ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0034.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: clean energy; correlation; market efficiency
Online: 4 April 2023 (02:49:29 CEST)
Climate change, the scarcity of fossil fuels, technical advances in clean energy, and the volatility of crude oil prices are just a few of the factors that have prompted the world to recognize clean energy as a viable alternative to dirty energy. As part of the Paris Climate Accord of 2015, many countries agreed to change their economies to be more sensitive to climate change. Due to this Accord, which increased interest from investors and decision-makers, investments in clean energy companies have benefited [1,2]. Clean energy stocks, which are a part of the larger world of tradable reserves, might experience pricing inefficiencies. In this paper, we investigate the multifractal scaling behavior and efficiency of green finance markets, as well as traditional markets like gold, crude oil, and natural gas between January 1, 2018, and March 9, 2023, which covers periods of low volatility and financial instability (2020 and 2022 events). To test the serial dependency (autocorrelation) and the efficient market hypothesis, in its weak form, we employed the Lo and Mackinlay test and the DFA method. The empirical findings demonstrated that both periods exhibit severe multifractal and significant asymmetry, indicating that the price indices under study are not at all efficient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0893.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: cryptocurrencies; clean energy; safe haven; spillover
Online: 13 June 2023 (08:18:07 CEST)
Green investors have expressed concerns about the environment and sustainability due to the high energy consumption involved in cryptocurrency mining and transactions. This article investigates the safe haven characteristics of clean energy stock indexes in relation to 3 cryptocurrencies, taking into account their respective levels of "dirty" energy consumption from May 16, 2018, to May 15, 2023. By virtue of analyzing a tumultuous era in the global economy, the level of integration between clean energy stock indexes and cryptocurrencies will be inferred by using Gregory and Hansen's methodology. Furthermore, to assess the presence of a volatility spillover effect between clean energy stock indexes and “dirty-classified” cryptocurrencies, the ?-test of heteroscedasticity of two samples from Forbes and Rigobon will be employed. The empirical findings show that clean energy stock indexes may offer a viable safe haven for dirty energy cryptocurrencies. However, the precise associations differ depending on the cryptocurrency under examination. The implications of the study's results are significant for investment strategies, this knowledge can inform decision-making procedures and facilitate the adoption of sustainable investment practices. Investors and policymakers can gain a deeper understanding of the interplay between investments in renewable energy and the cryptocurrency market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1249.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Clean Energy Stocks; Energy Metals; Gold; Silver; Platina; Safe Haven
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:13:00 CEST)
This study investigates the relationship between energy metals and precious metals to assess their suitability as safe haven assets in clean energy investment portfolios. It focuses on the impact of events in 2020 and 2022, characterized by substantial investments in clean energy. The research reveals that, except for Nickel Futures (NICKELc1), energy metals are positively linked with clean energy indexes. This suggests that they can serve as a secure investment option for green investors looking to diversify their portfolios. As a result, the study dismisses the initial question, indicating that energy metals can indeed be considered safe havens within the context of clean energy investments. Additionally, the research reinforces prior ﬁndings that precious metals like gold, silver, and platinum possess safe haven characteristics in relation to speciﬁc clean energy stock indexes. These results have signiﬁcant implications, particularly given the increasing investments in clean energy stocks and the recurring uncertainties in the market. In summary, this study supports the idea that both energy metals and precious metals can play valuable roles in clean energy portfolios, providing stability during turbulent times in the market.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0635.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: clean energy; dirty energy; dependency; hedge; safe haven
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:50:42 CEST)
This study investigates the relationship between clean and dirty energy markets, specifically focusing on clean energy stock indexes and their potential as hedging assets and safe havens during periods of global economic uncertainty. The research analyzes five clean energy indexes and five dirty energy indexes from May 2018 to May 2023, considering events like the global pandemic and the Russian invasion of Ukraine. The main objective is to examine the causal relationship among different stock indexes pertaining to dirty and clean energy by using the Granger causality test (VAR Granger Causality/Block Exogeneity Wald Test) to determine whether clean energy indexes can predict future prices of dirty energy indexes. However, the findings reveal that clean and dirty energy indexes do not exhibit hedging characteristics or serve as safe havens during times of economic uncertainty, rejecting the research question. These results have important implications for investment strategies, as assets lacking safe haven characteristics may not preserve portfolio efficiency in uncertain times. The study's insights provide valuable guidance for investors, poli-cymakers, and participants in energy financial markets. It highlights the need to adapt investment approaches and seek alternative options to navigate uncertain economic conditions effectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0416.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Microgrids; modeling; energy systems; optimization; clean energy; sustainability
Online: 22 December 2022 (03:49:41 CET)
