TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: deep behavioral covariates; clinical informatics; predictive modeling; electronic medical records; machine-learning; data-mining
Online: 7 November 2019 (09:25:04 CET)
Deep behavioral covariates (DBCs) introduced in this perspective form a new class of covariates that have the potential to enhance the performance of predictive models and improve analytics in clinical decision support applications. DBCs can measure how engaged a patient tends to be and how he or she tends to respond to events, and they may be highly predictive of the patient’s outcomes for a planned treatment. DBCs may potentially serve as a standard to measure patient engagement and activation and may form highly efficient mechanisms for improving patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: good clinical practice; clinical trials; quality; investigator training; clinical investigator
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:46:48 CET)
Background: Good clinical practice (GCP) training is the industry standard for ensuring the quality conduct of registrational clinical trials. However, concerns have been raised about whether the current structure and delivery of GCP training sufficiently prepares clinical investigators and their delegates to conduct clinical trials. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 13 clinical investigators and 10 research sponsors to 1) examine characteristics of the quality conduct of sponsored clinical trials, including critical tasks and concerns perceived as essential for trial quality, 2) identify key knowledge and skills required to perform critical tasks, and 3) identify gaps and redundancies in GCP training and areas of improvement to ensure the quality conduct of clinical trials. We used applied thematic analysis to analyze the data. Results: The top three tasks identified as critical for the quality conduct of clinical trials were obtaining informed consent, ensuring protocol compliance, and protecting participants’ health and safety. Respondents acknowledged that GCP principles address each of these critical tasks; however, they described many challenges and burdens of GCP training, including high training frequency and repetitive content. Respondents suggested moving beyond GCP training as a mere check-box activity by making it more effective, engaging, and interactive. They also emphasized that applying GCP principles in a real-world, skills-based environment would increase the relevance of GCP training to investigators and their delegates. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that although investigators and sponsors recognize that GCP training addresses critical tasks necessary to the quality conduct of clinical trials, they articulated the need for significant improvement in the design, content, and presentation of GCP training.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; clinical studies; China; clinical trials; observational studies
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:47:49 CEST)
Objectives: This study aims to identify, report, and analyze registered and published clinical trials and observational studies for the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 conducted in China. Methods: A strategic search was conducted via the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry to identify and extract clinical trials and observational studies registered and conducted in China for the pharmacological treatment of COVID-2019 between January 1st, 2020 and March 21st, 2020. This was further supplemented by searches conducted via the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, the MEDLINE database, the World Health Organization (WHO) database, and MedRxiv and BioRxiv electronic platforms for preprint articles, published up until April 8th, 2020. Studies available in Chinese and English were included in the searches and extracted. A primary descriptive analysis was performed for registered clinical trials and observational studies identified in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry based on the extraction of the following clinical study information: trial ID, planned date of enrollment, recruitment status, study design, population, sample size, intervention/exposure group, control /reference group, dosage, and primary outcomes. A secondary descriptive analysis was performed for published clinical trials and observational studies identified from the supplementary databases based on the extraction of the following published clinical study information: study design, population, intervention/exposure group, control /reference group and main results as appropriate. Results: A total of 221 clinical trials and observational studies were included from all databases searched. From the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 195 registered clinical studies including 170 clinical trials and 25 observational studies were identified and included for primary analysis. From the supplementary databases, 26 published clinical studies including 8 clinical trials and 18 observational studies were included for secondary analysis. Of these 26 published clinical studies, 18 studies, including 3 clinical trials and 15 observational studies were identified from CNKI, 2 studies including 1 clinical trial and 1 observational study from MEDLINE, 2 including 1 clinical trials and 1 observational studies from the WHO database, and 4 including 3 clinical trials and 1 observational studies from MedRxiv and BioRxiv platforms. In the primary analysis, among the 170 clinical trials included from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 101 investigated western medicines (WMs), while 15 investigated Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs), and 54 investigated a combination of TCMs and WMs. Among the 25 included observational studies from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 2 investigated WMs, 2 investigated TCMs, and 21 investigated a combination of TCMs and WMs. The total number of exposed patients in all 195 clinical studies from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry amounted to 24,500. In the secondary analysis, treatment with Lopinavir-ritonavir and treatment with Hydroxychloroquine was not associated with a difference from standard of care in the rate of RT-PCR negativity; treatment with a combination of Lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon α, and Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen capsule was found to significantly improve the effective rate of treatment compared with Interferon α combined with Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen capsule. Conclusions: China is generating a massive source of evidence that is critical for defeating the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only the clinical experience, but also the scientific evidence should be shared with the global scientific community.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: clinical trials; investigator qualification; good clinical practice; investigator training
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:18:34 CEST)
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) Investigator Qualification Project addresses the need for a more efficient and effective means of identifying qualified clinical investigators and delegates. Selection of investigators and delegates who are qualified by training and experience to conduct clinical trials is essential to safeguarding protections for study participants and ensuring data quality and integrity. Sponsors generally document investigator qualification through training on the principles of good clinical practice (GCP), as defined by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), adopted by regulatory authorities in the US, Japan and the European Union. Although these GCP principles provide an important foundation for promoting the conduct of quality clinical trials, the industry standard “one-size-fits-all” GCP training may not fully prepare investigators and delegates for conducting quality clinical trials. Routine GCP training alone may not be sufficient to prepare an inexperienced member of a site team, while repeating such training is unlikely to enhance the qualifications of an experienced researcher. The CTTI project team used findings from qualitative research activities, as well as input from an expert meeting with multiple stakeholders, to identify gaps and redundancies in the current training of investigators and their delegates and recommend practical, action-based solutions. CTTI provides recommendations on how to implement a more efficient and effective means of qualification for investigators and delegates, determine whether a site team is a good fit for a particular protocol, and improve the quality of clinical trial conduct.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0541.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: MCAs; clinical pharmacy
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:24:54 CEST)
Multicompartment compliance aids (MCAs) are devices with each discrete section denoting a single dosing occasion. The purpose of an MCA is to maximize patient adherence and thereby optimize the treatment benefits. These devices are widely employed throughout western Europe and UK and use appears to be rapidly increasing (2) although the RPS as moved away from these devices as a means to improve adherence. We analysed MCAs from various pharmacies over a wide geographic area in England and North Wales. We concluded that most MCA users are elderly patients. Also, most of the patients suffer of combined cardiovascular disease. However, a significant proportion of patients falls in the mental/ neurological disease category. Additionally, most of the externals added to MCAs are inhalers and painkillers. Moreover, SDIs are more frequent in female patients and these SDI are mainly related with mental health medication, cardiovascular disease medication and neurological medication. In conclusion, a directive for dispensing of MCAs in pharmacies by pharmacists through an enhanced service should be elaborated having in consideration PIMs, SDIs, drug stability and use of externals and MCA design and brand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1901.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Clinical instructor; Undergraduate nursing students; Clinical learning; Descriptive phenomenological approach
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:50:14 CEST)
This study aimed to determine clinical instructors’ perceptions of the assessments used to evaluate the clinical knowledge of undergraduate nursing students. This study uses a descriptive phenomenological approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit sixteen clinical instructors for semi-structured interviews between August to December 2019. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step method. Four criteria were used to ensure the study’s validity: credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Three themes were identified in the clinical instructors’ views on evaluating the clinical performance of student nurses: familiarity with students, patchwork clinical learning, and differing perceptions of the same scoring system. Study results suggest the need for a reliable, valid, and consistent approach to evaluating students’ clinical knowledge. If the use of patchwork clinical internships for student nurses is unavoidable, a method for assessing student nurses’ clinical performance that requires instructor consensus is necessary.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: clinical research; data sharing
Online: 28 June 2020 (19:46:40 CEST)
Objectives: Data sharing has become a requirement of many funding bodies and is becoming a scientific standard in many disciplines. In medical research, however, data sharing can conflict with clinicians’ obligation to protect patients’ privacy. General recommendations on data sharing exist also for clinical research, but so far lack practical and Swiss-specific aspects. The objective of this document is to provide practical recommendations for all relevant aspects of data sharing in agreement with legislation in Switzerland. Methods: This document was written by members of the Swiss CTU Network, a network of academic clinical trial units. The process did not follow a formalized Delphi process. After an internal consensus round, this report is now published as pre-print for external review. A second version will incorporate external comments. We plan to publish this document as a text in progress, as we expect relevant changes in related fields such as the development of further dedicated medical repositories or methodological advances in anonymization techniques. Results: We developed principles and practical recommendations with respect to informed consent, data management plan, anonymization, data structure and format, coding of variables, metadata and documentation, version control, selection of repository, requesting and use of data. We also provide a summary of legal aspects relevant for the Swiss context. Conclusions: The intension to share data has an impact not only after a clinical trial or an observational study is completed, but also during the planning period, the conduct and the analysis phase. Clinical researchers need to be aware at the beginning of a study on how to inform patients and at least the amount of work related to preparing data for sharing, metadata, and any further documentation. This report provides details of aspects to be considered, suggests decision criteria, and provides examples and checklists, in order to support data sharing in practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0051.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: clinical instructor, clinical education, transcultural, intercultural communication, socio-culture and millennial generation
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:20:50 CEST)
Clinical education is a method that is applied to formal nurse education as a step to provide real and direct learning experiences in the nursing environment correctly and effectively. The success of education in a clinical setting certainly requires the support of teaching nurses (clinical instructors) who have credibility and competence in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills and are actively involved in professional activities. The diversity of backgrounds of nurses and students, including patients, certainly contributes to a shift in paradigms and perspectives for the nursing environment both in education and in clinical settings in health services. Responding to this cultural diversity, it is important to prepare knowledge and understanding related to transcultural nursing issues, intercultural communication and clinical education which explores the socio-cultural elements in the implementation of staff, students and patients. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review is to identify the extent to which nurse educators play a role by including socio-cultural and transcultural aspects in efforts to develop the quality of education in clinical practice environments in the millennium era. Method: The method of writing this article uses 11 literature review, the publication year period 2019,2020 and 2021 with sources from 4 databases such as science Direct, Scopus, ProQues and Elsevier. The review guidelines used are based on Prisma and the Joanna Briggs Institutute. The level of eligibility is identified through the title, abstract, research methodology as well as the type of scholarly journal and full text. Results: The results of the reviews found are presented in a narrative form. The results of the review study found that there were 11 articles explaining the competence of clinical education based on the socio-cultural approach, which is an educational strategy in the clinical area that integrates transcultural elements of nursing, intercultural communication, collaboration, self-directed with the principles of openness, honesty, and mutual respect in the implementation of team interaction and collaboration. The development of interpersonal relationships is also an important role that educators must have in helping to introduce the nurse orientation process to the organizational environment and other professional teams so that the achievement of satisfaction with clinical education is able to improve the performance of nurses and students perfectly. Conclusion: Clinical education which is supported by the competence of nurse educators (clinical instructors) who have individual and professional competences has a role to play in improving clinical learning outcomes by both students and nurses with a socio-cultural and transcultural strategic approach that will create satisfaction with the achievement of clinical competence and performance effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Clinical Skills; Clinical Training; Competency; Cross-sectional Studies; Dental Education; Dentistry; Self-perception.
Online: 4 January 2023 (08:48:49 CET)
The transition from undergraduate dental student to the actual practicing dentist is a crucial phase and ensuring the preparedness of graduates for the complexity and demands of contempo-rary dental practice is a challenging task. This study aimed to evaluate the self-perceived prepar-edness of undergraduate dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Pakistan. Cross-sectional national study was planned to collect the information from dental students and new graduates in Pakistan. The pre-validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale (DU-PAS) was used. Purposive sampling technique was utilized to recruit house officers and undergraduate dental students from 27 dental schools in Pakistan. The data analysis was car-ried out using the R statistical environment for Windows (R Core Team, 2015). The total of 862 responses with 642 females and 219 males were analyzed in the study. Overall, clinical skills score was 30.56+9.08 and score for soft skills was 30.54+10.6. The mean age of the participants was 23.42+1.28. Deficiencies were reported in various soft skills and clinical skills attributes.The results highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of dental students and new graduates in Pakistani den-tal institutions. The findings may be used to further develop and strengthen teaching and training of dental students in Pakistan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: biosimilar; analytical assessment; animal testing; clinical pharmacology; clinical efficacy; FDA; EMA; MHRA; WHO
Online: 10 August 2022 (05:19:49 CEST)
Scientific, technical and bioinformatics advances have made it possible to establish analytics-based molecular biosimilarity for the approval of biosimilars. If the molecular structure and other product- and process-related attributes are comparable within the limits of testing then a biosimilar candidate would have safe safety and efficacy as its reference products. The current model of animal and human testing becomes redundant since all of these studies have much lower sensitivity and reproducibility in confirming biosimilarity. The recent AI-based protein structure prediction model has confirmed that the 3D structure can be predicted from the amino acid sequence, reducing the need for structural analysis; however, the new test methods based on MS are millions of times more sensitive and accurate. While the regulatory agencies have begun waiving animal testing and, in some cases, clinical efficacy testing, removing clinical pharmacology profiling brings a dramatic paradigm shift, reducing development costs without compromising safety and efficacy. Also shared is a list of 160+ products ready to enter as biosimilars. Major actions from regulatory agencies and developers are required to make this paradigm shift.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical Trials; disruption; non-COVID-19 clinical trials; drugs; therapeutic area
Online: 25 May 2020 (11:17:56 CEST)
COVID-19 is causing major turmoil around the globe, and the clinical trial industry is likely to face unprecedented challenges to health and business sectors. In an effort to find a suitable treatment and prevention options for COVID-19, several COVID-19 clinical trials are being planned and initiated, while a large number of clinical trials for non- COVID-19 indications are suffering delays. With over more than 1000 trials being disrupted and more trials being added to this category daily, there is a direct impact on trial site activation and patient enrolment. This analysis deals with the specific impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical trial and pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study is to provide an updated information of the disrupted clinical trials and its impact on various therapeutic areas and different drugs. Among the severely affected clinical trials, oncology and CNS trials are the hardest hit therapy areas.This article will certainly emphasize the need for advanced and innovative approaches to maintain the health of the clinical trial ecosystem by continuing the existing trials and the start of the new studies. We have to take and follow necessary actions to guarantee that the initiatives will not be locked during the COVID-19 pandemic, both for the treatment of patients and for the researchers to conduct decision-relevant clinical trials.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: probiotics; cancer; safety; clinical trials
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:27:01 CEST)
In recent years, the consumption of over-the-counter probiotics used to promote health has grown rapidly worldwide and become an industry. In medicine, various studies have proven that probiotics can help improve the immune system and intestinal health. They are usually safe, but in some rare cases, they may cause concerning adverse reactions. Although the use of probiotics has been widely popularized in the public, the results of many probiotics clinical trials are contradictory. Especially for the cancer patients, the feasibility of probiotics management to provide benefits by targeting cancer and lessening anti-cancer side effects requires further investigations. And this review summarizes the interactions between probiotics and the host and current pros and cons of applying probiotics in the cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Antibody-drug conjugate; cancer; clinical trials
Online: 5 June 2023 (04:13:02 CEST)
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have provided new therapeutic options and significant promise for patients with cancers, particularly where existing treatments are limited. Substantial effort in ADC development is underway globally, with 13 ADCs currently approved and many more in development . Therapeutic benefits of ADCs leverage the ability to selectively target cancer cells through antibody binding, resultant relative sparing of non-malignant tissues, and the targeted delivery of a cytotoxic payload. Consequently, this drug class has demonstrated activity in multiple malignancies refractory to standard therapeutic options [1-4]. Despite this, limitations exist, including narrow therapeutic windows, unique toxicity profiles, development of therapeutic resistance, and appropriate biomarker selection [5-7]. This review will describe the development of ADCs, their mechanisms of action, pivotal trials, and approved indications and identify common themes. Current challenges and opportunities will be discussed for this drug class in cancer therapeutics at a time when significant developments in antibody therapies, immunotherapy and targeted agents are occurring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical diagnosis; immunodeficiency; systematic review; immunoglobulins
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:04:00 CET)
Background: Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy (THI) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a temporary decline of serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) greater than 2 standard deviations below the mean age-specific reference values in an infant between 5 and 24 months of age. Preterm infants are particularly susceptible to THI, as, in the third trimester of pregnancy, IgG is transferred across the placenta from mother to infant.Objective: To systematically review the diagnostic criteria of Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infants.Design & Methods: Systematic Review. Manual searching of 3 electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, & Google Scholar) from September 2021 – April 2022. Abstracts were screened to assess fit to the inclusion criteria. Data was extracted from the selected studies by using an adapted extraction tool from Cochrane.org. Studies were then assessed for bias by using an assessment tool also adapted from Cochrane.org.Results: Of the 215 articles identified, 16 were eligible for examining the diagnostic criteria of THI. These studies were also assessed for bias in 6 domains. 5 studies (31%) had a low risk of bias, while 4 studies (25%) had a high risk of bias, & 7 studies (44%) were unclear for bias.Conclusion: We can conclude that THI is only definitively diagnosed after the abnormal IgG levels have normalized, hence THI is mostly a benign condition, but must be monitored for subsequent recurrent infections. The diagnostic criterion also includes vaccine & isohaemagglutinin responses to differentiate against other immunological disorders in infants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Targeted therapy; Clinical trial
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:05:05 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) were accepted as the main therapeutic strategies until the early 2000s, when targeted drugs, like cetuximab and bevacizumab were developed. The use of targeted drugs in clinical practice has significantly increased patients’ overall survival. To date, the emergence of several types of targeted drugs has opened new possibilities and revealed new prospects for mCRC treatment. Therapeutic strategies are continually being updated to select the most suitable targeted drugs based on the results of clinical trials that are currently underway. This review discusses the up-to date molecular evidence of targeted therapy for mCRC and summarizes the Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted drugs including the results of clinical trials. We also explain their mechanisms of action and how these affect the choice of a suitable targeted therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0294.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Mucormycosis; Zygomycosis; Epidemiology; Incidence; Clinical; Spain.
