REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1636.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: clinical decision support system; brain tumour; brain neoplasms; diagnosis; prognosis; systematic review
Online: 22 June 2023 (14:59:46 CEST)
The abnormal accumulation of cells in the human brain, if left untreated, may cause brain damage. Management and treatment of these tumours require an early and accurate diagnosis, while their prognostic characterisation can also be beneficial in the choice of care planning for the patient. CDSSs are being continuously developed and integrated into routine clinical practice as they assist clinicians and radiologists to deal with an enormous amount of medical data, reduce clinical errors, and improve diagnostic capabilities. They assist detection, classification, and grading of brain tumours as well as alerting physicians of requirement of change in treatment plans. The aim of this systematic review is to identify various CDSSs used in brain tumour diagnosis and prognosis, that rely on data captured by any imaging modality. Based on the 2020 Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol, the literature search was conducted in PubMed and Engineering Village Compendex databases. This review examines various CDSS tool types, system features, techniques used, accuracy, and outcome, to provide the latest evidence available in the field of neuro-oncology. An overview of different types of CDSSs used to support clinical decision-making in the management and treatment of brain tumours, along with highlighting their benefits, challenges, and future perspectives has been provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: design; clinical decision support systems; intelligent systems; expert systems; Machine Learning; decision-making; medical algorithm; design science research.; obstructive sleep apnea
Online: 28 March 2023 (03:18:38 CEST)
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is nowadays one of the respiratory pathologies with a higher in-cidence globally in developed countries. This situation led to an increase in the demand for medical appointments and diagnostic studies related to that condition, especially those based on poly-somnographies and cardiorespiratory polygraphies. These studies are limited in resources, causing long waiting lists with the subsequent impact on the patients’ health. Furthermore, it is necessary to mention that OSA’s symptomatology is not very specific, and it is typically present in the general population (excessive sleepiness, snore, etc.). In this regard, this paper proposes a novel intelligent clinical decision support system for the diagnosis of OSA which could be used to help medical teams, both in primary care settings and in units specialized in respiratory pathologies. The aim of the proposed system is to help discriminate the patients suspected of suffering from the pathology from those who are not. To this end, two types of information sets of heterogeneous nature are consid-ered. The first one encompasses objective data, related to the patient's health profile with infor-mation usually available in electronic health records. The second type comprises subjective data, referred to the symptomatology reported by the patient in a previous interview. To process the first group of information, a Machine Learning classification algorithm is used, Bagged Trees in this case. For processing the second information set, related with the symptomatology of the patient, a col-lection of expert systems based on fuzzy inferential systems arranged in cascade are employed. As a result, the system is able to determine two risk indicators related to the patient's risk of suffering from OSA: the Statistical Risk and the Symbolic Risk respectively. Subsequently, by interpreting both risk indicators mentioned it will be possible to determine the severity of the patients’ health, proposing a preliminary evaluation on their condition. For the initial tests of the system, a software artifact has been built using a dataset with 4,978 selected patients, suspected of suffering from OSA, from the Álvaro Cunqueiro Hospital in Vigo. The results obtained are promising, demonstrating the potential usefulness of this type of tools in medical diagnosis. Once the system has been validated with new data from clinical environments, it is considered as possible to obtain a relevant improvement in the quality of the healthcare services, and a reduction in the associated costs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0278.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Machine learning; clinical decision-making; personalized medicine; digital health
Online: 24 November 2019 (13:26:16 CET)
The use of machine learning (ML) approaches to target clinical problems is called to revolutionize clinical decision-making. The success of these tools is subjected to the understanding of the intrinsic processes being used during the classical pathway by which clinicians make decisions. In a parallelism with this pathway, ML can have an impact at four levels: for data acquisition, predominantly by extracting standardized, high-quality information with the smallest possible learning curve; for feature extraction, by discharging healthcare practitioners from performing tedious measurements on raw data; for interpretation, by digesting complex, heterogeneous data in order to augment the understanding of the patient status; and for decision support, by leveraging the previous step to predict clinical outcomes, response to treatment or to recommend a specific intervention. This paper discusses the state-of-the-art, as well as the current clinical status and challenges associated with each of these tasks, together with the challenges related to the learning process, the auditability/traceability, the system infrastructure and the integration within clinical processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: evidence-based practice; clinical reasoning; causal model; intervention theory; Concept Mapping
Online: 8 February 2021 (10:35:52 CET)
Significant efforts in the past decades to teach evidence-based practice (EBP) implementation has emphasized increasing knowledge of EBP and developing interventions to support adoption to practice. These efforts have resulted in only limited sustained improvements in the daily use of evidence-based interventions in clinical practice in most health professions. Many new interven-tions with limited evidence of effectiveness are readily adopted each year - indicating openness to change is not the problem. The selection of an intervention is the outcome of an elaborate and complex cognitive process which is shaped by how they represent the problem in their mind and is mostly invisible processes to others. Therefore, the complex thinking process which support appropriate adoption of interventions should be taught more explicitly. Making the process visible to clinicians increases the acquisition of the skills required to judiciously select one in-tervention over others. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of the selection process and the critical analysis that is required to appropriately decide to trial or not trial new intervention strategies with patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0145.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Semantic interoperability; clinical terminology; SNOMED CT; biomedical ontology; postcoordination; expression templates
Online: 3 May 2023 (11:27:53 CEST)
Expressive clinical terminologies are of utmost importance for achieving an semantically interoperable data exchange and reuse in healthcare. SNOMED CT, widely respected as the most comprehensive terminology in medicine, provides formal concept definitions based on description logic which not only allows for advanced querying of SNOMED CT-coded data but also for flexibly augmenting its 350,000 concepts. This ability for postcoordination largely increases the expressivity of the terminology but correlates with an intrinsic complexity. Complicated by the current lack of tooling support, postcoordination is widely either ignored or applied in an error-prone way. To help facilitate the adoption of postcoordination, we implemented a web application that guides through the creation of Postcoordinated expressions (PCEs) while ensuring the adherence to syntactic and semantic constraints. Our approach was largely facilitated by making use of the extensive SNOMED CT specifications as well as advanced HL7 FHIR Terminology Services. Qualitative evaluations confirmed the usability of the developed application and the correctness of PCEs created with it.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0292.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Porphyra tenera; immune; clinical trial; natural killer cells; cytokines
Online: 17 April 2020 (02:15:58 CEST)
Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine if Porphyra tenera extract (PTE) has immune-enhancing effects and is safe in healthy adults. Methods: Subjects (3x103 ≤ peripheral blood leukocyte levels < 8x103 cells/μl) who met the inclusion criteria were recruited for this study. Enrolled subjects (n=120) were randomly assigned to either the PTE group (n=60) who were given 2.5 g/day of PTE (as Porphyra tenera extract) in capsule form or the placebo group (n=60) who were given crystal cellulose capsules with the identical appearance, weight, and flavor as the PTE capsules for 8 weeks. Outcomes were assessed by measuring natural killer cell (NK-cell) activity, cytokines, and upper respiratory infection (URI), and safety parameters were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Results: Compared to baseline, NK cell activity (%) increased for all effector cell to target cell ratios in the PTE group after 8 weeks, but there were no changes in the placebo group (p<0.1). Subgroup analysis of 101 subjects without an URI revealed that NK-cell activity in the PTE group tended to be increased for all E:T ratios (E:T=12.5:1 p=0.068; E:T=25:1 p=0.036; E:T=50:1 p=0.081) compared to the placebo group. There was a significant difference between these two groups for the E:T=25:1 ratio, which increased from 20.3±12.0% at baseline to 23.2±12.4% after 8 weeks in the PTE group (p=0.036). There was no significant difference in levels of cytokines between these two groups. Conclusions: PTE supplementation appears to enhance immune function by improving NK-cell activity without adverse effects in healthy adults.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: PP2A; LB100; nervous system; tumor biology; brain tumor; preclinical; clinical trial
Online: 13 May 2021 (11:32:51 CEST)
Protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is a ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase implicated in a wide variety of regulatory cellular functions. PP2A is abundant in the mammalian nervous system and dysregulation of its cellular functions are associated with myriad neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, PP2A has oncologic implications, recently garnering attention and emerging as a therapeutic target because of the antitumor effects of a potent PP2A inhibitor, LB100. LB100 abrogation of PP2A is believed to exert its inhibitory effects on tumor progression through cellular chemo- and radio-sensitization to adjuvant agents. An updated and unifying review of PP2A biology and inhibition with LB100 as a therapeutic strategy for targeting cancers of the nervous system is needed, as other reviews have mainly covered broader applications of LB100. In this review, we discuss the role of PP2A in normal cells and tumor cells of the nervous system. Further, we summarize current evidence regarding the therapeutic potential of LB100 for treating solid tumors of the nervous system.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0392.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: RAAS inhibitors; COVID-19; coronavirus; angiotensin; clinical outcome; antihypertensive
Online: 24 May 2020 (17:48:42 CEST)
Since the effects of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors on the clinical outcomes of coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) have been conflicting in different studies, we performed this meta-analysis. A systematic search of published articles was performed in PubMed and EMBASE from January-May 5, 2020. Studies that reported the clinical outcomes of patients with COVID-19, stratified by the class of concomitant antihypertensive drug therapy, were included. The Mantel-Haenszel random effects model was used to estimate pooled odds ratio (OR). A total of 6,997 hypertensive patients with COVID-19 were included. The overall risk of poor patient outcomes (severe COVID-19 or death) was lower in patients taking RAAS inhibitors (OR=0.84, 95% CI: [0.73, 0.96]; P=0.017) compared with those receiving non-RAAS inhibitor antihypertensives. Patients taking angiotensin-I-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) were less likely to experience poor clinical outcomes (OR=0.73, 95% CI: [0.58-0.92]; P=0.01) compared with those receiving angiotensin-II receptor blockers (ARBs). Compared to all other antihypertensives, ACEIs decreases the risk poor COVID-19 outcomes (OR=0.77, 95% CI: [0.63-0.93]) while ARBs did not (OR=1.13, 95% CI: [0.95-1.35]). The risk of poor patient outcomes from COVID-19 was lower in patients who received RAAS inhibitors compared with those who took non-RAAS inhibitors. Unlike ARBs, ACEIs might help in decreasing the severity and mortality of COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0209.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: good clinical practice; clinical trials; quality; investigator training; clinical investigator
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:46:48 CET)
Background: Good clinical practice (GCP) training is the industry standard for ensuring the quality conduct of registrational clinical trials. However, concerns have been raised about whether the current structure and delivery of GCP training sufficiently prepares clinical investigators and their delegates to conduct clinical trials. Methods: We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with 13 clinical investigators and 10 research sponsors to 1) examine characteristics of the quality conduct of sponsored clinical trials, including critical tasks and concerns perceived as essential for trial quality, 2) identify key knowledge and skills required to perform critical tasks, and 3) identify gaps and redundancies in GCP training and areas of improvement to ensure the quality conduct of clinical trials. We used applied thematic analysis to analyze the data. Results: The top three tasks identified as critical for the quality conduct of clinical trials were obtaining informed consent, ensuring protocol compliance, and protecting participants’ health and safety. Respondents acknowledged that GCP principles address each of these critical tasks; however, they described many challenges and burdens of GCP training, including high training frequency and repetitive content. Respondents suggested moving beyond GCP training as a mere check-box activity by making it more effective, engaging, and interactive. They also emphasized that applying GCP principles in a real-world, skills-based environment would increase the relevance of GCP training to investigators and their delegates. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that although investigators and sponsors recognize that GCP training addresses critical tasks necessary to the quality conduct of clinical trials, they articulated the need for significant improvement in the design, content, and presentation of GCP training.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1121.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: clinical nurses; visual differentiation; diagnostic ability; pressure injury; incontinence-associated dermatitis
Online: 18 October 2023 (10:00:18 CEST)
This study investigated clinical nurses’ knowledge and visual differentiation ability of the pressure injury classification system (PICS) and incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD), additionally analyzing possible influencing factors. A convenience sample of 248 nurses took the PICS and IAD knowledge test (KT) and completed the visual differentiation ability test (VDAT), consisting of 21 photographs with clinical information. The overall mean score for correct answers was 12.65±2.90 points in PICS & IAD KT and 11.43±4.57 points in VDAT. Incorrect responses were most common for statements related to stage Ⅱ, Ⅲ, IAD for PICS & IAD KT, and deep tissue pressure injury (DTPI), unstageable, and stage Ⅲ for VDAT. Significant correlations were found between PICS & IAD KT and VDAT (r=.252, p<.001). Factors affecting scores for VDAT were the scores of PICS & IAD KT, debridement experience in nursing patients with PI, and the management frequency of PI and IAD. Results indicate that nurses have an overall understanding of PICS and IAD, but low visual differentiation ability regarding stage Ⅲ, DTPI, and unstageable PI. Continuing education is needed to further improve knowledge and visual differentiation ability for PICS and IAD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0093.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiomyopathy; hemodynamic and biochemical parameters; epidemiological and clinical Parameters; phospholamban angiotensin-1-converting enzyme
Online: 5 July 2018 (10:43:43 CEST)
Background: Cardiomyopathy is commonly observed disease that may occurs due to mutations in either susceptible genes or modifier gene. People with broad age group are affected either attributable to spontaneous or inherited mutations of these genes. Various gene mutations are reported so far but only few of them were studied in detail. Methods: In the current study, we evaluated epidemiological variables like age, sex, familial status, parental consanguinity. We also described specific clinical symptoms associated with the cardiomyopathy condition in Indian population. Results: Our studies on mutation screening of phospholamban gene revealed two transitions (4880 C/T, 4887 T/G) in 5’ flanking region which might cause inherited dilated cardiomyopathy with refractory congestive heart failure are We further deliberated the gene polymorphism of renin angiotensin system gene angiotensin-1-converting enzyme as an associated marker/ modifier in cardiomyopathy patients and their family members. Conclusions: Information on epidemiological, clinical statistics, phospholamban gene mutation analysis and angiotensin-1-converting enzyme gene polymorphism is essential to guide the successful execution for future therapies and benefits us to identify those patients at risk for faster disease progression, congestive heart failure, and arrhythmia.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0472.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: diagnostic molecular pathology; genetic testing; diagnostic services; technology assess- ment; biomedical; genetic services; financial support; clinical governance; health technology; healthcare innovation
Online: 8 May 2023 (08:36:59 CEST)
1) Background: Genomic medicine harbors the real potential to improve the health and healthcare jour-ney of patients, care provider experiences, and improve health system efficiency – even reducing health care costs. There is expected to be an exponential growth in medically necessary new genome- based tests and test approaches in coming years. Testing can also create scientific research and commercial opportu-nities beyond healthcare decision-making. The purpose of this research is to generate a better under-standing of Canada’s state of readiness for genomic medicine, and to provide some insights for other healthcare systems; (2) Methods: a mixed-methodsapproach of literature review and key informant in-terviews with a purposive sample of experts was used. Health system readiness was assessed using a pre-viously published set of conditions. (3) Results: Canada has created some of the established conditions but more needs to be done to improve the state of readiness for genome-based medicine. Important gaps are the need for linked information systems and data integration; evaluative processes that are timely, and transparent; navigational tools for care providers; dedicated funding to facilitate rapid onboarding and supports test development and proficiency testing; and broader engagement with a broader set of inno-vation stakeholders. These findings highlight the known role of organizational context, social influence, and other factors that are known to affect the diffusion of innovation within health systems
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0025.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson's Disease; translational medicine; gut-brain axis; enteric nervous system; microbiota; rodent models; clinical evidence
Online: 1 May 2023 (11:04:20 CEST)
