REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0145.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Leishmania; co-infections; mixed infections; co-culture; hybrid; intercellular communication
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:20:49 CEST)
Leishmania parasites present astonishing adaptative abilities that represent a matter of life or death within disparate environments during the heteroxenous parasite life cycle. From an evolutionary perspective, organisms develop methods of overcoming such challenges. Strategies that extend beyond the genetic diversity have been discussed and include variability between parasite cells during the infections of their hosts. The occurrence of Leishmania subpopulation fluctuations with variable structural genomic contents demonstrates that a single strain might shelter the variability required to overcome inconsistent environments. Such intrastrain variability provides parasites with an extraordinary ability to adapt and thus survive and propagate. However, different perspectives on this evolution have been proposed. Strains or species living in the same environment can cooperate but also compete. These interactions might increase the replication rate of some parasites but cause the loss of more aggressive competitors for others. Adaptive responses to intra- and interspecific competition can evolve as a fixed strategy (replication is adapted to the average genetic complexity of infections) or an optional strategy (replication varies according to the genetic complexity of the current infection). This review highlights the complexity of interspecies and intrastrain interactions among Leishmania parasites as well as the different factors that influence this interplay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0562.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: female reproductive tract; organoid; co-culture; crosstalk; blastocyst
Online: 31 August 2021 (11:19:56 CEST)
Hormones must be balanced and dynamically controlled for the Female Reproductive Tract (FRT) to function correctly during the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and delivery. Gamete selection and successful transfer to the uterus, where it implants and pregnancy occurs, is supported by the mucosal epithelial lining of the FRT ovaries, uterus, cervix, fallopian tubes, and vagina. Successful implantation and placentation in humans and other animals rely on complex interactions between the embryo and a receptive female reproductive system. The FRT's recent breakthroughs in three-dimensional (3D) organoid systems now provide critical experimental models that match the organ's physiological, functional, and anatomical characteristics in vitro. This article summarizes the current state of the art on organoids generated from various parts of the FRT. The current analysis examines recent developments in the creation of organoid models of reproductive organs, as well as their future directions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0430.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Co-culture; Reduced-serum; Wound bed; Fibroblasts; Keratinocytes
Online: 12 March 2020 (13:24:46 CET)
Contact-based co-culture of fibroblasts and keratinocytes is important to study the structure and functions of the wound bed. Co-culture of these two cell types in direct contact with each other has been challenging, requiring high serum concentrations (up to 10%), feeder systems and a range of supplemental factors. These approaches are not only technically demanding, but also present scientific, cost and ethical limitations associated with high-serum concentrations. We have developed two reduced-serum approaches (1-2%) to support contact-based co-culture of human dermal fibroblasts (HDFa) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT). The two approaches include (1) Specialized cell culture media for each cell type mixed in a 1:1 ratio (KGM+FGM), and (2) Minimal media supplemented with cell-specific growth factors (MEM+GF). Co-culture could be successfully achieved by co-seeding (two cell types were introduced simultaneously), or in a layered fashion (keratinocytes seeded on top of confluent fibroblasts). With wound scratch assays, the co-cultured platforms could demonstrate cell proliferation, migration and wound closure. The reduced-serum conditions developed are simple, easy to formulate and adopt, and based on commonly-available media components. These contact-based co-culture approaches can be leveraged for wound and skin studies, and tissue bioengineering applications, potentially reducing concerns with high-serum formulations.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: metabolic engineering; biohydrogen production; microbes; co-culture; metabolic network analysis
Online: 19 July 2020 (20:43:36 CEST)
Hydrogen is useful as a fuel and could be produced by a variety of means. One approach uses artificial photosynthesis where energy from sunlight powers the splitting of water into hydrogen and oxygen. But, biological methods for producing hydrogen has emerged strongly over the past decades. In particular, specific microorganisms could use different substrates to produce hydrogen at differing yields. Such fundamental discoveries with industrial applications thus motivated the use of metabolic engineering approaches and methodologies in enhancing biological hydrogen production through a series of enzyme over-expression, pathway debottlenecking, and gene deletion. However, such approaches heavily rely on the selection of an appropriate microbial chassis for biohydrogen production. With the proper strain in hand, use of alternative substrates may engender greater hydrogen productivities. But learning from the bioprocessing field, co-culture of two compatible microorganisms have been sought after for improving biohydrogen production. In addition, thermophilic microbes may also be useful candidates for exploiting hydrogen production from composting. Future outlook in the field looks into filling our gaps in understanding of the metabolic network that feeds into hydrogen production in different organisms. But, more importantly, problems such as reduced growth rate in engineered microbes point to fundamental issues with using genetically engineered microorganisms for improved biohydrogen production, to which clever bioprocess engineering may yield solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0164.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: biofilm; co-culture; Staphylococcus aureus; SaOS-2; biomaterials; implanted devices
Online: 12 December 2019 (05:24:29 CET)
Biofilm-mediated infection is a major cause of bone prosthesis failure. The lack of molecules able to act in biofilms has driven research aimed at identifying new anti-biofilm agents via chemical screens. However, to be able to accommodate a large number of compounds, the testing conditions of these screenings end up being typically far from the clinical scenario. In this study, we assess the potential applicability of three anti-biofilm compounds (based on natural compounds) as part of implanted medical devices by testing them on in vitro systems that more faithfully resemble the clinical scenario. To that end, we used a competition model based on the co-culture of SaOS-2 mammalian cells and Staphylococcus aureus (collection and clinical strains) on a titanium surface. Additionally, we studied whether these derivatives of natural compounds enhance the previously proven protective effect of pre-incubating the titanium surface with SaOS-2 cells. Out of the three tested leads, one showed the highest potential, and can be regarded as a promising agent for incorporation into bone implants. This study emphasizes and demonstrates the importance of using meaningful experimental models, where potential antimicrobials ought to be tested for protection of biomaterials in translational applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1272.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: blood culture; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; co-infection; antimicrobial resistance
Online: 17 August 2023 (10:34:23 CEST)
Bacteremia and fungemia are significant causes of morbidity and mortality which frequently occur as co-infections with viral respiratory infections including SARS-CoV-2. It was aimed to evaluate the microorganisms isolated from blood cultures of SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients and investigate their antimicrobial resistance patterns. A retrospective analysis was performed with the total number of 22,944 blood cultures sent to the laboratory between November 2020 and December 2021. Blood cultures were performed on the BD Bactec automated system. Identification was performed using conventional methods, VITEK-2 and MALDI-TOF MS. Antibacterial/antifungal susceptibility tests were performed according to EUCAST/CLSI recommendations. SARS-CoV-2 tests were performed with RT-PCR. It was detected 1,630 culture positivity belonging to 652 patients. Totally 633 of 652 patients were tested for SARS-CoV-2; 118 (18.6%) were positive and 515 (81.3%) were negative. The bacteria and fungi isolated at the high-est rate in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients were methicillin-resistant coagulase negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) (21.5%), Escherichia coli (12.4%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (12.4%), Candida albicans (1.65%) and Candida glabrata complex (1.65%); while in negative patients, E. coli (21.3%), MR-CoNS (13.5%), K. pneumoniae (12.05%), C. albicans (2.1%), Candida parapsilosis (1.1%) and Candida tropicalis (0.9%). The fact that the most common isolate was MR-CoNS in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (p = 0.028); the detection of Acinetobacter baumannii was more frequent (p = 0.001) and the isolation of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae was at a higher rate than in SARS-CoV-2 negative patients; also, the increase in multidrug-resistant strains indicate that healthcare-associated infec-tions should not be disregarded while focusing on the outbreak.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1203.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: co-culture; tubulogenesis; vascular mimicry; breast cancer; angiogenesis array; AZD4547; LY294002
Online: 18 July 2023 (10:25:14 CEST)
Vasculogenic mimicry (VM), a process in which aggressive cancer cells form tube-like structures, plays a crucial role in providing nutrients and escape routes. Highly plastic tumor cells, such as those with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) phenotype, can develop VM. However, little is known about the interplay between cellular components of the tumor microenvironment upon TNBC cells VM-capacity. In this study, we analyzed the ability of endothelial and stromal cells to induce VM when interacting with TNBC cells, and analyzed the involvement of the FGFR/PI3K/Akt pathway in this process. VM was corroborated using fluorescently‐labeled TNBC cells. Only endothelial cells triggered VM formation, suggesting a predominant role of paracrine/ juxtacrine factors from an endothelial origin in VM development. By immunocytochemistry, qPCR and secretome analyses, we determined increased expression of proangiogenic factors as well as stemness markers in VM-forming cancer cells. Similarly, endothelial cells primed by TNBC cells showed upregulation of proangiogenic molecules, including FGF, VEGFA, and several inflammatory cytokines. The endothelium-dependent TNBC-VM formation was prevented by AZD4547 or LY294002, strongly suggesting the involvement of the FGFR/PI3K/Akt axis in this process. Given that VM is associated with poor clinical prognosis, targeting FGFR/PI3K/Akt pharmacologically may hold promise for treating and preventing VM in TNBC tumors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1530.v4
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: cells co-culture; population dynamic; cellular automata; boolean network; basin of attraction
Online: 7 November 2023 (12:50:45 CET)
Human keratinocytes and melanoma can stick together to form clusters after eight days in co-culture. As in dynamic system concepts, one can consider cluster formation as the system attractor, cell seeding as the initial condition, and density change over time as a path within the basin of attraction. Herein, Cellular Automata, which is a class of Agent-Based Models, and Boolean Networks are discrete modeling methods used in population dynamics such that running the dynamics of cellular automata backward reveals an underlying network in terms of basin of attraction, also known as global dynamics. Thus, we hypothesize that one can estimate the local dynamic of an agent-based model from the basin of attraction of a boolean network. Here, we propose an approach to estimating these agent-based model rules, which consists of comparing the density states within each state transition and reaching a consensus among state transitions belonging to a basin of attraction of a boolean network. The objectives of this study are: (1) to infer a boolean network from the co-culture growth curve; (2) to estimate the rules of agent-based models; and (3) to implement spatial dynamics simulations. The binarization of the growth curve shows high population density after four days; the estimated agent-based model rules were compatible with cell proliferation and migration in agreement with literature, so we had to propose individual rules for survival and death. Spatial dynamics shows that (1) keratinocytes exhibit a higher density in neighborhoods where melanoma is present; (2) the chance of keratinocyte migration increases until the fourth day, then decreases, and the probability of survival increases substantially after four days; and (3) cells with low proliferation capacity die and free space for those with high ones. Our approach suggests that the attractor state of cell co-culture is induced mainly by an increase in keratinocyte migration and survival. Our approach has the potential to offer valuable clues about microenvironmental interactions or configurations that drive population dynamics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0190.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: mast cells; angiogenesis; endothelial cells; tube formation assay; co-culture; gap junction
Online: 31 October 2017 (03:51:50 CET)
Angiogenesis is a complex process that involves interactions between endothelial cells and various other cell types as well as the tissue microenvironment. Several previous studies have demonstrated that mast cells accumulate at angiogenic sites. In spite of the evidence suggesting a relationship between mast cells and angiogenesis, the association of mast cells and endothelial cells remains poorly understood. The present study aims to investigate the relationship between mast cells and endothelial cells during in vitro angiogenesis. When endothelial cells were co-cultured with mast cells, angiogenesis was stimulated. Furthermore, there was direct intercellular communication via gap junctions between the two cell types. In addition, the presence of mast cells stimulated endothelial cells to release angiogenic factors. Moreover, conditioned medium from the co-cultures also stimulated in vitro angiogenesis. The results from this investigation demonstrate that mast cells have both direct and indirect proangiogenic effects and provide new insights into the role of mast cells in angiogenesis.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: culture; co-evolution; meme; altruism; natural selection; competitive equilibrium; Fermi Paradox: memetics; genetics
Online: 10 February 2021 (16:31:42 CET)
Abstract. Background: This paper investigates the propagation of behaviorally transmitted traits with negative effect on host fitness. Methods: We analyze equilibrium between genetically transmitted and behaviorally transmitted competing propagators and consider whether a behavioral propagator is linked to reproduction (e.g. vertical culture transmission), or not. We employ combined genetic and behavior-induced fitness components for hosts, while behavioral propagators have replication factors to distinguish from what’s good for the host (fitness). Results: A trait which spreads faster than its marginal host fitness contribution reduces population will establish itself. The often transient nature of laterally transmitted traits may be a defense against accumulation of deleterious traits. Laterally transmitted traits with high spreading rate often do not equalize with genetic traits, spreading outside natural selection of the hosts. Vertical transmission reduces replication rate and allows group selection against deleterious behaviorally transmitted traits. Competing mutually exclusive propagators contribute to inequality and altruism, but compete through adverse fitness since exclusivity assumes low conversion. Conclusion: Behaviorally transmitted traits, in some cases a tremendous advantage, may also be a significant problem in the development of societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0322.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: crotoxin; macrophages; neutrophils; inflammation; ATP; reactive oxygen and nitrogen species; cytokines; co-culture model
Online: 23 May 2018 (09:12:45 CEST)
Crotoxin (CTX), the predominant toxin in Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom (CdtV), has anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Despite its inhibitory action on neutrophil migration and phagocytosis, CTX does not directly affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by the neutrophils. In contrast, it enhances the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates by macrophages. Given the importance of macrophage-neutrophil interactions in innate antimicrobial defense, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of CTX on neutrophil ROS production and killing activity, either through CTX-treated macrophage co-culture or conditioned medium of CTX-treated macrophages. The results showed an important modulatory action of CTX on the neutrophil function as well as neutrophil-macrophage interactions, as demonstrated by the increased production of hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, nitric oxide and TNF-α, along with the increased fungicidal activity of neutrophils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0763.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Organizational culture; digital transformation; digital culture; innovation; organizational change; innovation culture
Online: 12 September 2023 (08:40:27 CEST)