Online: 20 October 2021 (15:48:58 CEST)
Background: Mucormycosis is a worldwide angio-invasive fungal infection that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A few European studies have focused on the epidemiology. Methodology: A retrospective longitudinal descriptive study was performed with inpatients diagnosed with mucormycosis (ICD-9-CM, code 117.7, cases 1997-2015; and ICD-10, code B46, cases 2016-2018; along with length of hospital stay) in Spanish public hospitals between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2018. Data were obtained from the Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD in Spanish). Principal findings: A total of 962 patients were recorded; 665 were men. The mean age (±SD) was 55±18.8 years. The annual incidence rate increased from 0.74 to 1.24 cases per million person-years. The lethality rate was 31.3%. Renal failure (41.6%) and hematological malignancy (36.3%) were the main factors involved. Conclusions: Mucormycosis is a rare infectious disease in Spain, but it has had a significantly increased incidence in the last two decades. Being an adult male and having diabetes, neoplasm or renal failure are the main factors associated. High mortality is usually associated mainly with hematological malignancy and renal failure. CMBD studies could be an efficient tool for assessing changes in the epidemiology of mucormycosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Peptides; Clinical Practice; Drug Therapy; Therapeutic
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:51:13 CET)
The treatment of peptides has played an important role in clinical practice since the discovery of insulin therapy in the 1920s. Over 60 peptide drugs are approved in the United States (US and other regional mar-kets, and peptides continue to undergo drug discovery steadily. Peptide research and development has lev-eraged a wider range of structures known from other plant sources, via pharmacology and medicinal molecular biology, beyond its conventional focus on individual endogenous peptides. We build a comprehensive database of peptides that have met scientific studies with more than 150 constantly evolving peptides. Here we provide a simple overview of the peptide-based drug therapy environment, comprising evolutionary points of view, structural properties, operational thresholds, and explanation of the therapeutic area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical characteristics; febrile children; Kawasaki disease
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:10:15 CET)
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of 5 years old. Patients may be missed diagnosis when initial clinical symptoms do not fulfill the traditional criteria. We aimed to analyze factors that clinicians could use to differentiate febrile children suspected of KD. Method: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 83 febrile children who were initially suspected of KD, but they did not meet the American Heart Association (AHA) criteria for a diagnosis. However, some of these patients were diagnosed with KD during their second visit. We analyzed patients' characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory data. Results: In total, 50 patients were enrolled in the study. Of those, ten patients were diagnosed with KD on their second visit (group 1), while the other 40 patients still did not fit a KD diagnosis (group 2). A patient with a neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio greater than 1.33 combined with a C-reactive protein more than 33 mg/L was more likely to have KD. Conclusion: Among patients suspected of KD that did not initially meet the criteria, clinicians should pay special attention to elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and CRP levels and closely follow up such patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: e-portfolio; clinical skills; competences; medicine
Online: 11 May 2018 (04:45:11 CEST)
Clinical training in medical schools in Spain is performed by rotations in university hospitals. During these internships, students are expected to acquire and master basic procedural skills. However, the assessment tools available rarely check whether these skills are completely acquired by the students. We have used an e-portfolio to determine the optimal number of times the students need to repeat a procedure to be able to perform it independently. The results were compared with the actual performance during the internships. An e-portfolio collected qualitative information about the internships. Quantitative information was also requested about the number of times each clinical skill was performed. Later, a survey asked these students and their teachers the optimal number of times each skill should be repeated before it could be considered fully acquired. The questionnaire was answered by 98.6% of the students and 70.3% of their teachers. Out of the 21 clinical skills and procedures selected, both students and their tutors agreed in a similar optimal value in 16 of them; only in five of them, teachers thought that students needed a greater number of times than that selected by the students. When these optimal values were compared with the actual values recorded in the portfolio during the internships, it was found that about half of the clinical skills were carried out less frequently than expected, thus providing an important feedback about the internships. Quantitative information collected in portfolios reveals a moderate mismatch between students and tutors perceptions of their training needs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nasal delivery; glioblastoma multiforme; drug delivery; nanoparticles; nose-to-brain delivery; pre-clinical studies; clinical evaluation
Online: 27 October 2019 (09:36:27 CET)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth and surrounding tissue invasion. The current standard treatment is surgery followed by radiotherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy, typically with temozolomide. Although extensive research has been performed over the past years to develop an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GBM, efforts have not provided major improvements in the overall survival of patients with GBM. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. A major challenge in the development of therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disorders is overcoming the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In this context, the intranasal (IN) route of drug administration has been proposed as a non-invasive alternative route to directly targeting the CNS. In fact, this route of drug administration may bypass the blood-brain barrier and reduce systemic side effects. Recently, formulations have been developed to further enhance nose-to-brain transport, mainly with the use of nano-sized and nanostructured drug delivery systems. The focus of this review will be on the strategies developed to deliver a number of anticancer compounds for the treatment of GBM using the nasal administration. In particular, the specific properties of nanomedicines proposed for the nose-to-brain delivery will be critically evaluated. The number of preclinical and clinical data reviewed support the idea that nasal delivery of anticancer drugs might represent a breakthrough advancement in the fight against GBM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trial fails; disease-modifying treatments; alzheimer’s disease biomarkers; combination treatment; clinical trial designs
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:23:25 CEST)
Despite all scientific efforts and many protracted and expensive clinical trials, no new drug has been approved by FDA for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) since 2003. Indeed, more than 200 investigational programs have failed or have been abandoned in the last decade. The most probable explanations for failures of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for AD may include late initiation of treatments during the course of AD development, inappropriate drug dosages, erroneous selection of treatment targets, and mainly an inadequate understanding of the complex pathophysiology of AD, which may necessitate combination treatments rather than monotherapy. Clinical trials’ methodological issues have also been criticized. Current drug-development research for AD is aimed to overcome these drawbacks. Preclinical and prodromal AD populations, as well as traditionally investigated populations representing all the clinical stages of AD, are included in recent trials. Systematic use of biomarkers in staging preclinical and prodromal AD and of a single primary outcome in trials of prodromal AD are regularly integrated. The application of amyloid, tau, and neurodegeneration biomarkers, including new biomarkers—such as Tau positron emission tomography, neurofilament light chain (blood and CSF biomarker of axonal degeneration) and neurogranin (CSF biomarker of synaptic functioning)—to clinical trials allows more precise staging of AD. Additionally, use of the Bayesian statistics, modifiable clinical trial designs, and clinical trial simulators enrich the trial methodology. Besides, combination therapy regimens are currently assessed in clinical trials. The abovementioned diagnostic and statistical advances, which have been recently integrated in clinical trials, are consequential to the recent failures of studies of disease-modifying treatments. Their experiential rather than theoretical origins may better equip potentially successful drug-development strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ChatGPT; Medical Licensing Examination; Clinical Settings; Japan
Online: 10 March 2023 (09:33:21 CET)
ChatGPT is gaining widespread acceptance for its ability to generate natural language sentences in response to various inputs and is expected to become a supplementary tool for diagnosing and determining treatment policies in clinical settings. ChatGPT was used to evaluate its ability to perform clinical inference and accuracy in answering questions on the 117th Japanese National Medical Licensing Examination held in February 2023. The exam questions were manually inputted into ChatGPT's window, and the accuracy of ChatGPT's responses was determined based on answers provided by a preparatory school. ChatGPT provided answers for 389 out of 400 questions, and its overall correct answer rate was 55.0%. The correct answer rate for 5-choice-1, 5-choice-2, and 5-choice-3 were 57.8%, 42.9%, and 41.2%, respectively. The highest correct answer rate was for the compulsory exam (67.0%), followed by the specific knowledge exam (54.1%) and the cross category exam (47.9%). The correct answer rate for non-image questions was 56.2% and for image questions, it was 51.5%. The study suggests that ChatGPT has potential to support healthcare professionals in clinical decision-making in Japanese clinical settings, but caution should be exercised in interpreting and using the answers generated by ChatGPT due to room for improvement in performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: leprosy; ABO/Rh blood group; Clinical; Angola
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:28:22 CEST)
Introduction: Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae is one of the oldest infectious diseases in human history and its eradication is linked to poverty control, lack of basic sanitation, the fragility of health, and education services. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of blood groups (ABO/Rh) and the sociodemographic and clinical profile of Angolan patients with Leprosy treated at the Anti-Tuberculosis and Leprosy Dispensary in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. Methodology: A descriptive, introspective, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was carried out with 102 patients of Luanda, in the second half of 2021. Results: Of the 102 patients included in the study, the majority belonged to the ORh+ group (51.9%), followed by the BRh+ group (27.4%) and ARh+ (18.6%), most were under 51 years of age ( 87.3%), with low education (54.9%), coming from urban areas (44.1%). As for clinical conditions, most had a multibacillary infection (93.1%), diagnosed mainly by smear microscopy (75.5%) without other infection (79.4%), some of them with complications (28.4%) and individuals with non-O blood group showed changes in the blood count. Conclusion: Leprosy seems to be common in ORh+ individuals, it continues to affect especially those residing in areas of population agglomerations and with low education, presenting itself as a multibacillary infection, where changes in the blood count are greater in non-O individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0078.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: digitalization; clinical chemistry; artificial intelligence; interoperability; FAIRification
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:00:44 CEST)
Laboratory medicine is a digital science. Every large hospital produces a wealth of data each day - from simple numerical results from e.g. sodium measurements to highly complex output of “-omics” analyses, as well as quality control results and meta-data. Processing, connecting, storing, and ordering extensive parts of these individual data requires Big Data techniques. Whereas novel technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning have exciting application for the augmentation of laboratory medicine, the Big Data concept remains fundamental for any sophisticated data analysis in large databases. To make laboratory medicine data optimally usable for clinical and research purposes, they need to be FAIR: findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable. This can be achieved for example by automated recording, connection of devices, efficient ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes, careful data governance, and modern data security solutions. Enriched with clinical data, laboratory medicine data allow a gain in pathophysiological insights, can improve patient care, or they can be used to develop reference intervals for diagnostic purposes. Nevertheless, Big Data in laboratory medicine do not come without challenges: The growing number of analyses and data derived from them is a demanding task to be taken care of. Laboratory medicine experts are and will be needed to drive this development, take an active role in the ongoing digitalization, and provide guidance for their clinical colleagues engaging with the laboratory data in research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ESKAPE; heteroaryl-ethylenes; clinical strains; antimicrobial activity
Online: 13 May 2022 (03:30:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance as a public health emergency and developed a global priority pathogens list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be summarized in the acronym ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales species), reminding us of their ability to escape the effect of antibacterial drugs. We previously tested new heteroaryl-ethylene compounds in order to define their spectrum of activity and antibacterial capability. Now, we focus our attention on PB4, a compound with promising MIC and MBC values in all conditions tested. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of PB4 on selected samples of ESKAPE isolates from nosocomial infections: 14 S. aureus, 6 E. faecalis, 7 E. faecium, 12 E. coli and 14 A. baumanii. Furthermore, an ATCC control strain was selected for all species tested. MICs were performed according to the standard method, with some modifications. PB4 MIC values were within very low ranges regardless of bacterial species and resistance profiles: from 0,12 to 2 mg/L for S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii. For E. coli, the MIC values obtained were slightly higher (4-64 mg/L), butstill promising. The PB4 heteroaryl-ethylenic compound was able to counteract the bacterial growth of both high-priority Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical strains. In the future, it would be interesting to evaluate the activity of PB4 in animal models to test for its toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: botulinum toxin; subtype A2; clinical tolerability; safety
Online: 7 October 2021 (15:02:29 CEST)
All the available botulinum type A neurotoxins for clinical uses are of A1 subtype. We developed a subtype A2 low molecular weight (150kD) neurotoxin (A2NTX), with less spread and faster entry into the motor nerve terminal than A1 in vitro and in vivo. Preliminary clinical studies showed its efficacy superior to A1 toxins. We conducted an open study exploring its safety and tolerability profile in comparison with A1LL (onabotulinumtoxinA) and low molecular weight (150kD) A1 neurotoxin (A1NTX). Those who had been using A1LL (n=90; 50-360 mouse LD50 units) or A1NTX (n=30; 50-580 units) were switched to A2NTX (n=120; 25-600 units) from 2010 till 2018 (number of sessions ~ 27, cumulative doses ~11,640 units per patient). Adverse events for A2NTX included weakness (n=1, ascribed to alcoholic polyneuropathy), dysphagia (1), local weakness (4), spread to other muscles (1), whereas those for A1LL or A1NTX comprised weakness (n=2, A1NTX), dysphagia (8), ptosis (6), local weakness (7) and spread to other muscles (15). After injections, 89 out of 120 patients preferred A2NTX to A1 for the successive sessions. The present study demonstrated that A2NTX had the clinical safety up to the dose of 500 units, and was well tolerated compared to A1 toxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pharmacovigilance; clinical pharmacology; male; female; emergency department.
