilm formation, quorum sensing, and antimicrobial activity in monotherapy and combination therapy is presented that should benefit researchers engaged in optimizing the treatment of infections associated with S. aureus biofilms.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: wound infections; snakebites; Taiwan cobra; Naja atra
Online: 27 January 2021 (13:06:10 CET)
Taiwan cobra (Naja atra) bites account for approximately 20% of all venomous snakebites in Taiwan. In Taiwan, the rates of wound necrosis and secondary infection from Taiwan cobra bites are higher than those associated with other venomous snakebites. Clinical tools to evaluate the infection risk after Taiwan cobra bites are lacking. Therefore, in this study, we developed a useful clinical tool to evaluate the infection risk after Taiwan cobra bites. Moreover, we investigated wound infection bacteriology. We analyzed the data of patients bitten by N. atra who had undergone freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenin treatment in emergency rooms of the Chang Gung Memorial Hospital network, which comprises seven hospitals and the largest medical system in Taiwan, from January 2001 to May 2017. Because patients with wound necrosis required antibiotics for infection treatment, we included only patients with wound infection but without tissue necrosis in the development of our Cobra Bacteriology of Infections in Taiwanese snake Envenomation (Cobra BITE) score by using univariate and multiple logistic regression. In total, 8,295,497 emergency department visits occurred from January 2001 to May 2017, and 195 patients were diagnosed has having cobra bites. Among them, 23 and 30 patients had wound necrosis and wound infection, respectively. The wound infection rate was 27.2% (53/195). Regardless of whether the patients had necrosis, Enterococcus faecalis and Morganella morganii were the main bacteria identified in the culture report. Gentamicin, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin are the ideal first-line antibiotics for treating N. atra bite wounds in Taiwan. As per our Cobra BITE score, the three factors predicting secondary wound infection after cobra bites are hospital admission, a white blood cell count (in 103/µL) × by neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio value of ≥114.23, and the use of antivenin medication. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the Cobra BITE score system was 0.88. The ideal sensitivity and specificity were 0.89 and 0.76, respectively, and the optimal cutoff point for Cobra BITE score was 7. The Hosmer–Lemeshow p value was 0.4. In conclusion, our Cobra BITE study established a new practical clinical tool for clinicians to evaluate infection risk after N. atra bites. This score system enables the assessment of wound infections after N. atra bites, and it could be modified and improved in future for other Naja spp. bites.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0119.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: audit; utilization; surgery; antibiotics; perception; infections; hospitals
Online: 13 June 2019 (09:52:04 CEST)
Background and objectives: The appropriate use of antibiotics is the main strategy of Antimicrobial stewardship program. This study was planned to evaluate the quality of antibiotic prescriptions, its adherence with standard guidelines and surgeons’ perception regarding antibiotic use in surgeries. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional observational and survey-based study comprised of two sections: Phase 1; to investigate the antibiotic utilization in three most common abdominal surgical procedures during 9 months (January 2017 to September 2017). The appropriateness of antibiotics was compared with evidence-based guidelines. Phase 2; the surgeon’s perspectives were evaluated through a self-administered questionnaire (13 items) during the next three months (October 2017 to December 2017). Descriptive statistics, chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests analysis were used through SPSS Statistical Package 21.0. Results: A total of 866 eligible surgical cases out of 1015 were investigated. An acute appendectomy (n= 418; 48.2%) was most common surgical intervention followed by laparoscopic cholecystectomy (n= 278; 32.1%) and inguinal hernia (n= 170; 19.7%). About 97.5% of patients received antibiotics. Among these, 9.5% adhered according to guidelines with respect to correct choice, 40% for timing, 100% for dose and route (optimal value 100%). The ceftriaxone (J01XD04; n= 503; 59.5%) was most frequently prescribed antibiotic. A 200 participants (response rate 70.6%) filled out a validated questionnaire (internal consistency; α ≥ 0.7). One hundred and thirty-eight (69%) reported the overuse of antibiotics and most of them (97%) preferred broad-spectrum antibiotics instead of narrow-spectrum. The participants reported that non-availability hospital-based guidelines (n=193; 96.5%), prescribing of antibiotics without guidelines (n=186; 93%), underestimation of infection (n=177; 88.5%), lack of consensus (n=135; 67.5%) and poor awareness about guidelines (n=122; 61%) were the main determinants in their health care settings. Conclusions: The compliance of Surgical antibiotic was far below the recommendations of guidelines. The urgent needs of awareness among surgeons and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship program were important recommended interventions for appropriate use antibiotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0002.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Probiotics, Upper Respiratory Infections, Network Meta-Analysis
Online: 1 October 2018 (10:22:49 CEST)
Background. Upper respiratory infections (URIs) remains as significant cause of morbidity in children. Evidence on efficacy of probiotics to prevent URIs in children is increasing. This systematic review was assembled to analyze evidence about the efficacy of probiotics to reduce duration of upper respiratory infections in ambulatory children. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing probiotics vs. placebo to prevent URIs, published between 2001 and 2016 were considered. Quality evaluation was evaluated using CONSORT. Standard mean difference (SMD) or risk ratio (RR) was calculated. Network Meta-Analysis (NMA), using a random effect model was assembled. Results. 31 RCTs were evaluated and 20 studies were included with 3,635 children randomized to probiotics and 3,433 to placebo. Lactobacillus reuteri [SMD -0.56 CI95% (-0.72 to -0.41), p 0.0001] and Lactobacillus acidophillus [SMD -0.33 CI95% (-0.60 to -0.06), p 0.01] were superior to placebo to reduce duration of URIs. L. rhamnosus GG showed tendency [SMD -0.14 CI95% (-0.28 to 0.0), p 0.048]. On the network forest plot L. reuteri showed preventive equivalence when was compared to L. rhamnosus GG, L. casei and BB12. Conclusions. Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Bifidobacterium BB12 are evidence-based alternatives to be considered to prevent URIs in children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0053.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: epidemiology of fungal infections; infection burden; Uruguay
Online: 6 February 2018 (06:52:38 CET)
We aimed to estimate for the first time the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay. Data on population characteristics and underlying conditions were extracted from the National Statistics Institute, the World Bank, national registries and published articles. When no data existed, risk populations were used to estimate frequencies extrapolating from the literature. Population structure: total 3,444,006; 73% adults; 35% women younger than 50 years. Size of populations at risk: HIV infected 12,000; acute myeloid leukemia 126; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation 30; solid organ transplants 134; COPD 272,006 (19.7% of older than 40); asthma in adults 223,431 (prevalence 9%); cystic fibrosis in adults 48; tuberculosis 613 (incidence 26.2%), lung cancer 1,400 (ASR incidence 27.4). Annual incidence estimations per 100,000: 22.4 invasive aspergillosis, 16.4 candidaemia, 3.7 Candida peritonitis, 1.62 Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, 0.75 cryptococcosis, severe asthma with fungal sensitisation 217, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis 165, recurrent Candida vaginitis 6,323, oral candidiasis 74.5 and oesophageal candidiasis 25.7. Although some under and overestimations could have been made, we expect that at least 127,525 people suffer from serious fungal infections each year. Sporothrichosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and dermatophytosis are known to be frequent but no data are available to make accurate estimations. Given the magnitude of the burden of fungal infections in Uruguay, efforts should be made to improve surveillance, strengthen laboratory diagnosis and warrant access to first line antifungals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0114.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: multiple sclerosis; epidemiology; diet; childhood infections; interaction
Online: 22 November 2016 (13:00:45 CET)
An increased risk of multiple sclerosis (MS) had been found when individuals had consumed large amounts of processed meat and sausages at young age (Lauer, 2014). Furthermore it was found in many studies that MS patients had acquired a number of common childhood infections at higher ages than controls. Therefore, MS patients from an epidemiological long-term investigation in Germany and different hospital controls, were evaluated for a statistical interaction of these two factors. 324 MS patients and 242 hospital controls were inquired. The study focussed on age 0 - 16. Subjects were tested for additive interaction by multiple linear regression analysis (Knol et al., 2007). There was an additive interaction of the age at any common childhood infection with the consumption of scalded sausages (regression estimate = 0.1370; standard error = 0.0603; p = 0.0239). In contrast, no such interaction could be shown for: animal fats; smoked meat (e.g. ham and bacon); and cold - smoked German salami. Thus there was a synergy of the intake of scalded sausages (e.g. frankfurters, bolognas, etc.) and age at common childhood infections, for the later risk of MS.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1675.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: High velocity oxy-fuel; WC-Co; Co-28Cr; microhardness; erosion; T22 steel
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:26:43 CEST)
At Mae-Moh power plant, Thailand, superheater tubes, which are exposed in fly ash environ-ment, often degrade due to solid particle erosion. To extend the service lifetime of the superheater tubes, the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray technique is used to deposit a protective coating on the material, SA213-T22 steel. In this work, the solid particle erosion of the Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings was investigated using erodent particle impingement at the angles of 30o and 90o with an average particle size of 60 μm. The erosion behavior of SA213-T22 with and without Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings was explained using ductile and brittle erosion modes. The erosion test resulted in the brittle mode for both Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings, while SA213-T22 without coating indicated the ductile mode. On the investigation of surface morphology, the Co-28Cr coating showed mostly microcracks in contrast with the WC-12Co coating, fracture, de-bonding and deep cavities were also observed. Erosion resistance of the Co-28Cr coating was significantly higher than the WC-12Co coating, due to high hardness, low porosity and high density of the coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0069.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Network Visualization; Term co-occurrence; Keyword co-occurrence; Artificial Intelligence; ChatGPT; Bibliometrics
Online: 6 April 2023 (03:46:00 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to identify the major research areas of ChatGPT through term and keyword co-occurrence network mapping techniques. For conducting the present study, total of 577 publications were retrieved from the Lens database for the network visualization. The findings of the study showed that “chatgpt” occurrence in maximum number of times followed by its related terms such as artificial intelligence, large language model, gpt, study etc. This study will be helpful to library and information science as well as computer or information technology professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0938.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: major depressive disorder; bipolar disorder; infectious diseases; upper respiratory infections; lower respiratory infections; lung-brain axis; gut-brain axis
Online: 13 July 2023 (12:23:28 CEST)