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is a neural network referred to as "the brain in the gut" because of its similarities to the central nervous system (CNS). The ENS consists of numerous types of neurons and glial cells distributed in two intramuscular plexuses that span the length of the intestine and control coordinated smooth muscle contractile activity and other intestinal functions. It is well-established that reciprocal communication exists between the brain and the gastrointestinal tract. Although the ENS can function independently, it is connected to the CNS through the afferent and efferent pathways of the parasympathetic and sympathetic nervous systems. In addition to regulating ENS function by the CNS, these connections are likely to be critically involved in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD). PD is a common neurodegenerative disorder that presents with non-motor and motor symptoms. Surprisingly, ENS lesions have been shown to occur very early in the disease, even before CNS involvement. This has led to the postulation that the ENS may be central to the pathophysiology of PD. Autopsy studies have shown that α-synuclein (αS) aggregates in PD patients are found both in the substantia nigra (SN) and the ENS. Therefore, it has been hypothesized that the pathological process leading to PD may initially occur in the ENS years before the appearance of motor features. This process induces misfolding and aggregation of αS in specific subtypes of neurons in the CNS. Finally, it spreads retrogradely in the CNS through preganglionic vagal fibers to the dorsal motor nucleus of this nerve and to other central nervous structures. In addition to the presumed role in the spread of the disease process, it has also been suggested that pathological changes in the ENS might be involved in the gastrointestinal dysfunction frequently seen in Pd patients. Starting from the evidence in animal models and using a translational point of view, in this review, we aim to summarize the role of the ENS in the pathogenesis of PD and how this system could be modulated for a novel therapeutic approach. While acknowledging the presumed role of the microbiome in the gut-brain axis, we will shift the focus from this point of view to focus more on the neurons of the ENS.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0279.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; clinical studies; China; clinical trials; observational studies
Online: 16 April 2020 (13:47:49 CEST)
Objectives: This study aims to identify, report, and analyze registered and published clinical trials and observational studies for the pharmacological treatment of COVID-19 conducted in China. Methods: A strategic search was conducted via the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry to identify and extract clinical trials and observational studies registered and conducted in China for the pharmacological treatment of COVID-2019 between January 1st, 2020 and March 21st, 2020. This was further supplemented by searches conducted via the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, the MEDLINE database, the World Health Organization (WHO) database, and MedRxiv and BioRxiv electronic platforms for preprint articles, published up until April 8th, 2020. Studies available in Chinese and English were included in the searches and extracted. A primary descriptive analysis was performed for registered clinical trials and observational studies identified in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry based on the extraction of the following clinical study information: trial ID, planned date of enrollment, recruitment status, study design, population, sample size, intervention/exposure group, control /reference group, dosage, and primary outcomes. A secondary descriptive analysis was performed for published clinical trials and observational studies identified from the supplementary databases based on the extraction of the following published clinical study information: study design, population, intervention/exposure group, control /reference group and main results as appropriate. Results: A total of 221 clinical trials and observational studies were included from all databases searched. From the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 195 registered clinical studies including 170 clinical trials and 25 observational studies were identified and included for primary analysis. From the supplementary databases, 26 published clinical studies including 8 clinical trials and 18 observational studies were included for secondary analysis. Of these 26 published clinical studies, 18 studies, including 3 clinical trials and 15 observational studies were identified from CNKI, 2 studies including 1 clinical trial and 1 observational study from MEDLINE, 2 including 1 clinical trials and 1 observational studies from the WHO database, and 4 including 3 clinical trials and 1 observational studies from MedRxiv and BioRxiv platforms. In the primary analysis, among the 170 clinical trials included from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 101 investigated western medicines (WMs), while 15 investigated Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs), and 54 investigated a combination of TCMs and WMs. Among the 25 included observational studies from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry, 2 investigated WMs, 2 investigated TCMs, and 21 investigated a combination of TCMs and WMs. The total number of exposed patients in all 195 clinical studies from the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry amounted to 24,500. In the secondary analysis, treatment with Lopinavir-ritonavir and treatment with Hydroxychloroquine was not associated with a difference from standard of care in the rate of RT-PCR negativity; treatment with a combination of Lopinavir-ritonavir, interferon α, and Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen capsule was found to significantly improve the effective rate of treatment compared with Interferon α combined with Lian-Hua-Qing-Wen capsule. Conclusions: China is generating a massive source of evidence that is critical for defeating the COVID-19 pandemic. Not only the clinical experience, but also the scientific evidence should be shared with the global scientific community.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: clinical trials; investigator qualification; good clinical practice; investigator training
Online: 8 October 2019 (05:18:34 CEST)
The Clinical Trials Transformation Initiative (CTTI) Investigator Qualification Project addresses the need for a more efficient and effective means of identifying qualified clinical investigators and delegates. Selection of investigators and delegates who are qualified by training and experience to conduct clinical trials is essential to safeguarding protections for study participants and ensuring data quality and integrity. Sponsors generally document investigator qualification through training on the principles of good clinical practice (GCP), as defined by the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH), adopted by regulatory authorities in the US, Japan and the European Union. Although these GCP principles provide an important foundation for promoting the conduct of quality clinical trials, the industry standard “one-size-fits-all” GCP training may not fully prepare investigators and delegates for conducting quality clinical trials. Routine GCP training alone may not be sufficient to prepare an inexperienced member of a site team, while repeating such training is unlikely to enhance the qualifications of an experienced researcher. The CTTI project team used findings from qualitative research activities, as well as input from an expert meeting with multiple stakeholders, to identify gaps and redundancies in the current training of investigators and their delegates and recommend practical, action-based solutions. CTTI provides recommendations on how to implement a more efficient and effective means of qualification for investigators and delegates, determine whether a site team is a good fit for a particular protocol, and improve the quality of clinical trial conduct.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0541.v1
Online: 23 July 2020 (08:24:54 CEST)
Multicompartment compliance aids (MCAs) are devices with each discrete section denoting a single dosing occasion. The purpose of an MCA is to maximize patient adherence and thereby optimize the treatment benefits. These devices are widely employed throughout western Europe and UK and use appears to be rapidly increasing (2) although the RPS as moved away from these devices as a means to improve adherence. We analysed MCAs from various pharmacies over a wide geographic area in England and North Wales. We concluded that most MCA users are elderly patients. Also, most of the patients suffer of combined cardiovascular disease. However, a significant proportion of patients falls in the mental/ neurological disease category. Additionally, most of the externals added to MCAs are inhalers and painkillers. Moreover, SDIs are more frequent in female patients and these SDI are mainly related with mental health medication, cardiovascular disease medication and neurological medication. In conclusion, a directive for dispensing of MCAs in pharmacies by pharmacists through an enhanced service should be elaborated having in consideration PIMs, SDIs, drug stability and use of externals and MCA design and brand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1901.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Clinical instructor; Undergraduate nursing students; Clinical learning; Descriptive phenomenological approach
Online: 26 May 2023 (09:50:14 CEST)
This study aimed to determine clinical instructors’ perceptions of the assessments used to evaluate the clinical knowledge of undergraduate nursing students. This study uses a descriptive phenomenological approach. Purposive sampling was used to recruit sixteen clinical instructors for semi-structured interviews between August to December 2019. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi’s seven-step method. Four criteria were used to ensure the study’s validity: credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability. Three themes were identified in the clinical instructors’ views on evaluating the clinical performance of student nurses: familiarity with students, patchwork clinical learning, and differing perceptions of the same scoring system. Study results suggest the need for a reliable, valid, and consistent approach to evaluating students’ clinical knowledge. If the use of patchwork clinical internships for student nurses is unavoidable, a method for assessing student nurses’ clinical performance that requires instructor consensus is necessary.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1578.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Trial duration; Machine learning prediction; Clinical research planning; Lymphoma clinical trials
Online: 24 November 2023 (08:27:28 CET)
Lymphoma diagnoses in the U.S. are substantial, with an estimated 89,380 new cases in 2023, necessitating innovative treatment approaches. Phase 1 clinical trials play a pivotal role in this context. We developed a binary predictive model to assess trial adherence to expected average durations, analyzing 1,089 completed Phase 1 lymphoma trials from clinicaltrials.gov. Using machine learning, the Random Forest model demonstrated high efficacy with an accuracy of 0.7248 and ROC-AUC of 0.7701 for lymphoma trials. Importantly, this model maintained an accuracy of 0.7405 when applied to lung cancer trials, showcasing its versatility. A key insight is the correlation between higher predicted probabilities and extended trial durations, offering nuanced insights beyond binary predictions. Our research contributes to enhanced clinical research planning and potential improvements in patient outcomes in oncology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1172.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: genomic biomarkers; clinical utility; clinical validity; analytic validity; health technology assessment)
Online: 17 August 2023 (07:36:43 CEST)
Genome-based testing in oncology is a rapidly expanding area of health care which is the basis of the emerging area of precision medicine. Efficient and considered adoption of novel genomic medicine testing is hampered in Canada by the fragmented nature of health care oversight as well as by lack of clear and transparent processes to support rapid evaluation, assessment and implementation of genomic tests. This article provides an overview of some key barriers and proposes approaches to addressing these challenges as a potential pathway to developing a national approach to genomic medicine in oncology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1837.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Clinical Audit; Mode of birth; Non clinical factors; Greece; Robson classification
Online: 27 June 2023 (02:33:40 CEST)
Worldwide, the cesarean section rate has steadily increased from 6.7% in 1990 to 21.1% in 2018 and is expected to rise even more. World Health Organization propose the adoption of the Robson classification system as a global standard for monitoring, evaluating, and comparing delivery rates. The purpose of the current study is to use the Robson classification system to investigate how, independently of medical factors, the day of the week and time of delivery may affect the mode of birth. In the sample analysis, we included the records of 8572 women giving birth in one private health facility in Greece. Over 60% of deliveries during the study period were performed by a cesarean section and 8.5% of deliveries were performed by operative vaginal delivery. The results of this study indicate that the lowest birth rates are observed on Monday, Saturday, and Sunday. In Robson category 1 women are 73% more likely to deliver by cesarean section between 08:00 a.m. - 03:59 p.m. compared to those who give birth between 12:00 a.m. - 07:59 a.m. Also, women in group 5.1 are 16.7 times more likely to deliver by cesarean section in the morning compared to overnight deliveries. These result point out two non-clinical variables that influences the CS rate. The Robson classification system was a useful tool for the above comparisons.
Online: 28 June 2020 (19:46:40 CEST)
Objectives: Data sharing has become a requirement of many funding bodies and is becoming a scientific standard in many disciplines. In medical research, however, data sharing can conflict with clinicians’ obligation to protect patients’ privacy. General recommendations on data sharing exist also for clinical research, but so far lack practical and Swiss-specific aspects. The objective of this document is to provide practical recommendations for all relevant aspects of data sharing in agreement with legislation in Switzerland. Methods: This document was written by members of the Swiss CTU Network, a network of academic clinical trial units. The process did not follow a formalized Delphi process. After an internal consensus round, this report is now published as pre-print for external review. A second version will incorporate external comments. We plan to publish this document as a text in progress, as we expect relevant changes in related fields such as the development of further dedicated medical repositories or methodological advances in anonymization techniques. Results: We developed principles and practical recommendations with respect to informed consent, data management plan, anonymization, data structure and format, coding of variables, metadata and documentation, version control, selection of repository, requesting and use of data. We also provide a summary of legal aspects relevant for the Swiss context. Conclusions: The intension to share data has an impact not only after a clinical trial or an observational study is completed, but also during the planning period, the conduct and the analysis phase. Clinical researchers need to be aware at the beginning of a study on how to inform patients and at least the amount of work related to preparing data for sharing, metadata, and any further documentation. This report provides details of aspects to be considered, suggests decision criteria, and provides examples and checklists, in order to support data sharing in practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0051.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: clinical instructor, clinical education, transcultural, intercultural communication, socio-culture and millennial generation
Online: 16 April 2021 (11:20:50 CEST)
Clinical education is a method that is applied to formal nurse education as a step to provide real and direct learning experiences in the nursing environment correctly and effectively. The success of education in a clinical setting certainly requires the support of teaching nurses (clinical instructors) who have credibility and competence in terms of knowledge, attitudes and skills and are actively involved in professional activities. The diversity of backgrounds of nurses and students, including patients, certainly contributes to a shift in paradigms and perspectives for the nursing environment both in education and in clinical settings in health services. Responding to this cultural diversity, it is important to prepare knowledge and understanding related to transcultural nursing issues, intercultural communication and clinical education which explores the socio-cultural elements in the implementation of staff, students and patients. Purpose: The purpose of this literature review is to identify the extent to which nurse educators play a role by including socio-cultural and transcultural aspects in efforts to develop the quality of education in clinical practice environments in the millennium era. Method: The method of writing this article uses 11 literature review, the publication year period 2019,2020 and 2021 with sources from 4 databases such as science Direct, Scopus, ProQues and Elsevier. The review guidelines used are based on Prisma and the Joanna Briggs Institutute. The level of eligibility is identified through the title, abstract, research methodology as well as the type of scholarly journal and full text. Results: The results of the reviews found are presented in a narrative form. The results of the review study found that there were 11 articles explaining the competence of clinical education based on the socio-cultural approach, which is an educational strategy in the clinical area that integrates transcultural elements of nursing, intercultural communication, collaboration, self-directed with the principles of openness, honesty, and mutual respect in the implementation of team interaction and collaboration. The development of interpersonal relationships is also an important role that educators must have in helping to introduce the nurse orientation process to the organizational environment and other professional teams so that the achievement of satisfaction with clinical education is able to improve the performance of nurses and students perfectly. Conclusion: Clinical education which is supported by the competence of nurse educators (clinical instructors) who have individual and professional competences has a role to play in improving clinical learning outcomes by both students and nurses with a socio-cultural and transcultural strategic approach that will create satisfaction with the achievement of clinical competence and performance effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0254.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; DOACs; pharmacoepidemiology; pharmacoeconomics; clinical practice guidelines; clinical trials; AGREE II; CONSORT
Online: 3 November 2023 (12:45:32 CET)
Background The coronavirus pandemic has led to the creation of clinical guidelines by a large number of professional medical communities. However, the quality and methodology of development of Russian clinical guidelines has been little studied. The continued relevance of studying the use of DOACs in patients with COVID-19 was the basis for conducting this study. Aim The objective of this study was to assess DOACs consumption and expenditures in Russian Federation during COVID-19 pandemic and to analyse domestic evidence base for the use of DOACs in COVID-19 patients through identifying all publicly available Russian-produced CPGs for the treatment of COVID-19 and assessing their quality as the source of recommendations for the use of oral anticoagulants for the prevention of thrombotic complications in COVID-19 patients. Methods We searched Russian databases for CPGs, published between 2020 and 2023. We identified 7 relevant documents that met our inclusion criteria. Three authors analyzed Russian clinical guidelines using a AGREE II questionnaire. We calculated DOACs DDD consumption according to Russian clinical guidelines and DDD consumption in patients with COVID-19 for the period 2020-2022. Results 7 clinical CPGs were analyzed with the AGREE II tool, it was revealed that experts gave the highest scores for the sections scope and purpose (from 62.98% to 100%), clarity of presentation (from 96.30% to 100%). The lowest scores were given for the sections stakenholder involment (33.33% to 64.81%), rigour of development (from 0% to 49.31%), applicability (from 23.61% to 50%), editory independence ( from 0% to 50%). When comparing the total score, it was found that two clinical guidelines received the highest scores - ROPNIZ (Livzan), ROPNIZ (Drapkina). The minimum score is registered with the NIIOZMM (Khripun) clinical guideline. No guideline received a total score of more than 70%. According to clinical recommendations, the consumption of apixaban and rivaroxaban is 15 DDD (30-day course of therapy), 22.5 DDD (45-day course of therapy). Consumption of apixaban in the Russian Federation in 2020 and 2021 corresponds to the indicators presented in clinical recommendations (in 2020 – 26.59 DDD per patient with COVID-19; in 2021 – 15.75 DDD per patient with COVID-19), and in 2022 – 10.67 DDD, which is below the recommended values. In 2020, consumption of rivaroxaban in the Russian Federation was 26.59 which corresponds to data from clinical recommendations; in 2021, consumption decreased to 7.87 DDD; in 2022 – 5.48 DDD, which is 2.74 times less than recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0074.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Clinical Skills; Clinical Training; Competency; Cross-sectional Studies; Dental Education; Dentistry; Self-perception.