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:51:17 CEST)
This post-hoc analysis of an Italian active pharmacovigilance study describes pharmacological differences of ADEs leading to emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization in women and men. During the study period (January 2007 – December 2018), 61,855 reports of ADE leading to ED visit were collected. Overall, 30.6% of ADEs resulted in hospitalization (30% in women and 31% in men). Multivariate logistic regression showed that, among women, drug classes significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization were heparins (ROR 1.41, CI 1.13-176), antidepressants (ROR 1.12, CI 1.03-1.23) and antidiabetics (ROR 1.13, CI 1.02-1.24). Among men only vitamin K antagonists (ROR 1.28, CI 1.09-1.50), opioids (ROR 1.30, CI 1.06-1.60) and digitalis glycosides (ROR 1.32, CI 1.09-1.59) were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. Overall, older age, multiple suspected drugs and the presence of comorbidi-ties were significantly associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. A significantly reduced risk of hospitalization was observed in both women and men experiencing and adverse event following immunization (ROR 0.36, CI 0.27-0.48 and 0.83, 0.42-0.74, respectively) compared to drugs. Results obtained from this real-world analysis highlight important aspects of drug safety between sexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0387.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chikungunya; seroprevalence; clinical presentation; febrile outpatient; Malawi
Online: 17 May 2021 (13:19:32 CEST)
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. We conducted this study determine the seroprevalence and clinical presentation of Chikungunya infection among outpatients seeking healthcare in Mzuzu City, Malawi. Blood samples were collected from malaria negative and non-septic febrile outpatients with fevers ≥38 °C, for not more than 5 days. The enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to detect anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies and its results were used to determine seroprevalence of Chikungunya. A total of 119 serum samples were tested, of these, 73 (61.3%) tested positive for anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies by ELISA. Laboratory requisition forms were used to capture demographic information such as age, sex, clinical signs and symptoms presented by the enrolled patients. Age groups of 1-9, 10- 19, 20- 29, 30- 39, 40- 49, and ≥50 years had 17.8% (n= 13), 12.3 %,( n=9), 15.1%) (n=11), 19.2%; (n=14), 17.8% (n=13) and 17.8% (n=13) proportion of seroprevalence respectively. Most of the CHIKV infected individuals presented with fever (52.05%), joint pain (45.21%) and abdominal pain (42.67%). The presence of anti- CHIKV IgM antibodies suggest the presence of recent CHIKV infection and therefore accurate laboratory assays are highly recommended for CHIKV diagnosis and appropriate management of febrile patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Causality; Clinical Predisposing Factors; Delirium; Palliative Care
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:46:06 CET)
Delirium occurs in 50-80% of end-of-life patients but it is often misdiagnosed. Identification of clinical factors potentially associated with delirium onset can lead to a correct early diagnosis. To this aim, we conducted an observational prospective study on patients from an Italian Palliative Care Unit (PCU) in 2018-2019 and evaluated the presence of clinical factors at patients’ admission. We then compared their presence in patients who developed delirium and in those who did not during follow-up. On 503 enrolled patients, 95 (18.9%) developed delirium. In univariate analyses, factors significantly more frequent in patients with delirium were advanced age, care in hospice, very compromised performance status, hypoxia, high number of simultaneous clinical factors, presence of breathlessness, poor well-being, severe drowsiness, and background therapy with haloperidol and drugs acting on CNS. In multivariate analyses, setting of care (odds ratio, OR, 1.68 for hospice versus home care, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02-2.75; p=0.040), and administration of psychiatric drugs (OR 1.74 for administration versus no administration, 95% CI 1.08-2.81; p=0.023) were significantly associated with the risk of developing delirium, while the associations with age (OR 1.82 for > 80 years versus ≤ 70 years, 95% CI=0.98-3.36; p=0.046) and presence of breathlessness (OR 1.70, 95%, CI 0.99-2.89, p=0.053) were of borderline significance. The study indicates that some clinical factors are associated with the probability of delirium onset. Their evaluation in PC patients could help the healthcare professionals to timely identify the development of delirium in those patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0293.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hsp70; biomarker; glioblastoma; NK cells; clinical study
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:33:34 CET)
Despite rapid progress in the treatment of many cancers, glioblastoma remains a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related biomarkers that more effectively predict outcome of glioblastoma. Since heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and IL-2 are known to increase the expression of activatory NK cell receptors, recognizing aggressive human tumor cells that present Hsp70 on their cell surface, extracellular Hsp70 levels were determined in glioma patients together with activatory NK cell receptors. All gliomas are membrane Hsp70-positive (mHsp70+) and high grade gliomas more frequently show an overexpression of Hsp70 in the nucleus and cytosol. Significantly increased extracellular Hsp70 levels are detected predominantly in glioblastomas with large necrotic areas. Overall survival (OS) is more favorable in patients with low Hsp70 serum levels indicating that a high Hsp70 expression is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Elevated frequencies of NK cells are associated with a more favorable outcome. Of caution, a glucocorticoid therapy reduces the prevalence of NK cells. In summary, elevated frequencies of Hsp70-reactive NK cells at diagnosis and lower Hsp70 levels predict a more favorable prognosis in glioblastoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0142.v1
Online: 8 May 2020 (12:26:46 CEST)
COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China in in December 2019, and rapidly spread worldwide, being declared global pandemic one month later on 30 January 2020. Since its emergence, COVID-19 has raised global concerns associated with drastic measures that were never adopted in any previous outbreak, to contain the situation as early as possible. The 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) or SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19. 2019-nCoV genetic sequence was rapidly identified within few days since the first reported cases and RT-PCR kits became available for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, RT-PCR diagnosis carries a risk of false-negative results, therefore additional serologic test are needed. The most important approach in the battle against COVID-19 is rapid diagnosis of suspicious cases, timely therapeutic intervention and isolation to avoid community spread. In this review, we summarize the clinical scenario that raises suspicion of COVID-19 and available laboratory diagnostics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0179.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: knowledge acquisition; clinical practice guidelines; data driven knowledge acquisition; cancer treatment plan; clinical decision support system; formal verification
Online: 22 July 2019 (06:17:34 CEST)
Validation and verification are the critical requirements in the knowledge acquisition method for the clinical decision support system (CDSS). After acquiring the medical knowledge from diverse sources, the rigorous validation and formal verification process are required before creating the final knowledge model. Previously, we have proposed a hybrid knowledge acquisition method for acquiring medical knowledge from clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and patient data in the Smart CDSS for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The final knowledge model was created by combining knowledge models obtained from CPGs and patient data after passing through a rigorous validation process. However, detailed analysis shows that due to lack of formal verification process, it involves various inconsistencies in knowledge relevant to the formalism of knowledge, conformance to CPGs, quality of knowledge, and complexities of knowledge acquisition artifacts. Therefore, it is required to enhance a hybrid knowledge acquisition method that thwarts the inconsistencies using formal verification. This paper presents the verification process using the Z formal method and its outcome as an enhanced acquisition method – known as the refined knowledge acquisition (ReKA) method. The ReKA method adopted verification method and explored the mechanism of theorem proving using the Z notation. It enables to identify inconsistencies in the validation process used for hybrid knowledge acquisition. Additionally, it refines the hybrid knowledge acquisition method by discovering the missing steps in the current validation process at the acquisition stage. Consequently, ReKA adds a set of nine additional criteria to be used to have a final valid refined clinical knowledge model. The criteria ensure the validity of final knowledge model concerning formalism of knowledge, conformance to GPGs, quality of the knowledge, usage of stringent conditions and treatment plans, and inconsistencies possibly resulting from the complexities. Evaluation, using four medical knowledge acquisition scenarios, shows that newly added knowledge in CDSS due to the addition of criteria by ReKA method always produces a valid knowledge model. The final knowledge model was also evaluated with 1229 oral cavity patient cases, which outperformed with an accuracy of 72.57\% compared to a similar approach with an accuracy of 69.7\%. Furthermore, ReKA method identified a set of decision paths (about 47.8%) in the existing approach, which results in a final knowledge model with low quality, non-conformed from standard CPGs. In conclusion, ReKA is formally proved method which always yields valid knowledge model having high quality, supporting local practices, and influenced from standard guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS CoV-2; hypertension; obesity; clinical predictor of outcomes; clinical triage; ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 observational study
Online: 20 March 2023 (07:46:35 CET)
In New Orleans, Louisiana the population’s poor baseline health led to its establishment as an early epicenter for severe acute COVID-19. Antici-pating future outbreaks of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, we need to identify correlates of outcome, from real clinical experience. 89 patients were recruited into the ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 longitudinal observational study, from the beginning of the outbreak in March to July 2020. Patients admitted for acute COVID-19 were enrolled in person. The cohort is unique as it is 68% Black, 53% female, of average age of early 60s, and prevalence of obesity and hypertension respectively of 55% and 83%. The outcomes are: 53% severe (20% fatal, 33% non-fatal) and 47% non-severe, with severe defined as death or requiring mechanical ventila-tion or high flow oxygen. Obesity and admit systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg are each associated with severe outcome and, despite respective sensitivity of 71% and 76%, specificity ~66% for both, and ac-curacy of 60% and 70% by ROC analysis, would likely provide useful predictors of outcome in critically stressed health care systems. We discuss pathophysiologic hypotheses to explain why high admit SBP is observed only in half of patients with pre-COVID hypertension and is associated with severe outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1937.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Tumour Immunology; Clinical trials; Adverse effects
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:16:17 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a class of drug that produces durable and sustained anti-tumour responses in a wide variety of malignancies. The exponential rise in their use has been mirrored by a rise in immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Knowledge of such toxicities, as well as effective management algorithms for these toxicities, is essential to optimize clinical efficacy and safety. Currently, the guidelines for management of the irAEs are based largely on retrospective studies and case series. In this article, we review the current landscape of clinical trials investigating the management of irAEs with an aim to develop standardized, randomized controlled trial-based management algorithms for ICI-related toxicities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1753.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Chronic pain; Medical Devices; Neuromodulation; Clinical trials; Bayesian
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:27:31 CEST)
Chronic non-cancer pain is a highly debilitating condition affecting approximately 20% of the global population. Chronic pain may lead to significant physical disability, emotional distress, social isolation and financial burden. Whilst. pharmacological therapies remain the cornerstone of pain management in non-cancerous chronic pain, factors including the current opioid epidemic have led to non-pharmacological techniques becoming a more attractive proposition. We explored the prevalence of medical device use and their treatment efficacy in non-cancer pain management. A systematic methodology was developed, peer reviewed and published in PROSPERO (CRD42021235384). Key words of medical device, pain management devices, chronic pain, lower back pain, back pain, leg pain and chronic pelvic pain using Science direct, PubMed, Web of Science, PROSPERO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PorQuest and ClinicalTrials.gov. All clinical trials, epidemiology and mixed methods studies that reported the use of medical devices for non-cancer chronic pain management published between the 1st of January 1990 and the 30th of April 2022 were included. 13 studies were included in systematic review, of these 6 were used in the meta-analysis with 173 participants. Our meta-analysis for pain reduction in each study showed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization treatment and pulsed electromagnetic therapy produced significant treatment on chronic lower back pain patients. Pooled evidence revealed the use of medical device related interventions resulted in 0.7 degree of pain reduction under a 0-10 scale. Significant improvement in disability scores, with a 7.44 degree reduction in disability level compared to a placebo using a 50 score range was also seen. The application of medical devices in patients with chronic pain has gained popularity due to increasingly cost effective techniques, minimally invasiveness and greater awareness of risks associated with pharmacological management. Our analysis has shown that the optimal use of medical devices in a sustainable manner requires further extensive research, needing larger cohort studies with greater gender parity, in a more diverse range of geographical locations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sports medicine; transdisciplinary; clinical trials; sports science; thermography
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:08:46 CET)
This paper aims to list the current challenges in the study of Sports Medicine in Brazil based on a review of the literature and the author's experience as a member of a transdisciplinary team in this field, as well as to discuss methods for establishing an appropriate and organized course of health activities in this context. The authors identified four significant contemporary difficulties in the field of sports medicine in Brazil that, while minor, are complicated. There is a need to publish a greater number of national studies, generate integrated knowledge through transdisciplinary research, propose sports and movement as a tool for the prevention of degenerative conditions, and research and develop better therapeutic options through transdisciplinary research. It is expected that a transdisciplinary approach will reduce divergences between the real world and science, putting an end to dogmatism, prejudice, and theoretical thinking, increasing the scientificity of sports, bringing competitive advantages, improving training, performance, and athlete health management, and contributing to the advancement of sports medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sustainable development; Virtual Patients; simulation; clinical skills; SDG
Online: 22 February 2023 (04:07:13 CET)
Simulation-Based Medical Education that uses Virtual Patients has become increasingly important during the COVID-19 pandemic. With the need for social distancing and minimizing contact, medical simulation technology has provided a valuable tool for healthcare professionals to practice and improve their skills without the need for face-to-face interactions. MedSIM is a medically accurate simulation platform with Virtual Patients designed for undergraduate medical education. Our study involved two groups of students. The PreCOVID group, before the pandemic, underwent conventional teaching methods. The COVID group, during the pandemic, had students exposed to conventions skills taught earlier and were taught again with MedSIM. Students indicated high satisfaction with the clinical skills demonstrated by the Virtual Patients. More than half agreed that MedSIM had enabled them to perform all kinds of procedures on patients (PreCOVID group 68.8%, COVID group 71.3%), showed cues and consequences much like those in natural clinical environments (PreCOVID 68.4%, COVID 71.3%). Also, MedSIM allowed them to have a repetitive practice that helps in critical skills transfer to actual patients (PreCOVID 72.7%, COVID 74.7%). MedSIM met the expectations of most of the students. Students from both groups rated the online performance of the MedSIM simulator as "Very good." Analysis from a customized word cloud indicated that most students found MedSIM to be good and of educational value. MedSIM platform enhances healthcare professionals' skills and knowledge, leading to better patient outcomes and increased access to healthcare, supporting SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being). It also provides a safe and controlled environment for healthcare professionals to learn and practice essential skills, supporting SDG 4 (Quality Education).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: staphylococcus aureus; infective endocarditis; clinical prediction rules; echocardiography
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:41:47 CET)
Background. It is unclear whether the use of clinical prediction rules is sufficient to rule out infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) without an echocardiogram evaluation, either transthoracic (TTE) and/or transesophageal (TEE). Our primary purpose was to test the usefulness of PREDICT, POSITIVE and VIRSTA scores to rule out IE without echocardiography. Our secondary purpose was to evaluate whether not performing an echocardiogram evaluation is associated with higher mortality. Methods. We conducted a unicentric retrospective cohort including all patients with a first SAB episode from January 2015 to December 2020. IE was defined according to modified Duke criteria. We predefined threshold cut-off points to consider that IE was ruled out by means of the mentioned scores. To assess 30-day mortality, we used a multivariable regression model considering performing an echocardiogram as covariate. Results. Out of 404 patients, IE was diagnosed in 50 (12.4%). Prevalence of IE within patients with negative PREDICT, POSITIVE and VIRSTA scores was: 3.6% (95% CI 0.1-6.9%), 4.9% (95% CI 2.2-7.7%), and 2.2% (95% CI 0.2-4.3%), respectively. Patients with negative VIRSTA and negative TTE had an IE prevalence of 0.9% (95% CI 0-2.8%). Performing an echocardiogram was independently associated with lower 30-day mortality (OR 0.24 95%CI 0.10-0.54, p=0.001). Conclusion. PREDICT and POSITIVE scores were not sufficient to rule out IE without TEE. In patients with negative VIRSTA score, it was doubtful if IE could be discarded with a negative TTE. Not performing an echocardiogram was associated with worse outcomes, which might be related to presence of occult IE. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of clinical prediction rules in avoiding echocardiographic evaluation in SAB patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: helminth; self-treatment; clinical trials; inflammation; dose escalation
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:46:41 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical for clinical evaluation of the benefits and limits of helminth therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CAR-T; TCR; cancer immunotherapy; immunotherapy clinical trials
Online: 8 July 2021 (11:04:10 CEST)
Chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor (CAR-T/TCR) cellular immunotherapies have shown remarkable success in the treatment of some refractory B-cell malignancies, with potential to provide durable clinical response for other types of cancer. In this paper, we look at all available FDA CAR-T/TCR clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, and analyze them with respect to different disease tissues, targeted antigens, products, and originator locations. We found that 627 of 1,007 registered are currently active and of those 273 (44%) originated in China and 280 (45%) in the US. Our analysis suggests that the rapid increase in the number of clinical trials is driven by the development of different CAR-T products that use a similar therapeutic approach. We coin the term bioparallels to describe such products. Our results suggest that one feature of the CAR-T/TCR industry may be a robust response to success and failure of competitor products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s Disease; Clinical trial; Precision medicine.