Mood disorders are among the commonest mental disorders worldwide. Epidemiological and clinical evidence suggests that there are close links between infectious diseases and mood disorders, but the strength and direction of these association remain largely unknown. Theoretical models have attempted to explain this link based on evolutionary or immune-related factors, but these have not been empirically verified. The current study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between the incidence of infectious diseases and mood disorders, while correcting for climate and economic factors, based on data from the Global Burden of Disease Studies, 1990-2019. It was found that major depressive disorder was positively associated with lower respiratory infections, while bipolar disorder was positively associated with upper respiratory infections and negatively associated with enteric and tropical infections, both cross-sectionally and over a period of thirty years. These results suggest that a complex, bidirectional relationship exists between these disorders. This relationship may be mediated through the immune system as well as through the gut-brain and lung-brain axes. Understanding the mechanisms that link these groups of disorders could lead to advances in the prevention and treatment of both.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1251.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: antiviral response; immunometabolism; viral infections; metabolic diseases
Online: 20 November 2023 (15:15:44 CET)
In recent years, the emergence of the concept of immunometabolism has shed light on the pivotal role that cellular metabolism plays in both the activation of immune cells and the development of immune programs. The antiviral response, a widely distributed defense mechanism used by infected cells, serves to not only control infections but also to attenuates their deleterious effects. The exploration of the role of metabolism in orchestrating the antiviral response represents a burgeoning area of research, especially considering the escalating incidence of viral outbreaks coupled with the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases. Here, we present a review of current knowledge regarding immunometabolism and the antiviral response during viral infections. Initially, we delve into the concept of immunometabolism by examining its application in the field of cancer—a domain that has long spearheaded inquiries into this fascinating intersection of disciplines. Subsequently, we explore examples of immune cells whose activation is intricately regulated by metabolic processes. Progressing with a systematic and cellular approach, our aim is to unravel the potential role of metabolism in antiviral defense, placing significant emphasis on the innate and canonical interferon response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0896.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hospital-acquired infections, colonization; infection; risk factors; antibiotics
Online: 14 November 2023 (10:04:55 CET)
Background: Hospital-acquired infections (HAI) pose a significant danger to global public health, mainly because their numbers are growing exponentially each year. Additionally, the rise of bacterial strains resistant to current treatment options further exacerbates this threat. The study aimed to examine the occurrences of HAIs identified in public hospitals at the county level. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study utilizing data provided to the Mures Public Health Directorate from all the public hospitals within this county. We examined HAIs reported during the period spanning from 2017 to 2021, which amounted to a total of 4603 cases. Results: The medical departments reported the highest prevalence of HAIs at 48.25%. The most common infections in-cluded enterocolitis with Clostridioides difficile (32.61%), COVID-19 (19.83%), bronchopneumonia (16.90%), sepsis, surgical wound infections, and urinary tract infections. The five most frequently identified pathogens were Clostridioides difficile (32.61%), SARS-CoV-2 (19.83%), Acinetobacter baumannii (11.82%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.58%), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (7.95%). Acinetobacter baumannii was the predominant agent causing bronchopneumonia, while Klebsiella pneumoniae was the leading cause of sepsis cases. Escherichia coli was the primary agent behind urinary tract infec-tions, and Staphylococcus aureus MRSA was identified as the main etiology for wound infections and central catheter infections. Throughout the study period, there was a significant rise in Clostridioides difficile cases, accounting for 40.36% of all reported HAIs in 2021. Conclusions: The study identifies Clostridioides difficile increase in HAI cases during COVID-19, highlighting the need for careful antibiotic use, and emphasizing the growing challenge of multi-resistant strains in post-pandemic state hospitals.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: slow-growing bacteria; urinary culture; urinary tract infections
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:16:42 CET)
Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic Gram-positive coccus that grows as tiny alpha-hemolytic colonies. Actinotignum schaalii is a slow-growing facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod. These bacteria are part of the urogenital microbiota of healthy patients, but can also be involved in urinary tract infections (UTIs), particularly in elderly men and young children [1–3]. Because A. urinae and A. schaalii are fastidious and are difficult to identify with phenotypic methods, they are underestimated causes of UTIs. Their growth is slow and requires a blood-enriched medium and an incubation time of 48 hours under anaerobic or 5% CO2 atmosphere. Furthermore, accurate identification is only possible using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) or molecular-based methods. In rare cases, these bacteria can be responsible for invasive infections. We describe here the second case of bacteremic UTI caused by both A. schaalii and A. urinae in an 89-year-old woman who presented dyspnea and asymptomatic bacteriuria. This challenging clinical and microbiological diagnosis was made by our laboratory by Gram staining urine with a leucocyte count >50/μL and/or a bacterial count >14/μL, urinary culture on blood agar plate, and direct bacterial identification on positive blood culture bottles (BCBs) by MALDI-TOF MS. After 10 days of antimicrobial treatment consisting of 2g amoxicillin PO t.i.d the patient was discharged with complete clinical and biological recovery. A. schaalii and A. urinae are probably still underestimated causes of UTIs. Microbiologists should assess the presence of these two bacteria in urine using the appropriate culture and identification methods where direct examination is positive for small Gram-positive cocci or rods, and a urinary dipstick is negative for nitrites and associated with leukocyturia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0119.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: nosocomial infections; questionnaire; veterinarians; small Animals; nntimicrobial use.
Online: 3 July 2023 (15:19:39 CEST)
Appropriate use of perioperative antimicrobials can significantly reduce the risk of postoperative infections. However, inappropriate antimicrobial use can result in the creation of multidrug resistant bacteria, increased costs, host flora disruption, side effects, and increased risk of hospital-acquired infections This survey evaluated the current perioperative use of antimicrobials in small animals by Spanish veterinarians using a web-based questionnaire. Responses were represented using descriptive statistics and a statistical analysis of the association between demographic data and perioperative antimicrobial use was performed. Preoperative antimicrobials were administered in clean surgery by up to 68.3% of participants, 81.0% in clean-contaminated surgery and 71.3% in dirty surgery, while in the postoperative period, antimicrobials were administered by up to 86.3% of participants in clean surgery, 93.2% in clean-contaminated surgery and 87.5% in dirty surgery. Factors considered “very important” for antimicrobial selection were the degree of wound contamination, patient immunosuppression, and use of prosthesis. The most frequently used antimicrobial was beta-lactamase-resistant penicillin. Postoperative antimicrobial use was associated with participants without postgraduate training. This study highlights an overuse of antimicrobials in perioperative procedures in small animal surgery in Spain. Therefore, evidence-based guidelines and further education regarding the correct use of antimicrobial prophylaxis are recommended.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0614.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: frailty, comorbidities, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, infections, malignancies
Online: 8 June 2023 (09:30:13 CEST)
With the introduction of more and more monoclonal antibodies selectively targeting various mediators of the immune-system, together with Janus-Kinase (JAK)-inhibitors with variable affinities towards different JAK subtypes, the available therapeutic options for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) have undergone an acceleration in the last five years. On the other hand, the prevalence of IBD patients over 65-years of age is steadily increasing and, with this, there is a large population of patients that presents more comorbidities, polypharmacy, and, more frequently, frailty compared to younger patients, exposing them to potentially major risks for adverse events deriving from newer therapies, e.g. infections, cardiovascular risks, and malignancies. Unfortunately, pivotal trials for the commercialization of new therapies rarely include older IBD patients and those with serious comorbidities are virtually excluded. In the present review, we focus on existing literature from pivotal trials and real-world studies, analyzing data on efficacy/effectiveness and safety of newer therapies in older IBD patients with special emphasis on comorbidities and frailty, two distinct but intercorrelated aspects of the older population since age by itself seems to be of minor importance.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0343.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika; arboviruses; vector-borne infections; genomic surveillance; phylogenetics
Online: 14 April 2023 (03:51:13 CEST)
The Americas, particularly Brazil, were greatly impacted by the widespread outbreak of Zika virus (ZIKV) in 2015 and 2016. Efforts were made to implement genomic surveillance of ZIKV as part of the public health responses. The accuracy of spatiotemporal reconstructions of the epidemic spread relies on the unbiased sampling of the transmission process. In the early stages of the outbreak, we recruited patients exhibiting clinical symptoms of arbovirus-like infection from Salvador and Campo Formoso, Bahia, in Northeast Brazil. Between May 2015 and June 2016, we identified 21 cases of acute ZIKV infection and subsequently recovered 14 near full-length sequences using the amplicon tiling multiplex approach with nanopore sequencing. We perform a time-calibrated discrete phylogeographic analysis to trace the spread and migration history of the ZIKV. Our phylogenetic analysis supports a consistent relationship between ZIKV migration from Northeast to Southeast Brazil and its subsequent dissemination beyond Brazil. Additionally, our analysis provides insights into the migration of ZIKV from Brazil to Haiti and the role Brazil played in the spread of ZIKV to other countries, such as Singapore, the USA and Dominican Republic. The data generated by this study enhances our understanding of ZIKV dynamics and supports the existing knowledge, which can aid in future surveillance efforts against the virus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0416.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: kidney disease; hemodialysis; immunosuppression; pulmonary infections; computed tomography
Online: 24 August 2022 (08:30:16 CEST)
Patients under immunosuppressive therapy for kidney diseases or on maintenance hemodialysis are more susceptible to infection than the general population since loss of renal function per se was an immunocompromised condition. Of relevance, CT imaging plays a crucial role in the detection and management of pulmonary infectious diseases. We hence presented diverse CT findings of pulmonary infections in the above said patients collected during our arduous work against a wide range of pathogens including klebsiella pneumoniae, staphylococcus aureus, candida parapsilosis, aspergillus, cryptococcus, mucor, pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus, mycobacterium and nocardia. Notably, the pulmonary pathological changes were either primary pneumonia or secondary to the catheter-associated bloodstream infection. For a descriptive purpose, pulmonary manifestations of Wegener’s granuloma, lung cancer and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage/infection in vasculitis were also examined. As such, we retrospectively elaborated most likely CT features of each individual pathogen and briefly covered the differential diagnosis as well. Arguably, combination of pattern recognition with knowledge of the clinical setting could make a presumptive diagnosis and early treatment even more convenient. From the experience of first-line nephrologists, our work could make a substantial contribution to the expeditious and efficacious management of pulmonary infections in the pertinent patient population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0476.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: female; HIV infections; breastfeeding; vertical transmission; patient’s autonomy.