In this study, a multiobjective, multiperiod, global optimization for design, sizing and dispatch of an islanded, hybrid microgrid was performed using a model built in MATLAB. The system was simulated over one year for sizing and over one day for dispatch, both using hourly time steps. The model minimized lifecycle levelized costs, emissions, lost load and dumped power while maximizing penetration of clean, renewable sources in the microgrid. This found optimal capacities of the renewable, energy storage and backup generation components which provide the best combination of affordability, sustainability, reliability and efficiency. After experimenting with several global solvers, it was determined that particle swarm optimization is most well-suited to solving the sizing optimization problem. The PV-wind microgrid using Li-ion batteries along with diesel engines was found to perform best among all the combinations considered. It was found that in spite of including additional objectives, monetary costs are the primary driver while allocating generation capacity between different renewable sources like wind versus solar PV. Furthermore, the sizing of PV, wind and battery storage depends strongly on the rating of the standby distributed generator, mainly due to reliability consideration. Generating Pareto-optimal sets revealed interesting relationships between different input variables (i.e. PV, wind and battery capacities) as well as trade-offs that arise while pursuing different objectives. Pursuing cost-minimization alone may lead to sub-optimal outcomes in terms of environmental impact, reliability and excess energy production. A sensitivity analysis was also conducted to understand the effects of various parameters like fuel price and energy storage costs on the optimal system's design and operation. Such accurate sizing programs help reduce the extent of oversizing of sub-systems during the design and planning stage, which is usually needed to achieve high reliability with distributed and decentralized energy systems like off-grid microgrids. This reduces the upfront capital investment needed to build the system, making clean electricity access affordable in the short term. The economic-environmental dispatch produced day-ahead scheduling strategies to meet the above mentioned objectives. The system was found to be relatively robust to short-term uncertainties and disturbances in renewable generation and load, although this does cause sub-optimal performance due to increased reliance on fossil fuels. It was found that dispatching of the batteries and backup generators is most critical in minimizing impacts of such events. However, the response to longer-term disturbances still remains to be assessed. The study also includes a comprehensive literature review of tools available for microgrid design as well as different optimization algorithms that have been used to solve microgrid sizing, dispatch and scheduling problems. Additionally, an overview is provided of various control strategies that can be used to improve robustness and resiliency of microgrids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0884.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: bioethanol; clean cooking; KOKO Networks; environmental and social impact; SDG7; utilities, scalability
Online: 11 August 2023 (12:03:42 CEST)
The use of bioethanol in cooking is not new, but until recently its application has been confined exclusively to small scale projects. However, a new bioethanol cooking utility in Kenya has now reached mass market adoption, serving more than 950,000 households with cooking fuel since launching in late 2019. Its success was made possible by a significant investment in technology to facilitate safe, convenient and affordable fuel distribution. It is funded by climate finance which is based on bioethanol fuel replacing charcoal used for cooking, a leading cause of African defor-estation. This development has been so recent that it has not widely been discussed in the academic literature. More broadly, the health, environmental and economic impacts of bioethanol for cooking have not been systematically assembled in one place. This article details what is known about the impact of bioethanol for cooking, how and why bioethanol for cooking was able to suddenly reach commercially viable scale in spite of the challenges it faced. It also discusses implications for further scaling of clean cooking fuel solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2129.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: clean energy innovation; corporate carbon footprint; corporate profits; high CO₂e emissions; longitudinal model panel; latent growth curve (LGC)
Online: 30 May 2023 (11:33:10 CEST)
The purpose of this research was to analyze the moderating effect of clean energy innovation on the relationship between corporate carbon footprint and corporate profits in those industrial sectors associated with high demand for fossil fuels in which it is "hard to abate" CO₂e emissions. It used a longitudinal research design, in particular a panel study under a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach, based on partial least squares. For the longitudinal moderation analysis, this research employed the Bayesian method by defining a multiple-indicator latent growth curve model (B-LGC model). A global sample was used consisting of 7,827 firm-year observations between 2015 and 2021 corresponding to 167 international firms. The results revealed a very significant impact of the corporate carbon footprint on corporate profits. Likewise, the results showed that innovations in clean energy, when measured as the consumption of renewable energy, positively moderates the relationship between the greenhouse gas emissions from the value chain associated with Scope 3 of the Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Protocol, and the gross profit margin obtained. Besides the academic contribution represented by the moderating effect of clean energy innovation, these findings imply that a more detailed understanding of the emissions of the entire value chain (Scope 3 CO₂e) by executives and managers of high emitting CO₂e companies represents an effective mechanism to obtain higher profits, create competitive advantages and, at the same time, achieve a net zero emissions strategy. More importantly, public policy makers will be able to use these results to revise CO₂e-related policies paying more attention to the Scope 3 CO₂e emissions produced by these companies, to formulate regulatory and control mechanisms that stimulate clean energy innovation.