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:08:41 CEST)
Concomitant neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are common in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, AD biomarkers are associated with cognitive decline and dementia in PD patients during life. Here, we highlight the considerable overlap between AD and PD, emphasizing neuropathological, biomarker, and mechanistic studies. We suggest that precision medicine approaches may successfully identify PD patients most likely to develop concomitant AD. The ability to identify PD patients at high risk for future concomitant AD in turn provides an ideal cohort for trials of AD-directed therapies in PD patients, aimed at delaying or preventing cognitive symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nursing student; patient safety; clinical education; educational institutions
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:46:34 CEST)
Students' knowledge of the concept of patient safety in infection prevention and control and treatment safety is still low. Real-life problem-based learning approaches in the area of clinical education assist in patient safety education. This study was designed to identify, evaluate and summarize available evidence on the effectiveness of clinical education on student achievement of patient safety competencies. The Methode that use in this study is systematic review. Search for articles in research journals obtained from Sciencedirect, Ebscohost, Garuda, Proquest and Scopus. As many as 228 articles were obtained consisting of nursing journals and health journals with the keywords clinical education, competence, and patient safety. After that, the screening process was carried out based on the inclusion criteria and obtained 25 articles that met the criteria. The result of this study are the contribution of educational institutions in the achievement of patient safety competencies for nursing students is still low and the achievement of patient safety competencies for students at the professional level is better than for students who are still learning theory in educational institutions. The conclusion of this study is clinical education carried out by educational institutions is considered ineffective in achieving the competence of patient safety for nursing students. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a patient safety model or curriculum that is attached to clinical education in nursing education institutions
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Prognosis; prosthodontics; dental implant; clinical performance; risk factor.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:34:49 CET)
Background: The treatment plan of prosthetic restorations supported by dental implants require comprehensive scientific knowledge to deliver prostheses with good prognosis, even before the implant insertion. This review aims to analyze the main prosthetic determinants of the prognosis of implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted with a PICO question: "For partially or complete edentulous subjects treated with implant-supported prostheses, which prosthetic factors could affect clinical outcomes?". A literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library with the following equation [PROGNOS* OR RISK] FACTOR IMPLANT DENTAL, and by hand search in relevant journals and throughout the selected papers. Results: This revision was carried out based on 50 papers focused on several prosthodontics-related risk factors that were grouped as follows: implant-connection, loading protocol, transmucosal abutments, prosthetic fit, provisionalization, type of retention, impression technique, fabrication technique, and occlusion. More than a half of the studies were systematic reviews (30%), meta-analysis (16%) or prospective evaluations of prosthesis with various kinds of events (18%). But also narrative reviews of literature (14%) and in vitro/animal studies (16%) were found. Conclusions: The current literature provides insufficient evidence for most of the investigated topics. However, based on the accumulated data, it seems reasonable to defend that the best treatment approach is the use of morse taper implants with transmucosal abutments, recorded by means of rigidly splinted copings through the pick-up technique, and screwed by milled prosthesis occlusally adjusted to minimize functional overloading.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurology; clinical features; coronavirus; stroke; encephalitis; headache; delirium
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:36:21 CEST)
The Coronavirus disease due to SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan city, China in December 2019 and rapidly spread more than 200 countries as a global health pandemic. There are more 3 million confirmed cases and around 207,000 fatalities. The primary manifestation is respiratory and cardiac but neurological manifestations are being reported in the literature as case reports and case series. The most common reported symptoms to include headache and dizziness followed by encephalopathy and delirium. Among the complications noted are Cerebrovascular accident, Guillian barre syndrome, acute transverse myelitis, and acute encephalitis. The most common peripheral manifestation was hyposmia. It is further noted that sometimes the neurological manifestations can precede the typical features like fever and cough and later on typical manifestations develop in these patients. Hence a high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis and isolation of cases to prevent the spread in neurology wards. We present a narrative review of the neurological manifestations and complications of COVID-19. Our aim is to update the neurologists and physicians working with suspected cases of COVID-19 about the possible neurological presentations and the probable neurological complications resulting from this novel virus infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental caries; prevention; clinical trials; herbal; scoping review
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:57:04 CET)
It is currently recognized that an injudicious strategy in the last decades has been not only focusing of research typically on caries in children, but also the narrow focusing on fluoride, because despite sufficient availability of fluoride in water and oral healthcare products, caries levels escalate steadily as people get older and caries remain a main public health issue to be settled. In the last two decades the scientific community intensified efforts of exploring other products for caries prevention, herbal products being one of these approaches. Because preliminary evidence indicated that clinical trials for caries prevention with herbal products are heterogeneous in design, quality and products evaluated, we performed a scoping review intended to explore the main characteristics of such clinical trials. From an initial collection of 1986 unique papers from different literature databases, 56 articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The species investigated, dosage forms, study designs, duration of intervention, controls, endpoints, quality of reporting and risk of bias are discussed. 85.71% of the trials reviewed here reported positive results but given the methodological flaws and biases affecting them, it is difficult to conclude on the efficacy of those products based on the studies published thus far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0296.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: point-of-care; cholesterol; clinical diagnostics; laboratory test
Online: 26 July 2019 (01:13:11 CEST)
Managing blood cholesterol levels is important for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. An easy-to-use, portable cholesterol blood test will accelerate more frequent testing by patients and at-risk populations. We aim to evaluate the performance of smartphone-based point-of-care cholesterol blood tests as compared to that of hospital-grade laboratory tests. We used smartphone systems that are already familiar to many people. Because smartphone systems can be carried around everywhere, blood can be measured easily and frequently. We compared the results of cholesterol tests with those of existing clinical diagnostic laboratory methods. We found that smartphone-based point-of-care lipid blood tests are as accurate as hospital-grade laboratory tests (N=116, R>0.97, P<0.001 for all 3 cholesterol blood tests: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and triglyceride). Our system will be useful for those who need to manage blood cholesterol levels to motivate them to track and control their behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; children; clinical features; comorbidities; male genderSARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, children, clinical features, comorbidities, male gender
Online: 26 July 2022 (04:43:02 CEST)
Background: Given the potential for additional development to clarify a better knowledge of the overall impact of COVID-19 on the pediatric population, the clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents are still being explored. Morbidity in children is characterized by a variable clinical course. Our study's goal was to compare clinical aspects of 230 pediatric patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2022. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, we compared two groups hospitalized in the infectious diseases clinical ward IX at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals," Bucharest, Romania. The first group of 88 patients was admitted between (April–December 2020) and their clinical manifestations were compared with the second group of 142 children followed between July 2021 and March 2022. Results: Of 230 children, the median age was 4.5 (interquartile range 0.6-17) years, 53.9% were male. 88 (36.21%) patients (first group) were admitted during the second wave in Romania, mostly aged < 5 years old, and experienced digestive manifestations like fever (p=0.001), and diarrhoea (p=0.004). The second group experienced different clinical signs when compared with the first group, with higher temperature and increased respiratory symptoms analogous to those of acute respiratory viral infections. The proportion in the second group increased, and 64.5% had symptoms for a median interval of 5 days; age (0-4 -years old) and length of stay were both proportionally inversely (p<0.01) and with correlation with hospital admission (p = 0.04). We report two Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS) in the second group, with favourable evolution under treatment. Comorbidities were risk factors for complications appear (p < 0.001) in both groups. All paediatric cases admitted to our clinic evolved favourably and no death was recorded. Conclusions: In the first group children experienced digestive symptoms, whereas the second group experienced mild and moderate respiratory symptoms. We confirmed risk factors for severe cases as manifestations across the age spectrum, 0-4 (digestive symptoms) and 5-12 years old (for respiratory symptoms), associated comorbidities, fever, and male gender. The potential effects of COVID-19 infection in children older than 5 years should encourage caregivers to vaccinate and improve the prognosis among pediatric patients at risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:34:18 CEST)
Antibiotic therapy is a cornerstone of modern medicine, yet the development of antibiotic re-sistance threatens to render these therapies ineffective. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem of microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a critical role in modulating anti-biotic efficacy and resistance. This review delves into the intricate relationship between gut mi-crobiota, antibiotic therapy, and resistance, and discusses the potential applications of gut mi-crobiota research in guiding personalized antibiotic therapy and resistance mitigation strategies. Recent advancements in metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics have demon-strated the potential for tailored antibiotic regimens that minimize collateral damage to com-mensal bacteria and reduce the risk of resistance. Adjuvant therapies such as probiotics, prebi-otics, and synbiotics have shown promise in restoring gut microbial balance and mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotic therapy. We address the challenges associated with this emerging field including the need for standardized methodologies, ethical considerations, and interdisci-plinary collaboration. With continued interdisciplinary collaboration and the implementation of standardized methodologies, gut microbiota research can contribute to the global fight against antibiotic resistance and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Primary cardiac sarcoma; SEER database; prognostic factors; clinical characteristics
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:42:14 CEST)
Background: Primary cardiac sarcomas (PCS) are extremely rare malignant tumors involving the heart. Only isolated case reports have been described. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiological characteristics of PCS. This study has the objective of investigating the epidemiologic characteristics, survival outcomes, and independent prognostic factors of PCS. Methods: We enrolled a total of 362 patients with PCS, between 2000 and 2017, by retrieving the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We analyzed demographics, clinical characteristics, and overall mortality (OM) as well as cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of PCS. Variables with a p-value < 0.1 in the univariate Cox regression were incorporated into the multivariate Cox model to determine the independent prognostic factors, with a hazard ratio (HR) of greater than 1 representing adverse prognostic factors. Results: Crude analysis revealed a high OM in age 80+ (HR=5.958, 95% CI 3.357-10.575, p=0), followed by age 60-79 (HR=1.429, 95% CI 1.028-1.986, p=0.033); and PCS with distant metastases (HR=1.888, 95% CI 1.389-2.566, p=0). Patients that underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor and patients with malignant fibrous histiocytomas (HR=0.657, 95% CI 0.455-0.95, p=0.025) had a better OM (HR=0.606, 95% CI 0.465-0.791, p=0). The highest cancer-specific mortality was observed in age 80+ (HR=5.037, 95% CI 2.606-9.736, p=0) and patients with distant metastases (HR=1.953, 95% CI 1.396-2.733, p=0). Patients with malignant fibrous histiocytomas (HR=0.572, 95% CI 0.378-0.865, p=0.008) and those who underwent surgery (HR=0.581, 95% CI 0.436-0.774, p=0) had a lower CSM. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed higher OM in the age group 80+ (HR=13.261, 95% CI 5.839-30.119, p=0) and advanced disease with distant metastases (HR=2.013, 95% CI 1.355-2.99, p=0.001). Lower OM was found in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (HR=0.364, 95% CI 0.154-0.86, p=0.021) and widowed patients (HR=0.506, 95% CI 0.263-0.977, p=0.042). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses of CSM also revealed higher mortality in the same groups, and lower mortality in patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma. Conclusion: In this United States population-based retrospective cohort study using the SEER database, we found that cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma was associated with the lowest CSM and OM. Furthermore, as expected, age and advanced disease at diagnosis were independent factors predicting poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the primary tumor showed lower CSM and OM in the crude analysis but when adjusted for covariates in the multivariate analysis, it did not significantly impact the overall mortality or the cancer-specific mortality. These findings allow for treating clinicians to recognize patients that should be referred to palliative/hospice care at the time of diagnosis and avoid any surgical interventions as they did not show any differences in mortality. Surgical resection in patients with poor prognoses should be reserved as a palliative measure rather than an attempt to cure the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0147.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: clinical trial; informativeness; design review; trial methods maturity model
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:56:37 CEST)
Many clinical trials end uninformatively. Informativeness, in the context of clinical trials, defines whether a study’s results definitively answer its research questions with meaningful next steps. One subset of these trials are those focused on global health set in low-resource settings. Global health clinical trials benefitting people in low-resource settings are funded primarily by a limited number of large foundations, pharmaceutical firms (“industry”), and national governments. While clinical trial protocols are required to go through reviews in regulatory and ethical domains, outside of industry-funded trials, funders rarely require focused scientific design reviews. There are no documented standards and processes, or even best practices, for funders to perform scientific reviews after the funding commitment. Considering the investment in and standardization of ethical and regulatory reviews, and the prevalence of studies ending without clarity or never finishing, it may be that scientific reviews of trial designs with a focus on informativeness offer the best chance for improved outcomes and return on investments in clinical trials. A maturity model is a helpful tool for knowledge transfer to help grow capabilities in a new area, or for those looking to perform a self-assessment in an existing area. Such a model is offered for scientific design reviews of clinical trial protocols: a valuable and often-neglected governance step for funders or sponsors, among others. This maturity model includes 11 process areas and 5 maturity levels. Each of the 55 process area levels is populated with descriptions on a continuum toward an optimal state to improve trial protocols in the area of risk of failure. This tool allows for prescriptive guidance on next investments to improve attributes of post-funding reviews of trials, with a focus on informativeness.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; genetics; α-synuclein; neurodegeneration; clinical manifestation; diagnosis
Online: 7 April 2023 (03:54:11 CEST)
With the growing hope that disease-modifying treatments could target the molecular basis of neurodegenerative diseases even before the onset of symptoms, there is mounting pressure to define disease entities based on pathophysiology rather than on clinical syndromes. The Alzheimer’s disease research community has recently transitioned from diagnostic criteria based on an amnestic syndrome to a purely biomarker-based disease definition, relying on the demonstration of amyloid-beta pathology, tau pathology, and neurodegeneration. In contrast, current diagnostic criteria for Parkinson’s disease still rely on the presence of the well-described clinical syndrome of parkinsonism, with the addition of characteristic motor- and non-motor signs and symptoms. However, there is now unequivocal evidence that Parkinson’s disease starts years before the onset of parkinsonism. Furthermore, neuropathologically defined Lewy body disease is clinically heterogeneous, combining a range of motor, non-motor, dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic features. Finally, clinically defined Parkinson’s disease has diverse underlying etiologies most, but not all, associated with α-synuclein positive Lewy pathology. In light of recent scientific advances, we propose a biologically based definition for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, initially to be used for research purposes. The criteria use a three-component ‘G-S-N’ system. The first is documentation of defined gene variants (‘G’), which cause or strongly predispose to PD as the most upstream component. The second is α-synuclein pathology (‘S’), currently defined as pathological α-synuclein deposition in tissue or positive α-synuclein seeding assays. The third is evidence of underlying neurodegeneration (‘N’), currently defined by specific neuroimaging procedures. The associated clinical syndrome (‘C’) is defined by a single high-specificity feature or multiple lower-specificity features. Initiating this transition will enable the field to fuel both basic and clinical research and move closer to the precision medicine required to develop clinically meaningful disease-modifying therapies. We acknowledge current limitations, ethical implications, and the need for prospective validation of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Aluminum phosphide; Clinical Toxicology; Dihydroxyacetone; Pharmacotherapy; Phosphine; Suicide; Toxicity
Online: 13 March 2023 (10:37:23 CET)