Online: 25 November 2021 (12:55:13 CET)
Background: Vertical transmission of HIV infection can occur during pregnancy, during childbirth or through breastfeeding. The recommendations issued by the various international guidelines (WHO 2010, EACS 2017, DHHS 2017) on the safety of breastfeeding of HIV-infected women in effective antiretroviral treatment do not provide univocal indications referring to individual countries the choice to advise or advise against such procedure. Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in a small cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women who, despite the information received, decided to breastfeed their children. The observation was carried out in the period between March 2017 and June 2021. In all newborns, prophylaxis therapy was initiated at birth, according to the treatment guidelines, the scheme adopted involved the administration of zidovudine (AZT) orally for 4 weeks, started immediately after the childbirth. Breastfeeding time was, on average, 5 months. Results: No contagion was diagnosed. All infants were tested for HIV-RNA at birth, 1, 3, and 6 months after birth, and 1, 3 and 3 months after stopping breastfeeding. Conclusions: The data obtained represent, in our opinion, a solicitation to discuss and re-evaluate scientific evidence that starting from "Undetectable Equals Untransmittable" (U = U) can open a scientific and cultural review of breastfeeding.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: children; infectious disease; lower respiratory tract infections; gastrointestinal
Online: 12 May 2020 (12:59:25 CEST)
The objective of this study was to describe the overall pattern of morbidity and mortality of children seen at the Thai Binh Pediatric Hospital in Vietnam, with a focus on infectious diseases. A retrospective review of hospitalisation records was conducted from 1 January 2015 to 31 December 2019. Data were obtained from a total of 113,999 records. The median age of patients was 18 months, with 83.98% of patients aged <5 years. Infectious diseases accounted for 61.0% of all cases. The most prevalent diseases were lower respiratory tract infections (32.8%), followed by gastrointestinal infections (13.3%) and confirmed influenza (5.4%). Most infections were not microbiologically documented. A total of 81.4% patients received at least one antibiotic. Most patients (97.0%) were hospitalised for less than 15 days. Regarding outcomes, 87.8% patients were discharged home with a favourable outcome. 12.0% were transferred to the Vietnam National Children’s Hospital because their condition had worsened and 0.1% died. In total, infectious diseases accounted for 40.4% of deaths, followed by neonatal disorders (34.6%). Our data serves a basis for the identification of needs for diagnostic tools and for future evaluation of the effect of the targeted implementation of such facilities. Point-of-care tests, including real-time PCR assays to identify common pathogens should be implemented for more accurate diagnosis and more appropriate antibiotic use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0435.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Respiratory tract infections (RTI); antibiotic; sensitivity; resistant; bacteria
Online: 24 August 2018 (11:46:41 CEST)
1) Background: Respiratory tract infections (RTI) has been known to be a significant health concern for mortality and morbidity since many years. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence of bacterial pathogen causing upper respiratory tract (URTIs) and the susceptibility patterns to frequently used antibiotics among patients attending Abusetta hospital in Tripoli district; 2) Methods: A total of 1,110 throat swabs were collected between Jan, 2011 to December, 2014 and inoculated onto Blood agar, MacCkonkey agar and Chocolate agar then incubated at 37 oC for 24 hours. Bacterial pathogens were determined by bacteriological culture methods and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was identified following Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute guidelines (CLSI); 3) Results: Of the 1,110 respiratory samples tested, 71.1% (n = 789) of specimens were positive cultures with the dominant bacterial pathogens being streptococcus pneumonia 43.3% (n = 342), followed by pseudomonas aeruginosa 22.8% (n = 180), staphylococcus aurous 13.8% (n = 109), Escherichia Coli 6.9% (n = 55), Enterobacter spp 6.2% (n = 49), Citrobacter 4.5% (n = 36), and Klebsiella 2.2% (n = 18). Most isolates exhibited resistance against the commonly used antibiotics and to at least one antibiotic; and 4) Conclusions: The level of antibiotic resistance in this study is alarming and brings to light the timely and suitable diagnosis of the common bacteria causes of URTIs and proper antibiotic administration based on susceptibility test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0874.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online frailty check application; older adults; co-design; co-development; reliability; participatory action research
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:25:59 CEST)
Frailty, an age-related decline in homeostatic reserves, markedly proceeded during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To continuously assess frailty status, a remote system is urgently required. We aimed to co-design/co-develop an online frailty check (FC) application alongside FC supporters who were facilitators in a pre-existing onsite FC program. The online FC included a screening measurement for sarcopenia and an 11-item questionnaire covering dietary, physical, and social behaviors. Using prototype applications, 55 opinions obtained from 32 FC supporters (median 74.0 years) were categorized and reflected refinement. Regarding the self-efficacy of FC supporters, a significant increase in social positioning was seen after the mock test (P=.031). For FC supporters and participants, the average system usability scale (SUS) score was 70.2±10.3 points, which was “marginally high” for acceptability and “good” for the adjective range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SUS score was significantly correlated with online-onsite reliability but not online communication, even after adjusting by age, sex, education level, and ICT proficiency (b=0.400, 95% CI: 0.243-1.951, P=.013). Additionally, a significant association between onsite and online FC scores was observed (R=0.670, P=.001). Our online FC application was evaluated to be a valuable tool to practically assess frailty status remotely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0040.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Value co-creation; Shared decision making; Stakeholder theory; Service-dominant logic; Co-created decision making
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:19:01 CEST)
Rare diseases are characterized by a wide diversity of signs and symptoms and vary not only from disease to disease, but also from person to person, and living with a disease leads patients to peculiar experiences and treatments, without limits of time and space, as they extend to various environments and relationships of their lives. The objective of this study is the theoretical interaction between Value Co-creation (VC) and the Stakeholder Theory (ST) with the Shared Decision Making (SDM) health care theory. It is configured as a multiparadigmatic proposal by enabling the analysis of multiple perspectives of different stakeholders in health care. Thus, Co-created Decision Making (CDM) emerges in a logic dominated by service, with emphasis on intangible aspects and the interactivity of the relationships. It goes beyond the clinical office and the doctor-patient relationships, as studied in SDM, extending to all environments and interactions that add value to the patient's treatment. It was concluded that the essence of this new theory proposed here is neither in patient-centered care nor in patient self-care, but in co-created relationships with and between stakeholders in both directions, including non-health care environments that are important to the patient, such as relationships with friends, family, other patients with the same disease, social media, public policies, and the practice of pleasurable activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Fuzzy implications; (S,N) implication; residuum t-norm; (T,N) co-implication; residual co-implication
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:47 CEST)
Recently, many authors have been interested to introduce fuzzy implications over t-norms and t-conorms. In this paper, we introduce (S,N) and residuum fuzzy implication for Dubois t-norm and Hamacher's t-norm. Also, new concepts so-called (T,N) and residual fuzzy co-implication in dual Heyting Algebra are investigated. Some examples as well as application are discussed as well.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0950.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: probiotics in poultry; Salmonella infections; antibiotic resistance; poultry health
Online: 9 November 2023 (02:28:48 CET)
Salmonella infection is one of major challenges to the poultry industry because of its pressing effects on health of poultry, food safety and human well-being that later may devastate economic losses to the poultry sector. The paper reviews public health implications and the use of antibiotics together with the risk of drug resistance. In recent years, the usage of probiotics in poultry industry has been growing to mitigate an increasing pressure to adopt sustainable farming practices. The mechanisms which probiotics may control Salmonella and important criteria for selecting effective probiotics in poultry are reported. Various studies highlighting the additional benefits of probiotics in poultry production in addition to Salmonella controls are also included. While probiotics offer promise in enhancing poultry health, challenges and limitations in their utilization must also be carefully considered.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1717.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: Healthcare-associated infections; indoor air quality; infection control; Candida
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:50:29 CEST)
Background: Fungi are ubiquitous microorganisms that are easily dispersed through the air. In healthcare environments, indoor air can favor the spread of healthcare-associated fungal infections, compromising mainly immunocompromised hospitalized individuals. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the indoor air contamination in healthcare environments, investigating mainly the presence of potentially pathogenic yeasts. Methods: Indoor air samples were collected from twelve healthcare environments (hospital and medical clinics). After the growth, isolation, and purification of the yeast colonies, the isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction using species-specific primers for yeasts of the genus Candida and sequencing of D1/D2 domains of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU rRNA). Results: Fourteen yeast species were identified, including emerging pathogens. Species of clinical importance such as Candida parapsilosis, Candida orthopsilosis, Candida glabrata, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, and Trichosporon mucoides were present. C. Parapsilosis was the most prevalent species, followed by Rodothorula mucilaginosa. Conclusions: The present study shows that potentially fungal pathogens were present in air samples from healthcare environments, proving the role of indoor air in spreading infections. Thus, monitoring air quality in healthcare environments is a fundamental approach in developing infection control measures, especially those related to invasive fungal infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chikungunya virus; diagnosis; arbovirus infections; clinical decision making; Colombia
Online: 6 March 2023 (15:17:22 CET)
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) diagnosis have become a challenge for primary care physicians in areas where zika virus and/or dengue virus are present. Case definitions for the three arboviral infections are overlapping. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out. A bivariate analysis was made using confirmed CHIKV infection as the outcome. Variables with significant statistical association were included in an agreement consensus. Agreed variables were analyzed in multiple regression model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine a cut-off value and performance. Results: 295 patients with confirmed CHIKV infection were included. A screening tool was made using symmetric arthritis (4 points), fatigue (3 points), rash (2 points) and ankle joint pain (1 point). The ROC curve identified a cut-off value and a score ≥ 5.5 was considered positive to identify CHIKV patients with a sensibility of 64.4% and a specificity of 87.4%, positive predictive value of 85.5%, negative predictive value of 67.7%, area under the curve of 0.72, and an accuracy of 75%. Conclusion: We developed a screening tool for CHIKV diagnosis using only clinical symptoms as well as proposed an algorithm to aid the primary care physician.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: lactobacilli infections; update; case reports; virulence traits; safety implications
Online: 21 February 2022 (08:54:37 CET)
probiotics. However, these bacteria caused rare infections mostly in diabetic and immunocompromised subjects in presence of risk factors such as prosthetic hearth valves and dental procedures or caries. The scope of this survey was re-assessing the pathogenic potential of lactobacilli based on the infection case reports published in the last three years. In 2019, 2020 and 2021 17, 15 and 16 cases, respective-ly,.including endocarditis, bacteremia and other infections, were reported. These annual numbers are higher than observed previously. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (13 cases), comprising strain GG (ATCC 53103) with established applications in healthcare, L. paracasei (7 cases), Lactobacillus acidophilus (5 cas-es), L. jensenii (5 cases), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (3 cases), L. paraplantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. del-brueckii, L. gasseri, L. paragasseri, Limosilactobacillus fermentum and L. reuteri (1 case each) were involved. Virulence characterization of two strains that caused infections, a derivative of L. rhamnosus GG and L.paracasei LP10266, indicated that increased biofilm forming capacity favors pathogenicity and it is determined by variable genetic traits. This survey highlighted that strains of lactobacilli able to cause infections were little characterized genet-ically. Instead, to avoid that these bacteria become a hazard, genetic stability should be periodically re-evaluated by whole genome sequencing (WGS) to ensure that only non-pathogenic variants are ad-ministered to vulnerable individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0129.v3