Online: 4 January 2023 (08:48:49 CET)
The transition from undergraduate dental student to the actual practicing dentist is a crucial phase and ensuring the preparedness of graduates for the complexity and demands of contempo-rary dental practice is a challenging task. This study aimed to evaluate the self-perceived prepar-edness of undergraduate dental students and house officers in the dental colleges of Pakistan. Cross-sectional national study was planned to collect the information from dental students and new graduates in Pakistan. The pre-validated Dental Undergraduates Preparedness Assessment Scale (DU-PAS) was used. Purposive sampling technique was utilized to recruit house officers and undergraduate dental students from 27 dental schools in Pakistan. The data analysis was car-ried out using the R statistical environment for Windows (R Core Team, 2015). The total of 862 responses with 642 females and 219 males were analyzed in the study. Overall, clinical skills score was 30.56+9.08 and score for soft skills was 30.54+10.6. The mean age of the participants was 23.42+1.28. Deficiencies were reported in various soft skills and clinical skills attributes.The results highlighted the strengths and weaknesses of dental students and new graduates in Pakistani den-tal institutions. The findings may be used to further develop and strengthen teaching and training of dental students in Pakistan.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0194.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: biosimilar; analytical assessment; animal testing; clinical pharmacology; clinical efficacy; FDA; EMA; MHRA; WHO
Online: 10 August 2022 (05:19:49 CEST)
Scientific, technical and bioinformatics advances have made it possible to establish analytics-based molecular biosimilarity for the approval of biosimilars. If the molecular structure and other product- and process-related attributes are comparable within the limits of testing then a biosimilar candidate would have safe safety and efficacy as its reference products. The current model of animal and human testing becomes redundant since all of these studies have much lower sensitivity and reproducibility in confirming biosimilarity. The recent AI-based protein structure prediction model has confirmed that the 3D structure can be predicted from the amino acid sequence, reducing the need for structural analysis; however, the new test methods based on MS are millions of times more sensitive and accurate. While the regulatory agencies have begun waiving animal testing and, in some cases, clinical efficacy testing, removing clinical pharmacology profiling brings a dramatic paradigm shift, reducing development costs without compromising safety and efficacy. Also shared is a list of 160+ products ready to enter as biosimilars. Major actions from regulatory agencies and developers are required to make this paradigm shift.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0411.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical Trials; disruption; non-COVID-19 clinical trials; drugs; therapeutic area
Online: 25 May 2020 (11:17:56 CEST)
COVID-19 is causing major turmoil around the globe, and the clinical trial industry is likely to face unprecedented challenges to health and business sectors. In an effort to find a suitable treatment and prevention options for COVID-19, several COVID-19 clinical trials are being planned and initiated, while a large number of clinical trials for non- COVID-19 indications are suffering delays. With over more than 1000 trials being disrupted and more trials being added to this category daily, there is a direct impact on trial site activation and patient enrolment. This analysis deals with the specific impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical trial and pharmaceutical industry. The objective of this study is to provide an updated information of the disrupted clinical trials and its impact on various therapeutic areas and different drugs. Among the severely affected clinical trials, oncology and CNS trials are the hardest hit therapy areas.This article will certainly emphasize the need for advanced and innovative approaches to maintain the health of the clinical trial ecosystem by continuing the existing trials and the start of the new studies. We have to take and follow necessary actions to guarantee that the initiatives will not be locked during the COVID-19 pandemic, both for the treatment of patients and for the researchers to conduct decision-relevant clinical trials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0319.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: medication review; clinical pharmacist; hospital
Online: 5 July 2023 (15:13:02 CEST)
Clinical pharmacists are employed at many hospital departments in Denmark, but not yet on the Faroe Islands. The purpose of this study was to test feasibility of a clinical pharmacist-led medication review service at the surgical ward of the National Hospital on the Faroe Islands. Hospitalised surgical patients were offered a medication review service by a clinical pharmacist. Identified drug related problems (DRPs) were classified according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe (PCNE) model. The qualitative inputs from the ward’s staff were collected. In total, 42 patients with 171 identified DRPs were included. The majority of the DRPs concerned suboptimal effect and the safety of the drug treatment. The 49.6 % of the proposed medication changes were accepted by the ward physicians. According to the qualitative inputs, the interest for the service was greater among the younger physicians compared to the older ones, and among nurses compared to physicians. Identified barriers for the optimal service implementation were an absence of medication ordinations and poor visibility of pharmacist’s notes in electronic health records. For a successful implementation of the service, work on the physicians’ interest in an interdisciplinary cooperation and optimization of the electronic health records are warranted.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: pharmacogenomics; translation; Africa; comorbidities; clinical
Online: 15 June 2023 (12:33:17 CEST)
Pharmacogenomics may improve patient care by guiding drug selection and dosing, however this requires prior knowledge of the pharmacogenomics of drugs commonly used in a specific setting. The aim of this study was to identify a preliminary set of pharmacogenetic variants important in Southern Africa. We describe co-morbidities in 3997 patients from Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. These patient cohorts were included in pharmacogenomic studies of anticoagulation, dyslipidemia, hypertension, HIV, and breast cancer. The 20 topmost prescribed drugs in this population were identified. Using literature, a list of pharmacogenes vital in disposition of the top 20 drugs was constructed leading to drug-gene pairs potentially informative in translation of pharmacogenomics. The most reported morbidity was hypertension (58.4%), making antihypertensives the most prescribed drugs, particularly amlodipine. Dyslipidemia occurred in 31.5% of the participants and statins were frequently prescribed cholesterol lowering drugs. HIV was reported in 20.3% of the study participants with lamivudine/stavudine/efavirenz being the most prescribed antiretroviral combination. Based on these data, pharmacogenes of immediate interest in Southern African populations include ABCB1, CYP2B6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, CYP3A5, SLC22A1, SLCO1B1 and UGT1A1. Variants in these genes are a good starting point for pharmacogenomic translation programs in Southern Africa.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: probiotics; cancer; safety; clinical trials
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:27:01 CEST)
In recent years, the consumption of over-the-counter probiotics used to promote health has grown rapidly worldwide and become an industry. In medicine, various studies have proven that probiotics can help improve the immune system and intestinal health. They are usually safe, but in some rare cases, they may cause concerning adverse reactions. Although the use of probiotics has been widely popularized in the public, the results of many probiotics clinical trials are contradictory. Especially for the cancer patients, the feasibility of probiotics management to provide benefits by targeting cancer and lessening anti-cancer side effects requires further investigations. And this review summarizes the interactions between probiotics and the host and current pros and cons of applying probiotics in the cancer patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0691.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: Apnea; Competence Clinical; Clinical Skills; Hypoventilation; Monitoring; Patient safety Pediatrics; Postoperative period; Vital signs
Online: 11 October 2023 (07:30:50 CEST)
Background: Measuring vital signs has always been a central task for Critical Care Nurse´s (CCNs) and Registered Nurse Anesthetist`s (RNAs) providing care in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) and a prerequisite for their decision-making. Properly measuring and understanding pediatric vital signs is a challenge in younger pediatric patients up to 36 months old. Purpose: gain a greater understanding of CCNs' and RNAs' perceptions of decision-making regarding the level of vital sign monitoring children require in the PACU. Method: A qualitative study design involving the critical-incident technique was used. Interviews were carried out with a purposeful sample of CCNs and RNAs (n=17) from two different hospitals. Findings: According to the nurses' experience, grounds for decisions concerning children’s need of vital-sign monitoring were both adequate and inadequate. They used actions to adjust the monitoring of vital signs to optimise conditions for assessment and the prospects of a safe recovery for the child. Conclusions: Evidence-based care and safety are compromised when the technology has limitations and is not adapted for children. Its use means that experience and clinical assessment are relied on to a greater extent. This not only makes experience important for reliable assessment, but also means that greater risks are accepted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1176.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: lung cancer; organoid; drug screening; high throughput; translational; pre-clinical; clinical; tumor microenvironment; personalized medicine
Online: 16 June 2023 (08:42:28 CEST)
Lung cancer is the leading cause of global cancer-related mortality resulting in ~1.8 million deaths annually. Systemic, molecular targeted, and immune therapies have provided significant improvements of survival outcomes for patients. However, drug resistance usually arises and there is an urgent need for novel therapy screening and personalized medicine. 3D patient-derived organoid (PDO) models have emerged as a more effective and efficient alternative for ex vivo drug screening than 2D cell culture and patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. In this review, we performed an extensive search of lung cancer PDO-based ex vivo drug screening studies. Lung cancer PDOs were successfully established from fresh or biobanked sections/biopsy of lung tumors, PDXs, and pleural affusion. PDOs were subject to ex vivo drug screening with chemotherapy, targeted therapy and immune therapy agents. PDOs mainly recapitulated the genomic alterations, transcriptomic landscape and drug sensitivity of primary tumors. Although sample sizes of the previous studies were limited and some technical challenges remained, PDOs showed promise to screen novel therapy drugs. With the technical advance of high throughput, tumor-on-chip, combined microenvironment, and air-liquid interface (ALI), the drug screening using PDOs would serve better for precision care of lung cancer patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1695.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: ketamine; analgesia; anesthesia; clinical implications; abuse
Online: 26 October 2023 (11:03:22 CEST)
Ketamine as an old - new drug has variety of clinical implications. In the last 30 years, ketamine has become popular for acute use in humans. Ketamine at standard doses is principally utilized for the induction and maintenance in surgical procedures. Beside its use in anesthesia and analgesia, recently studies had shown that ketamine find the place in the treatment of asthma, epilepsy, depression, bipolar affective disorders, alcohol and heroin addiction. Its mechanism of action is complex, but it mostly acts as a noncompetitive antagonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Ketamine is generally considered relatively secure and does not result in serious adverse effects when used at low doses and for short periods- Also, ketamine is known as a powerful psychostimulant. During the past decade, ketamine has been one of the commonly abused drug.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Antibody-drug conjugate; cancer; clinical trials
Online: 5 June 2023 (04:13:02 CEST)
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) have provided new therapeutic options and significant promise for patients with cancers, particularly where existing treatments are limited. Substantial effort in ADC development is underway globally, with 13 ADCs currently approved and many more in development . Therapeutic benefits of ADCs leverage the ability to selectively target cancer cells through antibody binding, resultant relative sparing of non-malignant tissues, and the targeted delivery of a cytotoxic payload. Consequently, this drug class has demonstrated activity in multiple malignancies refractory to standard therapeutic options [1-4]. Despite this, limitations exist, including narrow therapeutic windows, unique toxicity profiles, development of therapeutic resistance, and appropriate biomarker selection [5-7]. This review will describe the development of ADCs, their mechanisms of action, pivotal trials, and approved indications and identify common themes. Current challenges and opportunities will be discussed for this drug class in cancer therapeutics at a time when significant developments in antibody therapies, immunotherapy and targeted agents are occurring.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0470.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical diagnosis; immunodeficiency; systematic review; immunoglobulins
Online: 27 February 2023 (10:04:00 CET)
Background: Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of Infancy (THI) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by a temporary decline of serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) greater than 2 standard deviations below the mean age-specific reference values in an infant between 5 and 24 months of age. Preterm infants are particularly susceptible to THI, as, in the third trimester of pregnancy, IgG is transferred across the placenta from mother to infant.Objective: To systematically review the diagnostic criteria of Transient Hypogammaglobulinemia of infants.Design & Methods: Systematic Review. Manual searching of 3 electronic databases (PubMed, Medline, & Google Scholar) from September 2021 – April 2022. Abstracts were screened to assess fit to the inclusion criteria. Data was extracted from the selected studies by using an adapted extraction tool from Cochrane.org. Studies were then assessed for bias by using an assessment tool also adapted from Cochrane.org.Results: Of the 215 articles identified, 16 were eligible for examining the diagnostic criteria of THI. These studies were also assessed for bias in 6 domains. 5 studies (31%) had a low risk of bias, while 4 studies (25%) had a high risk of bias, & 7 studies (44%) were unclear for bias.Conclusion: We can conclude that THI is only definitively diagnosed after the abnormal IgG levels have normalized, hence THI is mostly a benign condition, but must be monitored for subsequent recurrent infections. The diagnostic criterion also includes vaccine & isohaemagglutinin responses to differentiate against other immunological disorders in infants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0242.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Targeted therapy; Clinical trial
Online: 21 February 2022 (03:05:05 CET)
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Surgery or surgery plus radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy for patients with metastatic CRC (mCRC) were accepted as the main therapeutic strategies until the early 2000s, when targeted drugs, like cetuximab and bevacizumab were developed. The use of targeted drugs in clinical practice has significantly increased patients’ overall survival. To date, the emergence of several types of targeted drugs has opened new possibilities and revealed new prospects for mCRC treatment. Therapeutic strategies are continually being updated to select the most suitable targeted drugs based on the results of clinical trials that are currently underway. This review discusses the up-to date molecular evidence of targeted therapy for mCRC and summarizes the Food and Drug Administration-approved targeted drugs including the results of clinical trials. We also explain their mechanisms of action and how these affect the choice of a suitable targeted therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0294.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Mucormycosis; Zygomycosis; Epidemiology; Incidence; Clinical; Spain.