Background: Aluminum phosphide (AlP), also known as “rice tablet,” is widely used as an effective pesticide. However, AlP poisoning is a common cause of mortality in many countries, such as Iran. Unfortunately, there is no specific antidote for AlP toxicity to date. AlP releases phosphine gas when it is exposed to moisture and acid. Phosphine is a robust mitochondrial toxin that could significantly inhibit cellular energy metabolism. AlP poisoning is an emergency condition that needs instant and effective intervention. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple saccharide used for several pharmacological as well as cosmetic purposes. Previously, we found that DHA could significantly prevent mitochondrial impairment induced by toxic agents such as cyanide and phosphine in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models.Methods: Hospitalized patients (n = 111) were evaluated for eligibility criteria. Among these patients, n = 35 cases were excluded due to incomplete data (n = 11) and suspicion of poisoning rather than AlP (n = 24). Meanwhile, n = 76 cases with confirmed AlP poisoning were included in the study. AlP-poisoned patients who did not receive DHA (n =18) were used as the control group.Patients (n = 58) received at least one dose of DHA (500 ml of 5% DHA solution w/v, i.v.) in addition to routine treatment of AlP poisoning. Arterial blood gas (ABG), blood pH, bicarbonate levels, and other vital signs and biochemical measurements were monitored. Moreover, the mortality rate and time of hospitalization were evaluated in both DHA-treated (n = 58) and AlP-poisoned patients without DHA administration (n = 18). Several biomarkers were assessed before (upon hospitalization) and after DHA treatment. The routine tests for AlP-poisoned patients in this study were the measurement of electrolytes (K+ and Na+), WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, INR, carbonate (HCO3), blood pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 and SGPT, SGOT, BUN, Cr. Results: Upon patients' admission, significant decreases in blood pH (acidosis), blood PaO2, and HCO3 levels were the hallmarks of AlP poisoning. It was found that DHA significantly alleviated biomarkers of AlP poisoning and tremendously enhanced patients’ survival rate compared to patients treated based on hospital routine AlP poisoning protocols (no DHA). No significant adverse effects were evident in DHA-treated patients in the current study.Interpretation: These data suggest that parenteral DHA is a novel and effective antidote against AlP poisoning.Trial registration: IR.SUMS.REC.1394.102
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chikungunya virus; diagnosis; arbovirus infections; clinical decision making; Colombia
Online: 6 March 2023 (15:17:22 CET)
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) diagnosis have become a challenge for primary care physicians in areas where zika virus and/or dengue virus are present. Case definitions for the three arboviral infections are overlapping. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out. A bivariate analysis was made using confirmed CHIKV infection as the outcome. Variables with significant statistical association were included in an agreement consensus. Agreed variables were analyzed in multiple regression model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine a cut-off value and performance. Results: 295 patients with confirmed CHIKV infection were included. A screening tool was made using symmetric arthritis (4 points), fatigue (3 points), rash (2 points) and ankle joint pain (1 point). The ROC curve identified a cut-off value and a score ≥ 5.5 was considered positive to identify CHIKV patients with a sensibility of 64.4% and a specificity of 87.4%, positive predictive value of 85.5%, negative predictive value of 67.7%, area under the curve of 0.72, and an accuracy of 75%. Conclusion: We developed a screening tool for CHIKV diagnosis using only clinical symptoms as well as proposed an algorithm to aid the primary care physician.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical trials; Mental health; Vaccination; CTU workforce
Online: 1 March 2023 (10:44:52 CET)
The overall objective of this mixed-method digital-based observational study was to determine the mental health impact among CTU staff working during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Qualtrics Core XM platform was used to deploy the questionnaire where a quantitative analysis was conducted. The qualitative part of the study used the Microsoft Teams digital application to complete the interviews. Various validated mental health assessments were administered: Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pandemic Stress Index (PSI), Burnout Assessment Tool-12 (BAT-12), General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) and The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). A total of 485 participants took part, of which 73.4% were female and 70.1% of the sample were white British. A high prevalence of anxiety, exhaustion and depression were identified across all participants. A significant mental health impact was identified among the CTU workforce where wellbeing was compromised during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Primary Sjögren's Syndrome; dryness; fatigue; depression; anxiety; clinical trials
Online: 19 October 2022 (14:26:01 CEST)
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease defined as exocrine gland hypofunction resulting in dry eyes and dry mouth. Recent interest in biological therapies for pSS has been garnered, however achieving FDA-approval has been challenging due to the numerous complications in the trials. Current literature lacks insight and a molecular target-based approach to the development of biological therapies. This review focuses on novel research in newly defined drug targets and latest clinical trials for pSS treatment. A literature search was conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov using the search term “Primary Sjögren's syndrome”. Articles published between 2000 and 2021 in English language were included. Our findings revealed the potential targets for pSS treatment in clinical trials and the most recent advances in understand-ing of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of pSS. A prominent gap in current trials is overlooking the treatment of extraglandular symptoms such as fatigue, depression and anxiety which pervade most patients with pSS. Based on dryness and these symptom-directed therapies, emerging biological agents targeting inflammatory cytokines, signal pathways and immune reaction have been studied and proved the efficacy and safety. Novel therapies may complement existing non-pharmacological methods of alleviating symptoms of pSS. Better grad-ing systems adding extraglandular symptoms to gauge disease activity and severity should be created. The future of pSS therapies may lie in gene therapy, stem cell and tissue engineering ther-apy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Proteinase 3; Myeloperoxidase; Clinical Phenotype; Outcome
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:58:51 CEST)
The traditional nomenclature system for classifying Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), based on clinical phenotype, described Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) as distinct clinical entities. This classification has proved its expedience in clinical trials and every day clinical practice, yet, a substantial overlap in clinical presentation still exists, and often causes difficulties in prompt definition and clinical distinction. Additionally, new insights into the AAV pathogenesis point out that PR3 and MPO-AAV may not represent expressions of the same disease spectrum but rather two distinct disorders, as they display significant differences. Thus, it is supported that a classification based on ANCA serotype (PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA or ANCA-negative), could be more accurate and also closer to the nature of the disease, instead of the phenotype-based one. This review aims to elucidate the major differences between PR3 and MPO-AAV, in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, histological and clinical manifestations, and response to therapeutic approaches.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute pulmonary embolism; dilemmas; therapeutic treatment; recommendations; clinical application
Online: 2 August 2022 (03:12:56 CEST)
Pulmonary thromboembolism is a very common cardiovascular disease, with a still high mortality rate. Despite the clear guidelines, this disease still represents a great challenge both in diagnosis and treatment. Heterogeneous clinical picture, often without pathognomonic signs and symptoms, represents a huge differential diagnostic problem even for experienced doctors. The decision on the therapeutic regimen also represents a major dilemma in the group of patients who are hemodynamically stable at initial presentation and have signs of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction proven by echocardiography and positive biomarker values (pulmonary embolism of intermediate-high risk). Studies have shown conflicting results about the benefit of using fibrinolytic therapy in this group of patients until hemodynamic decompensation, due to the risk of major bleeding. The latest recommendations give preference to new oral anticoagulants (NOACs) compared to vitamin K antagonists (VKA), except for certain categories of patients (patients with antiphospholipid syndrome, mechanical valves, pregnancy). When using oral anticoagulant therapy, special attention should be paid to drug-drug interactions, which can lead to many complications, even to the death of the patient. Special population groups such as pregnant women, obese patients, patients with antiphospholipid syndrome and cancer represent a great therapeutic challenge in the application of anticoagulant therapy. In these patients, not only the effectiveness of the drugs must be taken into account, but great attention must be paid to their safety and possible side effects, which is why a multidisciplinary approach is emphasized in order to provide the best therapeutic option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: clinical S.aureus; skin carriage; geriatric-MRSA pneumonia; endogenous-S.aureus
Online: 11 July 2022 (04:33:22 CEST)
The changing epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus has created several gaps in its population structure and emergence of strains. Two global shifts in the aftermath of the past methicil-lin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) pandemic are: a rise in healthcare-associated infections and evolu-tion of cutaneous and soft tissue infections with high morbidities and mortalities. Furthermore, bitter lessons from COVID-19 showed S. aureus necrotizing-pneumonia and skin conditions ag-gravating Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Monkeypox manifestations. Limited data and paucity of high-quality evidence exist for many key clinical questions. Using clinical microbiology, molecular characterization, hospital data on age and in-fection sites, and antibiograms, we have investigated S. aureus infection patterns. We showed that age-specific distribution in both intensive care unit (ICU) and non-ICU revealed highest infection rates (94.7%) in senior-patients >50 years; most were MRSA (81.99%). However, specific distribu-tions of geriatric MRSA and MSSA rates were 46.5% and 4.6% in ICU and 35.48% and 8.065% in non-ICU, respectively. Intriguingly, age groups 0-20 years showed uniquely similar MRSA pat-terns in ICU and non-ICU patients (13.9%, 9.7%, respectively) and MSSA in ICU (11.6%). In age groups 20-50 years, MRSA were 2-fold in non-ICU (35%) than ICU (18.6%). Interestingly, highly significant association was found between infection-site and age-groups (P-value .000). Skin in-fections remained higher in all ages; pediatrics 32.14%, adults 56%, and seniors 25% while res-piratory infections were lower in pediatrics (14.3%) and adult 17%), and highest in seniors (38%). Blood and “other” sites in pediatrics recorded (28.6%; 25%, respectively), slightly lower in adults (18.6%; 8.6%) and seniors (14%); 22.8%), respectively. Further, significant association existed between infection-site and MRSA (Chi-Square Test, P-value .002). The common cutaneous infec-tions across all age-groups and the significant association of MRSA to geriatric-respiratory infec-tions have a high potential for skin-carriage as reservoir for endogenous infection. The similar frequencies of both lineages in youth in all settings imply MSSA-carriage as potential evolutionary origins for MRSA. These findings have important clinical implications for strategic planning in patient management and S. aureus control particularly in age-specific infections and vigilance for potential viral coinfections.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0064.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: combination treatment; monotherapy; clinical trial design; benefit/risk assessment
Online: 6 January 2022 (10:14:10 CET)
Combination treatment, i.e., the use of two or more drugs for the same condition, is frequent in medicine if monotherapy yields an insufficient therapeutic response. We here review and challenge clinical study designs and formats of reporting outcomes for the evaluation of the benefit/risk ratio of combination treatment over monotherapy. We demonstrate that benefits of combination treatment at the group level over-estimate the probability of benefit at the single patient level based on outcome simulations under almost any imaginable setting. Based on these findings we propose that studies testing combination treatment should always report on percentages of responders to monotherapy and combination treatment. We provide equations that allow calculation of the percentage of patients truly benefitting from combination (responders to both monotherapies) and that of patients exposed to risk of harm from adverse effects without a reasonable expectation of individual benefit. These considerations are explained based on real clinical data, mostly from the field of functional urology (male lower urinary tract symptoms).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Juvenile idiopathic arthritis, JIA, Research registry, Clinical trial, DMARD
Online: 18 October 2021 (11:00:57 CEST)
Management of Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) has improved tremendously in recent years due to the introduction of new drug therapies but remains complex also in terms of non-pharmaceutical issues. In order to determine the direction of scientific progress by characterizing the current spectrum of ongoing clinical research in JIA, we analyzed all ongoing studies in the field of JIA registered in clinicaltrials.gov and clinicaltrialsregister.eu concerning sponsoring, enrollment, duration, localization, and particularly objectives. Close of database was 7 January 2021. After identifying doubled-registered studies, N=72 went into further analysis. Of these, 61.1% were academia-sponsored and 37.5% by pharma industry. The majority of studies was of interventional type (77.8%), while others (22.2%) were observational. Median planned enrollments were 100 participants (interventional studies) and 175 participants (observational studies), respectively. Duration differed remarkably from one month to more than 15 years with a median of 42.5 months. 61.1% of studies were located in a single country, 38.9% were in several. Europe and North America clearly dominated study localizations. Study objectives were DMARDs (56.9%), followed by diagnostics and disease activity measurement (18.1%), and medication other than DMARD (12.5%), besides others. Studies on DMARDs were mainly sponsored by industry, predominantly interventional studies on established and novel biologics, with several on specific issues like systemic JIA and others. The spectrum of registered studies is currently centered on drug therapy and diagnostics, while other issues in JIA play a subordinated role.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; artificial intelligence; clinical trials; eligibility assessment; randomization
Online: 8 October 2021 (11:31:14 CEST)
Clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) face multiple challenges, such as the high screen failure rate and even allocation of heterogeneous participants. Artificial intelligence (AI), which has become a potent tool of modern science with the expansion in the volume, variety, and velocity of biological data, offers promising potential to address these issues in AD clinical trials. In this review, we introduce the current status of AD clinical trials and topic of machine learning. Then, a comprehensive review is focused on the potential applications of AI in the steps of AD clinical trials, including the prediction of AD biomarkers and differential diagnosis of AD in the prescreen during eligibility assessment and the likelihood stratification of patients who will progress to AD dementia and fast cognitive decline group from the slow decline group in randomization. Finally, this review provides challenges, developments and the future outlook on the integration of AI into AD clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nephroblastoma; clinical malformations; cancer predisposition syndromes; tumor surveillance; outcome
Online: 10 August 2021 (09:55:14 CEST)
Background: About 10% of Wilms Tumor (WT) patients have a malformation or cancer predisposition syndrome (CPS) with causative germline genetic or epigenetic variants. Knowledge on CPS is essential for genetic counselling. Methods: This retrospective analysis focused on 2927 consecutive patients with WTs registered between 1989 and 2017 in the SIOP/GPOH studies. Results: (GU, N=66, 2,3%), Beckwith-Wiedemann spectrum (BWS, N=32, 1,1%), isolated hemihypertrophy (IHH, N=29, 1,0%), Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS, N=24, 0,8%) and WAGR syndrome (N=20, 0,7%) were reported most frequently. Compared to others, these patients were younger at WT diagnosis (median age 24,5 months vs. 39,0 months), had smaller tumors (334,8mL vs. 496,9mL), less often metastasis (8,2% vs. 18%), but more often nephroblastomatosis (12,9% vs. 1,9%). WT with IHH was associated with blastemal WT and DDS with stromal subtype. Bilateral WTs were common in WAGR (30%), DDS (29%) and BWS (31%). Chemotherapy induced reduction in tumor volume was poor in DDS (7,7% increase) and favorable in BWS (84,6% reduction). The event-free survival (EFS) of patients with BWS was significantly (p=0,002) worse than in others. Conclusions: CPS should be considered in WTs with specific clinical features resulting in referral to a geneticist. Their outcome was not always favorable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: allergic rhinitis; subcutaneous immunotherapy; clinical benefit; cost-saving benefit
Online: 14 June 2021 (11:42:37 CEST)
Background. Until now, cost of allergy treatment in insured public health care system and non-insured self-financing private health care system in Indonesia has not been well documented and published, as well as the cost of allergy treatment with subcutaneous immunotherapy. Objective. To evaluate the clinical and cost benefits of allergic rhinitis treatment in children with subcutaneous immunotherapy in non-insured self-financing private health care system. Methods. A retrospective cohort study conducted from 2015 until 2020, compared clinical improvement and health care costs over 18 months in newly diagnosed AR children who received SCIT versus matched AR control subjects who did not receive SCIT, with each group consisting of 1,098 subjects Results. Decrease of sp-HDM-IgE level (kU/ml) from 20.5 + 8.75 kU/ml to 12.1 + 3.07 kU/ml had been observed in the SCIT group. To reduce the symptom score of allergic rhinitis by 1.0 with SCIT it costs IDR 21,753,062.7 per child, for non SCIT it costs IDR 104,147,878.0 per child. Meanwhile, to reduce the medication score (MS) by 1.0 with SCIT it costs Rp. 17,024,138.8 while with non SCIT it costs Rp. 104,147,878.0. Meanwhile, to lower combination symptoms and medication score (CSMS) by 1.0, with SCIT it costs IDR 9,550,126.6, while with non SCIT it costs IDR 52,073,938.9. Conclusion. In conclusion, this first Indonesia-based study demonstrates substantial health care cost savings associated with SCIT for children with AR in an uninsured private health care system and provides strong evidence for the clinical benefits and cost-savings benefits of AR treatment in children.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0468.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Vaccine Development; Clinical Trial; COVID-19; SARS-COV-2
Online: 19 April 2021 (12:04:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic is a devastating blow to the entire world community and changes the order of human life. All efforts and strategies are being carried out to contain and reduce the spread of the SARS-COV-2 virus, both by tightening the health protocol and using vaccines to the public. Currently, several vaccines are available and have passed phase 3 clinical trials, such as vector vaccines (Gamaleya Sputnik V Russia, University of Oxford/AstraZeneca, CanSino, and Janssen Pharmaceutical Companies), mRNA-based vaccines (Moderna/BioNTech/Fosun Pharma/Pfizer), inactivated vaccines (SinoVac and SinoPharm from China, Covaxin from Bharat Biotech India), and adjuvanted recombinant protein nanoparticles (Novavax from the USA) are expected to be able to suppress the spread of the virus and produce a minimum of 70 percent herd-immunity in a population. Each vaccine's efficacy varies from the lowest, namely the Sinovac vaccine (CoronaVac) 50% to the highest the Novavax vaccine (NVX-Cov2373) 96% effectivity value. Moreover, further rigorous research is still being carried out for the development of an effective and efficient vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0227.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: rehabilitation; stress; reptiles; injury; disease; euthanasia; trauma; clinical care