Based on a literature review, a framework for digital organizational culture with a focus on innovation is proposed. This digital organizational culture becomes relevant today since digital transformation requires an appetite for risk and a willingness to undertake, aspects that are strengthened by an environment and atmosphere that motivate individuals to generate new ideas. The proposal begins with a diagnosis of the existing organizational culture, which allows identifying the differences between the components of the current organizational culture and the innovation-oriented digital organizational culture. Through this diagnosis, the gaps that need to be addressed to achieve a digital organizational culture with innovative characteristics are identified. In addition, specific recommendations are proposed to carry out this transformation. In the process, the assumptions underlying the current typology of the company's organizational culture are highlighted. The importance of integrating creativity, risk readiness, and entrepreneurial willingness into the digital organizational culture aimed at innovation is emphasized. These elements are essential to create an environment
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0032.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: breast cancer; microRNAs; 2D cell culture; 3D cell culture; organotypic 3D cell culture
Online: 1 September 2023 (07:47:04 CEST)
Background. Currently, most of the research in breast cancer has been carried out in conventional two-dimensional (2D) cell culture due to its practical benefits, however, the three-dimensional (3D) cell culture is becoming the model of choice in cancer research because it allows cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interactions, mimicking the native microenvironment of tumors in vivo. Methods. in this work, we evaluated the effect of 3D cell organization on the expression pattern of miRNAs (by Small-RNAseq) and mRNAs (by microarrays) in the breast cancer SKBR3 cell line and analyzed the biological processes and signaling pathways regulated by the differ-entially expressed protein-coding genes (DE-mRNAs) and miRNAs (DE-microRNAs) found in the organoids. Results. We obtained well-defined cell-aggregated organoids with a grape cluster-like morphology with a size up to 9.2×105 μm3. The transcriptomic assays showed that cell growth in organoids significantly affected (all p < 0.01) the gene expression patterns of both, miRNAs and mRNAs, finding 20 upregulated and 19 downregulated DE-microRNAs, as well as 49 upregulated and 123 downregulated DE-mRNAs. In silico analysis showed that a subset of 11 upregulated DE-microRNAs target 70 downregulated DE-mRNAs. These genes are involved in 150 gene on-tology (GO) biological processes such as regulation of cell morphogenesis, regulation of cell shape, regulation of canonical Wnt signaling pathway, morphogenesis of epithelium, regulation of cy-toskeleton organization, as well as in the MAPK and AGE-RAGE signaling KEGG-pathways. In-terestingly, hsa-mir-122-5p (Fold Change (FC)=15.4), hsa-mir-369-3p (FC=11.4), and hsa-mir-10b-5p (FC=20.1) regulated up to the 81 % of the 70 downregulated DE-mRNAs. Conclu-sion, the organotypic 3D cell-organization architecture of breast cancer SKBR3 cells impacts the expression pattern of miRNAs-mRNAs network mainly through overexpression of hsa-mir-122-5p, hsa-mir-369-3p, and hsa-mir-10b-5p. All these findings suggest that the interaction between cell-cell and cell-ECM as well as the change in the culture architecture impacts gene ex-pression, and therefore, support the pertinence of migrating breast cancer research from conven-tional cultures to 3D models.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1715.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: liver; hiPSC; organoids; 3D dynamic culture; organotypic culture
Online: 25 June 2023 (05:08:36 CEST)
The process of identifying and approving a new drug is a time-consuming and expensive procedure. One of the biggest issues to overcome is the risk of hepatotoxicity, which is one of the main reasons for drug withdrawal from the market. While animal models are the gold standard in preclinical drug testing, the translation of results into therapeutic intervention is often ambiguous due to interspecies differences in hepatic metabolism. The discovery of human induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) and their derivatives has opened new possibilities for drug testing. We used mesenchymal stem cells and hepatocytes both derived from hiPSC, together with endothelial cells, to miniaturize the process of generating hepatic organoids. These organoids were then cultivated in vitro using both static and dynamic cultures. Additionally, we tested spheroids composed solely by induced hepatocytes. By miniaturizing the system, we demonstrated the possibility of maintaining the organoids, but not the spheroids, in culture for up to 15 days. This timeframe may be sufficient to carry out a hypothetical pharmacological test or screening. In conclusion, we propose that the hiPSC-derived liver organoids model could complement or, in the near future, replace the pharmacological and toxicological tests conducted on animals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0461.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Rice; Fish; Culture; Efficiency; Environment; Rice-Fish Culture
Online: 26 August 2022 (14:04:49 CEST)
The efficiency of rice cum fish culture study was conducted in different areas of Tangail district with those farmers who cultivate rice and fish together at a time. The study was conducted along 60 farmers of different areas in Ghatail upazilla. The primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews and secondary data were collected through different reputed journals, newspapers, authentic portals and so on. Data collection was carried out during the period from November 2021 to May 2022. Both tabular and functional analyses were performed to achieve the specific objectives of the study. NPV, BCR and IRR method was used to estimate the profitability and a multiple regression model was used to find out the factors motivating farmers' decision on rice cum fish cultivation. SWOT analysis was done to find out the internal and external-positive and negative factors faced by the farmers in rice cum fish cultivation. About 40% of farmers are under the age of 30 and most of them got at least primary education. Agriculture was the main occupation of the respondents and fish cultivation was the secondary. The highest annual income among the sample growers came from the production of rice cum fish culture. The BCR of the production is upbeat and 2.09 which indicates that the cultivation is profitable.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0011.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: spheroid culture; microfluidic cell culture; spheroids on-chip; tumor microenvironment; in vitro cell culture
Online: 1 June 2018 (09:58:58 CEST)
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems can be regarded as suitable platforms to bridge the huge gap between animal studies and two-dimensional (2D) monolayer cell culture to study chronic diseases such as cancer. In particular, the preclinical platforms for multicellular spheroid formation and culture can be regarded as ideal in vitro tumor models. The complex tumor microenvironment such as hypoxic region and necrotic core can be recapitulated in 3D spheroid configuration. Cells aggregated in spheroid structures can better illustrate the performance of anti-cancer drugs as well. Various methods have been proposed so far to create such 3D spheroid aggregations. Both conventional techniques and microfluidic methods can be used for generation of multicellular spheroids. In this review paper, we first discuss various spheroid formation phases. Then, the conventional spheroid formation techniques such as bioreactor flasks, liquid overlay and hanging droplet technique are explained. Next, a particular topic of the hydrogel in spheroid formation and culture is explored. This topic has received less attention in the literature. Hydrogels entail some advantages to the spheroid formation and culture such as size uniformity, the formation of porous spheroids or hetero-spheroids as well as chemosensitivity and invasion assays and protecting from shear stress. Finally, microfluidic methods for spheroid formation and culture are briefly reviewed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2229.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: KPC; blood culture; short-term culture; MALDI-TOF MS
Online: 31 May 2023 (10:50:42 CEST)
Carbapenemase resistance in Enterobacterales is a global public health problem and rapid and effective methods to detect resistance mechanisms are needed urgently. Our aim was to evaluate the performance of a MALDI-TOF MS based KPC detection protocol from patients’ positive blood cultures, short-term cultures and colonies at health care settings. Bacterial identification and KPC detection were achieved after protein extraction with organic solvents and target spot loading with suitable organic matrices. Confirmation of KPC production was performed by susceptibility tests, blaKPC amplification by PCR and sequencing. KPC direct detection (KPC-peak at approximately 28.681 Da) from patients’ positive blood cultures, short-term cultures and colonies, once bacterial identification was achieved, showed an overall sensibility and specificity of 100% (CI95: [95%,100%] and CI95: [99%, 100%], respectively). Concordance between hospital routine bacterial identification protocol and identification with this new methodology from the same extract used for KPC detection was ≥92%. This study represents the pioneering effort to directly detect KPC using MALD-TOF MS technology, conducted on patient-derived samples obtained at the hospitals for validation purposes, in a multi-resistance global context that requires concrete actions to preserve available therapeutic options and reduce the spread of antibiotic resistance markers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0224.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: pseudopterosin; triple negative breast cancer; glucocorticoid receptor alpha; dexamethasone; cell proliferation; 3D invasion; tumor spheroid; co-culture; interleukin 6; interleukin 8
Online: 2 August 2018 (06:08:31 CEST)
Pseudopterosin, produced by the sea whip of the genus Antillogorgia, possesses a variety of promising biological activities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. However, few studies examined pseudopterosin in the treatment of cancer cells and, to our knowledge, the ability to inhibit triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) proliferation or invasion has not been explored. Thus, we evaluated the as yet unknown mechanism of action of pseudopterosin: Pseudopterosin was able to inhibit proliferation of TNBC. Interestingly, analyzing breast cancer cell proliferation after knocking down glucocorticoid receptor α (GRα) revealed that anti-proliferative effects of pseudopterosin were significantly inhibited when GRα expression was reduced. Furthermore, pseudopterosin inhibited invasion of MDA-MB-231 3D tumor spheroids embedded in an extracellular-like matrix. Remarkably, the knockdown of GRα in 3D tumor spheroids revealed increased ability of cells to invade the surrounding matrix. In a co-culture, encompassing peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and MDA-MB-231 cells, production of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and interleukin 8 (IL-8) significantly increased compared to monoculture. Notably, pseudopterosin proved to block cytokine elevation, representing key players in tumor progression, in the co-culture. Thus, our results reveal pseudopterosin treatment as a potential novel approach in TNBC therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0550.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Participatory Design, Co-operative Inquiry, Design partners, Co-design
Online: 7 August 2023 (12:10:41 CEST)
The framework proposed by Alison Druin about 20 years ago, which defined the roles children play in technology design, has been widely adopted by the Child-Computer Interaction (CCI) community. While some studies have adopted relevant roles as presented in the framework, others have argued for extending the framework to include newly identified roles. Still, other studies argue that Druin's framework failed to account for roles children may take up as they interact with peers or with tools. Consequently, this systematic literature review examines children’s emerging and changing roles in the codesign of new technologies. Specifically, we answered the research question: What new roles emerge in research as children co-design new technologies? Our effort aims at providing evidence of new roles children have adopted in literature, which may help researchers in the CCI community make more informed decisions about participatory design approaches with children.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0143.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: ocean; big-data; cite-space; co-authorship analysis; co-citation analysis; keywords co-occurrence analysis; visualization
Online: 11 February 2020 (09:41:17 CET)
Ocean big data is the scientific practice of using big data technology in the marine field. Data from satellites, manned spacecraft, space stations, airship, unmanned aerial vehicles, shore-based radar and observation stations, exploration platforms, buoys, underwater gliders, submersibles, and submarine observation networks are seamlessly combined into the ocean’s big data. Increasing numbers of scholars have tried to fully analyze the ocean’s big data. To explore the key research technology knowledge graphs related to ocean big data, articles between 1990 and 2020 were collected from the “Web of Science”. By comparing bibliometric software and using the visualization software Cite-Space, the pivotal literature related to ocean big data, as well as countries, institutions, categories, and keywords, were visualized and recognized. Journal co-citation analysis networks can help determine the national distribution of core journals. Co-citation analysis networks for documents show authors who are influential at key technical levels. Key co-occurrence analysis network keywords can determine research hot spots and research frontiers. The three supporting elements of marine big data research are shown in the co-citation network. These elements are author, institution, and country. By examining the co-occurrence of keywords, the key technology research directions for future marine big data were determined.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1341.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: SRDS; Co-infections; COVID-19 fatality; co-evolution of virulence
Online: 19 June 2023 (09:49:30 CEST)
The severe respiratory distress syndrome (SRDS) has been a significant clinical issue in modern respiratory medicine. Its role in COVID-19 pandemic is not well defined. Outside-the-hospital SRDS is usually community-acquired septic pneumonia; however, in-hospitals incidences are complicated by co-infections. While SRDS is genetically selected in European and African origins, these are not clear in Middle East, particularly in COVID-19 backgrounds. There is a severe paucity in high quality data on correlations between COVID-19, ARDS, co-infectome, and patient demographics. We have conducted a comprehensive investigation on 298 patients for associations of SRDS, coinfections, and patient demographics on COVID-19 patients’ outcomes. Of these, 9.4% (n=28) had SRDS, and the rest (90.6%) had not. 54% of those with SRDS died while 84% survived; SRDS fatality was highly significant (Chi-square test P-value = 0.00000246). Irrespective of gender, the age of patients was significantly associated with SRDS (72.9 +/-8.9) compared to those without it (56.2 +/-15.1). However, there was no significant difference neither in the age of admitted patients before COVID-19 (58.5 +/-15.3) and during COVID-19 (57.2 +/-15.5) nor in the gender and COVID-19 fatality (Fisher Exact test 2-sided 1.000, 1-sided .546) ruling out that SRDS age-specificity were selected by virus susceptibility. A 100% of SRDS patients without bacterial co-infections survived while only 25% of those with co- infectome did not; this association was highly significant (P value= 0.00041). Co-infections alone without underlying SRDS was also associated with high fatality among patients (P value= 0.00000000076). Almost all COVID-19 patients without co-infectome (99.2%) survived while 28% of those with bacterial co-infection died. The major bacterial pathogens that potentially predisposed to SRDS, were Acinetobacter baumannii, and Escherichia coli either alone or in a mixed infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae were predominant species identified during SRDS attack. Thus, Gram-negative co-infectome potentially induced fatal SRDS aggravating COVID-19 outcome. These findings have significant clinical implications in specific differential diagnosis of SRDS syndromes for subsequent empiric therapy and patient management strategies. Future vertical investigation for similar mechanisms of cytokine-induced SRDS by Gram negative pathogens is imperative since hypervirulent strains are rapidly circulating in the region. The study is limited by a single center study confined to Ha’il hospitals; large scale investigation in major national hospitals would gain more insights.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0041.v1
Online: 4 August 2016 (10:19:55 CEST)
Taking into account the growing interest in microalgae to be used as raw material for biodiesel production, this research is aimed at analyzing the rheological behaviour of microalgae suspensions (Chlorella sp) at different culture times under eight different conditions (temperature, salinity and CO2, NO3 and PO4 levels) in order to estimate the energy demands of each step, with the purpose of optimizing a continuous feed tubular bioreactor construction. For each condition, it was calculated the biomass and oil yields, so as to correlate these results with rheological parameters. The suspension results indicated that the microalgae Chlorella sp is a non-Newtonian material with dilatant characteristics; the processing time hardly exerted an influence on the rheograms of the suspension of the microalgae Chlorella sp, except for the simultaneous conditions of low salinity and low CO2 content; NO3 and PO4 contents and the amount of supplements influenced the rheological parameters of the suspension of the microalgae Chlorella sp, when in low concentration of CO2 and low salinity levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0417.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Safety Performance; Safety Culture; Resilience Culture; Paramedic; Training Institute; IPMA; PLS-SEM.