Online: 20 October 2021 (15:48:58 CEST)
Background: Mucormycosis is a worldwide angio-invasive fungal infection that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. A few European studies have focused on the epidemiology. Methodology: A retrospective longitudinal descriptive study was performed with inpatients diagnosed with mucormycosis (ICD-9-CM, code 117.7, cases 1997-2015; and ICD-10, code B46, cases 2016-2018; along with length of hospital stay) in Spanish public hospitals between 1 January 1997 and 31 December 2018. Data were obtained from the Minimum Basic Data Set (CMBD in Spanish). Principal findings: A total of 962 patients were recorded; 665 were men. The mean age (±SD) was 55±18.8 years. The annual incidence rate increased from 0.74 to 1.24 cases per million person-years. The lethality rate was 31.3%. Renal failure (41.6%) and hematological malignancy (36.3%) were the main factors involved. Conclusions: Mucormycosis is a rare infectious disease in Spain, but it has had a significantly increased incidence in the last two decades. Being an adult male and having diabetes, neoplasm or renal failure are the main factors associated. High mortality is usually associated mainly with hematological malignancy and renal failure. CMBD studies could be an efficient tool for assessing changes in the epidemiology of mucormycosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0265.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Peptides; Clinical Practice; Drug Therapy; Therapeutic
Online: 10 February 2021 (15:51:13 CET)
The treatment of peptides has played an important role in clinical practice since the discovery of insulin therapy in the 1920s. Over 60 peptide drugs are approved in the United States (US and other regional mar-kets, and peptides continue to undergo drug discovery steadily. Peptide research and development has lev-eraged a wider range of structures known from other plant sources, via pharmacology and medicinal molecular biology, beyond its conventional focus on individual endogenous peptides. We build a comprehensive database of peptides that have met scientific studies with more than 150 constantly evolving peptides. Here we provide a simple overview of the peptide-based drug therapy environment, comprising evolutionary points of view, structural properties, operational thresholds, and explanation of the therapeutic area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0187.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: clinical characteristics; febrile children; Kawasaki disease
Online: 20 February 2019 (09:10:15 CET)
Background: Kawasaki disease (KD) is a form of vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of 5 years old. Patients may be missed diagnosis when initial clinical symptoms do not fulfill the traditional criteria. We aimed to analyze factors that clinicians could use to differentiate febrile children suspected of KD. Method: We retrospectively enrolled a total of 83 febrile children who were initially suspected of KD, but they did not meet the American Heart Association (AHA) criteria for a diagnosis. However, some of these patients were diagnosed with KD during their second visit. We analyzed patients' characteristics, clinical symptoms, and laboratory data. Results: In total, 50 patients were enrolled in the study. Of those, ten patients were diagnosed with KD on their second visit (group 1), while the other 40 patients still did not fit a KD diagnosis (group 2). A patient with a neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio greater than 1.33 combined with a C-reactive protein more than 33 mg/L was more likely to have KD. Conclusion: Among patients suspected of KD that did not initially meet the criteria, clinicians should pay special attention to elevated neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratios and CRP levels and closely follow up such patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0174.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: e-portfolio; clinical skills; competences; medicine
Online: 11 May 2018 (04:45:11 CEST)
Clinical training in medical schools in Spain is performed by rotations in university hospitals. During these internships, students are expected to acquire and master basic procedural skills. However, the assessment tools available rarely check whether these skills are completely acquired by the students. We have used an e-portfolio to determine the optimal number of times the students need to repeat a procedure to be able to perform it independently. The results were compared with the actual performance during the internships. An e-portfolio collected qualitative information about the internships. Quantitative information was also requested about the number of times each clinical skill was performed. Later, a survey asked these students and their teachers the optimal number of times each skill should be repeated before it could be considered fully acquired. The questionnaire was answered by 98.6% of the students and 70.3% of their teachers. Out of the 21 clinical skills and procedures selected, both students and their tutors agreed in a similar optimal value in 16 of them; only in five of them, teachers thought that students needed a greater number of times than that selected by the students. When these optimal values were compared with the actual values recorded in the portfolio during the internships, it was found that about half of the clinical skills were carried out less frequently than expected, thus providing an important feedback about the internships. Quantitative information collected in portfolios reveals a moderate mismatch between students and tutors perceptions of their training needs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0296.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: nasal delivery; glioblastoma multiforme; drug delivery; nanoparticles; nose-to-brain delivery; pre-clinical studies; clinical evaluation
Online: 27 October 2019 (09:36:27 CET)
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal form of brain tumor, characterized by rapid growth and surrounding tissue invasion. The current standard treatment is surgery followed by radiotherapy, and concurrent chemotherapy, typically with temozolomide. Although extensive research has been performed over the past years to develop an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of GBM, efforts have not provided major improvements in the overall survival of patients with GBM. Thus, new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. A major challenge in the development of therapies for central nervous system (CNS) disorders is overcoming the blood–brain barrier (BBB). In this context, the intranasal (IN) route of drug administration has been proposed as a non-invasive alternative route to directly targeting the CNS. In fact, this route of drug administration may bypass the blood-brain barrier and reduce systemic side effects. Recently, formulations have been developed to further enhance nose-to-brain transport, mainly with the use of nano-sized and nanostructured drug delivery systems. The focus of this review will be on the strategies developed to deliver a number of anticancer compounds for the treatment of GBM using the nasal administration. In particular, the specific properties of nanomedicines proposed for the nose-to-brain delivery will be critically evaluated. The number of preclinical and clinical data reviewed support the idea that nasal delivery of anticancer drugs might represent a breakthrough advancement in the fight against GBM.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0270.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; clinical trial fails; disease-modifying treatments; alzheimer’s disease biomarkers; combination treatment; clinical trial designs
Online: 24 September 2019 (11:23:25 CEST)
Despite all scientific efforts and many protracted and expensive clinical trials, no new drug has been approved by FDA for treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) since 2003. Indeed, more than 200 investigational programs have failed or have been abandoned in the last decade. The most probable explanations for failures of disease-modifying treatments (DMTs) for AD may include late initiation of treatments during the course of AD development, inappropriate drug dosages, erroneous selection of treatment targets, and mainly an inadequate understanding of the complex pathophysiology of AD, which may necessitate combination treatments rather than monotherapy. Clinical trials’ methodological issues have also been criticized. Current drug-development research for AD is aimed to overcome these drawbacks. Preclinical and prodromal AD populations, as well as traditionally investigated populations representing all the clinical stages of AD, are included in recent trials. Systematic use of biomarkers in staging preclinical and prodromal AD and of a single primary outcome in trials of prodromal AD are regularly integrated. The application of amyloid, tau, and neurodegeneration biomarkers, including new biomarkers—such as Tau positron emission tomography, neurofilament light chain (blood and CSF biomarker of axonal degeneration) and neurogranin (CSF biomarker of synaptic functioning)—to clinical trials allows more precise staging of AD. Additionally, use of the Bayesian statistics, modifiable clinical trial designs, and clinical trial simulators enrich the trial methodology. Besides, combination therapy regimens are currently assessed in clinical trials. The abovementioned diagnostic and statistical advances, which have been recently integrated in clinical trials, are consequential to the recent failures of studies of disease-modifying treatments. Their experiential rather than theoretical origins may better equip potentially successful drug-development strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Complementary And Alternative Medicine Keywords: dietzia; clinical trial; safety; adverse effect; probiotic
Online: 20 November 2023 (07:48:29 CET)
Dietzia natronolimnaea C79793-74 has emerged as a potential probiotic strain with implications for managing Crohn's disease. This study evaluates the safety profile of D. natronolimnaea C79793-74 as a probiotic sup-plement. Genotypic characterization involved a 16S rRNA gene and genomic sequencing and genome an-notation. The safety assessment included interrogation of the assembled genome for antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factors, utilizing the CARD and VFDB databases. Notably, the analysis revealed an ab-sence of antibiotic resistance or virulence factors in Dietzia natronolimnaea C79793-74. The safety and tol-erability of D. natronolimnaea C79793-74 were further investigated in an 8-week double-blind, place-bo-controlled clinical trial involving healthy adult participants. A daily dose of 5 x 109 CFU of the probiotic strain was administered. This clinical trial represents the first assessment of the safety of D. natronolimnaea C79793-74 in human subjects. Results demonstrated that participants in both the Dietzia and Placebo groups maintained clinical and hematologic markers within the normal range throughout the study. More-over, the probiotic strain was well-tolerated, with nearly all participants experiencing no severe or medium adverse events. Collectively, the comprehensive data obtained in this study support the inference that Dietzia natronolimnaea C79793-74 is safe and well-tolerated as a nutritional supplement for human con-sumption
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1926.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Emotion Regulation; Attention; Behavioral Science; Clinical implementation
Online: 30 October 2023 (11:23:28 CET)
This review explores the complex interrelationships between emotion, attention, and behavior, drawing upon empirical evidence from psychological, neuroscientific, and clinical studies. It delves into the neural mechanisms that underlie these interactions, with a focus on key brain regions such as the prefrontal cortex and amygdala. Clinical cases involving stroke and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are examined to illustrate the real-world implications of these cognitive interactions. The review also discusses the impact of effective emotion regulation strategies and the role of attention as a cognitive mechanism that influences both emotion and behavior. Neuroimaging studies, particularly functional MRI, are highlighted for their role in providing a deeper understanding of these intricate relationships. The review concludes by emphasizing the importance of this triadic relationship in adaptive functioning and its broader implications for mental health, interpersonal relationships, and quality of life.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1619.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Gastroenterology And Hepatology Keywords: clinical trial; crohn; surgery; 6-mercaptopurine; adalimumab
Online: 25 October 2023 (10:04:57 CEST)
Post operative recurrence (POR) is the rule in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD), mitigated with prophylactic therapy. The evidence for therapeutic choice and timing of intervention is lacking. We aimed to compare rates of POR in patients treated early with prophylactic 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) or adalimumab. We conducted a prospective single center randomized open label clinical study, in which patients in surgical remission following their first ileocecectomy were randomized to receive early treatment with 6-MP or adalimumab. Patients were followed up clinically every 3 months and underwent endoscopy at weeks 32 and 58 post-operatively. The primary endpoint was endoscopic recurrence (ePOR) at 1 year (week 58), defined as a Rutgeerts score≥i2. We enrolled 35 patients (25 males, mean age 35±1.4 years, median disease duration 5±6.1 years) following ileocecectomy. Of these, 7(20%) were current smokers and 9(26%) biologics experienced. Patients allocated to adalimumab had significantly less ePOR than patients treated with 6MP at week 32 (21% vs 69%, p=0.004) and 58 (47% vs 75%), (p=0.03, HR=0.39, 95% CI=0.16-0.93). POR was associated with increased diameter of the resected small bowel surgical specimen, lower baseline body mass index (BMI), increased week 18 fecal calprotectin and serum alanine aminotransferase and decreased week 18 hemoglobin level. Adalimumab is more effective than 6-MP in preventing ePOR. Increased operative small bowel diameter and lower post-operative BMI were associated with ePOR. Eighteen weeks serum hemoglobin and ALT, and fecal calprotectin levels were predictive of endoscopic disease recurrence. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01629628).
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1918.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: multidrug-resistant tuberculosis; genetic mutations; clinical cases.
Online: 28 September 2023 (08:02:58 CEST)
The emergence of M. tuberculosis strains resistant to Isoniazid (INH) and Rifampicin (RIF), the two most potent drugs of first-line anti-TB therapy is termed multidrug drug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis has been a serious medical and epidemic problem all over the world. We present here a series of clinical cases consist of two patients diagnosed with isoniazid resistant tuberculosis. Histopathological examination supports the diagnosis of tuberculous granulomas. And the pathology molecular examination revealed the presence of Isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis1,2 via the following mutation c.947G>A; p.Gly316Asp. Isoniazid-resistance is associated with mutations in the furA-katG and fabG1-inhA operons, as well as mutations in the ahpC gene. 64% of the isoniazid-resistance phenotypes were associated with the katG315 mutation worldwide. The second most common mutation is inhA-15, and it has been reported in 19% of the Isoniazid-resistant isolates. The significant association between the two mutations, inhA c-15 and katG 315 respectively, and the high-level resistance is of interest in the interpretation of current and future molecular diagnostic testing, as an early prediction of the level of Isoniazid-resistance is essential to decide the benefit of high-dose Isoniazid use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0257.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: clinical features; histopathologic features; retinoblastoma; survival; children
Online: 5 September 2023 (11:25:46 CEST)
BACKGROUND: Retinoblastoma is a malignant tumour that develops from the immature cells of the retina. It is the most frequent type of paediatric intraocular cancer and is curable. Clinical and histological findings after enucleation of the affected eye dictate not only the patient's secondary care but also their prognosis. We assessed the clinical and histopathologic predictors of survival among children with retinoblastoma from two tertiary health facilities in Uganda. METHODS: This retrospective research utilized archived formalin fixed & paraffin embedded blocks of eye specimens enucleated between 2014 to 2016 at Mbarara University, pathology department and Ruharo Eye Centre. The specimens were then processed and stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The confirmation of retinoblastoma was made to include histologic stage and features of the tumor. Biographic data of the patients and the clinical features such as leukocoria, proptosis, phthisis, staphyloma, buphthalmos were retrieved from the records.RESULTS: Males (55.1%) dominated the study population (N=78). The median age was 31 months. The commonest clinical sign was leukocoria (69.2%) and the most abundant histopathological stage was stage 1 (41%). Optic nerve invasion 39.5%, choroidal invasion 29.5%, scleral invasion 7.7% and orbital extension 16.7% were seen. Flexner-Wintersteiner rosettes were seen in 24.6%. Necrosis was a prominent feature (71.2%). The two-year survival was estimated to be 62%. Leukocoria (RR 1.1), female gender (RR 1.4), intralaminar optic nerve invasion (RR 7.6) and a lack of orbital extension (RR- 7) were significant predictors of survival.CONCLUSION: Leukocoria and proptosis are noticeable clinical signs of retinoblastoma. Most patients present while in stage one although stage four presentation is also common. Leukocoria, optic nerve invasion, orbital extension, and gender are significant factors predictive of survival in patients with retinoblastoma.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1418.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Clinical study; Gingival recession; Periodontics; Surgical procedures
Online: 21 August 2023 (09:54:10 CEST)
Purpose: The goal of this article was to introduce a new technique for root coverage (RC), the Mixed-Thickness Tunnel access (MiTT), approaching a full-split design, showing the results obtained in a case series and demonstrating it step-by-step. Methods: Healthy individuals, non-smokers, and non-diabetics, who were diagnosed with gingival recession (GR) type 1 or 2 (RT1 or RT2). After all necessary evaluations, prophylaxis was performed 14 days before the surgical procedure. Then, after the basics clinical conduct and anesthesia, one or two vertical incision(s) on the mucosa (around 1-2 mm apical to the MGJ), lateral to the papilla base, were done. Initial detachment of the mucosa from the muscles (split design); it was permitted (but not mandatory) to do intrasulcular incisions; from the MGJ to coronal, subperiosteal access was done to raise the full-thickness tunnel. It must communicate up to the gingival sulcus area and the papilla’s base, keeping the papilla’s tip intact. A connective tissue graft was harvested, which was inserted through the linear incision or intrasulcularly. Interrupted sutures were done and may be used as adjunctive material. Results: Nine healthy individuals (7 females and 2 males) aged 19 and 43 years were enrolled. They were treated following the MiTT steps. There were four cases with a single GR, 2 patients with 2 teeth involved, and three with 3 or 4 GR. Seven cases were RT1 and two RT2. All RT1 cases achieved 100% RC, while the mean RC obtained for RT2 was around 80%. Conclusion: MiTT can be considered a more straightforward approach for minimally invasive surgical technique, which is a feasible option to treat RC with a high success rate, predictability, and esthetic preservation. There is a technical sensitivity to performing the full-split design procedure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0961.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Varicella; vaccine; immunogenicity; safety; children, clinical trial
Online: 14 July 2023 (03:51:32 CEST)
Korean manufacturers have developed a new varicella vaccine, NBP608. This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, multicenter study aimed to compare the immunogenicity and safety of NBP608 among healthy children to those of VarivaxTM (control). Children aged 12 months to 12 years were randomized 1:1 to receive either NBP608 or control vaccine. Serum samples were obtained before vaccination and within six to eight weeks after vaccination. A total of 499 participants (NBP608, n = 251; control, n = 248) was enrolled. The seroconversion rate (SCR) measured using FAMA assay was 99.53% in the NBP608 group, and the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% LCL) for SCR difference (NBP608 minus control) was 0.52%. This 95% LCL for the difference was higher than the specified non-inferiority margin of –15%. In assessment by gpELISA, the SCR was 99.53% in the NBP608 group; and the 95% LCL for SCR difference was 6.5%, which was higher than the specified non-inferiority margin of –15%. There were no significant differences between the NBP608 and control group with respect to proportions of participants who demonstrated local and systemic solicited AEs. This study indicated that NBP608 had a clinically acceptable safety profile and was not immunologically inferior to VarivaxTM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: ChatGPT; Medical Licensing Examination; Clinical Settings; Japan
Online: 10 March 2023 (09:33:21 CET)
ChatGPT is gaining widespread acceptance for its ability to generate natural language sentences in response to various inputs and is expected to become a supplementary tool for diagnosing and determining treatment policies in clinical settings. ChatGPT was used to evaluate its ability to perform clinical inference and accuracy in answering questions on the 117th Japanese National Medical Licensing Examination held in February 2023. The exam questions were manually inputted into ChatGPT's window, and the accuracy of ChatGPT's responses was determined based on answers provided by a preparatory school. ChatGPT provided answers for 389 out of 400 questions, and its overall correct answer rate was 55.0%. The correct answer rate for 5-choice-1, 5-choice-2, and 5-choice-3 were 57.8%, 42.9%, and 41.2%, respectively. The highest correct answer rate was for the compulsory exam (67.0%), followed by the specific knowledge exam (54.1%) and the cross category exam (47.9%). The correct answer rate for non-image questions was 56.2% and for image questions, it was 51.5%. The study suggests that ChatGPT has potential to support healthcare professionals in clinical decision-making in Japanese clinical settings, but caution should be exercised in interpreting and using the answers generated by ChatGPT due to room for improvement in performance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0299.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: leprosy; ABO/Rh blood group; Clinical; Angola
Online: 20 September 2022 (09:28:22 CEST)
Introduction: Leprosy, caused by Mycobacterium leprae is one of the oldest infectious diseases in human history and its eradication is linked to poverty control, lack of basic sanitation, the fragility of health, and education services. Objective: To evaluate the frequency of blood groups (ABO/Rh) and the sociodemographic and clinical profile of Angolan patients with Leprosy treated at the Anti-Tuberculosis and Leprosy Dispensary in Luanda, the capital city of Angola. Methodology: A descriptive, introspective, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach was carried out with 102 patients of Luanda, in the second half of 2021. Results: Of the 102 patients included in the study, the majority belonged to the ORh+ group (51.9%), followed by the BRh+ group (27.4%) and ARh+ (18.6%), most were under 51 years of age ( 87.3%), with low education (54.9%), coming from urban areas (44.1%). As for clinical conditions, most had a multibacillary infection (93.1%), diagnosed mainly by smear microscopy (75.5%) without other infection (79.4%), some of them with complications (28.4%) and individuals with non-O blood group showed changes in the blood count. Conclusion: Leprosy seems to be common in ORh+ individuals, it continues to affect especially those residing in areas of population agglomerations and with low education, presenting itself as a multibacillary infection, where changes in the blood count are greater in non-O individuals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0078.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: digitalization; clinical chemistry; artificial intelligence; interoperability; FAIRification
Online: 15 July 2022 (05:00:44 CEST)
Laboratory medicine is a digital science. Every large hospital produces a wealth of data each day - from simple numerical results from e.g. sodium measurements to highly complex output of “-omics” analyses, as well as quality control results and meta-data. Processing, connecting, storing, and ordering extensive parts of these individual data requires Big Data techniques. Whereas novel technologies such as artificial intelligence and machine learning have exciting application for the augmentation of laboratory medicine, the Big Data concept remains fundamental for any sophisticated data analysis in large databases. To make laboratory medicine data optimally usable for clinical and research purposes, they need to be FAIR: findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable. This can be achieved for example by automated recording, connection of devices, efficient ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) processes, careful data governance, and modern data security solutions. Enriched with clinical data, laboratory medicine data allow a gain in pathophysiological insights, can improve patient care, or they can be used to develop reference intervals for diagnostic purposes. Nevertheless, Big Data in laboratory medicine do not come without challenges: The growing number of analyses and data derived from them is a demanding task to be taken care of. Laboratory medicine experts are and will be needed to drive this development, take an active role in the ongoing digitalization, and provide guidance for their clinical colleagues engaging with the laboratory data in research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0175.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: ESKAPE; heteroaryl-ethylenes; clinical strains; antimicrobial activity
Online: 13 May 2022 (03:30:57 CEST)
The World Health Organization has identified antimicrobial resistance as a public health emergency and developed a global priority pathogens list of antibiotic-resistant bacteria that can be summarized in the acronym ESKAPE (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacterales species), reminding us of their ability to escape the effect of antibacterial drugs. We previously tested new heteroaryl-ethylene compounds in order to define their spectrum of activity and antibacterial capability. Now, we focus our attention on PB4, a compound with promising MIC and MBC values in all conditions tested. In the present study, we evaluate the activity of PB4 on selected samples of ESKAPE isolates from nosocomial infections: 14 S. aureus, 6 E. faecalis, 7 E. faecium, 12 E. coli and 14 A. baumanii. Furthermore, an ATCC control strain was selected for all species tested. MICs were performed according to the standard method, with some modifications. PB4 MIC values were within very low ranges regardless of bacterial species and resistance profiles: from 0,12 to 2 mg/L for S. aureus, E. faecalis, E. faecium and A. baumannii. For E. coli, the MIC values obtained were slightly higher (4-64 mg/L), butstill promising. The PB4 heteroaryl-ethylenic compound was able to counteract the bacterial growth of both high-priority Gram-positive and Gram-negative clinical strains. In the future, it would be interesting to evaluate the activity of PB4 in animal models to test for its toxicity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: botulinum toxin; subtype A2; clinical tolerability; safety
Online: 7 October 2021 (15:02:29 CEST)
All the available botulinum type A neurotoxins for clinical uses are of A1 subtype. We developed a subtype A2 low molecular weight (150kD) neurotoxin (A2NTX), with less spread and faster entry into the motor nerve terminal than A1 in vitro and in vivo. Preliminary clinical studies showed its efficacy superior to A1 toxins. We conducted an open study exploring its safety and tolerability profile in comparison with A1LL (onabotulinumtoxinA) and low molecular weight (150kD) A1 neurotoxin (A1NTX). Those who had been using A1LL (n=90; 50-360 mouse LD50 units) or A1NTX (n=30; 50-580 units) were switched to A2NTX (n=120; 25-600 units) from 2010 till 2018 (number of sessions ~ 27, cumulative doses ~11,640 units per patient). Adverse events for A2NTX included weakness (n=1, ascribed to alcoholic polyneuropathy), dysphagia (1), local weakness (4), spread to other muscles (1), whereas those for A1LL or A1NTX comprised weakness (n=2, A1NTX), dysphagia (8), ptosis (6), local weakness (7) and spread to other muscles (15). After injections, 89 out of 120 patients preferred A2NTX to A1 for the successive sessions. The present study demonstrated that A2NTX had the clinical safety up to the dose of 500 units, and was well tolerated compared to A1 toxins.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0400.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: pharmacovigilance; clinical pharmacology; male; female; emergency department.