Online: 9 February 2021 (09:23:18 CET)
Direct and indirect anthropogenic factors play a massive role in driving wildlife species towards extinction. Longitudinal retrospective studies identify key ‘factors’ responsible for the decline in numbers of wildlife, however, lack the reasoning behind the events leading to mortality. The overarching aim of this study was to categorize these ‘factors’ into different stressor categories faced by reptiles to understand its impact on an individual, and to compare how each stressor category influences the survival of an individual. The results from this study indicated that almost half of the number of reptiles being hospitalized were due to exposure to preliminary stressors such as lawn mowing incidents and pet attack. Primary and secondary admissions were fairly equal in number, however the mortality rate for secondary admissions was drastically high (~80%). The discussion integrates species’ ecology and stress physiology which can prove to have multi-faceted benefits across the fields of ecology and animal welfare. Ecologists can use the results from this study to comprehend species’ activity patterns to better plan reptilian conservation programs, whereas, for wildlife clinicians and rehabilitators, assignment of stressor categories could be a beneficial tool for bolstering the welfare monitoring program for small native reptiles in clinical settings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0679.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Sub Clinical Mastitis; prevalence; Surf Field Mastitis Test; Jhenaidah
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:40:34 CEST)
A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) among medium to large scale household dairy farms in southwestern district, Jhenaidah, Bangladesh during July to December 2019. A total of 78 (n=100) lactating cows from household dairy farms (N=32) having three or more dairy cows were selected randomly as sampled populations. Milk samples were screened for SCM by using Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT). The prevalence of SCM varied among farm level [71.9% (95% CI: 53.3-86.3)], individual animal level [67.9% (95% CI: 56.4-86.3)] and quarter level [29.5% (95% CI: 24.5-34.9)]. Descriptive statistics represented the farmers and farm demography, characteristics of the sampled population, and overall management feature. Random Effect Logistic Regression identified, Body Condition Score (BCS) [OR=3.8 and 2.9, at cows level and quarter level respectively (BCS-2 vs. BCS-≥3)], and breed [OR=5.1 and 2.9, at cows level and quarter level respectively (HF× Sahiwal vs. HF × Local)] as potential risk factors. This study shows that SCM is highly prevalent in the study area, which is a major threat to the dairy industry's production performance. Regular screening by SFMT, proper hygiene, improve the management system, and farmer’s awareness is required to control the disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: RAAS inhibitors; COVID-19; coronavirus; angiotensin; clinical outcome; antihypertensive
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:48:42 CEST)
Since the effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been conflicting in different studies, we performed this meta-analysis. A systematic search of published articles was performed in PubMed and EMBASE from January-May 5, 2020. Studies that reported the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19, stratified by the class of concomitant antihypertensive drug therapy, were included. The Mantel-Haenszel random effects model was used to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR). A total of 6,997 hypertensive patients with COVID-19 were included. The overall risk of poor patient outcomes (severe COVID-19 or death) was lower in patients taking RAAS inhibitors (OR=0.84, 95% CI: [0.73, 0.96]; P=0.017) compared with those receiving non-RAAS inhibitor antihypertensives. Patients taking angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were less likely to experience poor clinical outcomes (OR=0.73, 95% CI: [0.58-0.92]; P=0.01) compared with those receiving angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs). Compared to all other antihypertensives, ACEIs decreases the risk poor COVID-19 outcomes (OR=0.77, 95% CI: [0.63-0.93]) while ARBs did not (OR=1.13, 95% CI: [0.95-1.35]). The risk of poor patient outcomes from COVID-19 was lower in patients who received RAAS inhibitors compared with those who took non-RAAS inhibitors. Unlike ARBs, ACEIs might help in decreasing the severity and mortality of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Porphyra tenera; immune; clinical trial; natural killer cells; cytokines
Online: 17 April 2020 (02:15:58 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if Porphyra tenera extract (PTE) has immune-enhancing effects and is safe in healthy adults. Methods: Subjects (3x103 ≤ peripheral blood leukocyte levels < 8x103 cells/μl) who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. Enrolled subjects (n=120) were randomly assigned to either the PTE group (n=60) who were given 2.5 g/day of PTE (as Porphyra tenera extract) in capsule form or the placebo group (n=60) who were given crystal cellulose capsules with the identical appearance, weight, and flavor as the PTE capsules for 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed by measuring natural killer cell (NK-cell) activity, cytokines, and upper respiratory infection (URI), and safety parameters were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Results: Compared to baseline, NK cell activity (%) increased for all effector cell to target cell ratios in the PTE group after 8 weeks, but there were no changes in the placebo group (p<0.1). Subgroup analysis of 101 subjects without an URI revealed that NK-cell activity in the PTE group tended to be increased for all E:T ratios (E:T=12.5:1 p=0.068; E:T=25:1 p=0.036; E:T=50:1 p=0.081) compared to the placebo group. There was a significant difference between these two groups for the E:T=25:1 ratio, which increased from 20.3±12.0% at baseline to 23.2±12.4% after 8 weeks in the PTE group (p=0.036). There was no significant difference in levels of cytokines between these two groups. Conclusions: PTE supplementation appears to enhance immune function by improving NK-cell activity without adverse effects in healthy adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0348.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-COV-2; COVID-19; clinical pathology; pathogenesis; immunopathology
Online: 23 March 2020 (07:51:17 CET)
Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by a novel coronavirus named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome - Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), emerged in early December 2019 in China and attained a pandemic situation worldwide by its rapid spread to nearly 167 countries with 287.239 confirmed cases and 11.921 human deaths with a case fatality rate (CFR) of around 4 per cent. Bats were considered as the reservoir host, and the search of a probable intermediate host is still going on. Animals have anticipated culprit of SARS-CoV-2 as of now. The disease is mainly manifested by pneumonia and related respiratory signs and symptoms, but the involvement of the gastrointestinal system and nervous system is also suggested. The severe form of the disease associated with death is mainly reported in older and immune-compromised patients with pre-existing disease history. Death in severe cases is attributed to respiratory failure associated with hyperinflammation. Cytokine storm syndrome associated with rampant inflammation in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered as the leading killer of COVID-19 patients. COVID-19 patients were reported with higher levels of many pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines like IFN-g, IL-1b, IP-10, and MCP-1. Furthermore, severe cases of COVID-19 revealed higher levels of TNF-α, G-CSF, and MIP-1A. Blood profile of the COVID-19 patients exhibits lymphopenia, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and RNAaemia along with increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase. SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women does not lead to fetus mortalities unlike other zoonotic coronaviruses like SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV, with no evidence of intrauterine transmission to neonates. Rapid and confirmatory diagnostics have been developed, and high efforts are being made to develop effective vaccines and therapeutics. In the absence of any virus-specific therapeutic, internationally health care authorities are recommending adoption of effective prevention and control measures to counter and contain this pandemic virus. This paper is an overview of this virus and the disease with a particular focus on SARS-COV-2 / COVID-19 clinical pathology, pathogenesis and immunopathology along with a few recent research developments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0278.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine learning; clinical decision-making; personalized medicine; digital health
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:26:16 CET)
The use of machine learning (ML) approaches to target clinical problems is called to revolutionize clinical decision-making. The success of these tools is subjected to the understanding of the intrinsic processes being used during the classical pathway by which clinicians make decisions. In a parallelism with this pathway, ML can have an impact at four levels: for data acquisition, predominantly by extracting standardized, high-quality information with the smallest possible learning curve; for feature extraction, by discharging healthcare practitioners from performing tedious measurements on raw data; for interpretation, by digesting complex, heterogeneous data in order to augment the understanding of the patient status; and for decision support, by leveraging the previous step to predict clinical outcomes, response to treatment or to recommend a specific intervention. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art, as well as the current clinical status and challenges associated with each of these tasks, together with the challenges related to the learning process, the auditability/traceability, the system infrastructure and the integration within clinical processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0010.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: aromatase inhibitors; anastrozole; levonorgestrel-iud; endometriosis; endometriomas; clinical trial
Online: 1 November 2019 (12:47:34 CET)
Background: Effectiveness of Anastrozole and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD, Mirena®) in the treatment of endometriosis. Methods: Randomized clinical trial. Elegibility criteria: Endometriomas >3×4 cm, CA-125>35 U/mL and symptoms suggestive of endometriosis. Thirty-one women were randomized to anastrozole+Mirena®+Conservative Surgery(CS) (n=8), anastrozole+Mirena®+transvaginal ultrasound-guided puncture-aspiration(TUGPA) (n=7), Mirena®+CS (n=9), or Mirena®+TUGPA (n=7). Interventions: Anastrozole 1 mg/day and/or only Mirena® for 6 months. CS or TUGPA one month after starting medical treatment. Results: A significant improvement in symptoms during the treatment (difference of 43%, 95% CI 29.9-56.2) occurred, which was maintained at 1 and 2 years. It was more significant in patients treated with anastrozole. For CA-125, the most significant decrease was observed without anastrozole. After CS for endometriosis, a reduction of findings of endometriomas and long-term recurrences occurred, with or without anastrozole, although anastrozole seems to delay recurrences. At 4,2±1,7 years, 88% of the patients who underwent CS were asymptomatic, compared to only 21% if TUGPA was performed, with or without anastrozole (p=0.019). Conclusion: Dosing anastrozole for 6 months, starting one month before CS of endometriosis, reduces more significantly the painful symptoms and delays recurrences, but has no other significant advantages over the single insertion of LNG-IUD (Mirena®) during the same time.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0760.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Multiplex serology, serosurveillance, vaccine monitoring, emerging diseases, clinical microbiology
Online: 1 November 2018 (18:02:59 CET)
High throughput multiplex serological systems enable the small developer to set up tests at small cost, for microbes for which there are no commercial tests, and for aspects which have not been addressed by them. An example is testing for Zika and Tick Borne Encephalitis virus antibodies, where antigenic cross-reactions make diagnosis problematic. Our technique variant, Suspension Multiplex Immunoassay (SMIA) allows many samples to be tested for antibodies to many antigens in a short time. Computational compensation for cross-reactions is possible if a SMIA panel contains most of the potentially cross-reacting antigens. Using antibody avidity and pattern of reactivity to whole virus and nonstructural protein, antibodies due to vaccination and infection, respectively, as well as probable degree of protection, can be determined with high throughput. These multiplex techniques hold great promise for future diagnostic development. Theoretically, even large scale serological monitoring, like blood donor pathogen testing, could be done inexpensively and rationally with multiplex serology developed in house. However, the quality control demands are steep and in most cases out of scope for a single laboratory. There remain however a number of clinical applications where in house multiplex serology can be performed with adequate quality control under high throughput conditions.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: biosimilarity; biosimilars; pharmacodynamic biomarkers; monoclonal antibodies; FDA; clinical efficacy testing in healthy subjects; clinical efficacy testing in patients; functional assays; receptor binding
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:03:20 CEST)
The FDA has concluded that a biosimilar candidate capable of demonstrating pharmacodynamic biomarkers in a healthy subject need not be tested for clinical efficacy in patients, regardless of if the biomarker correlates with clinical response. Since monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) do not trig-ger pharmacodynamic response, they can be substituted with robust functional disqualifying them for this waiver that can be overcome by allowing comparison of functional properties that eventually result in clinical response. This suggestion is based on the FDA's preference for more sensitive testing methods. However, clinical efficacy testing in patients is the least sensitive method, as confirmed by statistical modeling, a fact that regulatory agencies need to admit. In this paper, I present a logical and rational argument to establish the biosimilarity of products that do not have pharmacodynamic biomarkers based on their orthogonally proven functional bio-similarity. This understanding will significantly lower the development cost of biosimilars, a goal that the FDA outlined in all its guidance. Keywords: biosimilarity 1; biosimilars 2; pharmacodynamic biomarkers 3; monoclonal antibodies 4; FDA 5; clinical efficacy testing in healthy subjects 6; clinical efficacy testing in patients 7; functional assays 8; receptor binding 9.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived; bone regeneration; cartilage regeneration; clinical application; clinical studies; differentiation; hair loss; induced pluripotent stem cells; maxillary sinus augmentation; osteoarthritis; pluripotency; regenerative
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:25:14 CEST)
Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold certain promise for regenerative medicine. This paper is intended to clarify and facilitate the understanding, development and adoption of regenerative medicine in general and specifically of therapies based on unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). To this end, results of landmark experiments on stem cells and stem cell therapy performed in the labs of the authors are summarized, the most intriguing of which are the following: (i) vascular associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different organs (adipose tissue, heart, skin, bone marrow and skeletal muscle) and differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, providing significant support for the hypothesis of the existence of a small, ubiquitously distributed, universal vascular associated stem cell with full pluripotency; (ii) the orientation and differentiation of MSCs are driven by signals of the respective microenvironment; and (iii) these stem cells irrespective of the tissue origin exhibit full pluripotent differentiation potential without any prior genetic modification or the need for culturing. They can be obtained from a small amount of adipose tissue when using the appropriate technology for isolating the cells, and can be harvested from and re-applied to the same patient at the point of care without the need for complicated processing, manipulation, culturing, expensive equipment, or repeat interventions. These findings demonstrate the potential of UA-ADRCs for triggering the development of an entire new generation of medicine for the benefit of patients and of healthcare systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0679.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: clinical pathways; lower limbs; quality of life; non-union fractures
Online: 10 May 2023 (04:00:12 CEST)
Patients with non-union fractures spend extended periods in the hospital following poor healing. Patients have to make several follow-up visits for medical and rehabilitation purposes. However, the clinical pathways and quality of life of these patients are unknown. This prospective study aimed to identify the clinical pathways (CPs) of 22 patients with lower limb non-union fractures whilst determining their quality of life. Data were collected from hospital records on admission through discharge, utilising a CP questionnaire. We used the same questionnaire to track patients' follow-up frequency, involvement in activities of daily living, and outcomes at six months. We used the short form-36 questionnaire to assess patients’ initial quality of life. The Kruskal-Wallis test compared the quality of life domains across different fracture sites. We examined CPs using medians and inter-quantile ranges. During the six-month follow-up period, 12 patients with lower limb non-union fractures were readmitted. All of the patients had impairments, limited activity, and participation restrictions. Lower limb fractures can have a substantial impact on emotional and physical health, and lower limb non-union fractures may have an even greater effect on the emotional and physical health of patients, necessitating a more holistic approach to patient care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0375.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; clinical phenotypes; non-motor symptoms; quality of life
Online: 6 May 2023 (04:37:34 CEST)
: Background: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a chronic, progressive illness with a profound impact on health-related quality of life, and it is crucial to know what factors influence quality of life throughout the course of the disease. This study aimed to evaluate PD patients’ motor and non-motor symptoms to compare symptom severity between PD clinical phenotypes and to assess the impact of disease symptoms on quality of life in a cohort of Latvian patients. Methods: We evaluated 43 patients with Parkinson’s disease. Fourteen patients had tremor-dominant (TD) PD, twenty-five patients had postural instability/gait difficulty (PIGD), and four patients had a mixed phenotype. Results: The patients’ mean age was 65.21 years, and the disease’s mean duration was 7 years. The most common non-motor symptoms were fatigue (95.3%), sleep disturbance (83.7%), daytime sleepiness (83.7%), and pain and other sensations (81.4%). PIGD patients had a higher prevalence of depressed mood, daytime sleepiness, constipation, light headedness on standing, cognitive impairment, and severe gastrointestinal and urinary disturbances (as assessed using the SCOPA-AUT domains) compared with TD patients. A high prevalence of fatigue was assessed in both disease subtypes. Health-related quality of life significantly statistically correlated with MDS-UPDRS parts III and IV (r = 0.704), the Hoehn and Yahr scale (r = 0.723), as well as the SCOPA-AUT scale’s gastrointestinal (r = 0.639), cardiovascular (r = 0.586), thermoregulatory (r = 0.566) and pupillomotor domains (r = 0.597). Conclusion: The severity of motor symptoms, as well as non-motor symptoms, such as fatigue, apathy, sleep problems and daytime sleepiness, pain, and disturbances in gastrointestinal and cardiovascular function, negatively affect PD patients’ health-related quality of life. Thermoregulatory and pupillomotor symptoms also significantly affect PD patients’ well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0321.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: randomized clinical trial; humans; salba; blood glucose; hunger; fullness; MAGE.