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: HOCl; hypochlorous; antimicrobial; antiinflammatory; SARS-CoV-2; infections; sanitisation
Online: 3 December 2021 (10:13:20 CET)
Sanitisation has become a major component of everyday life, with emphasis on the hands and surfaces. The face remains unsanitised due to the lack of an acceptable sanitiser. The use of masks has been mandated to reduce the spread of the pathogens by covering the face, however, there remain issues with the use of personal protective equipment. The face remains a harbour for upper respiratory tract infections, with constant deposition of microbes. By reducing microbial load, the risk of both infection and severity are reduced. HOCl has proven antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity, including efficacy against SARS-CoV-2. A facial sanitiser, alongside hand sanitisers and masks, improves protection against SARS-CoV-2. The advantages of regular sanitising of the face and mask include reduced level of microbial contamination, risk of biofilm formation, and respiratory tract and skin infections. HOCl was reviewed as a face and mask sanitiser, concluding that it was an ideal product.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Canephron, antibiotic, urinary tract infections, cohort study, herbal treatment
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:11:11 CEST)
Objective: The goal of the present study was to evaluate the treatment with Canephron® after the diagnosis of acute cystitis or urinary tract infection (UTI) with regards to the risk of a sporadic recurrent UTI, frequent recurrent UTIs, UTI associated sick leave, additional antibiotic prescriptions, and renal complications (pyelonephritis) compared to standard antibiotic treatment. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was based on data from the IMS® Disease Analyzer database (IQVIA), and included outpatients in Germany with at least one diagnosis of acute cystitis or UTI with a prescription of either Canephron® or standard antibiotics between January 2016 and June 2019 in general practitioner (GP), gynecologist, or urologist practices from which data were obtained. Multivariable regression models were used to investigate the association between Canephron® prescription and the amount of sporadic or frequent recurrent UTIs, as well as the duration of UTI associated sick leave, amount of additional antibiotic prescriptions, and cases of pyelonephritis. The effects of Canephron® were adjusted for age, sex, insurance status, and Charlson Comorbidity Score (CCI). Results: 2,320 Canephron® patients and 158,592 antibiotic patients were available for analysis. Compared to antibiotic prescription, Canephron® prescription was significantly associated with less sporadic recurrences of UTI infections 30-365 days after the index date (odds ratio [OR]: 0.66; 95% conﬁdence interval [CI]: 0.58–0.72), as well as with less frequent recurrences of UTI infections (OR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.49–0.88), and with minor additional antibiotic prescription within 31-365 days (OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.52-0.63). No significant differences were observed between the Canephron® and antibiotic cohorts with regard to the likelihood of sick leave (OR: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.86–1.14), new antibiotic prescription within 1-30 days (OR: 1.01; 95% CI: 0.87-1.16) and occurrences of pyelonephritis (Hazard Ratio (HR): 1.00; 95% CI: 0.67-1.48). Conclusion: These real world data show that Canephron® is an effective and safe symptomatic treatment for acute cystitis or UTI. It should be considered as an alternative treatment in particular also to strengthen antimicrobial stewardship strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0597.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: viral respiratory infections; severe asthma; immune response; biologicals; omalizumab
Online: 26 March 2021 (10:55:06 CET)
Viral respiratory infections are recognized risk factors for the loss of control of allergic asthma and the induction of exacerbations, both in adults and children. Severe asthma is more susceptible to virus-induced asthma exacerbations, especially in the presence of high IgE levels. In the course of immune responses to viruses, an initial activation of innate immunity typically occurs and the production of type I and III interferons is essential in the control of viral spread. However, the Th2 inflammatory environment still appears to be protective against viral infections in general and in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections as well. As for now, literature data, although very limited and preliminary, show that severe asthma patients treated with biologics don’t have an increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection or progression to severe forms compared to the non-asthmatic population. Omalizumab, an anti-IgE monoclonal antibody, exerts a profound cellular effect, which is able to stabilize the effector cells becoming much more efficient from the point of view of innate immunity in contrasting respiratory viral infections. In addition to the antiviral effect, clinical efficacy and safety of this biological allows a great improvement in the management of asthma.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Seroepidemiologic Studies; Prevalence; Coronavirus Infections; Occupational Exposure; Occupational Health
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:11:01 CET)
The negative effect of COVID-19 pandemic has reach world economy due to absence from work for SARS-CoV-2 infection in workers, among other things. However, some economic areas are essential to society and people must continue working outside home, to support economic reactivation; their serological profile could be different from global population. Cross-sectional study. Workers from health, construction, public transportation, public force, bike delivery messengers, independent or informal commerce areas, and residents of Bucaramanga or its metropolitan area were invited to participate. All participants self-completed a virtual survey and a blood test was taken to assess IgG and IgM with ARC COV2 test. Seroprevalence was estimated considering a complex survey design, correcting for finite population effect and adjusting for test performance. 7.045 workers were enrolled; 59.9% were women, most were residents of Bucaramanga and working in health occupations. Global adjusted seroprevalence was 19.5% (IC95% 18.6 - 20.4), being higher for Girón [27.9% (CI95% 24.5 - 31.30]). Workers with multiple contact with people during working hours or using public transportation to go to work had higher frequency of seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2. Seroprevalence among workers living in these four municipalities from the Colombian northeast area is still low.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0146.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: antimicrobial stewardship; resistance; infections; antibiotic utilization; peer-reviewed literature
Online: 14 March 2019 (06:57:30 CET)
Antimicrobial stewardship efforts are an emphasis among many institutions around the world to combat inappropriate antimicrobial utilization, rising healthcare costs and emerging antimicrobial resistance. Implementation of new innovative strategies may be challenging for many institutions with limited or constrained resources. Using proven effective methods as evidenced by other institutions in the peer-reviewed literature may offer an opportunity to evaluate institution-specific practices, which may be implemented locally. A structured examination and survey of the peer-reviewed, stewardship literature by an expert group of clinicians, scholars and educators determined the most influential publications from 2016. Herein, the top thirteen manuscripts are reviewed to aid clinicians identify potential stewardship opportunities and serve as an educational tool for trainees and others.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0349.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bacterial infections; sensitivity; specificity; immature granulocytes; Latvia; child; sepsis
Online: 27 April 2018 (06:09:47 CEST)
Background: Detection of small proportion of serious bacterial infections (SBI) with potentially life threating course in a large group of children with fever admitted to emergency department (ED) is still complicated. Measurement of immature granulocytes (IG) percentage may be used as a marker of bacterial infections. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether the IG percentage is a useful additional predictive marker of SBI. Methods: This study included 258 children with febrile infections admitted to the ED. Clinical follow-up, microbiological and radiological tests were used as reference standards for the definition of SBI. Study population was categorized into two groups: (i) infected patients with no suspicion of SBI (n = 75); (ii) patients with suspicion of SBI (n = 183). IG percentage, white blood cell count (WBC) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were analyzed from the first routine blood samples at hospital admission. Results: A statistically significant difference in IG percentage levels was observed in children with SBI and those without - the mean IG percentage was 1.2% for the SBI group, 0.3% for those without SBI. The cutoff level of IG percentage to predict SBI was 0.45 (84% specificity, 66% sensitivity, 90% positive predictive value). We combine variables and evaluate their additive values. The sensitivity of WBC to detected SBI improved from 74% to 85% when IG percentage was added to the prediction models. When CRP, WBC and IG percentage were combined, the sensitivity to predict SBI increased to 93%, the specificity to 86%. (95% CI 77–93%). Receiver operator characteristic analysis to predict SBI showed an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.80 for IG percentage. Conclusion: Addition of IG percentage to traditionally used markers of SBI as WBC and CRP may help to identify children with serious bacterial infections. Furthermore IG percentage can be rapidly obtained from the traditional full blood count without any extra sampling and costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0632.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Co-crosslinking; Tribology; Water lubrication; Rubber
Online: 10 October 2023 (16:26:55 CEST)
As one of the important components of underwater propulsion systems, water lubricated bearings are often failure due to mechanical wearing and vibrating, especially under high loads and prolonged friction. In this paper, a dual-network co-crosslinking strategy based on HNBR is proposed, in which the epoxy network connects with the rubber network through Epoxidized Eommia ulmoides gum. The damping, tribological and mechanical properties of the prepared composite are systematically investigated. The results show that this material has excellent friction and vibration damping properties, with a water-lubricated coefficient of friction as low as 0.022 and a wear resistance as high as 3.87 × 10-6mm3/Nm. Preparing HNBR-based composite by dual network co-crosslinked is proved being a feasible solution to improve the reliability and service life of water-lubricated bearings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Cement; Co-process; Waste; Incineration; Landfill
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:32:38 CEST)
Recently, the amount of waste generated has been rapidly increasing, there have been difficulties disposing of waste in Korea. As a solution to this, treating waste using a cement kiln has suggested, but the environmental and economic effects have not been specifically studied. In this study, the effects of alternative resources, and reducing the social costs(Installation and Operation) associated with waste treatment facilities were analyzed. Through a co-processing method, a reduction of approximately 53kg of CO2 can be realized during the production of one ton of cement, and cost savings of about 3,815 milion USD. Another effect is an extension of the expiration date for landfills by 7.55 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Quasi-Co-Degree; Quasi-Degree; Vertex
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:23:20 CET)