Online: 15 June 2021 (11:51:17 CEST)
This post-hoc analysis of an Italian active pharmacovigilance study describes pharmacological differences of ADEs leading to emergency department (ED) visit and hospitalization in women and men. During the study period (January 2007 – December 2018), 61,855 reports of ADE leading to ED visit were collected. Overall, 30.6% of ADEs resulted in hospitalization (30% in women and 31% in men). Multivariate logistic regression showed that, among women, drug classes significantly associated with an increased risk of hospitalization were heparins (ROR 1.41, CI 1.13-176), antidepressants (ROR 1.12, CI 1.03-1.23) and antidiabetics (ROR 1.13, CI 1.02-1.24). Among men only vitamin K antagonists (ROR 1.28, CI 1.09-1.50), opioids (ROR 1.30, CI 1.06-1.60) and digitalis glycosides (ROR 1.32, CI 1.09-1.59) were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. Overall, older age, multiple suspected drugs and the presence of comorbidi-ties were significantly associated with a higher risk of hospitalization. A significantly reduced risk of hospitalization was observed in both women and men experiencing and adverse event following immunization (ROR 0.36, CI 0.27-0.48 and 0.83, 0.42-0.74, respectively) compared to drugs. Results obtained from this real-world analysis highlight important aspects of drug safety between sexes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0387.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Chikungunya; seroprevalence; clinical presentation; febrile outpatient; Malawi
Online: 17 May 2021 (13:19:32 CEST)
Chikungunya is a mosquito-borne viral disease caused by Chikungunya virus (CHIKV. We conducted this study determine the seroprevalence and clinical presentation of Chikungunya infection among outpatients seeking healthcare in Mzuzu City, Malawi. Blood samples were collected from malaria negative and non-septic febrile outpatients with fevers ≥38 °C, for not more than 5 days. The enzyme- linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was used to detect anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies and its results were used to determine seroprevalence of Chikungunya. A total of 119 serum samples were tested, of these, 73 (61.3%) tested positive for anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies by ELISA. Laboratory requisition forms were used to capture demographic information such as age, sex, clinical signs and symptoms presented by the enrolled patients. Age groups of 1-9, 10- 19, 20- 29, 30- 39, 40- 49, and ≥50 years had 17.8% (n= 13), 12.3 %,( n=9), 15.1%) (n=11), 19.2%; (n=14), 17.8% (n=13) and 17.8% (n=13) proportion of seroprevalence respectively. Most of the CHIKV infected individuals presented with fever (52.05%), joint pain (45.21%) and abdominal pain (42.67%). The presence of anti- CHIKV IgM antibodies suggest the presence of recent CHIKV infection and therefore accurate laboratory assays are highly recommended for CHIKV diagnosis and appropriate management of febrile patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0445.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Causality; Clinical Predisposing Factors; Delirium; Palliative Care
Online: 17 March 2021 (14:46:06 CET)
Delirium occurs in 50-80% of end-of-life patients but it is often misdiagnosed. Identification of clinical factors potentially associated with delirium onset can lead to a correct early diagnosis. To this aim, we conducted an observational prospective study on patients from an Italian Palliative Care Unit (PCU) in 2018-2019 and evaluated the presence of clinical factors at patients’ admission. We then compared their presence in patients who developed delirium and in those who did not during follow-up. On 503 enrolled patients, 95 (18.9%) developed delirium. In univariate analyses, factors significantly more frequent in patients with delirium were advanced age, care in hospice, very compromised performance status, hypoxia, high number of simultaneous clinical factors, presence of breathlessness, poor well-being, severe drowsiness, and background therapy with haloperidol and drugs acting on CNS. In multivariate analyses, setting of care (odds ratio, OR, 1.68 for hospice versus home care, 95% confidence interval, CI 1.02-2.75; p=0.040), and administration of psychiatric drugs (OR 1.74 for administration versus no administration, 95% CI 1.08-2.81; p=0.023) were significantly associated with the risk of developing delirium, while the associations with age (OR 1.82 for > 80 years versus ≤ 70 years, 95% CI=0.98-3.36; p=0.046) and presence of breathlessness (OR 1.70, 95%, CI 0.99-2.89, p=0.053) were of borderline significance. The study indicates that some clinical factors are associated with the probability of delirium onset. Their evaluation in PC patients could help the healthcare professionals to timely identify the development of delirium in those patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0293.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Hsp70; biomarker; glioblastoma; NK cells; clinical study
Online: 26 January 2021 (11:33:34 CET)
Despite rapid progress in the treatment of many cancers, glioblastoma remains a devastating disease with dismal prognosis. The aim of this study was to identify immune-related biomarkers that more effectively predict outcome of glioblastoma. Since heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) and IL-2 are known to increase the expression of activatory NK cell receptors, recognizing aggressive human tumor cells that present Hsp70 on their cell surface, extracellular Hsp70 levels were determined in glioma patients together with activatory NK cell receptors. All gliomas are membrane Hsp70-positive (mHsp70+) and high grade gliomas more frequently show an overexpression of Hsp70 in the nucleus and cytosol. Significantly increased extracellular Hsp70 levels are detected predominantly in glioblastomas with large necrotic areas. Overall survival (OS) is more favorable in patients with low Hsp70 serum levels indicating that a high Hsp70 expression is associated with an unfavorable prognosis. Elevated frequencies of NK cells are associated with a more favorable outcome. Of caution, a glucocorticoid therapy reduces the prevalence of NK cells. In summary, elevated frequencies of Hsp70-reactive NK cells at diagnosis and lower Hsp70 levels predict a more favorable prognosis in glioblastoma patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0142.v1
Online: 8 May 2020 (12:26:46 CEST)
COVID-19 was identified in Wuhan, China in in December 2019, and rapidly spread worldwide, being declared global pandemic one month later on 30 January 2020. Since its emergence, COVID-19 has raised global concerns associated with drastic measures that were never adopted in any previous outbreak, to contain the situation as early as possible. The 2019 novel corona virus (2019-nCoV) or SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of COVID-19. 2019-nCoV genetic sequence was rapidly identified within few days since the first reported cases and RT-PCR kits became available for COVID-19 diagnosis. However, RT-PCR diagnosis carries a risk of false-negative results, therefore additional serologic test are needed. The most important approach in the battle against COVID-19 is rapid diagnosis of suspicious cases, timely therapeutic intervention and isolation to avoid community spread. In this review, we summarize the clinical scenario that raises suspicion of COVID-19 and available laboratory diagnostics.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1148.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: clinical trials; study design, law procedures, statistical approach; health, Patients, Non-Commercial Clinical Trials, enrollment, regulatory agencies, packaging
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:34:23 CET)
Clinical trials often involve new substances characterized or developed for a specific pathology or class of pathologies. At other times, a clinical trial is observational; in other words, a known sub-stance has a range of effects on a given cohort of subjects. The types of trials are different and complex, and often, young clinical novice and the inexperienced researchers may struggle to evaluate how to proceed correctly. In this paper, we aim to create a mini-guide for beginners in clinical trials and provide elements for designing a clinical trial. Our intention is to highlight where to find the materials and how to adapt, even in the absence of sponsors, so that even the most inexperienced and under-resourced researcher can gain an understqanding of the complexi-ty of the process andaddress it appropriately. We do not claim to be exhaustive or cover all ele-ments, but rather, we aim to create a checklist. With this approach, starting discussioms about the experimental phases of the drug and concluding with the clinical trial, we aim to assist those facing this challenging "world."
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0179.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: knowledge acquisition; clinical practice guidelines; data driven knowledge acquisition; cancer treatment plan; clinical decision support system; formal verification
Online: 22 July 2019 (06:17:34 CEST)
Validation and verification are the critical requirements in the knowledge acquisition method for the clinical decision support system (CDSS). After acquiring the medical knowledge from diverse sources, the rigorous validation and formal verification process are required before creating the final knowledge model. Previously, we have proposed a hybrid knowledge acquisition method for acquiring medical knowledge from clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) and patient data in the Smart CDSS for treatment of oral cavity cancer. The final knowledge model was created by combining knowledge models obtained from CPGs and patient data after passing through a rigorous validation process. However, detailed analysis shows that due to lack of formal verification process, it involves various inconsistencies in knowledge relevant to the formalism of knowledge, conformance to CPGs, quality of knowledge, and complexities of knowledge acquisition artifacts. Therefore, it is required to enhance a hybrid knowledge acquisition method that thwarts the inconsistencies using formal verification. This paper presents the verification process using the Z formal method and its outcome as an enhanced acquisition method – known as the refined knowledge acquisition (ReKA) method. The ReKA method adopted verification method and explored the mechanism of theorem proving using the Z notation. It enables to identify inconsistencies in the validation process used for hybrid knowledge acquisition. Additionally, it refines the hybrid knowledge acquisition method by discovering the missing steps in the current validation process at the acquisition stage. Consequently, ReKA adds a set of nine additional criteria to be used to have a final valid refined clinical knowledge model. The criteria ensure the validity of final knowledge model concerning formalism of knowledge, conformance to GPGs, quality of the knowledge, usage of stringent conditions and treatment plans, and inconsistencies possibly resulting from the complexities. Evaluation, using four medical knowledge acquisition scenarios, shows that newly added knowledge in CDSS due to the addition of criteria by ReKA method always produces a valid knowledge model. The final knowledge model was also evaluated with 1229 oral cavity patient cases, which outperformed with an accuracy of 72.57\% compared to a similar approach with an accuracy of 69.7\%. Furthermore, ReKA method identified a set of decision paths (about 47.8%) in the existing approach, which results in a final knowledge model with low quality, non-conformed from standard CPGs. In conclusion, ReKA is formally proved method which always yields valid knowledge model having high quality, supporting local practices, and influenced from standard guidelines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Urology And Nephrology Keywords: COVID-19; SARS CoV-2; hypertension; obesity; clinical predictor of outcomes; clinical triage; ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 observational study
Online: 20 March 2023 (07:46:35 CET)
In New Orleans, Louisiana the population’s poor baseline health led to its establishment as an early epicenter for severe acute COVID-19. Antici-pating future outbreaks of COVID-19 and other respiratory viruses, we need to identify correlates of outcome, from real clinical experience. 89 patients were recruited into the ClinSeqSer acute COVID-19 longitudinal observational study, from the beginning of the outbreak in March to July 2020. Patients admitted for acute COVID-19 were enrolled in person. The cohort is unique as it is 68% Black, 53% female, of average age of early 60s, and prevalence of obesity and hypertension respectively of 55% and 83%. The outcomes are: 53% severe (20% fatal, 33% non-fatal) and 47% non-severe, with severe defined as death or requiring mechanical ventila-tion or high flow oxygen. Obesity and admit systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140mmHg are each associated with severe outcome and, despite respective sensitivity of 71% and 76%, specificity ~66% for both, and ac-curacy of 60% and 70% by ROC analysis, would likely provide useful predictors of outcome in critically stressed health care systems. We discuss pathophysiologic hypotheses to explain why high admit SBP is observed only in half of patients with pre-COVID hypertension and is associated with severe outcome.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0011.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: EHR; semantic interoperability; clinical information models; Archetype modeling
Online: 1 November 2023 (09:45:34 CET)
Semantic interoperability is a foundational concept in modern healthcare, enabling seamless communication and meaningful data exchange across diverse EHR systems. At the heart of this concept lies archetype clinical information models, which serve as standardized templates to structure and encode clinical data, ensuring consistency and shared understanding among various healthcare stakeholders. This review paper delves into the intricacies of Electronic Health Records (EHRs) within the context of semantic interoperability and the pivotal role played by archetype clinical information models. Drawing from a wealth of recent research, this review paper examines the theoretical underpinnings of semantic interoperability. By surveying the literature, it synthesizes the diverse approaches and methods employed to achieve semantic interoperability within EHR systems. Furthermore, this review does not shy away from addressing the significant challenges that persist in this arena. These challenges encompass issues related to data quality, governance, resistance to change, and the scalability and integration hurdles that healthcare organizations encounter in their quest for interoperable EHR systems. Through a comprehensive review of relevant research papers from esteemed sources including PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Taylor & Francis, the paper offers a comprehensive understanding of the approaches and methods employed in this domain. This analysis encompasses a time frame ranging from 2015 to 2023, ensuring an up-to-date assessment of the field. By presenting a well-rounded picture of the field, this review paper offers valuable insights for healthcare stakeholders, researchers, and practitioners. It underscores the enduring importance of semantic interoperability in EHR systems, not only in advancing patient care, clinical decision support, and healthcare operations but also in driving data-driven innovations in the dynamic and ever-evolving medical healthcare sector. This comprehensive examination sets the stage for future advancements in the pursuit of truly interoperable and data-driven healthcare systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1932.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: coping strategies; neuropsychology; interventions; stress pathways; clinical settings
Online: 30 October 2023 (12:54:28 CET)
The primary focus of this review is to explore the application and significance of coping strategies within the domains of clinical psychology and neuropsychology. These strategies consist of a variety of techniques, behaviors, and cognitive interventions, and their critical role in reinforcing resilience and facilitating adaptive responses to stressors has been highlighted. At the core of this exploration, the intricate neuropsychological relationship between brain stress pathways and the application of coping mechanisms has been analyzed. The neural aspects of stress, and how they can be influenced by adaptive strategies, are detailed, illustrating the profound impact these coping mechanisms have at a neurobiological level. Delving into the neuropsychological underpinnings, this review will shed light on how stress response pathways in the brain interact with, and can be modulated by, various coping strategies. These mechanisms are particularly salient when addressing the multifaceted challenges faced by individuals with neuropsychological or mental health issues. While these strategies span a broad spectrum, from introspection and cognitive reframing to behavioral activation and social support seeking, their integration and application remain diverse within clinical contexts. This review endeavors to elucidate the theoretical underpinnings of these strategies, their empirical support, and their practical implications within therapeutic interventions. Furthermore, the intricate interplay between individualized coping techniques and structured therapeutic methodologies will be examined, emphasizing the potential for a holistic treatment paradigm, thereby enhancing therapeutic outcomes and fostering individual resilience.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1141.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: periodontitis; periodontal disease; hypertension; dental scaling; clinical trial