SHORT NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0212.v3
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: ring theory; algebra; mathematics; disproof; counterexamples; involution t-clean ring; weakly tripotent ring; invo-regular ring; locally invo-regular ring; strongly 2-nil clean ring; strongly nil clean ring
Online: 6 November 2023 (10:25:33 CET)
In this note we consolidate and give a brief description of several recently published results in ring theory having disproof. These results have been published during 2016 to 2021 in the so called non-predatory reputed mathematical journals indexed in the well known database like Scopus. We have considered results on rings in which each element is a sum of two idempotents appeared in Canad. Math. Bull. (2016), weakly tripotent rings appeared in Bull. Korean Math. Soc. (2018) and Rendiconti Sem. Mat. Univ. Pol. Torino (2021), involution t-clean rings appeared in Eur. J. Pure Appl. Math (2022) and strongly 2-nil clean rings with units of order two appeared in Eur. J. Pure Appl. Math (2023).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0334.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Sustainability model; SDGs; Clean water; Drinking water; Water security.
Online: 24 January 2022 (02:08:49 CET)
Water resources are under pressure because of human activities. Its management faces the challenge of enhancing long-term water security while minimizing undesirable economic, social, and environmental impacts along with its production chain. Since water and wastewater treatment plants are designed to maintain and conserve freshwater provisioning services, it is paramount to understand how it operates before proposing options for sustainability. At this point, the diagnosis phase claims for methods scientifically-based, systemic, and more objective to provide information for decision-makers towards strategic management of water resources. This work applies the five-sector sustainability model (5SenSu) to assess Brazil's twenty major water and wastewater treatment companies (WWTC) to quantify their sustainability levels that allow ranking procedures and the establishment of benchmarks for improvements. Under comparative basis, results identified the top-three sustainable companies, CORSAN, CASAN, and SANEPAR, which should be considered examples of best practices. Specifically, the following best-ranked companies in each sector within 5SenSu should be used as benchmark patterns for more oriented best practices: SANEAGO, sector 1; AGESISA, sector 2; CORSAN, sector 3; CASAL, sector 4; MA, sector 5. This work contributes to the advancement in modeling sustainability assessment of human-managed systems (applied in WWTCs in this present study) from a systemic and epistemologically rooted approach, avoiding shortcomings and misleading discussions on the sustainability issue. Quantifying sustainability of WWTCS from 5SenSu allows the identification of those sectors/indicators that requires immediate cleaner production practices by decision-makers to improve overall sustainability, besides identifying those companies more aligned with the requirements of UN SDGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0639.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Clean power; Hydraulic pump; Modelling; Renewable energy; Sustainable propulsion; Water
Online: 11 September 2023 (07:56:14 CEST)
This paper presents a parametric study of the multistorey hydro-powered pump, known as "Bunyip," which has demonstrated significant potential in contributing to rural regions. The study aims to understand the underlying physics of the system and enhance its hydraulic performance. A transient three-dimensional model using the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool Ansys-Fluent is utilized to gain insights into the fundamental flow mechanics, operational efficiency, standard capacity, and relative delivery. The investigation involves an initial assessment of performance for three Bunyip devices based on manufacturing data. Parametric analysis is conducted, and a parametric dataset is generated through meticulous application and numerical modelling. The CFD results are validated against experimental data. Three design configurations are considered, and 58 sets of varied input parameters are examined. The best design configuration is evaluated against five cases of conventional hydro-power pump systems. The results indicate that a smaller diameter of the pressure chamber and a higher supply head lead to higher pressure, achieving a target head of 3 m with 15% efficiency and a flowrate of 11.82 l/min.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0356.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Hardware And Architecture Keywords: sustainability; recycling; water treatment sludge; construction materials; environmentally clean materials