New setting is introduced to study quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree arising from co-neighborhood. quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree is about a vertex which are applied into the setting of neutrosophic graphs. . The structure of set is studied and general results are obtained. Also, some classes of neutrosophic graphs namely path-neutrosophic graphs, cycle-neutrosophic graphs, complete-neutrosophic graphs and star-neutrosophic graphs, complete-bipartite-neutrosophic graphs and complete-multipartite-neutrosophic graphs are investigated in the terms of a vertex which is called either quasi-degree or quasi-co-degree. Neutrosophic number is reused in this way. It’s applied to use the type of neutrosophic number in the way that, three values of a vertex are used and they’ve same share to construct this number to compare with other vertices. Summation of three values of vertex makes one number and applying it to a comparison. This approach facilitates identifying vertices which form quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree. Quasi-degree is a value of a vertex which is maximum amid all values of vertices which are neighbors to a fixed vertex. Quasi-co-degree is a value of an edge which is maximum amid all values of edges which are neighbors to a fixed vertex but corresponded vertex is representative for this notion. Using different values which are related to a vertex inspire us to focus on edge and vertices which are corresponded to a fixed vertex. The notion of neighborhood is used to collect either vertices are titled neighbors or edges are incident to fixed vertex. In both settings, some classes of well-known neutrosophic graphs are studied. Some clarifications for each result and each definitions are provided. Using fixed vertex has key role to have these notions in the form of vertex or edge. The value of an edge has eligibility to call quasi-co-degree but the value of a vertex has eligibility to call quasi-degree. Some results get more frameworks and perspective about these definitions. The way in that, two vertices have connection together, open the way to define neighborhood and co-neighborhood. The maximum values in neighborhood and co-neighborhood introduces quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree, respectively. New name is chosen from degree. Since amid all vertices with different degrees, one vertex is chosen. In other words, one vertex is fixed and its degree turns out quasi-degree where two degrees could be assigned to a vertex. Degree of edges and degree of vertices. The number of edges which are incident to the vertex and the number of vertices which are neighbors to the vertex. Degree and co-degree are the notions which are transformed to use in quasi-style. Two neutrosophic values introduce two neutrosophic vertices separately in each settings. These notions are applied into neutrosophic graphs as individuals but not family of them as drawbacks for these notions. Finding special neutrosophic graphs which are well-known, is an open way to purse this study. Some problems are proposed to pursue this study. Basic familiarities with graph theory and neutrosophic graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0586.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:49:51 CEST)
Potential of co-digestion mixing thickened secondary sludge (TS) from extended aeration wastewater treatment plant and locally available substrates (whey, grease and septage) has been studied using three steps. The first step was a batch test to determine biological methane potential (BMP) of different mixtures of the three co-substrates with TS. The second step has been carried out with lab-scale reactors (20 L) simulating anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors fed by three mixtures of co-substrates determined according to previous step results. Modelling using ADM1 as a mechanistic model was applied in the third step to help understanding the co-digestion process. According to BMP step, septage used as co-substrate has a negative effect on performance and addition of 10 to 30% grease or 10% whey would lead to a higher production of biogas and with an increase of the methane content. The results from the reactor showed less evi-dence of the positive effects observed with the BMP assay. Protein and lipid fractions of particu-late biodegradable COD are important variables for digester stability and methane production as predicted by modelling. Results of simulations with ADM1 model adapted to co-digestion confirmed that this model is a powerful tool to optimize the process of biogas production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: TRβ; tumor suppression; co-regulators; therapeutics
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:14:12 CEST)
There is compelling evidence that the nuclear receptor TRβ, a member of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family, is a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and other solid tumors. Cell-based and animal studies reveal that the liganded TRβ induces apoptosis, reduces an aggressive phenotype, decreases stem cell populations, and slows tumor growth through modulation of a complex interplay of transcriptional networks. TRβ-driven tumor suppressive transcriptomic signatures include repression of known drivers of proliferation such as PI3K/Akt pathway and activation of novel signaling (JAK1/STAT1) and metabolic reprogramming in both thyroid and breast cancers. The presence of TRβ is also correlated with a positive prognosis and response to therapeutics in BRCA+ and triple-negative breast cancers respectively. Ligand activation of TRβ enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. TRβ co-regulators and bromodomain-containing chromatin remodeling proteins are emergent therapeutic targets. This review considers TRβ as a potential biomolecular diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: critical pedagogy; experiential learning; co-production
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:35:42 CEST)
The sense of uncertainty and fragility due to the effects and magnitude of global challenges we are facing (from pandemic circumstances to climate change impacts) requires – much more than in the past – the capacity to generate a visionary and forefront design approach in the young gen-erations aiming at stimulating their reaction attitude rather than providing consolidated tools from past conditions that no longer exist or will rapidly evolve. Within this general framework, we have investigated the effectiveness and impacts of experienced-based methods of learning and innovative educational tools in architecture aimed at shaping expertise in which the environ-mental dimension and the climate-change challenge dialogues with the context's complexity in terms of socio-cultural dynamics, real potentialities and constrains, addressing their transdisci-plinary trajectories. The paper analyses 5 international pioneering teaching experiences that provide the opportunity to understand the outcomes of collaborative and experiential learning processes in which the educational activities leverage a dialogue between diverse communities (academia-citizens-policymakers-practitioners). The study outcomes show that shifting the pedagogical paradigm towards in-field-experience-based models can improve the awareness of future practitioners for climate implications of architectural design, implement their analysis and project skills while triggering processes of knowledge transfer and co-production at community level, and allow them to better address the societal and cultural issues involved within decision making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0608.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: co-production; knowledge production; public services
Online: 22 April 2021 (13:23:35 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore conceptual approaches in co-production studies and to examine current research trends of the study. The conceptual paper includes research articles related to co-production in public administration field. By thoroughly scrutinizing 32 research works of co-production, this study highlights major loopholes in the field of the study. The contributions of the study are: (1) identifying two common characteristics of co-production, (2) categorising three types of co-producing by end-users, and (3) finding that goals and success of co-production are more beneficial for service providers though its initial approach is citizen-centric approach. We suggest that future studies should be (1) to focus on reasons for co-production failures or success, (2) to discover further hindrances for co-production in service production, (3) to examine influencing factors on service providers as well as institutional impacts on co-production process, and (4) to include practical assessment in co-production study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0084.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: antimony; ferrihydrite; silica; adsorption; co-precipitation
Online: 10 January 2018 (07:02:42 CET)
Elevated antimony concentrations in aqueous environments from anthropogenic sources is becoming of global concern, here iron oxides are known to strongly adsorb aqueous antimony species with different oxidation states, but the effect of silica on the removal characteristics is not well understood despite being a common component in the environment. In this study, ferrihydrite was synthesized at various Si/Fe molar ratios to investigate its adsorption and co-precipitation behaviors with aqueous antimony anionic species, Sb(III) and Sb(V). The XRD analyses of the precipitates showed two broad diffraction features at approximately 35° and 62° 2θ, which are characteristic of 2-line ferrihydrite, no significant shifts in peak positions in the ferrihydrite regardless of the Si/Fe ratios. The infrared spectra showed a sharp band at ~990 cm−1, corresponding to asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-Fe bonds which increased in intensity with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. Further, the surface charge on the precipitates became more negative with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. The adsorption experiments indicated that Sb(V) was preferentially adsorbed at acidic conditions and decreased dramatically with increasing pH while the adsorption rate of Sb(III) ions was independent of pH, however, the presence of silica suppressed the adsorption of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions. The results showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions were significantly inhibited by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite even in the presence of silica by isomorphous substitution in the ferrihydrite crystal structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: stroke; antioxidant; co-drug; animal model
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:46:38 CEST)
Background: Previously, our laboratory has provided evidence that pre-administration of the antioxidant, lipoic acid covalently bonded to various naturally occurring antioxidants, enhanced neuroprotective capacity compared to the administration of lipoic acid on its own. The naturally occurring compound scopoletin, a coumarin derivative, has been shown in various in vitro studies to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism of actions. To date, the effect of scopoletin on neuronal cell death in an in vivo model of ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion has not been investigated. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine if scopoletin on its own, or a co-drug consisting of lipoic acid and scopoletin covalent bond, named UPEI-400, would be capable of demonstrating a similar neuroprotective efficacy. Methods: Using a rodent model of stroke in male rats (anesthetized with Inactin®; 100 mg/kg, iv), the middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded for 6 hours (pMCAO), or in separate animals, occluded for 30 min followed by 5.5 hrs of reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion; I/R). Results: Pre-administration of either scopoletin or UPEI-400 significantly decreased infarct volume in the I/R model (p<0.05), but not in the pMCAO model of stroke. However, UPEI-400 was ~1000 times more potent as compared to scopoletin on its own. The optimal dose of UPEI-400 was then injected during the occlusion and at several time points during reperfusion and significant neuroprotection was observed for up to 150 mins following the start of reperfusion (p<0.05). Conclusion: The data suggest that synthetic combination of scopoletin with lipoic acid (UPEI-400) is a more effective neuroprotectant that either compound on their own. Also, since UPEI-400 was only effective in a model of I/R, it is possible that it may act to enhance neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or upregulate anti-inflammatory pathways to prevent the neuronal cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: adsorption; coatings; poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate); corrosion tests; atomic force microscopy
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:00:55 CET)
Poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) named further PVBA was investigated as protective coating for copper corrosion in 0.9 % NaCl solution using electrochemical measurements such as, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization associated with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The PVBA coating on the copper surface (Cu-PVBA) was modeled in methanol containing PVBA. Its inhibitory properties against corrosion was comparatively discussed with those of the copper sample treated in methanol without polymer (Cu-Me) and of untreated sample (standard copper). A protective performance of PVBA coating of 80 % was computed from electrochemical measurements, for copper corrosion in NaCl solution. Also, AFM images designed a specific surface morphology of coated surface with PVBA, clearly highlighting a polymer film adsorbed on the copper surface, which presents certain deterioration after corrosion, but metal surface was not significantly affected compared to those of untreated samples or treated in methanol, in the absence of PVBA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0248.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Quasi-Order; Neutrosophic Quasi-Size; Neutrosophic Quasi-Number; Neutrosophic Quasi-Co-Number; Neutrosophic Co-t-Neighborhood
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:48:38 CET)
New setting is introduced to study co-neighborhood, neutrosophic t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-vertex set, neutrosophic quasi-order, neutrosophic neighborhood, neutrosophic co-t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-edge set, neutrosophic quasi-size, Neutrosophic number, neutrosophic co-neighborhood, co-neutrosophic number, quasi-number and quasi-co-number. Some classes of neutrosophic graphs are investigated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1097.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Nanobodies; respiratory viral infections; spray and aerosol particles; targeted delivery.