Online: 15 June 2023 (12:16:06 CEST)
We sought to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal treatment (NSPT) on periodontal clinical parameters, systemic blood pressure (BP) and plasma levels of systemic inflammation markers in patients with combined refractory arterial hypertension (RAH) and stage III grade B periodontitis. Twenty-seven participants with RAH and periodontitis received NSPT. The analyzed clinical parameters were probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), bleeding on probing (BOP), and plaque index (PI). An assessment was performed for systemic BP, complete blood count, coagulogram, creatinine measurement, C-reactive protein (CRP), glycated hemoglobin, cholesterol, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamate pyruvic transaminase, waist-hip ratio, and body mass index. In the follow-up period, twenty-two patients were evaluated at baseline and after 90 and 180 days. The data were submitted to statistical analysis (α=0.05%). As expected, the clinical results showed a significant improvement in the percentages of PI, BOP, PD and CAL, which were statistically significant at 90 and 180 days (p<0.0001). Importantly, NSPT significantly reduced the blood level of CRP (p<0.02). However, no significant reduction in BP parameters was noted in the evaluated follow-up periods. NSPT, despite the benefits in periodontal clinical parameters, reduced the plasma level of CRP but not the BP in patients with combined RAH and periodontitis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0806.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Federated learning; clinical events; vital signs; classification; multimodal
Online: 12 June 2023 (09:02:18 CEST)
Effective healthcare relies on accurate and timely diagnosis; however, obtaining large amounts of training data while maintaining patient privacy remains challenging. This study introduces a novel approach utilizing federated learning (FL) and a cross-device multi-modal model for clin-ical event classification using vital signs data. Our architecture leverages FL to train machine learning models, including Random Forest, AdaBoost, and SGD ensemble model, on vital signs data from a diverse clientele at a Boston hospital (MIMIC-IV dataset). The FL structure preserves patient privacy by training directly on each client's device without transferring sensitive data. The study demonstrates the potential of FL in privacy-preserving clinical event classification, achieving an impressive accuracy of 98.9%. These findings underscore the significance of FL and cross-device ensemble technology in healthcare applications, enabling the analysis of large amounts of sensitive patient data while safeguarding privacy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1937.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: Cancer Immunotherapy; Tumour Immunology; Clinical trials; Adverse effects
Online: 26 May 2023 (14:16:17 CEST)
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) are a class of drug that produces durable and sustained anti-tumour responses in a wide variety of malignancies. The exponential rise in their use has been mirrored by a rise in immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Knowledge of such toxicities, as well as effective management algorithms for these toxicities, is essential to optimize clinical efficacy and safety. Currently, the guidelines for management of the irAEs are based largely on retrospective studies and case series. In this article, we review the current landscape of clinical trials investigating the management of irAEs with an aim to develop standardized, randomized controlled trial-based management algorithms for ICI-related toxicities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1753.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: Chronic pain; Medical Devices; Neuromodulation; Clinical trials; Bayesian
Online: 25 May 2023 (07:27:31 CEST)
Chronic non-cancer pain is a highly debilitating condition affecting approximately 20% of the global population. Chronic pain may lead to significant physical disability, emotional distress, social isolation and financial burden. Whilst. pharmacological therapies remain the cornerstone of pain management in non-cancerous chronic pain, factors including the current opioid epidemic have led to non-pharmacological techniques becoming a more attractive proposition. We explored the prevalence of medical device use and their treatment efficacy in non-cancer pain management. A systematic methodology was developed, peer reviewed and published in PROSPERO (CRD42021235384). Key words of medical device, pain management devices, chronic pain, lower back pain, back pain, leg pain and chronic pelvic pain using Science direct, PubMed, Web of Science, PROSPERO, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PorQuest and ClinicalTrials.gov. All clinical trials, epidemiology and mixed methods studies that reported the use of medical devices for non-cancer chronic pain management published between the 1st of January 1990 and the 30th of April 2022 were included. 13 studies were included in systematic review, of these 6 were used in the meta-analysis with 173 participants. Our meta-analysis for pain reduction in each study showed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation combined with instrument-assisted soft tissue mobilization treatment and pulsed electromagnetic therapy produced significant treatment on chronic lower back pain patients. Pooled evidence revealed the use of medical device related interventions resulted in 0.7 degree of pain reduction under a 0-10 scale. Significant improvement in disability scores, with a 7.44 degree reduction in disability level compared to a placebo using a 50 score range was also seen. The application of medical devices in patients with chronic pain has gained popularity due to increasingly cost effective techniques, minimally invasiveness and greater awareness of risks associated with pharmacological management. Our analysis has shown that the optimal use of medical devices in a sustainable manner requires further extensive research, needing larger cohort studies with greater gender parity, in a more diverse range of geographical locations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: sports medicine; transdisciplinary; clinical trials; sports science; thermography
Online: 23 February 2023 (04:08:46 CET)
This paper aims to list the current challenges in the study of Sports Medicine in Brazil based on a review of the literature and the author's experience as a member of a transdisciplinary team in this field, as well as to discuss methods for establishing an appropriate and organized course of health activities in this context. The authors identified four significant contemporary difficulties in the field of sports medicine in Brazil that, while minor, are complicated. There is a need to publish a greater number of national studies, generate integrated knowledge through transdisciplinary research, propose sports and movement as a tool for the prevention of degenerative conditions, and research and develop better therapeutic options through transdisciplinary research. It is expected that a transdisciplinary approach will reduce divergences between the real world and science, putting an end to dogmatism, prejudice, and theoretical thinking, increasing the scientificity of sports, bringing competitive advantages, improving training, performance, and athlete health management, and contributing to the advancement of sports medicine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0373.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: sustainable development; Virtual Patients; simulation; clinical skills; SDG
Online: 22 February 2023 (04:07:13 CET)
Simulation-Based Medical Education that uses Virtual Patients has become increasingly important during the COVID-19 pandemic. With the need for social distancing and minimizing contact, medical simulation technology has provided a valuable tool for healthcare professionals to practice and improve their skills without the need for face-to-face interactions. MedSIM is a medically accurate simulation platform with Virtual Patients designed for undergraduate medical education. Our study involved two groups of students. The PreCOVID group, before the pandemic, underwent conventional teaching methods. The COVID group, during the pandemic, had students exposed to conventions skills taught earlier and were taught again with MedSIM. Students indicated high satisfaction with the clinical skills demonstrated by the Virtual Patients. More than half agreed that MedSIM had enabled them to perform all kinds of procedures on patients (PreCOVID group 68.8%, COVID group 71.3%), showed cues and consequences much like those in natural clinical environments (PreCOVID 68.4%, COVID 71.3%). Also, MedSIM allowed them to have a repetitive practice that helps in critical skills transfer to actual patients (PreCOVID 72.7%, COVID 74.7%). MedSIM met the expectations of most of the students. Students from both groups rated the online performance of the MedSIM simulator as "Very good." Analysis from a customized word cloud indicated that most students found MedSIM to be good and of educational value. MedSIM platform enhances healthcare professionals' skills and knowledge, leading to better patient outcomes and increased access to healthcare, supporting SDG 3 (Good Health and Well-being). It also provides a safe and controlled environment for healthcare professionals to learn and practice essential skills, supporting SDG 4 (Quality Education).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0378.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: staphylococcus aureus; infective endocarditis; clinical prediction rules; echocardiography
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:41:47 CET)
Background. It is unclear whether the use of clinical prediction rules is sufficient to rule out infective endocarditis (IE) in patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SAB) without an echocardiogram evaluation, either transthoracic (TTE) and/or transesophageal (TEE). Our primary purpose was to test the usefulness of PREDICT, POSITIVE and VIRSTA scores to rule out IE without echocardiography. Our secondary purpose was to evaluate whether not performing an echocardiogram evaluation is associated with higher mortality. Methods. We conducted a unicentric retrospective cohort including all patients with a first SAB episode from January 2015 to December 2020. IE was defined according to modified Duke criteria. We predefined threshold cut-off points to consider that IE was ruled out by means of the mentioned scores. To assess 30-day mortality, we used a multivariable regression model considering performing an echocardiogram as covariate. Results. Out of 404 patients, IE was diagnosed in 50 (12.4%). Prevalence of IE within patients with negative PREDICT, POSITIVE and VIRSTA scores was: 3.6% (95% CI 0.1-6.9%), 4.9% (95% CI 2.2-7.7%), and 2.2% (95% CI 0.2-4.3%), respectively. Patients with negative VIRSTA and negative TTE had an IE prevalence of 0.9% (95% CI 0-2.8%). Performing an echocardiogram was independently associated with lower 30-day mortality (OR 0.24 95%CI 0.10-0.54, p=0.001). Conclusion. PREDICT and POSITIVE scores were not sufficient to rule out IE without TEE. In patients with negative VIRSTA score, it was doubtful if IE could be discarded with a negative TTE. Not performing an echocardiogram was associated with worse outcomes, which might be related to presence of occult IE. Further studies are needed to assess the usefulness of clinical prediction rules in avoiding echocardiographic evaluation in SAB patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0202.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: helminth; self-treatment; clinical trials; inflammation; dose escalation
Online: 13 December 2021 (12:46:41 CET)
The virtually complete loss of intestinal worms, known as helminths, from Western society has resulted in elimination of a range of helminth-induced morbidities. Unfortunately, that loss has also led to inflammation-associated deficiencies in immune function, ultimately contributing to widespread pandemics of allergies, autoimmunity, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Several socio-medical studies have examined the effects of intentional reworming, or self-treatment with helminths, on a variety of inflammation-related disorders. In this study, the latest results from ongoing socio-medical studies are described. The results point toward two important factors that appear to be overlooked in some if not most clinical trials. Specifically, (a) the method of preparation of the helminth can have a profound effect on its therapeutic efficacy, and (b) variation between individuals in the effective therapeutic dosage apparently covers a 10-fold range, regardless of the helminth used. These results highlight current limits in our understanding of the biology of both hosts and helminths, and suggest that information from self-treatment may be critical for clinical evaluation of the benefits and limits of helminth therapy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0198.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: CAR-T; TCR; cancer immunotherapy; immunotherapy clinical trials
Online: 8 July 2021 (11:04:10 CEST)
Chimeric antigen receptor and T-cell receptor (CAR-T/TCR) cellular immunotherapies have shown remarkable success in the treatment of some refractory B-cell malignancies, with potential to provide durable clinical response for other types of cancer. In this paper, we look at all available FDA CAR-T/TCR clinical trials for the treatment of cancer, and analyze them with respect to different disease tissues, targeted antigens, products, and originator locations. We found that 627 of 1,007 registered are currently active and of those 273 (44%) originated in China and 280 (45%) in the US. Our analysis suggests that the rapid increase in the number of clinical trials is driven by the development of different CAR-T products that use a similar therapeutic approach. We coin the term bioparallels to describe such products. Our results suggest that one feature of the CAR-T/TCR industry may be a robust response to success and failure of competitor products.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0116.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; Alzheimer’s Disease; Clinical trial; Precision medicine.
Online: 5 July 2021 (16:08:41 CEST)
Concomitant neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) are common in the brains of people with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Furthermore, AD biomarkers are associated with cognitive decline and dementia in PD patients during life. Here, we highlight the considerable overlap between AD and PD, emphasizing neuropathological, biomarker, and mechanistic studies. We suggest that precision medicine approaches may successfully identify PD patients most likely to develop concomitant AD. The ability to identify PD patients at high risk for future concomitant AD in turn provides an ideal cohort for trials of AD-directed therapies in PD patients, aimed at delaying or preventing cognitive symptoms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0130.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: nursing student; patient safety; clinical education; educational institutions
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:46:34 CEST)
Students' knowledge of the concept of patient safety in infection prevention and control and treatment safety is still low. Real-life problem-based learning approaches in the area of clinical education assist in patient safety education. This study was designed to identify, evaluate and summarize available evidence on the effectiveness of clinical education on student achievement of patient safety competencies. The Methode that use in this study is systematic review. Search for articles in research journals obtained from Sciencedirect, Ebscohost, Garuda, Proquest and Scopus. As many as 228 articles were obtained consisting of nursing journals and health journals with the keywords clinical education, competence, and patient safety. After that, the screening process was carried out based on the inclusion criteria and obtained 25 articles that met the criteria. The result of this study are the contribution of educational institutions in the achievement of patient safety competencies for nursing students is still low and the achievement of patient safety competencies for students at the professional level is better than for students who are still learning theory in educational institutions. The conclusion of this study is clinical education carried out by educational institutions is considered ineffective in achieving the competence of patient safety for nursing students. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a patient safety model or curriculum that is attached to clinical education in nursing education institutions
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0455.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Prognosis; prosthodontics; dental implant; clinical performance; risk factor.