Online: 5 May 2023 (07:43:41 CEST)
Chia seed, high in dietary-fiber and protein, may have potential to increase satiety. However, previous studies are confounded by differences in energy intake, and none investigated doses <7g. We compared the subjective appetite and glycaemic responses elicited by 30g cookies containing 0, 3, 5 or 7g chia seed (CS0, CS3, CS5 or CS7, respectively, 140-150kcal, 7-8g fat, 4g protein, 0-2g dietary-fiber, 16g available-carbohydrate) using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design. Overnight-fasted heathy adults (24 males, 22 females; mean±SD age 37±13y; BMI 27.4±3.9kg/m²) consumed test-cookies and had appetite and plasma-glucose measured before and intermittently for 3h after eating. Data were analyzed by ANOVA with Tukey’s test to adjust for multiple comparisons; the criterion for significance was 2-tailed p<0.025 for the primary endpoints of total area under the curve (tAUC0-3h) for hunger and fullness. Hunger tAUC0-3h was similar among treatments (p=0.49) but fullness differed (p=0.019) with tAUC0-3h after CS3>CS7 (mean±SEM) (140±9 vs 122±10mm×h, p<0.025). Mean incremental glucose AUC0-2h after CS3, CS5 and CS7, respectively, were 22%, 23% and 30% less than CS0 (p<0.05). Thus, although chia reduced glycemic responses, we were unable to demonstrate a significant effect of ≤7g chia seed on the primary endpoints of hunger or fullness tAUC0-3h versus control.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0697.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: viral vectors; gene therapy; animal models; clinical trials; drug approval
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:55:15 CEST)
Gene therapy has seen major progress in recent years. Viral vectors have made a significant contribution through efficient engineering for improved delivery and safety. A large variety of indications such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic, hematological, neurological, muscular, ophthalmological, infectious diseases, and immunodeficiency have been targeted. Viral vectors based on adenoviruses, adeno-associated viruses, herpes simplex viruses, retroviruses including lentiviruses, alphaviruses, flaviviruses, measles viruses, rhabdoviruses, Newcastle disease virus, poxviruses, picornaviruses, reoviruses, and polyomaviruses have been used. Proof-of-concept has been demonstrated for different indications in animal models. Therapeutic efficacy has also been achieved in clinical trials. Several viral vector-based drugs have been approved for the treatment of cancer, and hematological, metabolic, and neurological diseases. Moreover, viral vector-based vaccines have been approved against COVID-19 and Ebola virus disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0694.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis; molecular biotechnologies; clinical trials studies; hygiene hypothesis; parvoviruses
Online: 21 April 2023 (08:48:10 CEST)
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) is a gender autoimmune disease that is manifested by chronic inflammation of thyroid. Clinical trial studies (CTSs) use molecular biotechnologies (MB) to approach HT appearance. Aims of this study was to analyze the applications of MB in CTSs carried out in HT populations (HT-CTSs). Further, to evaluate the role of MB in the context of hygiene hypothesis (HH). From 75 HT-CTSs found at https://beta.clinicaltrials.gov/ web place, forty-five were considered for this investigation. Finally, six HT-CTSs were reported as molecular HT-CTSs (mHT-CTSs) because of these were planning to utilize MB. Two of mHT-CTSs were settled on French population to isolate DNA viral sequences. Blood, urine, and thyroid tissues biospecimens were analyzed to pick out parvo and polyoma viruses. Two mHT-CTSs carried out in China, were aimed to identify oral and fecal microbiotas by measuring PCR sequencing of 16S rRNA gene. Two mHT-CTSs were programmed in USA and Greece, respectively, for interception of DNA polymorphisms to associate with genetic susceptibility to HT. In conclusion, MB are mainly employed in HT-CTSs for infective pathogenesis and genetic fingerprinting of HT. Besides, MB don't prove the evidence of HH; however, they are useful for direct evidence of the presence of viruses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0426.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: simulation; nursing students; clinical practice; knowledge; nursing education and skills
Online: 23 November 2022 (01:14:09 CET)
Implementing the methodology of clinical simulation in the nursing degree course is a necessity in the European framework of higher education to acquire competences. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the strategies and techniques used during the simulations, identify the contents learned, and determine which of them are transferred to the nursing practice. We performed an observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study from the nursing students’ perspective during the 2020-21-year course. On the one hand, our results show that the DASH scale helped us to obtain an internal validity of the simulations obtaining a mean score of 6.61 out of 7. On the other hand, the Ad Hoc scale, based on the competences were acquired in the simulations were transferred to the care practices. In conclusion, it is possible to improve care practices by integrating knowledge through clinical simulations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0133.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: otolith; vestibular; oVEMP; utricular; clinical audiovestibular testing; vestibular screening test
Online: 8 July 2022 (05:55:49 CEST)
We have previously reported that a single test measuring oVEMP n10 to 4000Hz stimuli (either bone-conducted vibration (BCV) or air-conducted sound (ACS)) provides a definitive diagnosis of semicircular canal dehiscence (SCD) in 22 CT-verified patients with a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 1.0. Such a single short screening test has great advantages of speed, minimizing testing time and the exposure of patients to stimulation. However some studies of the 4000Hz test for SCD have reported sensitivity and sensitivity values somewhat less that what we reported.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0167.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: deep learning; convolutional neural network; brain tumor classification; clinical application
Online: 13 June 2022 (04:57:42 CEST)
Deep learning has shown remarkable results in every field, especially in the biomedical field, due to its ability to exploit large-scale datasets. A convolutional neural network (CNN) is a widely used deep learning approach to solve medical imaging problems. Over the past few years, many studies have focused on CNN-based techniques for brain tumor diagnosis. There are, however, still some critical challenges that CNNs face towards clinic application. This study presents a comprehensive review of current literature that involves CNN architectures for brain tumor classification. We compare the key achievements in the performance evaluation metrics of the applied classification algorithms. In addition, this review assesses the clinical effectiveness of the included studies to elaborate on the limitations and directions of this area for future work. No review focusing on the clinical effectiveness of previous works in this field has been published. We believe that this study has the potential to elevate the application of CNN-based deep learning methods in clinical practice and also can be a quick reference for biomedical researchers who are interested in this field.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Acute non hepA–E hepatitis; clinical manifestations; epidemiological characteristics; prevention
Online: 27 May 2022 (08:41:42 CEST)
The emergence of acute, severe non hepA–E hepatitis of unknown etiology (ASHUE) has attracted global concern owing to the very young age of the patients and its unknown etiology. Although this condition has been linked to several possible causes, including viral infection, drugs, and/or toxin exposure, the exact cause remains unknown; this makes treatment recommendations very difficult. In this review, we summarize recent updates on the clinical manifestations, complemented with laboratory results, case numbers with the global distribution and other epidemiological characteristics, and the possible etiologies. We also provide the proposed actions that could be undertaken to control and prevent further spread of this hepatitis. Since many etiological and pathological aspects of the acute non hepA–E hepatitis remain unclear, further research is needed to minimize the severe impact of this disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0276.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Roy's Adaptation Model; Nursing Research; Nursing Clinical Practice; Nursing Theory
Online: 20 May 2022 (09:44:47 CEST)
Background: One way to demonstrate the existence of nursing is to develop a nursing theory model through nursing research which can ultimately be implemented in nursing practice. RAM is one of the most frequently used models in guiding nursing research. Roy's Adaptation Model (RAM) is one of the most useful conceptual frameworks that guide nursing practice, direct research, and influence education. Theory-guided nursing practice is fundamental in providing the framework for developing superior and quality nursing care.Objectives: This systematic review aims to critically analyze recent studies using RAM as a conceptual framework to identify the effectiveness of this model in guiding nursing research.Methods: A literature search was conducted on five databases, namely SCOPUS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect, and SAGEPub. There were no population boundaries and diagnoses involved in the study. The study is a quantitative design focused on publication between 2015-2021. The methodological quality of applying the Cochrane and JBI bias tools. The analysis uses narrative synthesis.Results: 20 studies were found out of 1,315 studies. The research population found is very diverse. The given intervention follows the conceptual framework of RAM. RAM-based interventions effectively overcome the problems experienced by patients and reduce the perceived symptoms and improve the patient's quality of life.Conclusion: The conceptual use of RAM theory in nursing research has been widely reported. RAM-based interventions have a significant impact and have strong evidence-based practice in improving patient health status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0399.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical assistants; pediatric oncology; assistance activity; new roles; skill mix
Online: 22 November 2021 (14:00:03 CET)
Background: There is a high bureaucratic and administrative burden associated with health care tasks (test requesting, visits scheduling, supporting documents provision) that has historically largely fallen on health care professionals, which is one among the factors contributing to low job satisfaction and lower productivity. Incorporating new professional roles that help to better respond to the needs of both patients and professionals can increase the quality and efficiency of service provision. Objective: To evaluate the impact of the clinical assistant’s introduction in the Sant Joan de Déu Barcelona Children’s Hospital’s pediatric oncology department, in terms of displacement of activity loads carried out by this new professional role and the consequent time freed up for physicians. Methodology: Observational and retrospective study using administrative data based on the analysis of the type of activity performed by clinical assistants and the measurement of the time freed up in favor of the physicians, based on in situ timekeeping, to approximate the potential skill mix productivity increase. Results: Since its implementation in the pediatric oncology department, clinical assistants have performed 13,553 requests (69.93% of the total), representing a total saving of 266.83 hours or 6.67 workweeks of 40 hours. They performed 74.25% of outpatient surgical requests in the oncology department, 87.5% of day hospital requests and 54.13% of total requests in the outpatient consultations area. Conclusion: The introduction of clinical assistants in the oncology department could be efficient to the extent that it displaces a good part of the bureaucratic and administrative tasks previously performed by health care professionals. This delegation allows them to work more closely to the maximum of their competences and the physicians to have more time for higher added value clinical tasks. In terms of efficiency, this role change enables to optimize the clinical process, reducing the cost by 56% compared to the conventional model.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0307.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: SARS-Cov-2; COVID-19; oncology; cancer screening; clinical trials
Online: 21 October 2021 (12:45:12 CEST)
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused considerable global disruption to clinical practice. This article will review the impact that the pandemic has had on oncology clinical trials. It will assess the effect of the COVID-19 situation on the initial presentation and investigation of patients with suspected cancer. It will also discuss the impact of the pandemic on the subsequent management of cancer patients and how clinical trial approval, recruitment and conduct were affected during the pandemic. An intriguing aspect of the pandemic is that clinical trials investigating treatments for COVID-19 and vaccinations against the causative virus, SARS-CoV-2, have been approved and conducted at unprecedented speed. In light of this, this re-view will also discuss the potential that this enhanced regulatory environment could have on the running of oncology clinical trials in the future.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: African swine fever virus, Belgium, virulence, clinical course, domestic pigs
Online: 2 August 2021 (13:05:54 CEST)
African swine fever (ASF) is one of the most important and devastating viral diseases in wild boar and domestic pigs worldwide. In the absence of vaccines or treatment options, early clinical detection is key and requires sound knowledge of disease characteristics. To provide practitioners and state veterinarians with detailed information, the objective of the present study was to characterize the ASF virus (ASFV) isolate “Belgium 2018/1” in subadult and weaning domestic pigs. To this end, two animal trials were performed. Trial A included eight subadult domestic pigs and trial B five weaner pigs. In general, clinical signs and pathological lesions were in line with previous studies utilizing highly virulent ASF genotype II viruses. However, in trial A, four subadult domestic pigs survived and recovered pointing to an age dependent outcome. The long-term fate of those survivors remains under discussion and would need further investigations.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: pharmacotherapy, pharmacogenetics, genetic panel tests, clinical relevance, CYP450, SONOGEN XP
Online: 19 April 2021 (16:44:43 CEST)
There is a growing number of evidence-based indications for pharmacogenetic (PGx) testing. We aimed to evaluate clinical relevance of a 16-gene panel test for PGx-guided pharmacotherapy. In an observational cohort study we included subjects tested with a PGx panel for variants of ABCB1, COMT, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP4F2, DPYD, OPRM1, POR, SLCO1B1, TPMT and VKORC1. PGx-guided pharmacotherapy management was supported by the PGx expert system SONOGEN XP. The primary study outcome was PGx-based changes and recommendations regarding current and potential future medication. PGx-testing was triggered by specific drug-gene pairs in 102 subjects, and by screening in 33. Based on PharmGKB expert guidelines we identified at least one “actionable” variant in all 135 (100%) tested patients. Drugs that triggered PGx-testing were clopidogrel in 60, tamoxifen in 15, polypsychopharmacotherapy in 9, opioids in 7, and other in 11 patients. Among those, PGx variants resulted in clinical recommendations to change PGx-triggering drugs in 33 (32.4 %), and other current pharmacotherapy in 23 (22.5%). Additional costs of panel vs. single gene tests are moderate, and the efficiency of PGx panel testing challenges traditional cost-benefit calculations for single drug-gene pairs. However, PGx-guided pharmacotherapy requires specialized expert consultations with interdisciplinary collaborations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0409.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Reflux; Laryngopharyngeal; Clinical; Atypical; Nasal; Otological; Respiratory; Management; Treatment; Diagnosis
Online: 15 April 2021 (12:08:19 CEST)