Online: 18 October 2023 (03:04:54 CEST)
Respiratory viral infections, including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and, more recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, continue to pose significant global health threats. Conventional treatments for these infections often face challenges such as limited efficacy, the emergence of drug-resistant strains, and the requirement for frequent administration. In recent years, nanobodies have emerged as a promising class of therapeutic agents due to their unique properties, including small size, high stability, and specific binding capabilities. This mini-review article focuses on the application of nanobodies as spray and aerosol particles for the treatment of respiratory viral infections. Furthermore, we highlight the remarkable efficacy of nanobodies in preclinical and clinical studies against respiratory viruses, including their ability to neutralize viral particles, inhibit viral replication, and modulate the host immune response. We discuss the potential advantages of using nanobodies as inhalable formulations, including their improved delivery to the respiratory tract, enhanced stability in aerosol form, and reduced systemic side effects. Additionally, we explore the various strategies employed to engineer nanobodies for optimal aerosol delivery, such as conjugation to carrier particles or formulation as dry powders. We also examine the potential challenges and limitations associated with the development of nanobody-based aerosol therapies, including production scalability, cost-effectiveness, and regulatory considerations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1840.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: COVID19; Biomarkers; CRP; PCT; modeling analysis; ICU-acquired infections; Monitoring
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:49:50 CEST)
The SARS-CoV-2 infection is a cause of hypoxemic acute respiratory failure, leading to frequent intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Due to invasive organ support and immunosuppressive therapies, these patients are prone to nosocomial infections. Our aim was to assess the value of daily measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) and Procalcitonin (PCT) in the early identification of ICU-acquired infections in COVID-19 patients Methods: We undertook a prospective observational cohort study (12 months). All adult me-chanically-ventilated patients admitted for ≥ 72 hours to the ICU with COVID-19 pneumonia were divided into an infected group (n=35) and a non-infected group (n=83). Day 0 was considered as the day of the diagnosis of infection (infected group) and day 10 of ICU stay (non-infected group). The kinetics of CRP and PCT were assessed from day -10 to day 10 and evaluated using a general linear model, univariate, repeated-measures analysis. Results: 118 patients (mean age 63 years, 74% males) were eligible for the analysis. The groups did not differ in patients' age, gender, CRP, and PCT serum levels at ICU admission. However, the infected group encompassed patients with a higher severity (SOFA score at ICU admission, p=0.009) and a higher 28-day mortality (p<0.001). Before D0, CRP kinetics showed a significant increase in infected patients, whereas in noninfected it remained almost unchanged (p<0.001), while PCT kinetics did not appear to retain diagnostic value to predict superinfection in COVID-19 patients (p=0.593). Conclusion: COVID-19 patients who develop ICU-acquired infections exhibited different biomarker kinetics before the diagnosis of those infections. Daily CRP monitoring and the recognition of the CRP kinetics could be useful in the prediction of ICU-acquired infections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1941.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Stimuli-triggered nano-systems; hybrid nano-systems; biomimetics; bacterial infections
Online: 27 July 2023 (13:06:30 CEST)
In recent years, antimicrobial resistance in many human pathogens has become a serious health concern. Since infections with resistant pathogens cannot be treated with traditional antimicro-bial drugs, new strategies are necessary to fight bacterial infections. Hybrid nano-systems may provide a solution to this problem, by combining multiple mechanisms for killing bacteria to synergistically increase the effectiveness of the antimicrobial treatment. In this review, we high-light recent advances in the development of hybrid nano-systems for the treatment of bacterial infections. We discuss the use of hybrid nano-systems for combinational therapy, focusing on various triggering mechanisms for drug release and the development of biomimetic nanomateri-als. We also examine inherently antimicrobial nano-systems and their uses in preventing infec-tions due to wounds and medical implants. This review summarizes recent advances and pro-vides insight into the future development of antimicrobial treatments using hybrid nanomateri-als.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1856.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Emerging and reemerging viral infections; Mpox; Mpox virus; 5 Ws
Online: 27 June 2023 (08:04:20 CEST)
In May 2022, WHO reported an outbreak of Mpox in several European countries which were previously Mpox free. Mpox (formerly known as monkeypox) is a zoonotic viral disease endemic in Central and West Africa. The sudden emergence of Mpox outside Africa and its subsequent rapid spread lead the WHO to declare the outbreak as Public Health Emergency of International Concern. As of May 15, 2023, a total of 87,704 confirmed cases and 140 deaths had been reported from 111 countries and territories worldwide. Looking back on this outbreak one year later, several important questions have arisen. Here, we address these questions using the classic five Ws: What, When, Where, Who and Why? We discuss these questions and outline what needs to be done to prevent, or at least minimize, outbreaks from emerging and re-emerging viral infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0436.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: HIV; HCV; Health Literacy; HIV Knowledge; HCV Knowledge; Viral Infections
Online: 8 May 2023 (03:50:33 CEST)
The Infectious and Tropical Diseases Department of University of Brescia organized free rapid screening tests for HIV and HCV as part of the Fast Track City commitment. A cross-sectional study was conducted, consisting of an anonymous, multiple-choice questionnaire that was administered to individuals who underwent the screening or consultation. The study aimed to compare knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and HCV between age groups (18-40 vs. >40) and sexual orientations (heterosexual vs. LGBTQ+). Overall, 333 questionnaires were completed. Individuals over the age of 40 and those who identified as heterosexual had the lowest level of knowledge about HIV transmission (7.9% and 30% respectively), undetectable=untransmittable (19.7% and 39.4% respectively) and PrEP (9.2% and 18.2% respectively). They were also less willing to cohabit with people with HIV (PLHIV). Only 9.6% of the population demonstrated high levels of knowledge for both HIV and HCV. People over the age of 40 had the largest gaps in knowledge and would benefit the most from educational and prevention interventions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0094.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: nutrition; pediatrics; geographic information systems; acute respiratory infections; diarrhea; growth
Online: 6 October 2021 (09:00:12 CEST)
Infectious disease is the leading cause of mortality in children under five. This study has investigated environmental factors related to the morbidity of acute respiratory infections (ARIs), diarrhea, and growth using geographical information systems (GIS) technology. Anthropometric, address and disease prevalence data were collected through the SEEM study in Matiari, Pakistan. Publicly available map data was used to compile coordinates of healthcare facilities. A Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to calculate the correlation between distance from healthcare facilities and participant growth and morbidity. Other continuous variables influencing these outcomes were analyzed using a random forest regression model. In this study of 416 children, we found participants living closer to secondary hospitals had lower prevalence of ARI (r=0.154, p<0.010) and diarrhea (r=0.228, p<0.001) as well as participants living closer to Maternal Health Centers (MHCs): ARI (r=0.185, p<0.002) and diarrhea (r=0.223, p<0.001) compared to those living near primary facilities. Our random forest model showed distance to have high variable importance in the context of disease prevalence. Our results indicated that participants closer to more basic healthcare facilities reported a higher prevalence of both diarrhea and ARI than those near more urban facilities, highlighting potential public policy gaps in ameliorating rural health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Appeasing Pheromone; Bovine; Respiratory Infections; Immune Response; Average Daily Gain
Online: 3 May 2021 (09:15:45 CEST)
Bovine respiratory disease is still a major concern in feedlots and has major economic impact. Another consequence of respiratory infections is the use of antimicrobial molecules to control bacterial pathogens. This can participate to the emergence and shedding of antimicrobial re-sistance that can threaten animal as well as human health. Appeasing pheromones with their capacity to reduce stress and thus their ability to preserve the functions of the immune system have been proposed to reduce the use of antimicrobial substances. In the current report we as-sessed the effect of appeasing pheromone administration on bovine health and performance during the fattening period. Zootechnical and health parameters as well as whole blood immune transcript expressions were measured over weeks in young bulls to determine the effect of the pheromone. We observed a reduction of clinical signs at day 30 in young bulls who received the pheromone and a higher expression of interleukin 8 transcripts in this group than in the control group. Our results are in line with previous reports in bovine and other mammals and ask for further studies to shed more light on the beneficial impact of appeasing pheromones and to de-cipher their exact mechanisms of action.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0655.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: urinary tract infections; multi-drug resistance; biofilm; virulence genes; WGS
Online: 27 September 2020 (02:40:41 CEST)
Background: Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) is the most common cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs). They are often multidrug-resistant (MDR), making them challenging to treat. Additionally, virulence mechanisms as biofilm formation are associated with persistent UTIs. Aims: To reveal a possible association between patients’ risk factors and UTIs caused by MDR or biofilm-forming ExPECs and characterize ExPECs causing asymptomatic bacteriuria, community- (CA), or hospital-acquired (HA) UTIs in hospitalized patients in Brazil. Methods: Bacterial DNA was extracted from the urine of 63 hospitalized patients and sequenced using short-read sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility was evaluated using VITEK-2, and the biofilm-forming, adhesion, and invasion abilities were quantitatively assessed. Results: Antibiotic resistance rates were high, and the majority of UTIs were complicated CA-UTIs. Most MDR- and ESBL-producing E. coli isolates belonged to high-risk lineages and were associated with UTIs in patients with comorbidities and over 60 years of age. The mortality rate of patients infected with MDR-isolates was higher than of those infected with non-MDR isolates. Most isolates were biofilm-forming, but no association with patients’ risk factors was found. Conclusions: Complicated UTIs caused by MDR- and biofilm-forming bacteria are frequently found in hospitalized patients in Brazil suffering from a UTI and are associated with high-risk lineages.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: metabolomics; vaccines; infections; integrative metabolomics; systems biology; diagnosis; response detection
Online: 1 September 2020 (10:25:03 CEST)
Approaches to identification of metabolites have progressed from early biochemical pathway evaluation to modern high dimensional metabolomics which is a powerful tool to identify and characterize biomarkers of health and disease. While traditionally considered relevant in the context of classic metabolic diseases, immunometabolism has emerged as an important area of study as leukocytes generate key metabolites important to innate and adaptive immunity. Herein we discuss the metabolomic signatures and pathways perturbed during infection as well as vaccination. For example, changes in lipid and amino acid pathways (e.g., tryptophan, serine, and threonine) have been noted during infection while carbohydrate and bile acid pathways have shift upon vaccination. Metabolomics holds substantial promise to provide fresh insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying host response to infection and vaccination, and its integration with other systems biology platforms will add further impact to our studies of health and disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0107.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: daptomycin; antibiotic lock therapy; gentamicin; azithromycin; catheter-related bloodstream infections
Online: 10 September 2019 (10:43:51 CEST)