Online: 20 August 2021 (13:44:19 CEST)
An increasing number of studies have shown that safety culture factors have a substantial influence on safety performance in a variety of industrial sectors. These factors' impact on safety performance is unclear, especially at the public service and statutory authorities. On the other hand, the understanding of indicators for safety performance in every working sector in Malaysia is on the continuing progress. Hence, this study's contribution is to explore the influence of safety culture factors (i.e., management commitment and supervision in safety, safety system) and safety competence on safety performance in government paramedic training institutes. IPMA (importance-performance map analysis) is a technique used in Smart PLS to determine the significance and performance of each of these factors. The study was conducted via an online survey and involved 258 safety and health committee members in Ministry of Health paramedic training institute. As a matter of relevance, the IPMA's empirical data study revealed that management commitment and supervision in safety were the predominant factors in determining safety performance. Meanwhile, for performance, the findings showed that worker involvement, safety system, and safety competence perform well in determining the safety performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Degree, Coloring, Co-degree
Online: 5 January 2022 (10:24:32 CET)
New setting is introduced to study types of coloring numbers, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Different types of procedures including neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are proposed in this way, some results are obtained. General classes of neutrosophic hypergraphs are used to obtain chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic hypergraphs. Using colors to assign to the vertices of neutrosophic hypergraphs and characterizing representatives of the colors are applied in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. Some questions and problems are posed concerning ways to do further studies on this topic. Using different ways of study on neutrosophic hypergraphs to get new results about number, degree and co-degree in the way that some number, degree and co-degree get understandable perspective. Neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs are studied to investigate about the notions, coloring, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges in neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs. In this way, sets of representatives of colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges have key points to get new results but in some cases, there are usages of sets and numbers instead of optimal ones. Simultaneously, notions chromatic number, the representatives of the colors, degree of vertices, degree of hyperedges, co-degree of vertices, co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic degree of vertices, neutrosophic degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic co-degree of vertices, neutrosophic co-degree of hyperedges, neutrosophic number of vertices, neutrosophic number of hyperedges are applied into neutrosophic hypergraphs, especially, neutrosophic (r, n)−regular hypergraphs and neutrosophic complete r−partite hypergraphs to get sensible results about their structures. Basic familiarities with neutrosophic hypergraphs theory and hypergraph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1675.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: High velocity oxy-fuel; WC-Co; Co-28Cr; microhardness; erosion; T22 steel
Online: 26 July 2023 (02:26:43 CEST)
At Mae-Moh power plant, Thailand, superheater tubes, which are exposed in fly ash environ-ment, often degrade due to solid particle erosion. To extend the service lifetime of the superheater tubes, the high velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) thermal spray technique is used to deposit a protective coating on the material, SA213-T22 steel. In this work, the solid particle erosion of the Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings was investigated using erodent particle impingement at the angles of 30o and 90o with an average particle size of 60 μm. The erosion behavior of SA213-T22 with and without Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings was explained using ductile and brittle erosion modes. The erosion test resulted in the brittle mode for both Co-28Cr and WC-12Co coatings, while SA213-T22 without coating indicated the ductile mode. On the investigation of surface morphology, the Co-28Cr coating showed mostly microcracks in contrast with the WC-12Co coating, fracture, de-bonding and deep cavities were also observed. Erosion resistance of the Co-28Cr coating was significantly higher than the WC-12Co coating, due to high hardness, low porosity and high density of the coating.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0069.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: Network Visualization; Term co-occurrence; Keyword co-occurrence; Artificial Intelligence; ChatGPT; Bibliometrics
Online: 6 April 2023 (03:46:00 CEST)
The main objective of this paper is to identify the major research areas of ChatGPT through term and keyword co-occurrence network mapping techniques. For conducting the present study, total of 577 publications were retrieved from the Lens database for the network visualization. The findings of the study showed that “chatgpt” occurrence in maximum number of times followed by its related terms such as artificial intelligence, large language model, gpt, study etc. This study will be helpful to library and information science as well as computer or information technology professionals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2110.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: microbiome; culture; morphology; Acanthamoeba; Vermamoeba
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:44:26 CET)
. Gut microbiome reflects healthy and predicts possible disease in hosts. A holistic view of this community is needed, focused on identification species, and on the dissection of how species interact with their host and with each other, regardless of whether their presence is beneficial, inconsequential, or detrimental. Distribution of gut-associated eukaryotes within and across NHPs is likely driven by host behavior and ecology. To ascertain the existence of free-living amoebae (FLA) in the gut of wild and captive non-human primates (NHPs), 01 sample stools were collected and submitted to culture-dependent and microscopy examination and DNA sequencing. FLAs were detected in 45.4% (46/101) of fecal samples analysed and their morphological characteristics matching those of Acanthamoeba spp, Vermamoeba spp, and fan-shaped amoebae of the family Vannellidae. Sequence analysis of the PCR- products revealed that the suspected amoebae are highly homologous (99% identity and 100% query coverage) with Acanthamoeba genotype T4 and Vermamoeba vermiformis amoebae. The results showed a great diversity of FLAs in the NHP microbiome, which may pose a potential risk to the health of NHPs. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report the presence of FLAs in NHPs naturally infected. However, it is not known whether gut-borne FLA are exploiting a viable ecological niche, or whether they are simply transient residents in the gut.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: cytomegalovirus; cell culture; antibodies; adaptation
Online: 26 July 2018 (04:31:39 CEST)
Propagation of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) in cultured cells results in genetic adaptations that confer improved growth in vitro and significant attenuation in vivo. Mutations in RL13 arise quickly during cell culture passage, while mutations in the UL128-131A locus emerge later during fibroblast passage and disrupt expression of a glycoprotein complex that is important for entry into epithelial and endothelial cells. As in vivo CMV replicates in the context of host antibodies, we reasoned that antibodies might mitigate the accumulation of adaptive mutations during cell culture passage. To test this, CMV in infant urine was used to infect replicate fibroblast cultures. One lineage was passaged in the absence of CMV-hyperimmuneglobulin (HIG) while the other was passaged with HIG in the culture medium. The former lost epithelial tropism and aquired mutations disrupting RL13 and UL131A expression, whereas the latter retained epithelial tropism and both gene loci remained intact after 22 passages. An epitheliotropic RL13+/ UL131A+ virus was isolated by limiting-dilution in the presence of HIG and expanded to produce a working stock sufficient to conduct cell tropism experiments. Thus, culture in the presence of antibodies may facilitate in vitro experiments using viruses that are genetically more authentic than has been previously possible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0874.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: online frailty check application; older adults; co-design; co-development; reliability; participatory action research
Online: 16 May 2023 (05:25:59 CEST)
Frailty, an age-related decline in homeostatic reserves, markedly proceeded during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. To continuously assess frailty status, a remote system is urgently required. We aimed to co-design/co-develop an online frailty check (FC) application alongside FC supporters who were facilitators in a pre-existing onsite FC program. The online FC included a screening measurement for sarcopenia and an 11-item questionnaire covering dietary, physical, and social behaviors. Using prototype applications, 55 opinions obtained from 32 FC supporters (median 74.0 years) were categorized and reflected refinement. Regarding the self-efficacy of FC supporters, a significant increase in social positioning was seen after the mock test (P=.031). For FC supporters and participants, the average system usability scale (SUS) score was 70.2±10.3 points, which was “marginally high” for acceptability and “good” for the adjective range. Multiple regression analysis showed that the SUS score was significantly correlated with online-onsite reliability but not online communication, even after adjusting by age, sex, education level, and ICT proficiency (b=0.400, 95% CI: 0.243-1.951, P=.013). Additionally, a significant association between onsite and online FC scores was observed (R=0.670, P=.001). Our online FC application was evaluated to be a valuable tool to practically assess frailty status remotely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1064.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, History Keywords: culture; gender; business; organization; religion; diversity
Online: 18 September 2023 (05:30:42 CEST)
ABSTRACT: This paper provides an overview of the complex relationship between culture, gender, and business. It highlights the importance of understanding how these factors intersect and influence various aspects of the business world, including organizational practices, leadership styles, workplace dynamics, and economic outcomes. It also explores how cultural factors shape gender roles, expectations, and opportunities within the business context. Additionally, it discusses the implications of cultural influences on women's participation, advancement, and overall experiences in the business world. Understanding the interplay between culture, gender, and business is essential for fostering inclusive and diverse workplaces. Organizations that embrace cultural diversity and gender equality tend to exhibit greater creativity, innovation, and adaptability. They also benefit from increased employee satisfaction, improved decision-making processes, and enhanced financial performance. The work also examined how the values, beliefs, socialization, and team spirit of some distinct ethnic groups such as Japanese, Chinese, Jews, Igbo, and Indians have helped in the economic growth of not the groups alone but the countries where they reside. By examining these dynamics and cultures, scholars, practitioners, and policymakers can gain insights to develop effective strategies that promote gender equality, cultural sensitivity, and inclusive practices in the business world, ultimately leading to more equitable and prosperous societies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0117.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: patient safety, quality improvement, safety culture
Online: 3 July 2023 (15:01:11 CEST)
Background: Falls in hospitalized older patients lead to increased length of stay and poorer discharge outcomes. The Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP) represents a quality improvement intervention for patient safety. Objective: To evaluate CUSP implementation for the prevention of falls at a teaching hospital. Method: An interdisciplinary CUSP team, received a four-hour online module and one-day face-to-face training. The intervention was developed using the WHO implementation science plan-do-study-act framework. Process evaluation was conducted using the UK Medical Research Council framework. The primary outcome measure of patient safety culture was determined using the Safety Attitude Questionnaire (SAQ), while annual fall rates were considered the secondary outcome measure. Results: Safety rounds were conducted during the two-year intervention period, each attended by five to eight HCPs, with nine to 29 patients reviewed each month. Risk factors, plans and actions were administered to individual patients, while local issues were identified and resolved through engagement of senior executives. SAQ domains increased from before (n=39) to after (n=30) the intervention of CUSP. Fall rates reduced from 11.18 per 1,000 bed days pre-implementation to zero falls post-implementation. Conclusion: Improvements in patient safety culture were observed after the implementation of CUSP alongside a reduction in fall rates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0883.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: adolescent; indigenous culture; condoms; sexual behavior
Online: 25 April 2023 (04:08:40 CEST)
The goal was to determine the personal, interpersonal, and sociocultural predictors of condom use among rural indigenous adolescents. Predictor variables were selected from Bandura's Social Cognitive Theory and Leininger's Transcultural Theory. The sample consisted of 419 Nahuas adolescents randomly selected from the total number of neighborhood blocks in a rural community in Puebla, Mexico. The instruments had acceptable psychometric characteristics (Cronbach alpha and validity scores). Multiple linear regression models were used. Results: 56.8% of participants were female, and 50.40 % were students. The mean age was M = 17.5 (SD = 0.97), and the majority (63%) identified as Catholic. Age at menarche/first ejaculation (β = -1.2, p = .038), attitude toward condom use (β = .13, p < .001), ethnic identity (β = .21, p < .001), and ability to negotiate condom use (β = .13, p < .003), predicted (R2 = 22.3) condom use. This study provides a basis for the integration of the cultural values of indigenous adolescents within interventions for sexual health promotion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: footrot; sheep; cell culture; immune respsonse
Online: 10 October 2022 (09:56:09 CEST)
Ovine footrot is a complex multifactorial infectious disease, causing lameness in sheep with major welfare and economic consequences. Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative bacterium, however, footrot is a polymicrobial disease with Fusobacterium necrophorum, Mycoplasma fermentans and Porphyromonas asaccharolytica also associated. There is limited understanding of the host response involved. Proinflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and C-X-C Motif Chemokine Ligand 8 (CXCL8) have been shown to play a role in the early response to D. nodosus in dermal fibroblasts and interdigital skin explant models. To further understand the response of ovine skin to bacterial stimulation, and to build the understanding of the role of the cytokines and chemokines identified in transcriptomic data, primary ovine interdigital fibroblasts and keratinocytes were isolated, cultured and stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), D. nodosus or F. necrophorum in the presence and absence of M. fermentans, whilst measuring mRNA expression and protein release of CXCL8 and, IL-1β. Stimulation with LPS, D. nodosus or F. necrophorum resulted in increased transcript levels of IL-1β and CXCL8 in M. fermentans free cells, however, only an increase in CXCL8 protein release was observed. No IL-1β protein release was detected despite increases in IL-1β mRNA, suggesting the signal for intracellular pre-IL-1β processing may be lacking when culturing primary cells in isolation. Keratinocytes and fibroblasts naturally infected with M. fermentans showed little response to LPS, a range of D. nodosus preparations or heat-inactivated F. necrophorum. Primary single cell culture models complement ex vivo organ culture models to study different aspects of the host response to D. nodosus. Ovine keratinocytes and fibroblasts infected with M. fermentans had a reduced response to experimental bacterial stimulation. However, in the case of footrot where Mycoplasma spp. are associated with diseased feet, this natural infection gives important insights into the impact of multiple pathogens on the host response.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0281.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: Culture; Globalization; East Java; Westernization; Hallyu
Online: 10 June 2021 (08:56:45 CEST)
In modern times like today, technology and science are developing very fast. This has resulted in a condition known as globalization. This era has had a significant impact on every country globally, including in Indonesia, such as the spread of culture is solid. This flow has many benefits and advantages. However, this globalization can also have a negative impact. One of them is the erosion of native Indonesian culture compared to foreign cultures. Therefore, this research to find the origin, causes, and impacts of the influx of cultural globalization on the current culture of East Java because it is the province of origin of the researchers. Here the researchers asks about the impact of this modern culture and how influential culture is to the people of East Java. The method used by the researchers in making this paper is Literature Review using qualitative descriptive writing with quantitative data. The researchers findings as material in this paper amounted to 24 materials with the provisions of 20 journal article materials, 2 article materials online provided that they were published in the last three years, and 2 E-books for methods on this paper. This study's boundaries are a modern culture that the researchers takes about western culture (western) and South Korean culture (Hallyu). In addition, this study only discusses cultures originating in East Java, such as Javanese.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0424.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: culture; facial expressions; emotion; posed; spontaneous
Online: 15 April 2021 (16:45:31 CEST)
There is a growing consensus that culture influences the perception of facial expressions of emotion. However, little is known about whether and how culture shapes the production of emotional facial expressions, and even less so about whether culture differentially shapes the production of posed versus spontaneous expressions. Drawing on prior work on cultural differences in emotional communication, we tested the prediction that people from the Netherlands (a historically heterogeneous culture where people are prone to low-context communication) produce facial expressions that are more distinct across emotions compared to people from China (a historically homogeneous culture where people are prone to high-context communication). Furthermore, we examined whether the degree of distinctiveness varies across posed and spontaneous expressions. Dutch and Chinese participants were instructed to either pose facial expressions of anger and disgust, or to share autobiographical events that elicited spontaneous expressions of anger or disgust. Using the complementary approaches of supervised machine learning and information-theoretic analysis of facial muscle movements, we show that posed and spontaneous facial expressions of anger and disgust were more distinct when produced by Dutch compared to Chinese participants. These findings shed new light on the role of culture in emotional communication by demonstrating, for the first time, effects on the distinctiveness of production of facial expressions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0637.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Malassezia; isolation; culture media; skin sampling
Online: 26 September 2020 (13:44:40 CEST)
Malassezia is lipid-dependent commensal yeast of the human skin. The different culture media and skin sampling methods used to grow these fastidious yeasts are a source of heterogeneity in culture-based epidemiological study results. This study aimed to compare the performances of three methods of skin sampling, and two culture media for the detection of Malassezia yeasts by culture from the human skin. Three skin sampling methods, namely sterile gauze, dry swab and TranswabTM with transport medium, were applied on 10 healthy volunteers. Each sample was further inoculated onto either the novel FastFung medium or the reference Dixon agar for the detection of Malassezia spp. by culture. At least one colony of Malassezia spp. grew on 93/300 (31%) of the cultures, corresponding to 150 samplings. The positive culture rate was 67%, 18%, and 15% (P < 10-3), for samples collected with sterile gauze, TranswabTM, and dry swab, respectively. The positive culture rate was 62% and 38% (P < 0.003) by using the FastFung and the Dixon media, respectively. Our results showed that sterile gauze rubbing skin sampling followed by inoculation on FastFung medium should be implemented in the routine clinical laboratory procedure for Malassezia spp. cultivation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0531.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: polystyrene; tissue culture; cell membrane stability
Online: 23 September 2020 (03:46:57 CEST)