Background: Laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) is a common disease in otolaryngology characterized by an inflammatory reaction of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract caused by digestive refluxate enzymes. LPR has been identified as etiological or favoring factor of laryngeal, oral, sinonasal or otological diseases. In this case-series, we reported atypical clinical presentation of LPR in patients presenting in our clinic with reflux. Methods: A retrospective medical chart review of 351 patients with LPR treated in the European Reflux Clinic in Brussels, Poitiers and Paris was performed. In order to be included, patients had to report atypical clinical presentation of LPR, consisting of symptoms or findings that are not described in reflux symptom score and reflux sign assessment. The LPR diagnosis was confirmed with 24-hour hypopharyngeal-esophageal impedance pH-study and patients were treated with a combination of diet, proton pump inhibitors and alginates. The atypical symptoms or findings had to be resolved from pre- to posttreatment Results: From 2017 to 2021, 21 patients with atypical LPR were treated in our center. The clinical presentation consisted of recurrent aphthosis or burning mouth (N=9), recurrent burps and abdominal disorders (N=2), posterior nasal obstruction (N=2), recurrent acute suppurative otitis media (N=2), severe vocal fold dysplasia (N=2), and recurrent acute rhinopharyngitis (N=1), tearing (N=1), aspirations (N=1) or tracheobronchitis (N=1). Abnormal upper aerodigestive tract reflux events were identified in all of these patients. Atypical clinical findings resolved and did not recur after an adequate anti-reflux treatment. Conclusion: LPR may present with various clinical presentations including mouth, eye, tracheobronchial, nasal or laryngeal findings, which may all regress with an adequate treatment. Future studies are needed to better specify the relationship between LPR and these atypical findings through analyses identifying gastroduodenal enzyme in the enflamed tissue.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0530.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; Epidemiolog; Pathophysiology; Clinical manifestations; Vaccines
Online: 23 February 2021 (16:00:05 CET)
During 2019, the number of patients suffering from cough, fever and reduction of WBC’s count increased. At the beginning, this mysterious illness was called “fever with unknown origin”. At the present time, the cause of this pneumonia is known as the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) or the severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 is one member of great family of coronaviruses. Coronaviruses can cause different kind of illnesses including respiratory, enteric, hepatic, and neurological diseases in animals like cat and bat. Coronaviruses are enveloped positive-stranded RNA viruses. The SARS-CoV-2 has some particular structures for binding to host cells, reproducing itself in cells and damaging human cells. The SARS-CoV-2 can bind angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE‐2) receptors and cause various difficulties for human. The SARS-CoV-2 can cause either not-serious issues like fever and cough or serious concerns such as multi-organ failure. Source(s) of SARS-CoV-2 is under debate. Malayan pangolin and bat are the most suspicious candidate for being sources of the SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted by various ways such as transmitting from infected human to healthy human and can make severe pneumonia, which can lead to death. The SARS-CoV-2 can infect different kind of people with different ages, races, and social and economic levels. The SARS‐CoV‐2 infection can cause various sorts of clinical manifestations like cough and fever and intensity of signs and symptoms depends on sufferer conditions. Clinicians use all of available documents and tests like laboratory, histopathological and radiological findings for diagnosing new cases and curing patients with high accuracy. At the present time, there is no particular way for treating SARS-CoV-2 infection; neither antiviral drugs nor palliative agents. It seems that the best way for standing against the SARS-CoV-2 infection is preventing from it by social distancing and vaccination. This review tries to prepare an essential brief update about SARS-CoV-2 infection for clinicians.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0405.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: drug repurposing; antifungal therapy; antifungal mechanism; clinical application; antifungal agents
Online: 18 February 2021 (10:21:38 CET)
The morbidity and mortality caused by invasive fungal infections is increasing across the globe due to developments in transplant surgery, the use of immunosuppressive agents, and the emergence of drug-resistant fungal strains, which has led to a challenge in terms of treatment due to the limitations of three classes of drugs. Hence, it is imperative to establish effective strategies to identify and design new antifungal drugs. Drug repurposing is an effective way of expanding the application of existing drugs. In the last years, various existing drugs have been shown to be useful in the prevention and treatment of the invasive fungi. In this review, we summarize the currently used antifungal agents. In addition, the most up to date information on the effectiveness of existing drugs with antifungal activity is discussed. Moreover, the antifungal mechanisms of existing drugs are highlighted. These data will provide valuable knowledge to stimulate further investigation and clinical application in this field.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome; diagnosis; Health services; clinical care
Online: 16 October 2020 (08:58:18 CEST)
Designed by a group of ME/CFS researchers and health professionals, the European Network on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (EUROMENE) has received funding from the European Cooperation is Science and Technology (COST) (https://www.cost.eu/cost-actions/what-are-cost-actions/ ) - COST action 15111 - from 2016 to 2020. The main goal of the Cost Action was to assess the existing fragmented knowledge and experience on health care delivery for people with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) in European countries, and to enhance coordinated research and health care provision in this field. We report on the recommendations for clinical diagnosis, heath services and care for people with ME/CFS in Europe, as prepared by the group of clinicians and researchers from 22 countries and 55 European health professionals and researchers, who have been informed by people with ME/CFS (https://www.cost.eu/actions/CA15111/#tabs|Name:overview).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0124.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: COVID-19; Epidemic Prediction; Clinical Diagnosis; Policy Effectiveness; Contact Tracing
Online: 7 July 2020 (10:06:05 CEST)
The widely spread CoronaVirus Disease (COVID)- 19 is one of the worst infectious disease outbreaks in history and has become an emergency of primary international concern. As the pandemic evolves, academic communities have been actively involved in various capacities, including accurate epidemic estimation, fast clinical diagnosis, policy effectiveness evaluation and development of contract tracing technologies. There are more than 23,000 academic papers on the COVID-19 outbreak, and this number is doubling every 20 days while the pandemic is still on-going . The literature, however, at its early stage, lacks a comprehensive survey from a data analytics perspective. In this paper, we review the latest models for analyzing COVID19 related data, conduct post-publication model evaluations and cross-model comparisons, and collect data sources from different projects.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0327.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: anosmia; ageusia; clinical manifestations; neurological; SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19
Online: 20 May 2020 (10:39:41 CEST)
Over the course of the pandemic due to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), multiple new clinical manifestations, as the consequence of the tropism of the virus, have been recognized. That includes now the neurological manifestations and conditions, such as headache, encephalitis, as well as olfactory and taste disorders. We present a series of ten cases of RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infected patients diagnosed with viral-associated olfactory and taste loss from four different countries.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: COVID-19; drugs; 2019-nCoV; clinical trials; SARS-CoV-2
Online: 20 April 2020 (15:53:56 CEST)
The emergence of new type of viral pneumonia cases in China, on December 31, 2019; identified as the cause of human coronavirus, labeled as "COVID-19," took a heavy toll of death and reported cases of infected people all over the world, with the potential to spread widely and rapidly, achieved worldwide prominence but arose without the procurement guidance. There is an immediate need for active intervention and fast drug discovery against the 2019-nCoV outbreak. Herein, the study provides numerous candidates of drugs (either alone or integrated with another drugs) which could prove to be effective against 2019-nCoV, are under different stages of clinical trials. This review will offer rapid identification of a number of repurposable drugs and potential drug combinations targeting 2019-nCoV and preferentially allow the international research community to evaluate the findings, to validate the efficacy of the proposed drugs in prospective trials and to lead potential clinical practices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0697.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: glioma; glioblastoma; pre-clinical drug development; 3D culture systems; radiotherapy
Online: 30 October 2018 (03:38:28 CET)
Glioblastoma (GBM), the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, remains one of the least treatable cancers. Current standard of care—combining surgical resection, radiation, and alkylating chemotherapy—results in a median survival of only 15 months. Despite decades of investment and research into the development of new therapies, most candidate anti-glioma compounds fail to translate into effective treatments in clinical trials. One key issue underlying this failure of therapies that work in pre-clinical models to generate meaningful improvement in human patients is the profound mismatch between drug discovery systems—cell cultures and mouse models—and the actual tumors they are supposed to imitate. Indeed, current strategies that evaluate the effects of novel treatments on GBM cells in vitro fail to account for a wide range of factors known to influence tumor growth. These include secreted factors, the brain’s unique extracellular matrix, circulatory structures, the presence of non-tumor brain cells, and nutrient sources available for tumor metabolism. While mouse models provide a more realistic testing ground for potential therapies, they still fail to account for the full complexity of tumor-microenvironment interactions, as well as the role of the immune system. Based on the limitations of current models, researchers have begun to develop and implement novel culture systems that better recapitulate the complex reality of brain tumors growing in situ. A rise in the use of patient derived cells, creative combinations of added growth factors and supplements, may provide a more effective proving ground for the development of novel therapies. This review will summarize and analyze these exciting developments in 3D culturing systems. Special attention will be paid to how they enhance the design and identification of compounds that increase the efficacy of radiotherapy, a bedrock of GBM treatment.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0173.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Noni juice; Morinda citrifolia; clinical trial; antioxidant; immune system; inflammation
Online: 20 March 2018 (07:48:10 CET)
Noni juice is a globally popular health beverage that originates from the tropics. Traditional Tahitian healers believe the noni plant to be useful for a wide range of maladies, and noni juice consumers throughout the world have similar perceptions. Nevertheless, human clinical trials are necessary for an understanding of what the health benefits of noni juice truly are. A review of published human intervention studies suggest that noni juice may provide protection against tobacco smoke-induced DNA damage, blood lipid and homocysteine elevation, and systemic inflammation. Human interventions studies also suggest that noni juice may improve joint health, increase physical endurance, increase immune activity, inhibit glycation of proteins, aid weight management, help maintain bone health in women, help maintain normal blood pressure, and improve gum health. Further, these studies point to noni juice possessing notable antioxidant activity, more so than the other fruit juices that served as placebos. It is this antioxidant effect, and its interaction with the immune system and inflammation pathways, that may account for many of the observed health benefits of noni juice. However, the existing evidence does have some limitations in its application to noni juice products in general as all the peer-reviewed human interventions studies to-date have involved only one source of French Polynesian noni juice. Geographical factors and variations in processing methods are known to produce commercial noni juice products with divergent phytochemical and nutrient compositions. Therefore, other sources of noni products may have different toxicological and pharmacological profiles.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0090.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: BRCA1; variants of uncertain clinical significance; VUS; germline variants; hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; breast cancer; genetic testing, ovarian cancer; variant classification; clinical annotation
Online: 11 February 2019 (16:12:03 CET)
Genetic testing allows for identification of germline DNA variations which are associated with a significant increase in risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer. Detection of a BRCA1 or BRCA2 pathogenic variant triggers several clinical management actions, which may include increased surveillance and prophylactic surgery for healthy carriers or treatment with PARP inhibitor therapy for carriers diagnosed with cancer. Thus, standardized validated criteria for annotation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants according to their pathogenicity are necessary to support clinical decision making and ensure improved outcomes. Upon detection, variants whose pathogenicity can be inferred by the genetic code are typically classified as pathogenic, likely pathogenic, likely benign, or benign. Variants whose impact on function cannot be directly inferred by the genetic code are labeled as Variants of Uncertain Clinical Significance (VUS) and are evaluated by multifactorial likelihood models that use personal and family history of cancer, segregation data, prediction tools, and co-occurrence with a pathogenic BRCA variant. Missense variants, coding alterations that replace a single amino acid residue with another, are a class of variants for which determination of clinical relevance is particularly challenging. Here, we discuss current issues in variant classification by following a typical life cycle of a BRCA1 missense variant through detection, annotation and information dissemination. Advances in massively parallel sequencing have led to a substantial increase in VUS findings. Although comprehensive assessment and classification of missense variants according to their pathogenicity remains the bottle neck, new developments in functional analysis, high throughput assays, data sharing, and statistical models are rapidly changing this scenario.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1693.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Digital twin; Clinical trials; Quality by Design; Blockchain technology; Drug development
Online: 24 May 2023 (04:46:13 CEST)
Clinical trials are research studies performed on people that are aimed at evaluating a medical, surgical, or behavioural intervention. It is a primary way that researchers find out if a new treatment, like a new drug or diet, or medical device is safe and effective in people. In this paper blockchain technology is embedded in a digital twin aiming to improve the quality of clinical trials through the boost of data integrity among the quality-related activities, and to promote participants' safety. First, a blockchain-embedded quality-enabled digital twin is proposed and the interactions among the enablers and peers are highlighted. Then, a prototype of the proposed system is developed, and the data of a pilot trial is used to justify the applicability of the system. The results showed that the proposed system is efficient, and hence it is feasible to adopt into a clinical trial. With the successful development of the proposed system, it is promising to provide effective data integration and knowledge management for improving participant safety.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0794.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: shoulder pain; physiotherapy programme; fascial manipulation; MCID (minimal clinical important difference)
Online: 11 May 2023 (05:18:08 CEST)
Shoulder pain is a serious clinical disease frequently related to absence from work. It’s characterized by pain and stiffness probably connected to the presence of an inflammatory substrate involving gleno-humeral capsule and collagen tissues. A physioterapy programme has shown to be effective for the conservative treatment of this disorder. Our aim is to assess if a manual treatment directed to fascial tissues could get better improvement regarding pain, strength, mobility and function. 94 healthcare workers with recurrent shoulder pain were recruited and then randomized in two groups: the control group (CG) underwent a physiotherapy programme; the study group (SG) underwent to 3 sessions of physiotherapy and to 2 session of Fascial Manipulation (FM) technique. At the end of the treatment phase, both groups improved every outcome. Despite few statistical differences between groups, at the follow up visit a greater percentage of subjects in SG overcame the minimal clinical important difference (MCID) in every outcome. We conclude that FM is effective for treatment of shoulder pain and further studies should better assess how to manage this treatment to get better results.