Background: Antibiotic lock therapy is an interventional modality used for treatment and prevention of central-line associated bloodstream infections. Stability and compatibility data for combinations are lacking, limiting clinical use. Objective: Compatibility and stability of daptomycin lock solutions in combination with azithromycin, gentamicin, and heparin or sodium citrate were evaluated up to 96 hours. Methods: Eight candidate lock solutions were prepared for compatibility and stability testing. All solutions were prepared in glass vials, and included daptomycin 1mg/mL in varying combinations with heparin 100 – 1,000 units/mL, trisodium citrate, azithromycin and/or gentamicin. Lactated Ringer’s solution was added as a diluent in a sufficient quantity to bring the total volume up to 5mL. Drug stability in the admixture was determined by the degradation of the components. The quantification of drugs was performed using Waters Alliance HPLC using Phenomenex Luna C8 (2), 150*2.6mm, 5µ column. A gradient run was executed for 20 minutes with 0.45% ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.25 as eluent A and acetonitrile as eluent B at a flow rate of 1.0mL/min. Each solution was visually inspected for particulates and color change. Lock solutions were tested in triplicate. Results: Daptomycin degradation was <10% for all solutions at 48 hours, and for 7 of the 8 solutions at 72 hours. Gentamicin degradation was <5% for solutions in combination with daptomycin and trisodium citrate. No physical incompatibilities were detected. Conclusion: Study data support the stability and compatibility of daptomycin with additives in solution, allowing for fewer exchanges and longer dwell times for a lock solution. The addition of azithromycin or gentamicin may offer synergy and/or extended spectrum of activity. Daptomycin bioactivity with trisodium citrate needs confirmation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0188.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lactobacillus species; opportunistic pathogens; infections; risk factors; predisposing factors; virulence
Online: 16 April 2019 (12:45:22 CEST)
Microorganisms belonging to the Lactobacillus genus are naturally associated or deliberately added to fermented food products and are widely used in probiotic food additives and supplements. Moreover these bacteria normally colonize mouth, gastrointestinal (GI) tract and female genitourinary tract of humans. They exert multiple beneficial effects and are regarded as safe microorganisms. However, infections caused by lactobacilli, mainly endocarditis, bacteremia and pleuropneumonia occasionally occur. The relevance of Lactobacillus spp. as opportunistic pathogens in humans and related risk factors and predisposing conditions are illustrated in this review article with more emphasis on the species L. rhamnosus, that has been more often involved in infection cases. The methods used to identify this species in clinical samples, to distinguish strains and to evaluate traits that can be associated to pathogenicity, as well as future perspectives for improving the identification of potentially pathogenic strains are outlined.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0016.v3
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: bioresorbable implants; corrosion layer; vascular stents; orthopedic implants; microbial infections
Online: 11 July 2018 (13:54:04 CEST)
Medical implants made of biodegradable materials could be of advantage for temporary applications such mechanical support during bone-healing or as vascular stents to keep blood vessels open. After completion of the healing process the implant would disappear, avoiding long-term side effects or the need for surgical removal. Various corrodible metal alloys based on magnesium, iron or zinc have been proposed as sturdier and potentially less inflammatory alternative to degradable organic polymers, in particular for load-bearing applications. Despite the recent introduction of magnesium-based screws the remaining hurdles to routine clinical applications are still challenging, such as limiting mechanical material characteristics or unsuitable corrosion characteristics. Here, salient features and clinical prospects of currently investigated biodegradable implant materials are summarized with a main focus on magnesium alloys. A mechanism of action for the stimulation of bone growth due to the exertion of mechanical force by magnesium corrosion products is discussed. To explain divergent in vitro and in vivo effects of magnesium a novel model for bacterial biofilm infections is proposed which predicts crucial consequences antibacterial implant strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0659.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: co-crystallization; encapsulation; phenolic extract; pomegranate peel
Online: 11 July 2023 (05:24:28 CEST)
Recently, there has been a lot of interest in the phenolics of pomegranate peels because of their health-promoting effects. The incorporation of encapsulated phenolic extracts in functional foods, beverages, and dietary supplements can enhance their nutritional and health benefits. This paper aims to provide an overview of the encapsulation of pomegranate peel phenolic extract by co-crystallization, focusing on the properties of the encapsulated extract. Pomegranate peel extract encapsulated in sucrose by co-crystallization at conditions determined in our previous work is characterized by evaluating its properties; moisture content, bulk density, solubility, hygroscopicity, color, degree of encapsulation by thermograms, crystallinity by X-ray scattering, microstructure by scanning electron microscope, and storage stability in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The co-crystallized powder had a low moisture content (0.59%) and hygroscopicity (0.011%) and a high bulk density (0.803 g/cm3) and solubility (61 s). Its total phenolic content decreased by only 0.56% after storage at 60oC for 45 days, whereas its antioxidant activity was maintained at levels higher than 84%. The differential scanning calorimetry and the X-ray scattering techniques proved the successful encapsulation in the sucrose matrix and the fact that the extract remained liquid inside the porosity of the sucrose crystals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0848.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bibliometric analysis; Sustainability; co-occurrence; thematic map
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of highly cited papers published in the journal Sustainability between 2009 and 2023. The aim is to identify influential countries, authors, and papers, as well as patterns in authorship and citation trends. The analysis focuses on frequently cited sources, the most cited research papers and references within the journal, and trends in author keywords. The analysis shows that Sustainability is a leading publication in sustainability research, with an annual growth rate of 53.57%. The selected papers, published between 2013 and 2022, have an average age of 2.11 years and an average of 88.12 citations each. The study highlights the most influential countries in sustainability research published in Sustainability, with China leading, followed by the United States and Germany. The most prolific authors are from China, Spain, and Italy. Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to address complex sustainability challenges, as shown in the papers published in Sustainability. The study emphasizes the importance of staying informed about emerging trends and research directions in the field of sustainability published in this journal Sustainability. It underscores the significance of fostering international collaborations and partnerships to address complex sustainability challenges facing our world today, as evidenced by the papers published in Sustainability. Overall, this bibliometric analysis provides valuable insights into the current state of sustainability research published in Sustainability and its implications for policy and practice. It highlights key areas for future research and underscores the need for interdisciplinary collaboration to address complex sustainability challenges, as demonstrated by the papers published in Sustainability. These findings have important implications for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners interested in promoting sustainable development in the field of sustainability., as published in Sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cannabis; tobacco; co-use; simultaneous use; mixing
Online: 14 December 2022 (06:30:42 CET)
Introduction: Increasing cannabis legalization raises concerns that tobacco use, frequently used with cannabis, will also increase. This study investigated the association between legal status of cannabis in place of residence and prevalence of cannabis and tobacco co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing by comparing the prevalence among adults in Canada (prior to cannabis legalization) vs. adults in US states that had legalized recreational cannabis vs. US states that had not as of September 2018. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2018 International Cannabis Policy Study, conducted with respondents aged 16-65 in Canada and the US recruited from non-probability consumer panels. Differences in the prevalence of co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing between tobacco and different cannabis products were examined using logistic regression models by legal status of place of residence among past 12-month cannabis consumers (N=6744). Results: Co-use and simultaneous use in the past 12 months were most common among respondents in US legal states. Among cannabis consumers, co-use and simultaneous use were less common in US legal states, while mixing was less frequent in US states with both legal and illegal cannabis compared to Canada. Use of edibles was associated with lower odds of all three outcomes, while smoking dried herb or hash was associated with higher odds. Conclusions: The proportion of cannabis consumers who used tobacco was lower in legal jurisdictions despite higher prevalence of cannabis use. Edible use was inversely associated with co-use suggesting that edible use does not appear to be associated with increased tobacco use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Co-composted biochar; drought; NUE; PUE; salinity
Online: 24 January 2022 (09:41:10 CET)
This pot-based study investigated the influence of co-composted wood-derived biochar on lettuce growth performance under salinity and drought stress conditions. Biochar of two particle sizes; > 2 mm and < 1 mm were co-composted with the mixture (1:1 ratio of dry weight) of cow and poultry manures. Co-composted biochars were applied at 5% and 7% rates in soil. Control treatments included the amendment of mixture of biochar with manure in soil. Pots were subjected to slight drought (48-55% water filled pore space (WFPS) of soil) and non-drought conditions (60% WFPS) and under 0 and 1.3 dS m-1 salinity. Results revealed that plants growth performance was significantly better under treatments of co-composted biochar and no salt stress conditions, than when mixture of biochar and manure was applied to soil as non-composted fertilizer. Under no stress condition, small particle-sized co-composted biochar increased root biomass by 786.2% than the large particle-sized co-composted biochar at same application rate. As compared to large-sized co-composted biochar, small sized co-composted biochar at high application rates increased root biomass by 167 – 245% but not leaf biomass under both stress conditions. Small particle-sized co-composted biochar amendment also increased the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of lettuce leaves than large particle-sized co-composted biochar under no stress condition. The amendment of small-sized co-composted biochar also increased significantly the concentration of Olsen phosphorus in soil than the amendment of large-particle-sized co-composted biochar. In conclusion, amendment of small particle-sized co-composted biochar has the potential of attenuating salinity and drought stress in lettuce and promoting P cycling in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0053.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Co-scheduling; HPC; scheduling theory; stochastic optimization
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:14:03 CEST)
Applications in high-performance computing (HPC) may not use all available computational resources, leaving some of them underutilized. By co-scheduling, i.e. running more than one application on the same computational node, it is possible to improve resource utilization and overall throughput. Some applications may have conflicting requirements on resources and co-scheduling may cause performance degradation, so it is important to take it into account in scheduling decisions. In this paper, we formalized co-scheduling problem and proposed multiple scheduling strategies to solve it: an optimal strategy, an online strategy and heuristic strategies. These strategies vary in terms of the optimality of the solution they produce and a priori information about the system they require. We showed theoretically that the online strategy provides schedules with a competitive ratio that has a constant upper limit. This allowed us to solve the co-scheduling problem using heuristic strategies that approximate this online strategy. Numerical simulations showed how heuristic strategies compare to the optimal strategy for different input systems. We proposed a method for measuring input parameters of the model in practice and evaluated this method on HPC benchmark applications. We showed high accuracy of measurement method, which allows to apply proposed scheduling strategies in scheduler implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city; CO; COVID 19; emission; social distancing
Online: 28 April 2020 (07:36:53 CEST)
The social distancing as a response to COVID 19 pandemic has led to the exceptional reductions of daily routine people activities and vehicle uses mainly in city. This same situation was also experienced by several busy, large, and populous cities in Southeast Asia (SA) countries. Correspondingly, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the social distancing implementation period has increased the air quality in the term of carbon monoxide (CO) emission reduction as drawn from Jakarta city as an example of the one of populated cities in SA region. The CO was measured in parts per billions (ppb) and monitored on the daily basis employing remote sensor platform. The monitor periods were started from January, February, March, and April 2020 with 10 measurement days for each month. The social distancing was implemented from mid of March to the recent April. The CO measurement data were statistically tested to justify the significant effects of social distancing on the CO levels. Based on the CO data analysis, the order of CO mean by months is February > January > March > April. The CO levels for January, February, March, and April were 87.46 ppb (95%CI: 83.54-91.37), 88.20 ppb (95%CI: 81.65-94.74), 86.38 (95%CI: 81.06-91.69), and 78.68 (95%CI: 74.03-83.32) respectively. This study also find significant difference (p<0.05) of CO levels especially in April when social distancing has been implemented. Hence, these findings illustrate the potential air pollutant reduction gained from implementing social distancing as can be seen in April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: photocatalysis, co-catalysts, water splitting, metallic cluster