Unanticipated errors in scientific research data can be attributed to the unwarranted assumption of uniformity in the polystyrene surface that is ubiquitously used in tissue culture flasks and dishes. We have shown that when adherent cells are subjected to fluid shear force, equivalent to rinsing the culture with a balanced salt solution, cells on some areas of the polystyrene surface will immediately rupture while still adherent on the surface. This heterogeneity on the polystyrene surface can cause unexpected variability in experimental results and in replicating experiments among labs. In this paper a novel quantitative method is described to measure the degree of heterogeneity on the polystyrene surface of tissue culture flasks. The results show significant variation among several brands of tissue culture flasks as well as large variability within the production lot of a manufacturer. The assay method involves loading the cells with a fluorescent marker that is released upon membrane rupture. Cell membrane rupture also causes the loss of marker proteins used in Westernblots. This novel assay method can be used to monitor the batch consistency and the manufacturing process of flasks and dishes. It may also be used to test new biomaterials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0329.v1
Online: 15 September 2020 (04:41:50 CEST)
Intersectional experiences, socio-cultural meanings, ethnic traditions and morals compound stigma-related stress (Jackson et al., 2020; Schmitz 2019). Sex workers are subject to various stigmatizing forces which can lead to secrecy, isolation and lack of social and cultural support (Koken 2012). Stigmatizing forces include structural humanitarian governance and aid interventions that conflate migration and sex work with insidious constraints and coercion. This study explored how migrant female sex workers from distinctive ethnic cultures manage their identity on a day to day basis in relation to the separation of work and home life. Methods: The perspectives of female sex workers were collected via a series of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The inclusion criteria were that the women had worked in sex work for over 18months, defined their involvement in sex work as voluntary, and were over 18yrs of age. The perspectives of seven women from South Asian (Pakistani), Brazilian, and British backgrounds were analyzed using Grounded Theory (Glaser and Strauss, 1967). Ethnicity was considered to explore how the women experienced stigma, how it impacted on the management of their identity, and how the process of change occurred. Results: The women used a variety of methods to maintain work and home life boundaries, processes they used switch into a role and all experienced stigma and tried to deal with it in ways such as concealment from friends and family. Two core categories and properties emerged from the data as participants felt guilt and/or shame but only the South Asian participants spoke of this with reference to their culture and religion. Conclusion: It was not migration per se but rather the relationship of migration to culture that was key to identity management. Participants reflected that as their country was considered collectivist country with interdependent thought, that any negativity felt could not only be reflected on the individual, but also the entire family. For these reasons Pakistani sex workers were subject to more complex stigmatizing forces, shame and guilt as regards risk and exposure. Discussion focusses on the processes and management strategies used to extend social and cultural support.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0167.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: Temperature, Culture, Cell, Chick, Embryo, Rotation
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:02:12 CEST)
Recently, some authors have developed a shell-less culture system for chick embryos by using a plastic lm as culture vessels. We will show that velocity of rotation of vessels in incubator and temperature have direct relations with growth of chick embryos. We also obtain a mathematical relation between velocity, temperature and rate of growth of chick embryo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0006.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: agrobiodiversity; environment; ecosystem; culture; farms; planning
Online: 9 May 2018 (07:37:48 CEST)
This document presents, from environmental thinking (ecosystem - culture relations), the concept of the Main Agroecological Structure of Agroecosystems (MAS, EAP, for its acronym in Spanish), considered as a dissipative cultural structure. It discusses its possible applications (resilience, production, diversity) both inside and outside the farms. The MAS can be useful in the land planning on the farms, based on the concept of potential MAS that allows the quantification of the management of internal and external corridors, including natural vegetation. At the same time, it can be useful in the context of landscape management because it shows a series of cultural relations (economic, social, symbolic and technological) hidden from the partial analysis of landscape ecology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0141.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: organizational culture; mission; consistency; involvement; adaptability
Online: 22 November 2017 (04:19:38 CET)
The main goal of this paper is to address how quickly and to what extent are international organizational cultures, brought by the world companies after the process of privatization, being implemented in a single monolithic culture. For this purpose was adopted and applied Denison model of organizational culture, which has been chosen because it emphasizes the need for balance between requirements for organization’s stability demands and its required flexibility. Considering that a different organizational culture reflects systematic change of an entire organization, this paper focuses on exploring the differences in culture dimensions among companies in domestic and foreign ownership in Serbia. A sample of 1000 employees was statistically processed. Changes in organizational culture tend to be relatively slow. The results confirm that organizational culture is a complex working environment, concerning organizational values, which represents a fundamental element of organizations. Given that the process of company ownership changes occurred fifteen years prior to the research implementation, obtained results show effects of interaction between national and organizational culture in this, relatively short, period of time. Obtained results can be generalized to countries that are passing or have recently passed a transition, and are similar in cultural characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0408.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: quality of work life; organizational culture; organizational support; self-efficacy; maritime workers; culture-work-health model
Online: 23 July 2018 (10:00:06 CEST)
Using the culture-work-health model, this study investigates the factors influencing the quality of life of maritime workers. This study conducted a survey of 320 maritime workers who have experience living and working on a ship for more than six months. This self-administered questionnaire included questions on organizational culture and support, self-efficacy, perceived fatigue, as well as the quality of work life. Organizational culture and self-efficacy were identified as factors affecting the quality of work life, while organizational support was found to have an indirect effect after passing through self-efficacy and perceived fatigue. The final model accounts for 63.1% of the variance in maritime workers’ quality of life. As such, this study shows that self-efficacy is important for the quality of life of maritime workers, having both direct and indirect effects. Moreover, organizational support may prove the primary intervention point for relieving perceived fatigue and enhancing self-efficacy, thus improving the quality of work life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0040.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Value co-creation; Shared decision making; Stakeholder theory; Service-dominant logic; Co-created decision making
Online: 5 October 2022 (12:19:01 CEST)
Rare diseases are characterized by a wide diversity of signs and symptoms and vary not only from disease to disease, but also from person to person, and living with a disease leads patients to peculiar experiences and treatments, without limits of time and space, as they extend to various environments and relationships of their lives. The objective of this study is the theoretical interaction between Value Co-creation (VC) and the Stakeholder Theory (ST) with the Shared Decision Making (SDM) health care theory. It is configured as a multiparadigmatic proposal by enabling the analysis of multiple perspectives of different stakeholders in health care. Thus, Co-created Decision Making (CDM) emerges in a logic dominated by service, with emphasis on intangible aspects and the interactivity of the relationships. It goes beyond the clinical office and the doctor-patient relationships, as studied in SDM, extending to all environments and interactions that add value to the patient's treatment. It was concluded that the essence of this new theory proposed here is neither in patient-centered care nor in patient self-care, but in co-created relationships with and between stakeholders in both directions, including non-health care environments that are important to the patient, such as relationships with friends, family, other patients with the same disease, social media, public policies, and the practice of pleasurable activities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Fuzzy implications; (S,N) implication; residuum t-norm; (T,N) co-implication; residual co-implication
Online: 3 August 2016 (08:29:47 CEST)
Recently, many authors have been interested to introduce fuzzy implications over t-norms and t-conorms. In this paper, we introduce (S,N) and residuum fuzzy implication for Dubois t-norm and Hamacher's t-norm. Also, new concepts so-called (T,N) and residual fuzzy co-implication in dual Heyting Algebra are investigated. Some examples as well as application are discussed as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0014.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: neonatal sepsis; blood culture; early-onset sepsis; late-onset sepsis; FilmArray® blood culture identification panel; neonates.
Online: 1 February 2023 (11:50:19 CET)
This prospective single-center study was designed to assess the clinical utility of the FilmArray® blood culture identification (BCID) panel for improving the diagnostic accuracy in neonatal sepsis. Results obtained using the FilmArray® BCID panel were correlated with results of blood culture in all consecutive neonates with suspicion of early-onset (EOS) and late-onset sepsis (LOS) attended in our service over a 2-year period. A total of 102 blood cultures from 92 neonates were included, 69 (67.5%) in cases of EOS and 33 (32.3%) in LOS. The FilmArray® BCID panel was performed in negative culture bottles at a median of 10 hours of blood culture incubation (range 7.5-20 hours), without differences by the type of sepsis. The FilmArray® BCID panel showed a 66.7% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 100% positive predictive value, and 95.7% negative predictive value. There were four false-negative cases, three of which of Streptococcus epidermidis in neonates with LOS and one case of Granulicatella adiacens in one neonate with EOS. We conclude that the use of the FilmArray® BCID panel in negative blood cultures from neonates with clinical suspicion of sepsis is useful in decision-making of starting or early withdrawal of empirical antimicrobials because of the high specificity and negative predictive values of this assay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0632.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Co-crosslinking; Tribology; Water lubrication; Rubber
Online: 10 October 2023 (16:26:55 CEST)
As one of the important components of underwater propulsion systems, water lubricated bearings are often failure due to mechanical wearing and vibrating, especially under high loads and prolonged friction. In this paper, a dual-network co-crosslinking strategy based on HNBR is proposed, in which the epoxy network connects with the rubber network through Epoxidized Eommia ulmoides gum. The damping, tribological and mechanical properties of the prepared composite are systematically investigated. The results show that this material has excellent friction and vibration damping properties, with a water-lubricated coefficient of friction as low as 0.022 and a wear resistance as high as 3.87 × 10-6mm3/Nm. Preparing HNBR-based composite by dual network co-crosslinked is proved being a feasible solution to improve the reliability and service life of water-lubricated bearings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0132.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: children; influenza; co-infections; risks; vaccine.
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:13:17 CEST)
The 2022-2023 influenza season in Romania was characterized by high pediatric hospitalization rates, predominated by influenza A subtypes H1N1 and H3N2. Lowered population immunity to influenza after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and subsequent stoppage of influenza circulation, particularly in children who had limited pre-pandemic exposures, influenced hospitalization among children immunosuppressed, and patients with concurrent medical conditions who are at increased risk for developing severe forms of influenza. This study focused on the characteristics of influenza issues among paediatric patients, as well as the relationship between different influenza virus types and viral and bacterial coinfections and illness severity in the 2022-2023 season after the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We conducted a retrospective clinical analysis on 301 cases of influenza in pediatric inpatients (age ≤ 18 years), hospitalized at the National Institute of Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Balș" IX Pediatric Infectious Diseases Clinical Section between October 2022 and February 2023. The most significant age group was 57.8% representing children between one to four years old and female. The average clinical forms were found in 61.7%, whereas severe versions represented 18.2% of cases. Most of the complications were respiratory (acute interstitial pneumonia, 76.1%), hematological (72.1%), represented by intra-infectious and deficiency anemia, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia), 33.6% were digestive, such as diarrheal disease, liver cytolysis syndrome, and the acute dehydration syndrome associated with electrolyte imbalance (71.4%). Severe complications were associated with a risk of unfavorable evolution: acute respiratory failure and neurological complications (convulsions, encephalitis). No deaths were reported. We noticed that the flu season 2022-2023 was characterized by the association of co-infections (viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic) more frequent than in previous years (26.2% vs. 16%), which evolved more severely, with prolonged hospitalization and more complications (p<0.05), and time of use of oxygen therapy was statistically significant (p > 0.05); influenza vaccination in this group was zero. In conclusion, coinfections with respiratory viruses increase the severity of the pediatric population's immunity to influenza, especially among young children who are more vulnerable to developing a serious illness. All people above the age of six months should get vaccinated against influenza to prevent the illness and its severe complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0173.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Cement; Co-process; Waste; Incineration; Landfill
Online: 12 July 2022 (04:32:38 CEST)
Recently, the amount of waste generated has been rapidly increasing, there have been difficulties disposing of waste in Korea. As a solution to this, treating waste using a cement kiln has suggested, but the environmental and economic effects have not been specifically studied. In this study, the effects of alternative resources, and reducing the social costs(Installation and Operation) associated with waste treatment facilities were analyzed. Through a co-processing method, a reduction of approximately 53kg of CO2 can be realized during the production of one ton of cement, and cost savings of about 3,815 milion USD. Another effect is an extension of the expiration date for landfills by 7.55 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0100.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Quasi-Co-Degree; Quasi-Degree; Vertex
Online: 7 February 2022 (16:23:20 CET)
New setting is introduced to study quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree arising from co-neighborhood. quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree is about a vertex which are applied into the setting of neutrosophic graphs. . The structure of set is studied and general results are obtained. Also, some classes of neutrosophic graphs namely path-neutrosophic graphs, cycle-neutrosophic graphs, complete-neutrosophic graphs and star-neutrosophic graphs, complete-bipartite-neutrosophic graphs and complete-multipartite-neutrosophic graphs are investigated in the terms of a vertex which is called either quasi-degree or quasi-co-degree. Neutrosophic number is reused in this way. It’s applied to use the type of neutrosophic number in the way that, three values of a vertex are used and they’ve same share to construct this number to compare with other vertices. Summation of three values of vertex makes one number and applying it to a comparison. This approach facilitates identifying vertices which form quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree. Quasi-degree is a value of a vertex which is maximum amid all values of vertices which are neighbors to a fixed vertex. Quasi-co-degree is a value of an edge which is maximum amid all values of edges which are neighbors to a fixed vertex but corresponded vertex is representative for this notion. Using different values which are related to a vertex inspire us to focus on edge and vertices which are corresponded to a fixed vertex. The notion of neighborhood is used to collect either vertices are titled neighbors or edges are incident to fixed vertex. In both settings, some classes of well-known neutrosophic graphs are studied. Some clarifications for each result and each definitions are provided. Using fixed vertex has key role to have these notions in the form of vertex or edge. The value of an edge has eligibility to call quasi-co-degree but the value of a vertex has eligibility to call quasi-degree. Some results get more frameworks and perspective about these definitions. The way in that, two vertices have connection together, open the way to define neighborhood and co-neighborhood. The maximum values in neighborhood and co-neighborhood introduces quasi-degree and quasi-co-degree, respectively. New name is chosen from degree. Since amid all vertices with different degrees, one vertex is chosen. In other words, one vertex is fixed and its degree turns out quasi-degree where two degrees could be assigned to a vertex. Degree of edges and degree of vertices. The number of edges which are incident to the vertex and the number of vertices which are neighbors to the vertex. Degree and co-degree are the notions which are transformed to use in quasi-style. Two neutrosophic values introduce two neutrosophic vertices separately in each settings. These notions are applied into neutrosophic graphs as individuals but not family of them as drawbacks for these notions. Finding special neutrosophic graphs which are well-known, is an open way to purse this study. Some problems are proposed to pursue this study. Basic familiarities with graph theory and neutrosophic graph theory are proposed for this article.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0586.v1
Online: 26 July 2021 (14:49:51 CEST)
Potential of co-digestion mixing thickened secondary sludge (TS) from extended aeration wastewater treatment plant and locally available substrates (whey, grease and septage) has been studied using three steps. The first step was a batch test to determine biological methane potential (BMP) of different mixtures of the three co-substrates with TS. The second step has been carried out with lab-scale reactors (20 L) simulating anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactors fed by three mixtures of co-substrates determined according to previous step results. Modelling using ADM1 as a mechanistic model was applied in the third step to help understanding the co-digestion process. According to BMP step, septage used as co-substrate has a negative effect on performance and addition of 10 to 30% grease or 10% whey would lead to a higher production of biogas and with an increase of the methane content. The results from the reactor showed less evi-dence of the positive effects observed with the BMP assay. Protein and lipid fractions of particu-late biodegradable COD are important variables for digester stability and methane production as predicted by modelling. Results of simulations with ADM1 model adapted to co-digestion confirmed that this model is a powerful tool to optimize the process of biogas production.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0549.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: TRβ; tumor suppression; co-regulators; therapeutics
Online: 23 July 2021 (15:14:12 CEST)
There is compelling evidence that the nuclear receptor TRβ, a member of the thyroid hormone receptor (TR) family, is a tumor suppressor in thyroid, breast and other solid tumors. Cell-based and animal studies reveal that the liganded TRβ induces apoptosis, reduces an aggressive phenotype, decreases stem cell populations, and slows tumor growth through modulation of a complex interplay of transcriptional networks. TRβ-driven tumor suppressive transcriptomic signatures include repression of known drivers of proliferation such as PI3K/Akt pathway and activation of novel signaling (JAK1/STAT1) and metabolic reprogramming in both thyroid and breast cancers. The presence of TRβ is also correlated with a positive prognosis and response to therapeutics in BRCA+ and triple-negative breast cancers respectively. Ligand activation of TRβ enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutics. TRβ co-regulators and bromodomain-containing chromatin remodeling proteins are emergent therapeutic targets. This review considers TRβ as a potential biomolecular diagnostic and therapeutic target.