Online: 18 December 2020 (11:34:49 CET)
Background: The treatment plan of prosthetic restorations supported by dental implants require comprehensive scientific knowledge to deliver prostheses with good prognosis, even before the implant insertion. This review aims to analyze the main prosthetic determinants of the prognosis of implant-supported prostheses. Methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted with a PICO question: "For partially or complete edentulous subjects treated with implant-supported prostheses, which prosthetic factors could affect clinical outcomes?". A literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (MEDLINE), Scopus and Cochrane Library with the following equation [PROGNOS* OR RISK] FACTOR IMPLANT DENTAL, and by hand search in relevant journals and throughout the selected papers. Results: This revision was carried out based on 50 papers focused on several prosthodontics-related risk factors that were grouped as follows: implant-connection, loading protocol, transmucosal abutments, prosthetic fit, provisionalization, type of retention, impression technique, fabrication technique, and occlusion. More than a half of the studies were systematic reviews (30%), meta-analysis (16%) or prospective evaluations of prosthesis with various kinds of events (18%). But also narrative reviews of literature (14%) and in vitro/animal studies (16%) were found. Conclusions: The current literature provides insufficient evidence for most of the investigated topics. However, based on the accumulated data, it seems reasonable to defend that the best treatment approach is the use of morse taper implants with transmucosal abutments, recorded by means of rigidly splinted copings through the pick-up technique, and screwed by milled prosthesis occlusally adjusted to minimize functional overloading.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0453.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: neurology; clinical features; coronavirus; stroke; encephalitis; headache; delirium
Online: 25 April 2020 (02:36:21 CEST)
The Coronavirus disease due to SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan city, China in December 2019 and rapidly spread more than 200 countries as a global health pandemic. There are more 3 million confirmed cases and around 207,000 fatalities. The primary manifestation is respiratory and cardiac but neurological manifestations are being reported in the literature as case reports and case series. The most common reported symptoms to include headache and dizziness followed by encephalopathy and delirium. Among the complications noted are Cerebrovascular accident, Guillian barre syndrome, acute transverse myelitis, and acute encephalitis. The most common peripheral manifestation was hyposmia. It is further noted that sometimes the neurological manifestations can precede the typical features like fever and cough and later on typical manifestations develop in these patients. Hence a high index of suspicion is required for timely diagnosis and isolation of cases to prevent the spread in neurology wards. We present a narrative review of the neurological manifestations and complications of COVID-19. Our aim is to update the neurologists and physicians working with suspected cases of COVID-19 about the possible neurological presentations and the probable neurological complications resulting from this novel virus infection.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0325.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: dental caries; prevention; clinical trials; herbal; scoping review
Online: 27 November 2019 (03:57:04 CET)
It is currently recognized that an injudicious strategy in the last decades has been not only focusing of research typically on caries in children, but also the narrow focusing on fluoride, because despite sufficient availability of fluoride in water and oral healthcare products, caries levels escalate steadily as people get older and caries remain a main public health issue to be settled. In the last two decades the scientific community intensified efforts of exploring other products for caries prevention, herbal products being one of these approaches. Because preliminary evidence indicated that clinical trials for caries prevention with herbal products are heterogeneous in design, quality and products evaluated, we performed a scoping review intended to explore the main characteristics of such clinical trials. From an initial collection of 1986 unique papers from different literature databases, 56 articles satisfied the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The species investigated, dosage forms, study designs, duration of intervention, controls, endpoints, quality of reporting and risk of bias are discussed. 85.71% of the trials reviewed here reported positive results but given the methodological flaws and biases affecting them, it is difficult to conclude on the efficacy of those products based on the studies published thus far.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0296.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: point-of-care; cholesterol; clinical diagnostics; laboratory test
Online: 26 July 2019 (01:13:11 CEST)
Managing blood cholesterol levels is important for the treatment and prevention of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity. An easy-to-use, portable cholesterol blood test will accelerate more frequent testing by patients and at-risk populations. We aim to evaluate the performance of smartphone-based point-of-care cholesterol blood tests as compared to that of hospital-grade laboratory tests. We used smartphone systems that are already familiar to many people. Because smartphone systems can be carried around everywhere, blood can be measured easily and frequently. We compared the results of cholesterol tests with those of existing clinical diagnostic laboratory methods. We found that smartphone-based point-of-care lipid blood tests are as accurate as hospital-grade laboratory tests (N=116, R>0.97, P<0.001 for all 3 cholesterol blood tests: total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein, and triglyceride). Our system will be useful for those who need to manage blood cholesterol levels to motivate them to track and control their behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; COVID-19; children; clinical features; comorbidities; male genderSARS-CoV-2, COVID-19, children, clinical features, comorbidities, male gender
Online: 26 July 2022 (04:43:02 CEST)
Background: Given the potential for additional development to clarify a better knowledge of the overall impact of COVID-19 on the pediatric population, the clinical symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents are still being explored. Morbidity in children is characterized by a variable clinical course. Our study's goal was to compare clinical aspects of 230 pediatric patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and were hospitalized between April 2020 and March 2022. Methods: In a retrospective analysis, we compared two groups hospitalized in the infectious diseases clinical ward IX at the National Institute for Infectious Diseases "Prof. Dr. Matei Bals," Bucharest, Romania. The first group of 88 patients was admitted between (April–December 2020) and their clinical manifestations were compared with the second group of 142 children followed between July 2021 and March 2022. Results: Of 230 children, the median age was 4.5 (interquartile range 0.6-17) years, 53.9% were male. 88 (36.21%) patients (first group) were admitted during the second wave in Romania, mostly aged < 5 years old, and experienced digestive manifestations like fever (p=0.001), and diarrhoea (p=0.004). The second group experienced different clinical signs when compared with the first group, with higher temperature and increased respiratory symptoms analogous to those of acute respiratory viral infections. The proportion in the second group increased, and 64.5% had symptoms for a median interval of 5 days; age (0-4 -years old) and length of stay were both proportionally inversely (p<0.01) and with correlation with hospital admission (p = 0.04). We report two Paediatric Inflammatory Multisystem Syndrome (PIMS) in the second group, with favourable evolution under treatment. Comorbidities were risk factors for complications appear (p < 0.001) in both groups. All paediatric cases admitted to our clinic evolved favourably and no death was recorded. Conclusions: In the first group children experienced digestive symptoms, whereas the second group experienced mild and moderate respiratory symptoms. We confirmed risk factors for severe cases as manifestations across the age spectrum, 0-4 (digestive symptoms) and 5-12 years old (for respiratory symptoms), associated comorbidities, fever, and male gender. The potential effects of COVID-19 infection in children older than 5 years should encourage caregivers to vaccinate and improve the prognosis among pediatric patients at risk.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0259.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: psoriasis; PDE4 inhibitor; apremilast; roflumilast; crisaborole; clinical trials; review
Online: 6 November 2023 (07:07:05 CET)
Psoriasis is a common chronic immune-mediated disease with many comorbidities and impacts on quality of life. Among the treatment options for psoriasis, phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibi-tors are emerging with expanding options. PDE4 inhibitors play a pivotal role in the inflamma-tory cascade by degrading cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), contributing to pro-inflammatory mediator production. Apremilast, an oral PDE4 inhibitor, is an approved class for psoriasis. While effective, its adverse effects can limit its utility. Roflumilast, a topical PDE4 inhibitor, was recently also approved for psoriasis and shows promise in clinical trials. Crisaborole, approved for atopic dermatitis, has also been studied in psoriasis. This updated re-view summarizes evidence from randomized clinical trials regarding the efficacy and safety of PDE4 inhibitors in psoriasis treatment. By highlighting their potential benefits and limitations, this review provides valuable insights for clinicians and researchers aiming to optimize psoriasis therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0104.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: OMOP; OHDSI; interoperability; data harmonization; clinical data; claims data
Online: 2 November 2023 (07:45:02 CET)
To gain insight into the real-life care of patients in the healthcare system, data from hospital information systems and insurance systems are required. Consequently, linking clinical data with claims data is necessary. To ensure their syntactic and semantic interoperability, the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP) Common Data Model (CDM) was chosen. However, there is no detailed guide that would allow researchers to follow a consistent process for data harmonization. Thus, the aim of this paper is to conceptualize a generic data harmonization process for OMOP CDM. For this purpose, we conducted a literature review focusing on publications that address the harmonization of clinical or claims data in OMOP CDM. Subsequently, the process steps used and their chronological order were extracted for each included publication. The results were then compared to derive a generic sequence of the process steps. From 23 publications included, a generic data harmonization process for OMOP CDM was conceptualized, consisting of nine process steps: dataset specification, data profiling, vocabulary identification, coverage analysis of vocabularies, semantic mapping, structural mapping, extract-transform-load-process, qualitative and quantitative data quality analysis. This process can be used as a step-by-step guide to assist other researchers in harmonizing source data in OMOP CDM.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1915.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Odontogenic sinusitis; oral etiology; Endo-periodontal lesions; clinical symptoms
Online: 28 September 2023 (09:55:06 CEST)
The aim of the study was to analyze the oral etiology of patients with odontogenic sinusitis (ODS）and to compare the differences in demographic data, clinical symptoms, extent of sinus involvement, bone penetration of the maxillary sinus floor (MSF) between different etiologies. A retrospective investigation was conducted on 103 patients with ODS recruited from Beijing Tongren Hospital. All enrolled patients underwent sinus CT, nasal endoscopy, and oral examination. A comparison of the patients' clinical symptoms, extent of involvement of the sinuses, and bone resorption of the MSF according to odontogenic etiologies was conducted. Follow-up was based on symptoms, clinical examination. The most common odontogenic etiologies were endo-periodontal lesions (EPL. 49.5%), apical periodontitis (AP, 32.0%) and periodontitis (PE, 8.7%). There were statistically significant differences in age (P=0.002), sex (P=0.036), inflammation involving the ethmoid sinus (P=0.037), and bone penetration of the MSF (P<0.001) between the AP, EPL, and PE groups. There were no significant differences in sinusitis symptoms (P>0.005) among patients with different odontogenic etiologies. In conclusion, EPL is a neglected oral etiology with a destructive effect on the bone of the MSF, and Should receive more attention in diagnosis and treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0328.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: probiotics; clinical trials; adults; gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease; PRISMA
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:50:57 CEST)
Probiotics have been widely used in gastroenteritis due to acute and chronic illnesses. However, evidence supporting the effectiveness of probiotics in different health conditions are inconclusive and conflicting. The aim of the study was to review existing literature on the effects of probiotics in gastroenteritis among adults. Only original articles on clinical trials that demonstrated the effects of probiotics in adults with gastroenteritis were used for this analysis. Multiple databases such as PubMed, Google Scholar, MEDLINE and Scopus databases were searched for the data. The study followed standard procedures for data extraction using PRISMA flow chart. A quality appraisal of the selected studies was conducted using CADIMA. Finally, a meta-analysis was conducted. Thirty-five articles met the selection criteria; of them, probiotics were found effective in the treatment and/or prevention of chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease in 17 (49%), and the treatment of pouchitis in 4 (11.4%), antibiotic-induced diarrhea in 3 (8.6%), Helicobacter pylori infection in 2 (5.7%) and diverticulitis in 1 (2.9%), while the remaining 7 (20%) were ineffective and 1 study results were inconclusive. Meta-analysis, on the contrary, didn’t demonstrate any significant protective effects of probiotics. Having a τ² value of zero and I² of 6%, the studies were homogeneous and had minimum variances. Further studies are suggested to evaluate the beneficial effects of probiotics in IBDs and other chronic bowel diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1045.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Buccal mucoadhesive; local action; nanotechnology; clinical trial; biofilms; gel
Online: 17 July 2023 (03:53:14 CEST)
Advances in nanotechnology have paved the way for more effective drug delivery using particulate and non-particulate nano-based formulations across a range of applications. In the oral cavity, local delivery using mucoadhesive formulations has advantages over conventional formulations for increasing local efficacy whilst reducing unwanted adverse effects. Nano-formulations provide the opportunity for new formulations with enhanced intraoral stability, local action, and improved patient acceptability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0699.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19 infection; pandemic; clinical manifestations; complications; Long-COVID
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:47:37 CEST)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus - 2 (SARS-CoV-2), later renamed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first identified in Wuhan, China, in early December 2019. Initially, the China office of the World Health Organization was informed of numerous cases of pneumonia of unidentified etiology in Wuhan, Hubei Province on December 31, 2019. This would subsequently result in a global pandemic with over 76 million confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 6.9 million deaths reported to the WHO. We have analyzed most of the data published since the beginning of the pandemic to compile this comprehensive review of SARS-CoV-2. We look at the core ideas, such as the etiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical symptoms, diagnostics, histopathologic findings, consequences, therapies, and vaccines. We have also included the long-term effects and myths associated with some therapeutics of COVID-19. This study comprehensively assesses of the SARS-CoV-2 virology, vaccines, medicines, and significant variants identified during the pandemic. Our review article is intended to provide medical practitioners with a better understanding of the fundamental sciences, clinical treatment, and prevention of COVID-19. As of June 2023, this paper contains the most recent data made accessible.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0541.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: high-fidelity patient simulation; problem-solving; clinical reasoning; healthcare
Online: 10 July 2023 (04:48:42 CEST)
High-fidelity patient simulation (HFPS) is widely used in professional training to enhance students’ competence in clinical management. Problem-solving (PS) and clinical reasoning (CR) skills are essential to developing students in professional competence in safe and effective care. These two skills should be initiated at the early training. However, little is known about the effects of HFPS on developing PS and CR skills in first year undergraduate students. Therefore, this pre- and post-experimental study aimed to investigate the effects of HFPS on development of PS and CR skills in first-year nursing students. The students were required to go through four sessions, preparation, pre-briefing and orientation, simulation role-playing, and debriefing, for the HFPS. The study utilized the Problem-Solving Inventory (PSI) and the Nurses Clinical Reasoning Scale (NCRS) to measure problem-solving and clinical reasoning abilities before and after HFPS. Bivariate analysis, one-sample t-test, and independent t-test were performed to evaluate the performance of the PS and CR skills at the two study periods. One hundred eighty-nine students were recruited, with a mean age of 20.56 years, and 73% were female students. The analytic results showed that the PSI, particularly in domains of Problem-Solving Confidence (PSC) (p<0.001) and overall PS (p<0.001), and the CR (p<0.001) had significant improvement after HFPS. The study concluded that HFPS is an effective innovative method to significantly improve students’ problem-solving and clinical reasoning abilities. Nurse educators play an important role in providing explicit learning instructions in a simulation guideline that directs and guides students to learn at each stage of HFPS. Students should take more initiative and engage in their learning through HFPS to enhance their competence in knowledge and higher intellectual skills for personal and professional developments.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0367.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Therapeutic; COVID-19; Immune response; Clinical trials; Antiviral therapy
Online: 6 July 2023 (07:00:39 CEST)
The 2019 COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has resulted in many fatalities worldwide. Despite various types of supportive care, mortality rates for patients with comorbidities remain high. To explore alternative treatment options, interferons (IFNs) have emerged as promising therapeutic drugs for SARS-CoV-2. This review aims to investigate the potential of IFNs as a drug with details on their mechanisms of action, and available data on their use with ongoing clinical trials, results, potential limitations, and challenges. Recently published research articles, which were systematically searched through online databases, have been selected and found that IFNs have colossal potential in treating SARS-CoV-2 infection by modulating the host's immune response and inhibiting viral replication and decreasing the severity of disease and hospitalization (p = 0.03, ±0.05) and (p = 0.04, ±0.05) respectively. However, due to less available data, more controlled and randomized trials are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of IFN therapy. The optimal dosing and duration of IFN therapy also remain to be determined. Although further research is needed the wait for ongoing clinical trial results under investigation is also important for a better understanding of IFN therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: GIST; GI neurotransmitter; Pacemaker; SEER database; Clinical characteristics; Mortality
Online: 4 July 2023 (10:23:16 CEST)
Background: Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that represent approximately 1 to 2 percent of primary gastrointestinal (GI) cancers. Owing to their rarity, very little is known about the overall epidemiology and prognostic factors of the pathology. The purpose of this study is to investigate the clinical characteristics, survival outcomes, and independent prognostic factors of patients with GIST in the past decade. Methods: A total of 2,374 patients diagnosed with GIST, between 2010 and 2017, were ultimately enrolled in our study by retrieving the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We analyzed demographics, clinical characteristics, and overall mortality (OM) as well as cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of GIST. Variables with a p value < 0.01 in the univariate Cox regression were incorporated into the multivariate Cox model to determine the independent prognostic factors, with a hazard ratio (HR) of greater than 1 representing adverse prognostic factors. Results: Multivariate cox proportional hazard regression analyses of factors affecting all-cause mortality and GIST related mortality among US patients between 2010 and 2017 revealed higher overall mortality in Non-Hispanic Blacks (HR= 1.516, 95% CI 1.172-1.961, p= 0.002), age 80+ (HR= 9.783, 95% CI4.185-22.868, p= 0), followed by age 60-79 (HR= 3.408, 95% CI 1.488-7.807, p=0.004); male patients (HR= 1.795 , 95% CI 1.461-2.206, p=0); advanced disease with distant metastasis (HR= 3.865 , 95% CI 2.977-5.019, p=0), followed by regional involvement by both direct extension and lymph node involvement (HR= 3.853, 95% CI 1.551-9.57, p=0.004); and widowed patients (HR= 1.975, 95% CI 1.494-2.61, p= 0), followed by single patients (HR= 1.53, 95% CI 1.154-2.028, p=0.003). The highest CSM was observed in the same groups, except widowed patients and patients aged 60-79. The highest CSM was also observed among patients that underwent chemotherapy (HR= 1.687, 95% CI 1.19-2.392, p= 0.003). Conclusion: In this United States population-based retrospective cohort study using the SEER database, we found that non-Hispanic blacks, male patients, and patients older than 60 years have a higher mortality with GIST. Furthermore, patients who received chemotherapy have a higher GIST specific mortality and married patients had a lower mortality. However, we do not know to what extent these independent prognostic factors interact with each other to influence mortality. This study paves the way for future studies addressing those interactions. The results of this study may help treating clinicians to identify patient populations associated with dismal prognosis as those may require closer follow-up and more intensive therapy; furthermore, with married patients having a better survival, we hope to encourage clinicians to involve family members of the affected patients early in the disease course as the social support might impact the prognosis.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0144.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Keywords: Cancer; database; genomic, proteomic, lipidomic, glycomic, clinical trials.