Online: 27 July 2018 (09:33:40 CEST)
Degussa P25 is a benchmark form of TiO2 used worldwide in photocatalysis studies. Currently no such benchmark exists for co-catalysts, which are essential for many photocatalytic reactions. Here, we present the preparation of Pt nanocluster co-catalysts on TiO2 using an unmodified commercial source and equipment that is commonly available. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the procedure produces TiO2 decorated with Pt atom and nanoclusters (1-5 atoms). Optical reflectance and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the procedure does not affect the TiO2 polymorph or UV-Vis absorbance. Gas phase photocatalytic splitting of heavy water (D2O) shows that the Pt nanocluster decorated TiO2 outperforms Pt nanoparticle (produced by photodeposition) decorated TiO2 in D2 production. Pt nanoclusters, produced directly from a commercial source, with high co-catalyst activity are prime candidates to be used in benchmark photocatalytic reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0010.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Bi2Te3; Thermoelectric properties; co-doping; n-type
Online: 2 October 2017 (15:33:35 CEST)
In order to understand the effect of Pb-CuI co-doping on the thermoelectric performance of Bi2Te3, n-type Bi2Te3 co-doped with x at% CuI and 1/2x at% Pb (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10) were prepared via high temperature solid state reaction and consolidated using spark plasma sintering. Electron and thermal transport properties, i.e., electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, Hall mobility, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity, of CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 were measured in the temperature range from 300 K to 523 K and compared to corresponding x% of CuI-doped Bi2Te3 and undoped Bi2Te3. The addition of a small amount of Pb significantly decreased the carrier concentration, which could be attributed to the holes from Pb atoms, thus the CuI-Pb co-doped samples show a lower electrical conductivity and a higher Seebeck coefficient compared to CuI-doped samples with similar x values. The incorporation of Pb into CuI-doped Bi2Te3 rarely changed the power factor because of the trade-off relationship between the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient. The total thermal conductivity(κtot) of co-doped samples (κtot ~1.4 W/m∙K at 300 K) is slightly lower than that of 1% CuI-doped Bi2Te3 (κtot~1.5 W/m∙K at 300 K) and undoped Bi2Te3 (κtot ~1.6 W/m∙K at 300 K) due to the alloy scattering. The 1% CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 sample shows the highest ZT value of 0.96 at 370 K. All data on electrical and thermal transport properties suggest that the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 and its operating temperature can be controlled by co-doping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0580.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: urinary tract infections; urosepsis; pregnancy; preterm birth; premature rupture of membranes
Online: 9 November 2023 (07:28:28 CET)
(1) Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are an important cause of perinatal and maternal morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to describe and compare the main pregnancy outcomes among pregnant patients with complicated and uncomplicated UTIs; (2) Methods: This retrospective study included 183 pregnant patients who were evaluated for uncomplicated UTIs and urosepsis in the Urology Department of ‘C.I. Parhon’ University Hospital, and who were followed up at a tertiary maternity hospital- ‘Cuza-voda’ from Romania between January 2014 and October 2023. The control group (183 patients) was randomly selected from the patient’s cohort who gave birth in the same time frame at the maternity hospital without urinary pathology. Clinical and paraclinical data was examined. Descriptive statistics and a conditional logistic regression model were used to analyze our data. (3) Results: Our results indicated that patients with urosepsis had increased risk of premature rupture of membranes (aOR: 5.59, 95%CI: 2.02- 15.40, p< 0.001) and preterm birth (aOR: 2.47, 95%CI: 1.15- 5.33, p= 0.02). We could not demonstrate a statistically significant association between intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia with the studied urological pathologies. (4) Conclusions: Careful UTIs screening during pregnancy is needed for preventing maternal-fetal complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1202.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: healthcare-associated infections; Intensive Care Unit; cardiovascular diseases, multidrug resistant bacteria
Online: 18 October 2023 (18:26:38 CEST)
Nowadays, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) represent a major global public health problem and the burden of these infections is high. In order to reduce the incidence of HAIs and to prevent the spread antibi-otics resistant organisms is mandatory to develop surveillance systems. We undertook a retrospective case-control study of all patients presenting HAIs admitted in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in order to assess risk factors associated with death among patients with HAIs. Patients admitted to Intensive Care Unit who died were more likely to present an infection with a multidrug resistant bacteria, an infection with Acineto-bacter baumannii, and to suffer from acute myocardial infarction. Among the patients enrolled in the study, a higher probability of death was also observed in association with certain gram-negative pathogens: Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The longer the patient remains admitted in ICU, the higher the risk of getting an infection that can often become fatal. Acquiring a noso-comial infection also increases the length of hospitalization which will lead to increased financial damage.
DATA DESCRIPTOR | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0082.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Precision Metagenomics; Next Generation Sequencing (NGS), Respiratory infections, Microbiome, Targeted Sequencing
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:06:42 CEST)
Understanding microbial composition in upper respiratory infections (URIs) is critical for effective diagnosis and treatment. Precision Metagenomic next-generation sequencing p(mNGS) can provide a comprehensive yet clinically relevant profile of respiratory infection. The hybridization capture-based targeted sequencing generated a precision metagenomics profile of 29 patients with acute URIs. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from the subjects suspected of respiratory infection, and p(mNGS) was performed using the Illumina®/IDbyDNA Respiratory Pathogen ID/AMR Panel (RPIP). The dataset obtained from the mNGS analysis contains a wealth of information on the composition of acute URI microbiota, including the relative abundance of known pathogens and potential clinical implications. The dataset represents a valuable resource for future research endeavors in respiratory medicine, infectious disease epidemiology, and therapeutic interventions. In addition, the dataset offers significant potential for reuse and integration with other omics datasets. The comprehensive nature of the mNGS data allows the exploration of associations between the respiratory microbiota and host factors such as clinical outcomes, immune responses, or genetic predisposition. Combining this dataset with other relevant datasets, such as transcriptomics or metabolomics, could provide a deeper understanding of the complex interactions between the microbiota and the host in acute URIs.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1282.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: metagenomic; community-acquired infections; meningoencephalitis; cerebrospinal fluid; coinfection; unknown origin fever
Online: 17 August 2023 (09:36:29 CEST)
Current routine diagnosis of a life-threatening central nervous system (CNS) infections is based on commercial multiplex real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and in-vitro culture investigations, targeting a limited number of pathogens, which requires implementation of a universal diagnosis at the point-of-care laboratory. This study aimed to document a case of non-routinely diagnosed meningoencephalitis in a twelve-year-old patient in Niger Republic. Metagenomic-based on real-time sequencing was applied directly on DNA/RNA extracted from 50 µL leftover CSF sample using Oxford Nanopore MinION, to detect all residual microorganisms non-routinely targeted by RT-PCR panel. In parallel, 1 ng DNA/RNA was used for paired-end Illumina library preparation to confirm the MinION results. Real-time analysis of MinION data detected 132 WU Polyomavirus specific reads after one-hour run. Blast nucleotide of the fasta sequences after assembly of both Illumina and Nanopore reads against NCBI GenBank database identified WU polyomavirus strain W33 (GenBank accession no: GU296367.1). Haemophilus influenzae specific reads (667 reads) were detected which explains the possible co-infection bacteria-DNA virus in this case. Blastn after total reads assembly identified H. influenzae strain PittGG (GenBank accession n° CP000672), belonging to the non-typable H. influenzae genotype by muti-locus-sequence-typing analysis. Furthermore, Achromobacter xylosoxidans (599 reads) were detected in this patient. Based on these findings, we classified this case as polymicrobial meningoencephalitis. Using RT-mNGS, the pathogen genome could be detected directly from a clinical sample, with no specific target. This technique seems to be an adapted method to diagnose non-routinely detectable pathogens, as well as their genotype and antimicrobial susceptibility in reduced time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0566.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Alternaria alternata; pear pathogens; multi-infections; enzymatic activities; mycotoxins; plant necrosis.
Online: 30 December 2022 (01:57:03 CET)
This lack of information is due to the primary role of HSTs in fungal pathogenesis, which often masks the functions of NSTs and CWDEs. So, the toxic effects of A. alternata metabolites due to NSTs and CWDEs have received minor attention than those reported for HSTs mycotoxins . A wider study of the activity of isolated fungal metabolites can allow the identification of compounds directly related to the pathogenic activity of the fungus, making it possible to create chemo libraries that facilitate the linking of the structure of the compounds with the species that produce it and its effect on host and non-host crops, as well as with biosynthetic features . In this context, our work reports a study focused on NSTs and CWDEs used by an A. alternata strain isolated from infected pears in Italy. To this aim, the characterization of hydrolytic enzyme activities of A. alternata and the identification of the metabolites produced in vitro were performed. Furthermore, the phytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds was evaluated on pear (host and non-host varieties) and lemon fruits . Finally, the competition of A. alternata with other pathogens was evaluated to investigate the role of NSTs on co-infections.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0531.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; Sars-CoV-2; confirmed daily infections; mathematical model
Online: 20 November 2020 (09:37:07 CET)
The developments of confirmed daily Sars-CoV-2 infections can be modeled a posteriori in a comparatively simple and satisfactory way by means of a special exponential function: its exponential coefficient varies exponentially with time itself. This property enables the function to directly simulate the „daily case“ curve fragments observed for the first waves of the current epidemics in a number of counties and countries. Linear combinations of two or more of the functions allow for the modeling of the complete curves observed in the vast majority of all regions for which case number developments have been tabulated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0155.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: immune system; immunedeficiency; respiratory tract infections; children; impedance; serum; laboratory diagnostics
Online: 11 July 2019 (09:12:55 CEST)
Despite considerable progress in the diagnosis of various diseases, an ideal, simple tool for diagnosing patients with respiratory tract infections has not yet been invented. Many simple diagnostic tests are widely available to most doctors, provided they are aware of the prevalence of primary immunodeficiency. Other, more accurate studies are available only to immunologists. The aim of the study was to investigate the occurrence of dependence between selected physical parameters of serum such as: electrical conductivity, electrical permeability, dielectric loss factor, and selected parameters of the immune system. In addition, we have also included the ionogram (Na, K, Cl, Ca, Mg) and glucose concentration. As a result of research, the statistically significant, but very weak correlations between impedance magnitude |Z| and platelet counts (PLT), mean platelet volume (MPV) and chloride ions (Cl-) were found. The statistically significant differences according |Z| between children with and without deficiency in parameters of the immune system were noticed. Values of |Z| are higher in the case of children without deficiency in parameters of the immune system. The method of impedance measurements presented in our work is significantly easier then biosensors presented by other scientists. Taking into account our results, it can be stated that this method is promising for fast and easy detection of immunological disorders.