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: critical pedagogy; experiential learning; co-production
Online: 5 July 2021 (10:35:42 CEST)
The sense of uncertainty and fragility due to the effects and magnitude of global challenges we are facing (from pandemic circumstances to climate change impacts) requires – much more than in the past – the capacity to generate a visionary and forefront design approach in the young gen-erations aiming at stimulating their reaction attitude rather than providing consolidated tools from past conditions that no longer exist or will rapidly evolve. Within this general framework, we have investigated the effectiveness and impacts of experienced-based methods of learning and innovative educational tools in architecture aimed at shaping expertise in which the environ-mental dimension and the climate-change challenge dialogues with the context's complexity in terms of socio-cultural dynamics, real potentialities and constrains, addressing their transdisci-plinary trajectories. The paper analyses 5 international pioneering teaching experiences that provide the opportunity to understand the outcomes of collaborative and experiential learning processes in which the educational activities leverage a dialogue between diverse communities (academia-citizens-policymakers-practitioners). The study outcomes show that shifting the pedagogical paradigm towards in-field-experience-based models can improve the awareness of future practitioners for climate implications of architectural design, implement their analysis and project skills while triggering processes of knowledge transfer and co-production at community level, and allow them to better address the societal and cultural issues involved within decision making.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0608.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: co-production; knowledge production; public services
Online: 22 April 2021 (13:23:35 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to explore conceptual approaches in co-production studies and to examine current research trends of the study. The conceptual paper includes research articles related to co-production in public administration field. By thoroughly scrutinizing 32 research works of co-production, this study highlights major loopholes in the field of the study. The contributions of the study are: (1) identifying two common characteristics of co-production, (2) categorising three types of co-producing by end-users, and (3) finding that goals and success of co-production are more beneficial for service providers though its initial approach is citizen-centric approach. We suggest that future studies should be (1) to focus on reasons for co-production failures or success, (2) to discover further hindrances for co-production in service production, (3) to examine influencing factors on service providers as well as institutional impacts on co-production process, and (4) to include practical assessment in co-production study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0084.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geochemistry And Petrology Keywords: antimony; ferrihydrite; silica; adsorption; co-precipitation
Online: 10 January 2018 (07:02:42 CET)
Elevated antimony concentrations in aqueous environments from anthropogenic sources is becoming of global concern, here iron oxides are known to strongly adsorb aqueous antimony species with different oxidation states, but the effect of silica on the removal characteristics is not well understood despite being a common component in the environment. In this study, ferrihydrite was synthesized at various Si/Fe molar ratios to investigate its adsorption and co-precipitation behaviors with aqueous antimony anionic species, Sb(III) and Sb(V). The XRD analyses of the precipitates showed two broad diffraction features at approximately 35° and 62° 2θ, which are characteristic of 2-line ferrihydrite, no significant shifts in peak positions in the ferrihydrite regardless of the Si/Fe ratios. The infrared spectra showed a sharp band at ~990 cm−1, corresponding to asymmetric stretching vibrations of Si-O-Fe bonds which increased in intensity with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. Further, the surface charge on the precipitates became more negative with increasing Si/Fe molar ratios. The adsorption experiments indicated that Sb(V) was preferentially adsorbed at acidic conditions and decreased dramatically with increasing pH while the adsorption rate of Sb(III) ions was independent of pH, however, the presence of silica suppressed the adsorption of both Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions. The results showed that Sb(III) and Sb(V) ions were significantly inhibited by co-precipitation with ferrihydrite even in the presence of silica by isomorphous substitution in the ferrihydrite crystal structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0083.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: stroke; antioxidant; co-drug; animal model
Online: 20 October 2016 (08:46:38 CEST)
Background: Previously, our laboratory has provided evidence that pre-administration of the antioxidant, lipoic acid covalently bonded to various naturally occurring antioxidants, enhanced neuroprotective capacity compared to the administration of lipoic acid on its own. The naturally occurring compound scopoletin, a coumarin derivative, has been shown in various in vitro studies to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanism of actions. To date, the effect of scopoletin on neuronal cell death in an in vivo model of ischemia or ischemia-reperfusion has not been investigated. Therefore, the present investigation was designed to determine if scopoletin on its own, or a co-drug consisting of lipoic acid and scopoletin covalent bond, named UPEI-400, would be capable of demonstrating a similar neuroprotective efficacy. Methods: Using a rodent model of stroke in male rats (anesthetized with Inactin®; 100 mg/kg, iv), the middle cerebral artery was permanently occluded for 6 hours (pMCAO), or in separate animals, occluded for 30 min followed by 5.5 hrs of reperfusion (ischemia/reperfusion; I/R). Results: Pre-administration of either scopoletin or UPEI-400 significantly decreased infarct volume in the I/R model (p<0.05), but not in the pMCAO model of stroke. However, UPEI-400 was ~1000 times more potent as compared to scopoletin on its own. The optimal dose of UPEI-400 was then injected during the occlusion and at several time points during reperfusion and significant neuroprotection was observed for up to 150 mins following the start of reperfusion (p<0.05). Conclusion: The data suggest that synthetic combination of scopoletin with lipoic acid (UPEI-400) is a more effective neuroprotectant that either compound on their own. Also, since UPEI-400 was only effective in a model of I/R, it is possible that it may act to enhance neuronal antioxidant capacity and/or upregulate anti-inflammatory pathways to prevent the neuronal cell death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0267.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Electrochemistry Keywords: adsorption; coatings; poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate); corrosion tests; atomic force microscopy
Online: 20 December 2019 (07:00:55 CET)
Poly(vinyl butyral-co-vinyl alcohol-co-vinyl acetate) named further PVBA was investigated as protective coating for copper corrosion in 0.9 % NaCl solution using electrochemical measurements such as, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and potentiodynamic polarization associated with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The PVBA coating on the copper surface (Cu-PVBA) was modeled in methanol containing PVBA. Its inhibitory properties against corrosion was comparatively discussed with those of the copper sample treated in methanol without polymer (Cu-Me) and of untreated sample (standard copper). A protective performance of PVBA coating of 80 % was computed from electrochemical measurements, for copper corrosion in NaCl solution. Also, AFM images designed a specific surface morphology of coated surface with PVBA, clearly highlighting a polymer film adsorbed on the copper surface, which presents certain deterioration after corrosion, but metal surface was not significantly affected compared to those of untreated samples or treated in methanol, in the absence of PVBA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1419.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: breast cancer; culture; belief; rural; South Africa
Online: 21 September 2023 (12:14:44 CEST)
Breast cancer remains one of the most deadly non-communicable diseases in the world. The incidence of breast cancer in South Africa is increasing, with rural African women presenting with advanced stages of the disease. In this study, we aim to explore sociocultural factors influencing breast cancer screening practices among rural African women. A qualitative exploratory study was conducted using semi-structured interviews with 22 rural African women selected by purposive sampling. Thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. In this study, four sociocultural factors were identified as influencing breast cancer screening practices among rural African women. These factors included psychological factors, habits, beliefs, and healthcare perception. Women in rural African communities have deep-rooted traditional beliefs and practices regarding breast cancer. Consequently, this influences women's preventative health behaviours regarding breast cancer screening. To increase the number of women participating in breast cancer screenings, it is vital to develop culturally sensitive health education programs. Engaging community healers will also help to increase the number of women participating in breast cancer screening.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0629.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Microalgae culture; Pigments; Absorption spectrum; Dunaliella; Anabaena
Online: 10 July 2023 (12:10:39 CEST)
(1) Background: Microalgae cultures are greatly facilitated if growers can easily and economically ascertain the quantitative and qualitative status of the culture continuously with satisfactory ac-curacy. (2) Methods: The locally isolated microalgae Dunaliella sp. and Anabaena sp. were cultured in small volumes with 2 intensities of white light (2000 and 8000 lux) and with green, blue and red light and the increase of their biomass and pigments was studied. Pigment analyses, continuous recordings of absorption spectra and calibration curves were performed. (3) Results: The intensity of 8000 lux white light yielded the highest increase in biomass, chlorophylls and carotenoids in Dunaliella sp. while 2000 lux and green light caused the greatest increase in biomass and phy-cocyanin in Anabaena sp. From the examination of the absorption spectra, the evolution of the pigment content can be estimated and both pigments and biomass are correlated very satisfactorily with the wavelength of 750 nm. (4) Conclusions: The use of absorption spectra as an easy, fast and economical method can be a useful tool for a good approximation of the state of the microalgae culture. This is clearly shown when the spectra of the culture under different lighting colors are compared which have a catalytic effect on the level of the pigments leading to the increase in carotenoids and phycocyanin of the green light.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1695.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Industry; micropropagation; plant tissue culture; Sri Lanka
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:53:43 CEST)
Lack of reliable information on PTC industry in Sri Lanka is hampering the advancement of the technology. Hence, this study attempted to assess the current status of PTC industry in Sri Lanka in order to ascertain the type and the level of interventions needed to broaden the horizons of the industry. Data of last 05 years were collected through qualitative research methods including a questionnaire-based survey, personal interviews, etc. and personal interviews to identify product diversity, R&D, available facilities, production capacity, and markets. Information was analyzed qualitatively using descriptive statistical software to assess the current status, and identify gaps, challenges and opportunities. COVID pandemic and the economic crisis had a heavy toll on the PTC industry. Six major challenges experienced by business owners were identified as increasing capacity, opportunities to build market linkages, demand fluctuations, issues relating to awareness and insufficient support given by the government. Proper identification and screening of mother plants, determining the production capacities and marketing, knowledgeable and skilled human resources, were identified as important contributory factors for success. Development strategies identified mainly include instinctive decision making and government support. Embracing the significant trade achievements through resource reallocation, prioritization and improvisation processes at individual, family group, inter-organizational levels and across these levels need to be regulated through a responsible authority. These interpretations and recommendations of this research can be utilized both by the policy makers and public and private sector organizations for decision making purposes targeting commercial scale advancements.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0063.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Microalgae; Bio acids; Phytohormones; Medium Culture; Stress
Online: 3 February 2023 (08:45:13 CET)
Natural astaxanthin is a precious substance obtained from some organisms such as microalgae. This plant has many benefits for humans, so research into its cost-effective and economical production has recently increased. For this purpose, some methods such as the use of different culture media, gene engineering, different stresses, nanoparticles, bio acids, and phytohormones are important. Accordingly, this review study was conducted to demonstrate the effect of the factors mentioned above for the high production of astaxanthin in microalgae, especially Haematococcus pluvialis (H.p).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0556.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: Covid-19; digital culture; museums; reality; digitality
Online: 30 November 2021 (10:47:20 CET)
Museums increasingly recognize the need to address advances in digital culture which impact the expectations and needs of their audiences. Museum collections of real objects need to be presented both on their own premises and digitally online, especially as social media becomes more and more influential in people’s everyday lives. We investigate these challenges magnified by advances in digital and computational media and culture looking particularly at recent and relevant reports on changes in the ways museums interact with the public. We find that the Covid-19 pandemic has accelerated many of the changes driving museum transformation. We believe that museums must be more prepared than ever to adapt to unabated technological advances set in the midst of cultural and social revolution, now intrinsic to the digital landscape in which museums are inevitably connected and participating across the global digital ecosystem where they inevitably find themselves entrenched.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0446.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CTC, cell culture, liquid biopsy, breast cancer
Online: 16 April 2021 (13:29:37 CEST)
Background: Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have relevance as prognostic markers in breast cancer. However, the functional properties of CTCs or their molecular characterization have not been well-studied. Experimental models indicate that only a few cells can survive in the circulation and eventually metastasize. Thus, it is essential to identify these surviving cells capable of forming such metastases. Methods: We isolated viable CTCs from 50 peripheral blood samples obtained from 35 patients with advanced metastatic breast cancer using RosetteSepTM for ex vivo culture. The CTCs were seeded and monitored on plates under low adherence conditions and with media supplemented with growth factors and Nanoemulsions. Phenotypic analysis was performed by immunofluorescence and gene expression analysis using RT-PCR and CTCs counting by Cellsearch® system. Results: We found that in 75% of samples the CTC cultures lasted more than 23 days, predicting a shorter Progression-Free Survival in these patients, independently of having ≥ 5 CTC by Cellsearch®. We also observed that CTCs before and after culture showed a different gene expression profile. Conclusions: the cultivability of CTCs is a predictive factor. Furthermore, the subset of cells capable of growing ex vivo show stem or mesenchymal features and may represent the CTC population with metastatic potential in vivo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Skin; Cell culture; Stem cells; Differentiation; Camel
Online: 10 May 2019 (15:04:59 CEST)
Elite camels often suffer from massive injuries. Thus, there is a pivotal need for a cheap and readily available regenerative medicine source. We isolated novel stem-like cells from camel skin and investigated their multipotency and resistance against various stresses. Skin samples were isolated from ears of five camels. Fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors were extracted. After separation of different cell lines by trypsinization, all cell lines were exposed to heat shock. Then, fibroblasts and dermal cyst-forming cells were examined under cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells were evaluated for resistance against osmotic pressure. The results revealed that resistance periods against trypsin were 1.5, 4, and 7 minutes for fibroblasts, keratinocytes, and spheroid progenitors, respectively. Furthermore, complete recovery of different cell lines after heat shock along with the differentiation of spheroid progenitors into neurons was observed. Fibroblasts and spheroid progenitors retained cell proliferation after cryopreservation. Dermal cyst-forming cells regained their normal structure after collapsing by osmotic pressure. The spheroid progenitors incubated in the adipogenic, osteogenic, and neurogenic media differentiated into the adipocytes, osteoblasts, and neurons, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, we isolated different unique cellular differons and stem-like cells from the camel skin and examined their multipotency for the first time.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0281.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Ethics, Ethical Culture and Sustainability, Family Business
Online: 29 March 2019 (12:09:05 CET)
Building an ethical culture is challenging and a basic requirement of the companies to embed transparency in their systems, creating a positive image; serving the internal and external communities. This paper based on detailed interviews of 12 family owned businesses over a period of 16 months explores how these companies build the ethical culture, identifying the ethical culture sustainability triggers, challenges and role of religion in such practices. The values, culture, community and social norms are identified as major ingredients of a sustainable ethical culture development and implementation of the ethical policies and procedures require institutional and structural mechanisms for effectiveness in family owned businesses. The findings at numerous occasions are in contrast to the literature, whereas, in other instances are similar. The religion, society, family image, the entrepreneurs themselves and their family members play a vital role. Non-interference in private matters of the employees, whistle blowing, code of ethics, training and awareness creation and a number of other factors play a leading role in ethical culture development in family businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0239.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Sustainability; Chinese culture; Moslem society; Malaysia; Indonesia