Online: 4 July 2023 (08:37:30 CEST)
Our search of existing cancer databases aimed to assess the current landscape and identify key needs. We analyzed 71 databases, focusing on genomics, proteomics, lipidomics, and glycomics. We found a lack of cancer-related lipidomic and glycomic databases, indicating a need for further development in these areas. Proteomic databases dedicated to cancer research were also limited. To assess overall progress, we included human non-cancer databases in proteomics, lip-idomics, and glycomics for comparison. This provided insights into advancements in these fields over the past eight years. We also analyzed other types of cancer databases, such as clinical trial databases and web servers. Evaluating user-friendliness, we used the FAIRness principle to assess findability, accessibility, interoperability, and reusability. This ensured databases were easily accessible and usable. Our search summary highlights significant growth in cancer databases while identifying gaps and needs. These insights are valuable for researchers, clinicians, and database developers, guiding efforts to enhance accessibility, integration, and usability. Addressing these needs will support advancements in cancer research and benefit the wider cancer community.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0849.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 12 June 2023 (14:31:24 CEST)
Epigenetic alterations are heritable and enduring modifications in gene expression that play a pivotal role in immune evasion. These include alterations to noncoding RNA, DNA methylation, and histone modifications. DNA methylation plays a crucial role in normal cell growth and development but alterations in methylation patterns such as hypermethylation or hypomethylation can enable tumor and viral cells to evade host immune responses. Histone modifications can also inhibit immune responses by promoting the expression of genes involved in suppressing normal immune function. In the case of T-cell lymphoma, adult T-cell Lymphomas (ALT) also undergo immune evasion through the exceptional function of its accessory and regulatory genes. Epigenetic therapies are emerging as a promising adjunct to traditional immunotherapy and chemotherapy regimens. Clinical trials are currently investigating the use of epigenetic therapies in combination with immunotherapies and chemotherapies for more effective treatment of ATL and other cancers. This review highlights epigenetic alterations that are widely found in T cell malignancies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0742.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Cryoglobulinaemia; IgM; Waldenström macroglobulinemia; monoclonal gammopathy of clinical significance
Online: 12 June 2023 (03:16:55 CEST)
Cryoglobulinaemia is characterised by immunoglobulins which precipitate at temperatures be-low 37°C and redissolve on warming. Monoclonal IgM immunoglobulin may be associated with type I and II cryoglobulinaemia with underlying Waldenström macroglobulinemia, monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance or other non-Hodgkin lymphoma. We review the clinical characteristics, laboratory testing and suggest a management approach for monoclonal IgM associated cryoglobulinaemia. Laboratory testing is critical as even a minimal amount of measurable cryoglobulin may result in symptoms. Accurate detection of cryoglobulins may be challenging and care must be taken with preanalytical variables and repeat testing of monoclo-nal protein and cryoglobulins is indicated if clinical suspicion is high. Presentations range from asymptomatic disease to multisystem involvement so careful evaluation of the features and thorough interrogation of organ systems and the underlying clone is critical. Immediate man-agement is required for clinical red flag features. Due to their rarity, data to inform treatment decisions are scant and collaborative research is imperative to aid defining optimal treatment strategies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1725.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: Molecular biology; infectious diseases; clinical diagnostic; early detection; prognosis
Online: 25 May 2023 (03:34:18 CEST)
Antibiotic therapy is a cornerstone of modern medicine, yet the development of antibiotic re-sistance threatens to render these therapies ineffective. The gut microbiota, a complex ecosystem of microorganisms residing in the gastrointestinal tract, plays a critical role in modulating anti-biotic efficacy and resistance. This review delves into the intricate relationship between gut mi-crobiota, antibiotic therapy, and resistance, and discusses the potential applications of gut mi-crobiota research in guiding personalized antibiotic therapy and resistance mitigation strategies. Recent advancements in metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics have demon-strated the potential for tailored antibiotic regimens that minimize collateral damage to com-mensal bacteria and reduce the risk of resistance. Adjuvant therapies such as probiotics, prebi-otics, and synbiotics have shown promise in restoring gut microbial balance and mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotic therapy. We address the challenges associated with this emerging field including the need for standardized methodologies, ethical considerations, and interdisci-plinary collaboration. With continued interdisciplinary collaboration and the implementation of standardized methodologies, gut microbiota research can contribute to the global fight against antibiotic resistance and improve patient outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1149.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Primary cardiac sarcoma; SEER database; prognostic factors; clinical characteristics
Online: 28 April 2023 (08:42:14 CEST)
Background: Primary cardiac sarcomas (PCS) are extremely rare malignant tumors involving the heart. Only isolated case reports have been described. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiological characteristics of PCS. This study has the objective of investigating the epidemiologic characteristics, survival outcomes, and independent prognostic factors of PCS. Methods: We enrolled a total of 362 patients with PCS, between 2000 and 2017, by retrieving the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We analyzed demographics, clinical characteristics, and overall mortality (OM) as well as cancer-specific mortality (CSM) of PCS. Variables with a p-value < 0.1 in the univariate Cox regression were incorporated into the multivariate Cox model to determine the independent prognostic factors, with a hazard ratio (HR) of greater than 1 representing adverse prognostic factors. Results: Crude analysis revealed a high OM in age 80+ (HR=5.958, 95% CI 3.357-10.575, p=0), followed by age 60-79 (HR=1.429, 95% CI 1.028-1.986, p=0.033); and PCS with distant metastases (HR=1.888, 95% CI 1.389-2.566, p=0). Patients that underwent surgical resection of the primary tumor and patients with malignant fibrous histiocytomas (HR=0.657, 95% CI 0.455-0.95, p=0.025) had a better OM (HR=0.606, 95% CI 0.465-0.791, p=0). The highest cancer-specific mortality was observed in age 80+ (HR=5.037, 95% CI 2.606-9.736, p=0) and patients with distant metastases (HR=1.953, 95% CI 1.396-2.733, p=0). Patients with malignant fibrous histiocytomas (HR=0.572, 95% CI 0.378-0.865, p=0.008) and those who underwent surgery (HR=0.581, 95% CI 0.436-0.774, p=0) had a lower CSM. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses revealed higher OM in the age group 80+ (HR=13.261, 95% CI 5.839-30.119, p=0) and advanced disease with distant metastases (HR=2.013, 95% CI 1.355-2.99, p=0.001). Lower OM was found in patients with rhabdomyosarcoma (HR=0.364, 95% CI 0.154-0.86, p=0.021) and widowed patients (HR=0.506, 95% CI 0.263-0.977, p=0.042). Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analyses of CSM also revealed higher mortality in the same groups, and lower mortality in patients with Rhabdomyosarcoma. Conclusion: In this United States population-based retrospective cohort study using the SEER database, we found that cardiac rhabdomyosarcoma was associated with the lowest CSM and OM. Furthermore, as expected, age and advanced disease at diagnosis were independent factors predicting poor prognosis. Surgical resection of the primary tumor showed lower CSM and OM in the crude analysis but when adjusted for covariates in the multivariate analysis, it did not significantly impact the overall mortality or the cancer-specific mortality. These findings allow for treating clinicians to recognize patients that should be referred to palliative/hospice care at the time of diagnosis and avoid any surgical interventions as they did not show any differences in mortality. Surgical resection in patients with poor prognoses should be reserved as a palliative measure rather than an attempt to cure the disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0147.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: clinical trial; informativeness; design review; trial methods maturity model
Online: 10 April 2023 (04:56:37 CEST)
Many clinical trials end uninformatively. Informativeness, in the context of clinical trials, defines whether a study’s results definitively answer its research questions with meaningful next steps. One subset of these trials are those focused on global health set in low-resource settings. Global health clinical trials benefitting people in low-resource settings are funded primarily by a limited number of large foundations, pharmaceutical firms (“industry”), and national governments. While clinical trial protocols are required to go through reviews in regulatory and ethical domains, outside of industry-funded trials, funders rarely require focused scientific design reviews. There are no documented standards and processes, or even best practices, for funders to perform scientific reviews after the funding commitment. Considering the investment in and standardization of ethical and regulatory reviews, and the prevalence of studies ending without clarity or never finishing, it may be that scientific reviews of trial designs with a focus on informativeness offer the best chance for improved outcomes and return on investments in clinical trials. A maturity model is a helpful tool for knowledge transfer to help grow capabilities in a new area, or for those looking to perform a self-assessment in an existing area. Such a model is offered for scientific design reviews of clinical trial protocols: a valuable and often-neglected governance step for funders or sponsors, among others. This maturity model includes 11 process areas and 5 maturity levels. Each of the 55 process area levels is populated with descriptions on a continuum toward an optimal state to improve trial protocols in the area of risk of failure. This tool allows for prescriptive guidance on next investments to improve attributes of post-funding reviews of trials, with a focus on informativeness.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0108.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Parkinson’s disease; genetics; α-synuclein; neurodegeneration; clinical manifestation; diagnosis
Online: 7 April 2023 (03:54:11 CEST)
With the growing hope that disease-modifying treatments could target the molecular basis of neurodegenerative diseases even before the onset of symptoms, there is mounting pressure to define disease entities based on pathophysiology rather than on clinical syndromes. The Alzheimer’s disease research community has recently transitioned from diagnostic criteria based on an amnestic syndrome to a purely biomarker-based disease definition, relying on the demonstration of amyloid-beta pathology, tau pathology, and neurodegeneration. In contrast, current diagnostic criteria for Parkinson’s disease still rely on the presence of the well-described clinical syndrome of parkinsonism, with the addition of characteristic motor- and non-motor signs and symptoms. However, there is now unequivocal evidence that Parkinson’s disease starts years before the onset of parkinsonism. Furthermore, neuropathologically defined Lewy body disease is clinically heterogeneous, combining a range of motor, non-motor, dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic features. Finally, clinically defined Parkinson’s disease has diverse underlying etiologies most, but not all, associated with α-synuclein positive Lewy pathology. In light of recent scientific advances, we propose a biologically based definition for the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease, initially to be used for research purposes. The criteria use a three-component ‘G-S-N’ system. The first is documentation of defined gene variants (‘G’), which cause or strongly predispose to PD as the most upstream component. The second is α-synuclein pathology (‘S’), currently defined as pathological α-synuclein deposition in tissue or positive α-synuclein seeding assays. The third is evidence of underlying neurodegeneration (‘N’), currently defined by specific neuroimaging procedures. The associated clinical syndrome (‘C’) is defined by a single high-specificity feature or multiple lower-specificity features. Initiating this transition will enable the field to fuel both basic and clinical research and move closer to the precision medicine required to develop clinically meaningful disease-modifying therapies. We acknowledge current limitations, ethical implications, and the need for prospective validation of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Aluminum phosphide; Clinical Toxicology; Dihydroxyacetone; Pharmacotherapy; Phosphine; Suicide; Toxicity
Online: 13 March 2023 (10:37:23 CET)
Background: Aluminum phosphide (AlP), also known as “rice tablet,” is widely used as an effective pesticide. However, AlP poisoning is a common cause of mortality in many countries, such as Iran. Unfortunately, there is no specific antidote for AlP toxicity to date. AlP releases phosphine gas when it is exposed to moisture and acid. Phosphine is a robust mitochondrial toxin that could significantly inhibit cellular energy metabolism. AlP poisoning is an emergency condition that needs instant and effective intervention. Dihydroxyacetone (DHA) is a simple saccharide used for several pharmacological as well as cosmetic purposes. Previously, we found that DHA could significantly prevent mitochondrial impairment induced by toxic agents such as cyanide and phosphine in various in vitro and in vivo experimental models.Methods: Hospitalized patients (n = 111) were evaluated for eligibility criteria. Among these patients, n = 35 cases were excluded due to incomplete data (n = 11) and suspicion of poisoning rather than AlP (n = 24). Meanwhile, n = 76 cases with confirmed AlP poisoning were included in the study. AlP-poisoned patients who did not receive DHA (n =18) were used as the control group.Patients (n = 58) received at least one dose of DHA (500 ml of 5% DHA solution w/v, i.v.) in addition to routine treatment of AlP poisoning. Arterial blood gas (ABG), blood pH, bicarbonate levels, and other vital signs and biochemical measurements were monitored. Moreover, the mortality rate and time of hospitalization were evaluated in both DHA-treated (n = 58) and AlP-poisoned patients without DHA administration (n = 18). Several biomarkers were assessed before (upon hospitalization) and after DHA treatment. The routine tests for AlP-poisoned patients in this study were the measurement of electrolytes (K+ and Na+), WBC, RBC, hemoglobin, INR, carbonate (HCO3), blood pH, PaCO2, and PaO2 and SGPT, SGOT, BUN, Cr. Results: Upon patients' admission, significant decreases in blood pH (acidosis), blood PaO2, and HCO3 levels were the hallmarks of AlP poisoning. It was found that DHA significantly alleviated biomarkers of AlP poisoning and tremendously enhanced patients’ survival rate compared to patients treated based on hospital routine AlP poisoning protocols (no DHA). No significant adverse effects were evident in DHA-treated patients in the current study.Interpretation: These data suggest that parenteral DHA is a novel and effective antidote against AlP poisoning.Trial registration: IR.SUMS.REC.1394.102
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0109.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Chikungunya virus; diagnosis; arbovirus infections; clinical decision making; Colombia
Online: 6 March 2023 (15:17:22 CET)
Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) diagnosis have become a challenge for primary care physicians in areas where zika virus and/or dengue virus are present. Case definitions for the three arboviral infections are overlapping. Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out. A bivariate analysis was made using confirmed CHIKV infection as the outcome. Variables with significant statistical association were included in an agreement consensus. Agreed variables were analyzed in multiple regression model. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was calculated to determine a cut-off value and performance. Results: 295 patients with confirmed CHIKV infection were included. A screening tool was made using symmetric arthritis (4 points), fatigue (3 points), rash (2 points) and ankle joint pain (1 point). The ROC curve identified a cut-off value and a score ≥ 5.5 was considered positive to identify CHIKV patients with a sensibility of 64.4% and a specificity of 87.4%, positive predictive value of 85.5%, negative predictive value of 67.7%, area under the curve of 0.72, and an accuracy of 75%. Conclusion: We developed a screening tool for CHIKV diagnosis using only clinical symptoms as well as proposed an algorithm to aid the primary care physician.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0020.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: COVID-19; Clinical trials; Mental health; Vaccination; CTU workforce
Online: 1 March 2023 (10:44:52 CET)
The overall objective of this mixed-method digital-based observational study was to determine the mental health impact among CTU staff working during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Qualtrics Core XM platform was used to deploy the questionnaire where a quantitative analysis was conducted. The qualitative part of the study used the Microsoft Teams digital application to complete the interviews. Various validated mental health assessments were administered: Vancouver Index of Acculturation (VIA), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), Pandemic Stress Index (PSI), Burnout Assessment Tool-12 (BAT-12), General Self Efficacy Scale (GSE) and The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS). A total of 485 participants took part, of which 73.4% were female and 70.1% of the sample were white British. A high prevalence of anxiety, exhaustion and depression were identified across all participants. A significant mental health impact was identified among the CTU workforce where wellbeing was compromised during the course of the COVID-19 pandemic.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0289.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Primary Sjögren's Syndrome; dryness; fatigue; depression; anxiety; clinical trials
Online: 19 October 2022 (14:26:01 CEST)
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic, systemic autoimmune disease defined as exocrine gland hypofunction resulting in dry eyes and dry mouth. Recent interest in biological therapies for pSS has been garnered, however achieving FDA-approval has been challenging due to the numerous complications in the trials. Current literature lacks insight and a molecular target-based approach to the development of biological therapies. This review focuses on novel research in newly defined drug targets and latest clinical trials for pSS treatment. A literature search was conducted on ClinicalTrials.gov using the search term “Primary Sjögren's syndrome”. Articles published between 2000 and 2021 in English language were included. Our findings revealed the potential targets for pSS treatment in clinical trials and the most recent advances in understand-ing of molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of pSS. A prominent gap in current trials is overlooking the treatment of extraglandular symptoms such as fatigue, depression and anxiety which pervade most patients with pSS. Based on dryness and these symptom-directed therapies, emerging biological agents targeting inflammatory cytokines, signal pathways and immune reaction have been studied and proved the efficacy and safety. Novel therapies may complement existing non-pharmacological methods of alleviating symptoms of pSS. Better grad-ing systems adding extraglandular symptoms to gauge disease activity and severity should be created. The future of pSS therapies may lie in gene therapy, stem cell and tissue engineering ther-apy.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: ANCA-associated vasculitis; Proteinase 3; Myeloperoxidase; Clinical Phenotype; Outcome
Online: 17 August 2022 (09:58:51 CEST)
The traditional nomenclature system for classifying Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitides (AAV), based on clinical phenotype, described Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA), Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (EGPA) and Microscopic Polyangiitis (MPA) as distinct clinical entities. This classification has proved its expedience in clinical trials and every day clinical practice, yet, a substantial overlap in clinical presentation still exists, and often causes difficulties in prompt definition and clinical distinction. Additionally, new insights into the AAV pathogenesis point out that PR3 and MPO-AAV may not represent expressions of the same disease spectrum but rather two distinct disorders, as they display significant differences. Thus, it is supported that a classification based on ANCA serotype (PR3-ANCA, MPO-ANCA or ANCA-negative), could be more accurate and also closer to the nature of the disease, instead of the phenotype-based one. This review aims to elucidate the major differences between PR3 and MPO-AAV, in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, histological and clinical manifestations, and response to therapeutic approaches.