Online: 23 January 2019 (10:25:28 CET)
Abstract Sustainability of ethnic culture in Southeast Asia has made the dramatically growth of ethnic identity. The ethnic revivals already made the increasing of cultural events in public spaces. This research paper sought the cultural sustainability of Chinese in Moslem society of Southaest Asia. A multisited ethnography was conducted in Medan Municipal of North Sumatra and Georgetown Penang, Malaysia to observe the sustained Chinese culture as the symbol of ethnification of Chinese in Moslems society in Southeast Asia region. It found that after 2003 Indonesia already saw the attractive cultural performances of Chinese in public spaces as the continuation of sustainability. In our ethnographic investigation from 2014 -2017, the reshaping of the Chinese identity through sustainability of Chinese culture in Medan Municipality of North Sumatra, and Penang of Malaysia has the high public visibility. Research report showed the continuation of the Chinese rituals and festivals which were accompanied by music instruments of Chinese and theatrical performances. Those have been transformed from self commemorations to be more public; attractions already were moved to public places, not solely in temples or ethnic group surroundings as what commonly found in the past period. It concluded that the sustainability of Chinese culture in public spaces made the Southeast Asia connection among the Chinese groups solidify their identity in this region tightened.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0377.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Finance Keywords: risk culture; honourable merchant; decision-making; responsibility
Online: 25 June 2018 (10:21:18 CEST)
The current discussion about a “risk culture” in financial services was triggered by the recent series of crisis (from the US subprime mortgage crisis to the lock-in trap of central banks in the aftermath of the sovereign debt crisis). The last decade saw a long list of hybris, misconduct and criminal activities by human beings on a single or even a collective basis in banks, in the industry or in the whole economy. As a counter-reaction, financial authorities called for a guidance by a “new” risk culture in financial institutions based on a set of abstract, formal and normative governance processes. In the humanities, culture is a paraphrase for the behaviour in collectives and dynamics of organization found in human societies. Therefore, a “risk culture” should be a link between those normative guidelines and the positive “real-world” decision-making in financial services. This paper will focus on “risk culture” from the perspective of human beings interacting in dynamical and intertemporal commercial relations. In this context, “risk” is perceived by economic agents ex-ante as the consequence of the time-lag between the present and the uncertain future development (compared to a probability distribution calculated by observers ex-post). For all those individual decisions – to be made under uncertainty – future “risk” includes the so-called “normal accidents”, i.e. failures that will happen at some uncertain point in time but inevitable, and it is only the questions, when failure will happen and how to maintain function in the first line of defence. Finally, the sum of all decisions with individual responsibility for things to come is the positive economical context of a “risk culture” in the sense of the (rational) behaviour of an honourable merchant in long-term and repeated commercial relations in a merchant community, as this is a heritage of European business culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0129.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Museology Keywords: history; museology; Israeli culture; Holocaust; Israeli society
Online: 26 December 2016 (10:43:31 CET)
Tiny by physical size, the State of Israel retains some of the world’s most important cultural treasures, along with many other great cultural institutions. Archeological treasures have yielded much information as far as biblical history and have been well adapted to a Zionist narrative by both the Jewish press and international news organizations, such as the New York Times whose archives are replete with reports of Jewish history being dug up by the Jewish people. Once the State of Israel gained independence in 1948, the course was set for the development of historical museums whose discourse would reflect the most significant events in Jewish history, most especially the Holocaust and the state of constant warfare that continues to imbue the cultural consciousness of its citizens. In this paper we outline, through categorization, the various historical museums, which are currently operating. Furthermore, this article hopes to shed some light upon the cultural sensibilities conveyed through these institutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0326.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: cellular agriculture; cell-based seafood; fish tissue culture; bioreactor; serum-free media; ocean conservation; marine cell culture; aquaculture
Online: 25 January 2019 (11:36:58 CET)
Cellular agriculture is defined as the production of agricultural products from cell cultures rather than from whole plants or animals. With growing interest in cellular agriculture as a means to address the public health, environmental, and animal welfare challenges of animal agriculture, the concept of producing seafood from fish cell- and tissue-cultures is emerging as a means to address similar challenges with industrial aquaculture systems and marine capture. Cell-based seafood - as opposed to animal-based seafood - can combine developments in biomedical engineering with modern aquaculture techniques. Biomedical engineering developments such as closed-system bioreactor production of land animal cells create a basis for large scale production of marine animal cells. Aquaculture techniques such as genetic modification and closed system aquaculture have achieved marked gains in production that can pave the way for innovations in cell-based seafood production. Here, we present the current state of innovation relevant to the development of cell-based seafood across multiple species as well as specific opportunities and challenges that exist for advancing this science. The authors find that the physiological properties of fish cell- and tissue- culture may be uniquely suited to cultivation in vitro. These physiological properties, including hypoxia tolerance, high buffering capacity, and low-temperature growth conditions, make marine cell culture an attractive opportunity for scale production of cell-based seafood; perhaps even more so than mammalian and avian cell cultures for cell-based meats. This, coupled with the unique capabilities of crustacean tissue-friendly scaffolding such as chitosan, a common seafood waste product and mushroom derivative, presents great promise for cell-based seafood production via bioreactor cultivation. To become fully realized, cell-based seafood research will require more understanding of fish muscle culture and cultivation; more investigation into serum-free media formulations optimized for fish cell culture; and bioreactor designs tuned to the needs of fish cells for large scale production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0248.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Applied Mathematics Keywords: Neutrosophic Quasi-Order; Neutrosophic Quasi-Size; Neutrosophic Quasi-Number; Neutrosophic Quasi-Co-Number; Neutrosophic Co-t-Neighborhood
Online: 17 March 2022 (08:48:38 CET)
New setting is introduced to study co-neighborhood, neutrosophic t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-vertex set, neutrosophic quasi-order, neutrosophic neighborhood, neutrosophic co-t-neighborhood, neutrosophic quasi-edge set, neutrosophic quasi-size, Neutrosophic number, neutrosophic co-neighborhood, co-neutrosophic number, quasi-number and quasi-co-number. Some classes of neutrosophic graphs are investigated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0659.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Waste Management And Disposal Keywords: co-crystallization; encapsulation; phenolic extract; pomegranate peel
Online: 11 July 2023 (05:24:28 CEST)
Recently, there has been a lot of interest in the phenolics of pomegranate peels because of their health-promoting effects. The incorporation of encapsulated phenolic extracts in functional foods, beverages, and dietary supplements can enhance their nutritional and health benefits. This paper aims to provide an overview of the encapsulation of pomegranate peel phenolic extract by co-crystallization, focusing on the properties of the encapsulated extract. Pomegranate peel extract encapsulated in sucrose by co-crystallization at conditions determined in our previous work is characterized by evaluating its properties; moisture content, bulk density, solubility, hygroscopicity, color, degree of encapsulation by thermograms, crystallinity by X-ray scattering, microstructure by scanning electron microscope, and storage stability in terms of total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The co-crystallized powder had a low moisture content (0.59%) and hygroscopicity (0.011%) and a high bulk density (0.803 g/cm3) and solubility (61 s). Its total phenolic content decreased by only 0.56% after storage at 60oC for 45 days, whereas its antioxidant activity was maintained at levels higher than 84%. The differential scanning calorimetry and the X-ray scattering techniques proved the successful encapsulation in the sucrose matrix and the fact that the extract remained liquid inside the porosity of the sucrose crystals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0848.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: bibliometric analysis; Sustainability; co-occurrence; thematic map
Online: 24 April 2023 (10:16:05 CEST)
This paper presents a bibliometric analysis of highly cited papers published in the journal Sustainability between 2009 and 2023. The aim is to identify influential countries, authors, and papers, as well as patterns in authorship and citation trends. The analysis focuses on frequently cited sources, the most cited research papers and references within the journal, and trends in author keywords. The analysis shows that Sustainability is a leading publication in sustainability research, with an annual growth rate of 53.57%. The selected papers, published between 2013 and 2022, have an average age of 2.11 years and an average of 88.12 citations each. The study highlights the most influential countries in sustainability research published in Sustainability, with China leading, followed by the United States and Germany. The most prolific authors are from China, Spain, and Italy. Interdisciplinary collaboration is essential to address complex sustainability challenges, as shown in the papers published in Sustainability. The study emphasizes the importance of staying informed about emerging trends and research directions in the field of sustainability published in this journal Sustainability. It underscores the significance of fostering international collaborations and partnerships to address complex sustainability challenges facing our world today, as evidenced by the papers published in Sustainability. Overall, this bibliometric analysis provides valuable insights into the current state of sustainability research published in Sustainability and its implications for policy and practice. It highlights key areas for future research and underscores the need for interdisciplinary collaboration to address complex sustainability challenges, as demonstrated by the papers published in Sustainability. These findings have important implications for policymakers, researchers, and practitioners interested in promoting sustainable development in the field of sustainability., as published in Sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0245.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: cannabis; tobacco; co-use; simultaneous use; mixing
Online: 14 December 2022 (06:30:42 CET)
Introduction: Increasing cannabis legalization raises concerns that tobacco use, frequently used with cannabis, will also increase. This study investigated the association between legal status of cannabis in place of residence and prevalence of cannabis and tobacco co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing by comparing the prevalence among adults in Canada (prior to cannabis legalization) vs. adults in US states that had legalized recreational cannabis vs. US states that had not as of September 2018. Methods: Data were drawn from the 2018 International Cannabis Policy Study, conducted with respondents aged 16-65 in Canada and the US recruited from non-probability consumer panels. Differences in the prevalence of co-use, simultaneous use, and mixing between tobacco and different cannabis products were examined using logistic regression models by legal status of place of residence among past 12-month cannabis consumers (N=6744). Results: Co-use and simultaneous use in the past 12 months were most common among respondents in US legal states. Among cannabis consumers, co-use and simultaneous use were less common in US legal states, while mixing was less frequent in US states with both legal and illegal cannabis compared to Canada. Use of edibles was associated with lower odds of all three outcomes, while smoking dried herb or hash was associated with higher odds. Conclusions: The proportion of cannabis consumers who used tobacco was lower in legal jurisdictions despite higher prevalence of cannabis use. Edible use was inversely associated with co-use suggesting that edible use does not appear to be associated with increased tobacco use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0130.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: crowdsourcing; value co-creation; business sustainability; stakeholder
Online: 8 August 2022 (04:09:12 CEST)
As a typical form of value co-creation, crowdsourcing has been increasingly applied by firms to generate business value. By engaging a crowd, a platform, and other stakeholders, a crowdsourcer can foster the co-creation of a portfolio of value for diverse stakeholders. In analyzing the value co-creation in crowdsourcing, we propose a framework by combining the theories and frameworks in value co-creation and crowdsourcing. The framework examines the key stakeholders, joint purpose, engaged value co-creation processes, contributions, bidirectional relationships of the engagement, and perceived value, exhibiting a holistic view of the value co-creation in a crowdsourcing project. Results of the analysis reveal the business performance of the crowdsourcing project and identify areas of improvement regarding business sustainability. This is a major theoretical contribution of this study. The research design applied a case study approach to empirically investigate a crowdsourcing project. Both the theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Co-composted biochar; drought; NUE; PUE; salinity
Online: 24 January 2022 (09:41:10 CET)
This pot-based study investigated the influence of co-composted wood-derived biochar on lettuce growth performance under salinity and drought stress conditions. Biochar of two particle sizes; > 2 mm and < 1 mm were co-composted with the mixture (1:1 ratio of dry weight) of cow and poultry manures. Co-composted biochars were applied at 5% and 7% rates in soil. Control treatments included the amendment of mixture of biochar with manure in soil. Pots were subjected to slight drought (48-55% water filled pore space (WFPS) of soil) and non-drought conditions (60% WFPS) and under 0 and 1.3 dS m-1 salinity. Results revealed that plants growth performance was significantly better under treatments of co-composted biochar and no salt stress conditions, than when mixture of biochar and manure was applied to soil as non-composted fertilizer. Under no stress condition, small particle-sized co-composted biochar increased root biomass by 786.2% than the large particle-sized co-composted biochar at same application rate. As compared to large-sized co-composted biochar, small sized co-composted biochar at high application rates increased root biomass by 167 – 245% but not leaf biomass under both stress conditions. Small particle-sized co-composted biochar amendment also increased the phosphorus use efficiency (PUE) of lettuce leaves than large particle-sized co-composted biochar under no stress condition. The amendment of small-sized co-composted biochar also increased significantly the concentration of Olsen phosphorus in soil than the amendment of large-particle-sized co-composted biochar. In conclusion, amendment of small particle-sized co-composted biochar has the potential of attenuating salinity and drought stress in lettuce and promoting P cycling in soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0053.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: Co-scheduling; HPC; scheduling theory; stochastic optimization
Online: 3 September 2021 (10:14:03 CEST)
Applications in high-performance computing (HPC) may not use all available computational resources, leaving some of them underutilized. By co-scheduling, i.e. running more than one application on the same computational node, it is possible to improve resource utilization and overall throughput. Some applications may have conflicting requirements on resources and co-scheduling may cause performance degradation, so it is important to take it into account in scheduling decisions. In this paper, we formalized co-scheduling problem and proposed multiple scheduling strategies to solve it: an optimal strategy, an online strategy and heuristic strategies. These strategies vary in terms of the optimality of the solution they produce and a priori information about the system they require. We showed theoretically that the online strategy provides schedules with a competitive ratio that has a constant upper limit. This allowed us to solve the co-scheduling problem using heuristic strategies that approximate this online strategy. Numerical simulations showed how heuristic strategies compare to the optimal strategy for different input systems. We proposed a method for measuring input parameters of the model in practice and evaluated this method on HPC benchmark applications. We showed high accuracy of measurement method, which allows to apply proposed scheduling strategies in scheduler implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city; CO; COVID 19; emission; social distancing
Online: 28 April 2020 (07:36:53 CEST)
The social distancing as a response to COVID 19 pandemic has led to the exceptional reductions of daily routine people activities and vehicle uses mainly in city. This same situation was also experienced by several busy, large, and populous cities in Southeast Asia (SA) countries. Correspondingly, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the social distancing implementation period has increased the air quality in the term of carbon monoxide (CO) emission reduction as drawn from Jakarta city as an example of the one of populated cities in SA region. The CO was measured in parts per billions (ppb) and monitored on the daily basis employing remote sensor platform. The monitor periods were started from January, February, March, and April 2020 with 10 measurement days for each month. The social distancing was implemented from mid of March to the recent April. The CO measurement data were statistically tested to justify the significant effects of social distancing on the CO levels. Based on the CO data analysis, the order of CO mean by months is February > January > March > April. The CO levels for January, February, March, and April were 87.46 ppb (95%CI: 83.54-91.37), 88.20 ppb (95%CI: 81.65-94.74), 86.38 (95%CI: 81.06-91.69), and 78.68 (95%CI: 74.03-83.32) respectively. This study also find significant difference (p<0.05) of CO levels especially in April when social distancing has been implemented. Hence, these findings illustrate the potential air pollutant reduction gained from implementing social distancing as can be seen in April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0536.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: photocatalysis, co-catalysts, water splitting, metallic cluster
Online: 27 July 2018 (09:33:40 CEST)
Degussa P25 is a benchmark form of TiO2 used worldwide in photocatalysis studies. Currently no such benchmark exists for co-catalysts, which are essential for many photocatalytic reactions. Here, we present the preparation of Pt nanocluster co-catalysts on TiO2 using an unmodified commercial source and equipment that is commonly available. Transmission electron microscopy reveals that the procedure produces TiO2 decorated with Pt atom and nanoclusters (1-5 atoms). Optical reflectance and X-ray diffraction measurements show that the procedure does not affect the TiO2 polymorph or UV-Vis absorbance. Gas phase photocatalytic splitting of heavy water (D2O) shows that the Pt nanocluster decorated TiO2 outperforms Pt nanoparticle (produced by photodeposition) decorated TiO2 in D2 production. Pt nanoclusters, produced directly from a commercial source, with high co-catalyst activity are prime candidates to be used in benchmark photocatalytic reactions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0010.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: Bi2Te3; Thermoelectric properties; co-doping; n-type
Online: 2 October 2017 (15:33:35 CEST)
In order to understand the effect of Pb-CuI co-doping on the thermoelectric performance of Bi2Te3, n-type Bi2Te3 co-doped with x at% CuI and 1/2x at% Pb (x = 0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.05, 0.07, and 0.10) were prepared via high temperature solid state reaction and consolidated using spark plasma sintering. Electron and thermal transport properties, i.e., electrical conductivity, carrier concentration, Hall mobility, Seebeck coefficient, and thermal conductivity, of CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 were measured in the temperature range from 300 K to 523 K and compared to corresponding x% of CuI-doped Bi2Te3 and undoped Bi2Te3. The addition of a small amount of Pb significantly decreased the carrier concentration, which could be attributed to the holes from Pb atoms, thus the CuI-Pb co-doped samples show a lower electrical conductivity and a higher Seebeck coefficient compared to CuI-doped samples with similar x values. The incorporation of Pb into CuI-doped Bi2Te3 rarely changed the power factor because of the trade-off relationship between the electrical conductivity and the Seebeck coefficient. The total thermal conductivity(κtot) of co-doped samples (κtot ~1.4 W/m∙K at 300 K) is slightly lower than that of 1% CuI-doped Bi2Te3 (κtot~1.5 W/m∙K at 300 K) and undoped Bi2Te3 (κtot ~1.6 W/m∙K at 300 K) due to the alloy scattering. The 1% CuI-Pb co-doped Bi2Te3 sample shows the highest ZT value of 0.96 at 370 K. All data on electrical and thermal transport properties suggest that the thermoelectric properties of Bi2Te3 and its operating temperature can be controlled by co-doping.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2043.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: slow-growing bacteria; urinary culture; urinary tract infections
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:16:42 CET)
Aerococcus urinae is an aerobic Gram-positive coccus that grows as tiny alpha-hemolytic colonies. Actinotignum schaalii is a slow-growing facultative anaerobic Gram-positive rod. These bacteria are part of the urogenital microbiota of healthy patients, but can also be involved in urinary tract infections (UTIs), particularly in elderly men and young children [1–3]. Because A. urinae and A. schaalii are fastidious and are difficult to identify with phenotypic methods, they are underestimated causes of UTIs. Their growth is slow and requires a blood-enriched medium and an incubation time of 48 hours under anaerobic or 5% CO2 atmosphere. Furthermore, accurate identification is only possible using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) or molecular-based methods. In rare cases, these bacteria can be responsible for invasive infections. We describe here the second case of bacteremic UTI caused by both A. schaalii and A. urinae in an 89-year-old woman who presented dyspnea and asymptomatic bacteriuria. This challenging clinical and microbiological diagnosis was made by our laboratory by Gram staining urine with a leucocyte count >50/μL and/or a bacterial count >14/μL, urinary culture on blood agar plate, and direct bacterial identification on positive blood culture bottles (BCBs) by MALDI-TOF MS. After 10 days of antimicrobial treatment consisting of 2g amoxicillin PO t.i.d the patient was discharged with complete clinical and biological recovery. A. schaalii and A. urinae are probably still underestimated causes of UTIs. Microbiologists should assess the presence of these two bacteria in urine using the appropriate culture and identification methods where direct examination is positive for small Gram-positive cocci or rods, and a urinary dipstick is negative for nitrites and associated with leukocyturia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2017.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Horticulture Keywords: Allium; fungal diseases; plant pathogens; nematodes; Tissues culture
Online: 31 October 2023 (09:03:56 CET)
Background: Garlic primarily reproduces through vegetative propagation using seed cloves due to infrequent sexual reproduction by true seeds. Growers encounter challenges with pathogens due to the larger size and vegetative nature of seed cloves, as well as the storage conditions conducive to fungal growth. Some Phyto-pathogenic fungi, previously unrecognized as garlic infections, can remain latent within bulb tissues long after harvest. Although outwardly healthy, these infected bulbs may develop rot under specific conditions. Aim of Review: Planting diseased seed cloves can contaminate field soil, with some fungal and bacterial infections persisting for extended periods. The substantial size of seed cloves makes complete eradication of deeply ingrained infections difficult, despite the use of systemic fungicides during pre-planting and post-harvest phases. Additionally, viruses, resistant to fungicides, persist in vegetative material. They are prevalent in much of the garlic used for planting and their host vectors are difficult to eliminate. To address these challenges, tissue culture techniques are increasingly employed to produce disease-free planting stock. Key Scientific Concepts of Review: This review delves into crucial scientific aspects related to garlic propagation and health. Garlic primarily reproduces through vegetative propagation using seed cloves, facing challenges due to their large size and susceptibility to fungal infections. Some fungal pathogens, recently identified as garlic threats, remain dormant within bulbs long after harvest, potentially causing rot under specific conditions. Planting infected seed cloves can introduce pathogens into the soil, where they may persist. Deeply ingrained infections can be challenging to eradicate due to the size of seed cloves. Additionally, viruses persist in garlic seeds and spread through their carrier vectors, unaffected by fungicides. To address these issues, tissue culture techniques offer a promising approach to produce disease-free garlic planting material. This review explores these concepts, emphasizing the importance of producing disease-free garlic seeds and strategies for mitigation.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2141.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: protoplast, Cannabis sativa, regeneration, AIP, phenylpropanoid, tissue culture
Online: 3 October 2023 (03:11:20 CEST)
De novo regeneration of Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) using tissue culture techniques remains unreliable and infrequent. Conventional methods for the regeneration and transformation of cannabis have not achieved the reliability and replicability needed to be integrated into research and breeding programs. Protoplast systems are effective for gene expression studies, transformation and genome editing technologies, and opens the possibility of somatic hybridization to create interspecific hybrids. To date, leaf-derived protoplast have been isolated for transient gene expression studies, but attempts at protoplast-to-plant regeneration have not been reported. The present study aims to test the efficacy of using a callus culture system, as an abundant source for protoplast isolation and lays the groundwork for a protoplast-to-plant regeneration system. Using hypocotyl-derived callus cultures, which are known to have relatively greater regenerative potential, the efficacy of protoplast isolation and initial cell division were assessed. In this study, the effect of 2-aminoindane-2-phosphonic acid (AIP) in callus culture media and the effect of subculture frequency on protoplast yield were assessed. This study found that inclusion of AIP at 1 mM resulted in a 334% increase in protoplast yield compared with AIP-free medium, representing the first known use of AIP in cannabis tissue culture. Inclusion of AIP led to a 28% decrease in total soluble phenolics and 52% decrease in tissue browning compared to the control medium. Lastly, a two-phase culture system for protoplast regeneration was tested. At a concentration of 2.0×10^5 protoplasts per mL, division was observed, providing the first know report of cell division from cannabis protoplasts and setting the stage for future development of a protoplast-to-plant regeneration system.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: vocational colleges; campus culture; connotation definition; basic characteristics
Online: 28 September 2023 (10:14:14 CEST)
A comprehensive understanding of the connotation and basic characteristics of campus culture in vocational colleges is a prerequisite for ensuring their sustainable development. Campus culture in vocational colleges is a concentrated reflection of their educational philosophy, ideal beliefs, and value pursuits. It possesses basic characteristics such as practicality, vocational orientation, ethics, contemporaneity, integration, and regionality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1216.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: Citrus rootstocks; tissue culture; biotechnology; NaCl; EDX; Stomata
Online: 19 July 2023 (02:54:35 CEST)
Salinity is the most significant abiotic stress affecting crop yield worldwide, breeders are Salinity is the most important abiotic stress limiting crop production throughout the world, and breeders are encouraged to test novel genotypes for their resistance to this selection agent. However, getting a sufficient number of plants for the evaluation can be a lengthy and time-consuming procedure that might be shortened by applying in vitro techniques. An experiment was conducted under controlled saline circumstances using a tissue culture technique to investigate the influence of salt on several physic-biochemical parameters. Micro-shoots of Volkamariana lemon, sour orange, trifoliate orange, and Cleopatra mandarin rootstocks were re-cultured on MS media supplemented with NaCl from 25, up to 150 mM. Following the experiments, all of the tested rootstocks' morphological and biochemical characteristics, stomata behavior, and element accumulation were measured. As a result, adding NaCl from 25 to 150 mM to MS media caused a reduction in all morphogenetic parameters such as shoot number, shoot length, leaves number, and survival percentage was measured compared with control. Photosynthesis pigment, RWC, K, and Ca ions were decreased by increasing NaCl from 100 to 150 mM. On the contrary, proline, Cl, and Na were increased. Cleopatra mandarin and Trifoliate orange are more tolerant to salt stress than Volkamariana lemon and sour orange citrus.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0285.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Agile; agility; lean; software; culture; digital; continuous improvement
Online: 6 July 2023 (02:26:47 CEST)
This manuscript explores the significance of continuous improvement in software development and digital product management, highlighting its role in addressing challenges and achieving superior results in today's dynamic business landscape. Drawing on Lean Thinking and Agile principles, the paper emphasizes the importance of customer focus, multidisciplinary collaboration, respect for people, inspection and adaptation, experimentation, incremental delivery, and continuous feedback in driving continuous improvement. It identifies key problems associated with the lack of continuous improvement, including quality issues, stagnation, inefficiency, lack of learning, lack of participation and collaboration, and lack of adaptability. To overcome these challenges, the paper proposes a solution that leverages agile events and interactions, such as sprint retrospectives and daily scrum meetings, and introduces a "kaizen board" as a visual tool to manage and monitor the continuous improvement process. The manuscript highlights the benefits of continuous improvement in terms of quality enhancement, efficiency gains, improved customer satisfaction, and adaptability to change. It stresses the need for fostering a culture of learning and constant adaptation, and provides insights on applying continuous improvement across different dimensions: product, process, team, and culture. The paper concludes by emphasizing the significance of commitment and active participation from all team members for achieving sustainable progress and success in digital transformation efforts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1603.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Cryptococcal infection; Sepsis; qSOFA; blood culture; HIV; Africa
Online: 23 May 2023 (07:47:20 CEST)
Cryptococcosis is a leading cause of death among people with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Limited diagnostic and therapeutic options significantly impair treatment options in Africa. We investigated the burden of cryptococcosis and related mortality among people with HIV and suspected sepsis in Ethiopia. We conducted a prospective cohort at 1) Adama Hospital Medical College and 2) Asella Referral and Teaching Hospital from September 2019 to November 2020. We enrolled adult HIV-infected patients presenting with suspected sepsis and assessed 28-day survival. We performed blood cultures and cryptococcal antigen (CrAg) testing. In total, 82 participants were enrolled with a median age of 35 years and 61% being female. Overall, 11(13%) had positive CrAg tests, of which 5 had Cryptococcus detected in blood cultures. Despite high-dose fluconazole (1200mg/d) monotherapy in patients with positive CrAg tests, the 28-day mortality was 64%(7/11), being significantly higher than in CrAg-negative patients (9%(6/71); p<0.001). Cryptococcosis is the leading cause of mortality among HIV-infected sepsis patients. CrAg screening in HIV-infected patients attending emergency department can minimize the cryptococcosis missing case irrespective of CD4 count and viral load. These findings warrant the need of a bundle approach for diagnosis of HIV-infected persons presenting with sepsis in low- and middle-income countries.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0263.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Agile; agility; scrum; culture; digital transformation; anti-patterns
Online: 8 May 2023 (15:40:36 CEST)
The search for growth and sustainability in any organization largely depends on its ability to carry out digital transformation and agility processes. These processes are essential to adapt to an increasingly changing and competitive business environment, allowing companies to be more efficient and effective in creating an unbreakable bond with their customers. This manuscript addresses the importance of detecting and eliminating anti-patterns in organizational culture for a successful digital and agile transformation. During the early stages of the transformation process, prejudices and paradigms rooted in the organization can become an obstacle to change. The goal of this writing is to offer a practical guide for leaders and teams in organizations seeking successful cultural transformation. Effective strategies are proposed to overcome the challenges faced by organizations during this early stage. In summary, the key steps to be followed in the initial stages of digital transformation with agility are described, including the importance of establishing strong leadership, defining a clear vision and scope of the transformational process, among others. A set of recommendations will be provided to overcome recurring anti-patterns, such as lack of stakeholder participation and commitment, lack of proper planning, and confusion of roles and responsibilities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0197.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: arbovirus; viral isolation; cell culture; neurotropic; public health
Online: 13 February 2023 (03:30:39 CET)
Viruses with encephalitogenic potential can cause neurological conditions of clinical and epidemiological importance, such as Saint Louis encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, dengue virus, Zika virus, Chikungunya virus, Mayaro virus and West Nile virus. The objective of the present study was to determine the number of arboviruses with neuroinvasive potential isolated in Brazil that corresponds to the collection of viral samples belonging to the Section of Arbovirology and Hemorrhagic Fevers (SAARB/IEC) of the Laboratory Network of National Reference for Arbovirus Diagnosis from 1954 to 2022. A total of 1,090 arbovirus samples with encephalitogenic potential were isolated from mice. From a total of 7,054 samples intended for cell culture. The isolates from mosquitoes totaled 659 viruses. The emergence of new arboviruses may be responsible for diseases still unknown to humans, making the Amazon region a hotspot for infectious diseases due to its fauna and flora species characteristics. The detection of circulating arboviruses with the potential to cause neuroinvasive diseases is constant, which justifies the continuation of active epidemiological surveillance work that offers adequate support to the public health system regarding the virological diagnosis of circulating arboviruses in Brazil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0442.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Digital transformation; digital strategy; corporate culture; leadership; performance
Online: 25 January 2023 (04:10:26 CET)
Digital transformation of companies is often referred to as a future track and a strategic path towards ensuring the survival and sustainability of companies. In this paper, we aim to outline this transformation process in Tunisian companies and identify its driving factors and finally explain its key success factors. To this end, we examine a sample of 70 companies operating in all economic sectors. The results indicate that such a digital strategy has a significant and a positive effect on the success of digital transformation of companies. Leadership has an effect at a low level of digital maturity. On the other hand, corporate culture does not have a significant effect on digital transformation. These results contribute to explaining this emerging phenomenon by focusing on the driving factors as well as the factors that contribute to its success.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0173.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Lactic acid; Freeze-drying; Yogurt starter culture; Fermentation
Online: 10 January 2023 (04:38:23 CET)
Concentration and preservation of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) starter cultures for food production guarantee the long-term delivery of stable cultures in terms of viability and functional activity. One method that has commonly been used to prepare dried starter cultures for food applications is freeze-drying. During freeze-drying, the bacterial cells are exposed to stresses such as freezing, drying, and long-term exposure to low-water activity. Additionally, another added stress is introduced during the rehydration process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the survival rates and fermentation performance of three (3) freeze-dried lactic acid bacterial cultures previously isolated from Ghanaian traditional fermented milk. LAB cultures, i.e., Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were frozen in the chamber of a Telstar (Lyoquest) laboratory freeze dryer for 10 hrs at -55 °C (as single and combined cultures) using skimmed milk and cassava flour as cryoprotectants held in plastic or glass cryovial. For viability during storage, freeze-dried LAB cultures were stored in a refrigerator (4 °C) and at room temperature (25 °C) for 4-weeks. The survival of freeze-dried cultures was determined by growth kinetics at 600nm (OD600). The performance of freeze-dried LAB cultures after 4-weeks storage was determined by their growth and acidification of milk during yogurt fermentation and consumer sensory evaluation of fermented milk using a 9-point hedonic scale. The survival rates for LAB ranged between 60.11% and 70.91% following freeze-drying. For single cultures, the highest survival was recorded for Lactobacillus delbrueckii (L12), whereas for combined cultures, the highest survival was observed for Lactococcus lactis (L3) combined with Lactobacillus delbrueckii (L12). During the fermentation process all the freeze-dried LAB cultures were able to acidify yogurt to a pH below 4, while yogurt produce from the spontaneous fermentation was characterized by low acidification. Yogurt fermented with freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria cultures, either single or combined strains, showed improved acceptability as compared to the spontaneously fermented yogurt. The consumer acceptability results showed that yogurts produced with combined starter culture of Lactoccus lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii or single culture of Lactococcus lactis were the most preferred products with Lactococcus lactis and Lactobacillus delbrueckii possessing high survival rates and high consumer acceptability in yogurt production. These findings are crucial and can be adopted for large-scale production and commercialization of yogurt production, however, in-depth investigation on the effects of freeze-drying and long-term storage on survival and performance of selected LAB cultures are needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0117.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: Temporary Immersion Bioreactor; Micropropagation; Plantain; plant tissue culture
Online: 6 January 2023 (06:26:15 CET)
The genus Musa spp. contains commercially important fleshy fruit producing plants including plantains and bananas with a strong potential of providing food security and source of revenue to farmers. Occasionally, plantlets are often not available to fulfill the supply demand of farmers particularly in Caribbean region. Concerns with the quality of vegetative tissues along with the possibility of the transmission of phytopathogens makes availability of plantlets limited to farm-ers. Micropropagation of plantains offers an alternative to producing large number of in-vitro plantlets. However, conventional methods of micropropagation techniques require high produc-tion costs and are labor-intensive. Recently, Temporary Immersion Bioreactor (TIB) has emerged as an alternative to conventional micropropagation methods. Our work utilized SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), molecular and biochemical tools (qRT-PCR and ICP-OES) to characterize and compare the morphological, elemental composition, and photosynthetic gene expression of plantains cultured on TIB. Additionally, morphological features of growth and propagation rates were analyzed for comparing outputs obtained from temporary immersion bioreactor with conventional micropropagation (CM) techniques. Results showed higher growth and multiplication rates for plantlets cultivated in TIB. Gene expression analysis of selected photosynthetic genes demonstrated high transcript abundance of phosphoenol pyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) in plantain tissues obtained by TIB. Elemental composition analysis showed higher content of iron in plantains grown in TIB suggesting a potential correlation with PEPC expression. These results demonstrate the potential of TIB to be an efficient method to produce healthy in-vitro plantains.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0682.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: fed-batch fermentation; kefir grains; probiotic culture; whey
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:12:13 CEST)
Nowadays, probiotics has been proposed for substituting antibiotics in animal feed, since the European Union (EU) banned the latter compounds in 2006 to avoid their serious side effects on human health. Therefore, this work aimed to produce a probiotic product by fed-fermentation of whey with kefir grains for use in animal feed. The whey was fermented with a combination of kefir grains AGK1 and the free biomass present in whole milk fermented milk used to activate these kefir grains. The probiotic culture obtained was characterized with high levels of biomass, total viability and antibacterial activity. Some probiotic properties of the probiotic culture were investigated in vitro, including its survival at low pH values, under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, after freezing in skim milk at − 20 ºC, and in the commercial feed during storage at room temperature. The viable cells of lactic and acetic acid bacteria and yeasts exhibited higher tolerance to acidic pH and simulated gastrointestinal conditions when the cells were protected with skim milk and piglet feed, compared with washed cells. The results indicated the feasibility of producing a probiotic product at a low cost with a potential application in animal feed.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0601.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Malassezia; selective culture medium; Rapamycin; isolation; polymicrobial samples.
Online: 27 July 2021 (11:29:17 CEST)
Malassezia species are fastidious and slow-growing yeasts whose isolation from polymicrobial samples is hampered by fast-growing microorganisms. Malassezia selective culture media are needed because Malassezia are resistant to cycloheximide, but some fungi, including the chief human commensal Candida albicans resist to this compound. This study aimed to test whether the macrolide rapamycin could be used in combination with cycloheximide to develop a Malassezia-selective culture medium. Rapamycin susceptibility testing was performed via microdilution assays in modified Dixon against M. furfur and five Candida spp. The MIC was the lowest concentration producing 90% growth inhibition. Rapamycin medium ± cycloheximide 500 mg/L was also added to FastFung solid and yeast suspensions were inoculated and incubated for 72h. Rapamycin MICs against Candida spp. ranged from 0.5 to 2 mg/L, except for C. krusei whose MIC was >32 mg/L. M. furfur stains were rapamycin resistant. Rapamycin and cycloheximide supplementation of the FastFung medium effectively inhibited the growth of non-Malassezia yeast, including the cycloheximide-resistant C. albicans and C. tropicalis. Based on our findings, we recommend using this “MalaSelect” medium for Malassezia isolation and culture from polymicrobial samples.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0444.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: cyanobacteria; Phormidium; culture growth; light; salinity; phycocyanin; pigments
Online: 20 July 2021 (11:35:05 CEST)
A strain of the filamentous non N-fixing cyanobacterium Phormidium sp. isolated from the Messolonghi (W. Greece) saltworks, was cultured in the laboratory at 6 different combinations of salinity (20-40-60 ppt) and illumination (low-2000 lux and high-8000 lux). At salinities of 60 and 40 ppt and in high illumination (XL-8000 lux) the growth rate (μmax) presented the highest values (0.491 and 0.401 respectively) compared to the corresponding at 20 ppt (0.203). In general and at all salinities, the higher illumination (XL) gave the highest growth rates and shorter dublication time (tg) in comparison to the lower illumination (L). On the contrary, phycocyanin, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin production was extremely increased in the lower illumination (L) in all salinities, from ~14fold at 40 and 60 ppt to 269fold at 20 ppt of those corresponding to higher illumination (XL). Similar analogies were also recorded for the other two billiproteins. Chlorophyll-a content was also higher in lower illumination at all salinities in contrast to total carotenoids that did not exhibit such a pattern. The high growth rate and high phycocyanin content along with the rapid sedimentation of its cultured biomass can set this marine Phormidium species as a promising canditate for mass culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0317.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Tourism, Leisure, Sport And Hospitality Keywords: Eurocentric, autobiography, travel writing, travel writing, culture, diplomatic
Online: 10 November 2020 (13:54:41 CET)
Considered one of the finest first-generation Nigerian writers, John Pepper Clark-Bekederemo, who passed away on 13th October, 2020, had been categorised as a Eurocentric writer. This work assesses the authenticity or otherwise of this critics’ perception of Clark by critiquing his America, their America. By analysing this autobiography vis-à-vis the notion of self and other which is a theoretical concern in contemporary travel writing, it was established, among other things, that every culture has its dark sides which it must not feel too proud to change as time and situation demand; that Clark vehemently rejects the Americans’ claim of sophistication and superiority of their culture over African culture. The paper concludes that contemporary travel writing should be a rightful site for negotiating cultural, political and diplomatic compromises between the Self and the Other since the gulf may be difficult to close altogether.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0124.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: cannabis; dark period; flower initiation; photoperiod; tissue culture
Online: 5 September 2020 (07:29:39 CEST)
Most commercial Cannabis sativa L. (cannabis) genotypes are short-day plants and cultivators typically use a 12.0 h uninterrupted dark period to induce flowering; however, scientific information is lacking to prove this is the optimal dark period for all genotypes, and cultivar specific photoperiods may increase productivity. Tissue culture can be used for research requiring multiple treatments, proper replication, and in a controlled environment on a smaller scale compared to greenhouse and indoor facilities. To determine whether cannabis explants can flower under varied photoperiods in vitro, explants were grown under one of six photoperiod treatments: 12.0, 13.2, 13.8, 14.4, 15.0, and 16.0 h for four weeks. The percentage of flowering explants was highest under 12.0 and 13.2 h treatments. There were no treatment effects on the fresh weight, final height, or growth index of the explants. The results suggest an uninterrupted dark period of at least 10.8 h (i.e. 13.2 h photoperiod) is needed to induce the flowering of this genotype. In vitro flowering could provide a unique and high throughput approach to study floral/seed development and secondary metabolism in cannabis under highly controlled conditions. Further research should determine if this response is the same on a whole plant level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0443.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: cell suspension culture; anti-inflammatory activity; phytochemical analysis
Online: 20 August 2020 (07:44:18 CEST)
Many species of the Asteraceae family are used in traditional Mexican medicine for possessing healing properties. Ageratina pichinchensis (Asteraceae) is a plant used for the treatment of gastric ulcers, deep wounds and for its antifungal effects. The aim of this study was to establish a cell suspension culture of A. pichinchensis, quantify the anti-inflammatory constituents 2,3-dihydrobenzofuran and 3-epilupeol, to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of its extracts and perform a phytochemical analysis. Cell suspension cultures were established in MS culture medium supplemented with 30 g L-1 sucrose and 1.0 g L-1 α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) plus 0.1 mg L-1 6-furfurylaminopurine (KIN). The ethyl acetate extracts of cell suspension cultures analyzed by GC revealed that the maximum production of compounds The anti-inflammatory activity of these extracts exhibited significant inhibition of NO production. Furthermore, the phytochemical study of EtOAc and MeOH extracts of the biomass on day 20 led to the identification of 17 known compounds. The structures of compounds were assigned by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR data and the remainder by GC-MS. This is the first report of the production of the (-)-Artemesinol, (-)-Artemesinol glucoside, Encecalin and 3,5-diprenyl-acetophenone compounds by a cell suspension cultures of A. pichinchensis.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: female dog; cell culture; mammary cancer; veterinary; oncology
Online: 15 April 2020 (07:59:18 CEST)
Mammary neoplasm affects a population of intact and elderly female dogs and 50% are malignant. In order to study this disease, cell culture is as a promising preclinical model, creating the opportunity to deposit cell lines at a cell bank, allowing a great reproducibility of the assays and making the validation of the results more reliable. Another important aspect is the possibility to establish models for better understanding tumour characteristics, such as vasculogenic mimicry. Due the importance of cancer cell lines in preclinical models, this study aimed to establish and characterize primary cell lines from canine mammary gland tumours according to immunophenotype and tumorigenicity, and with its ability to form vasculogenic mimicry-like structures in vitro and in vivo. Cell cultures were evaluated for morphology, phenotype, vasculogenic mimicry and tumorigenicity abilities. We collected 17 primary mammary carcinoma and 3 metastasis and had a satisfactory result in 10 of them. All cell lines presented spindle shape or polygonal morphology and expressed concomitant pan-cytokeratin and cytokeratin 8/18. Four cell lines had vasculogenic mimicry ability in vitro and two of them showed in vivo tumorigenic potential and forming VM in the xenotransplant tumour. Cell characterization of those lines will help to create a database for more knowledge of mammary carcinomas in dogs, including studies of tumour behaviour and new therapeutic targets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0266.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: historical individuals, extended evolutionary synthesis, evolutionary innovation, culture
Online: 24 April 2019 (11:20:29 CEST)
Since its inception, evolutionary theory has experienced a number of extensions. The most important of these took the forms of the Modern Evolutionary Synthesis (MES), embracing genetics and population biology in the early 20th century, and the Extended Evolutionary Synthesis (EES) of the last thirty years, embracing, among other factors, non-genetic forms of inheritance. While we appreciate the motivation for this recent extension, we argue that it does not go far enough, since it restricts itself to widening explanations of adaptation by adding mechanisms of inheritance and variation. A more thoroughgoing extension is needed, one that widens the explanatory scope of evolutionary theory. In addition to adaptation and its various mechanisms, evolutionary theory must recognize as a distinct intellectual challenge the origin of what we call “historical kinds.” Under historical kinds we include any process that acquires a quasi-independent and traceable lineage-history in biological and cultural evolution. We develop the notion of a historical kind in a series of paradigmatic exemplars, from genes and homologues to rituals and music, and we propose a preliminary characterization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0073.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: coffee culture, domestication, creolization, encapsulation, and middle class
Online: 6 March 2019 (10:48:50 CET)
This article is an anthropology study on how western-style coffee culture influences Indonesian coffee culture and eventually develops a new localized coffee culture. Immense development of such worldwide coffee franchise as Starbucks affects local community's coffee culture, particularly the middle class. This new wave is considered as an alternative lifestyle for those who are consumptive and seeking for leisure, dynamics, and identity. Broader than just the process of domestication or creolization, Indonesian new coffee culture has an element of “soft countering to” western coffee culture even though it still embraces some parts of the western styles. This phenomenon is referred to by the writer as the cultural encapsulation process or the process of substantial cultural resistance by drawing a line between the two coffee cultures with the intention of taking merely compatible elements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0487.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: Innovative talents; Innovation system; Innovation culture; Innovation environment
Online: 20 November 2018 (08:30:39 CET)
Based on the deployment of global innovation value chain, the article analyzes the existing independent innovation capability of Guangzhou, and analyzes in detail from innovative talents, innovation system, innovation culture and innovation environment. The role of the central city of Guangzhou has led to research on issues such as the common development of cities in Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta. Using the combination of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis, we can find out the shortcomings of Guangzhou's independent innovation capability, explore the causes of problems, and seek solutions to the main problems.