Online: 20 March 2023 (12:46:15 CET)
This study evaluated the grain size and high organic content from drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) in the properties of ceramics. Samples were studied using raw and oven dried DWTS at 110 °C in two granulometries (0.180 mm and 0.075 mm), with and without calcination (550 °C), as partial replacement of two soils commonly used in ceramic production. Specimens were prepared with 5, 10, and 20% DWTS and calcined at 950 °C to determine their chemical, physical, mineralogical and mechanical properties. The DWTS reduced the density and increased the absorption and shrinkage of the specimens after calcination. An increase in strength with up to 10% sludge, driven by the presence of fluxing agents, was verified. The processing method had little influence on the properties of ceramic with above 10% of sludge. In conclusion, the use of raw DWTS obtained better results with low energy usage for its reuse.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0408.v2
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: rural clean heating project; rural Gansu; sustainability; potential solutions; benchmarking
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:23:11 CEST)
Rural clean heating project (RCHP) in China aims to increase flexibility in the rural energy system, enhance the integration of renewable energy and distributed generation, and reduce environmental impact. While RCHP-enabling routes have been studied from a technical perspective, the economic, ecological, regulatory, and policy dimensions of RCHP are yet to be analysed in depth, especially in the underdeveloped areas in China. This paper discusses RCHP in rural Gansu in a multi-dimension approach. We firstly focus on the current issues and challenges of RCHP in rural Gansu. Then the RCHP-enabling areas are briefly zoned into six typical regions based on the resource distribution in Gansu Province, and a matching framework of RCHP is recommended. Then we focus on the economics and sustainability of RCHP-enabling technologies. Based on the medium-term assessment of RCHP in the demonstration provinces, various technical schemes and routes are analysed and compared so as to be adopted in rural Gansu. In addition to technical and economic effects of those schemes, the corresponding ecology, policy, finance, and market implications are also concerned. We briefly discuss how the national regulators incentivise the implementation of RCHP in rural Gansu. Major barriers to RCHP are identified as the sustainability of technology, economy, ecology, policy, finance, and market. Subsequently, some policy solutions to overcome these barriers are proposed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0247.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Rice-husk; power plants; CO2 emission reductions; Clean Development Mechanism
Online: 8 April 2021 (17:33:39 CEST)
The research is designed for developing the pilot small-scale clean development mechanism bundled project activities in Vietnam electricity/ energy sector. Its overall purpose is to assess the potential of rice husk - fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta. Based on estimating the electricity potential of a bundle of rice husk-fuelled bio-power development projects in Mekong delta with the capacity of 11 MW per project, assessing their CO2 emission reductions (CERs) and CER credits, calculating and comparing their financial indices (NPV, B/C, IRR) in two cases: W/O CDM and W/CDM, the research expects to establish a rice husk energy balance flowchart for the whole Mekong delta in the year 2021 and recommend policies to use for bio-power generation the unused rice husk that is dumped and discharged from local paddy milling centers into rivers and canals, as well as, to put forward a safe and environmentally friendly solution to minimize thoroughly the current serious pollution of rivers and canals in Mekong delta with the increasing unused rice husk quantity in the context is where the sea level rise phenomenon is the strongest in the world .
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1571.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: Biochar; Pyrolysis; Clean Air Act; emissions; pollutants; mobile biochar production systems
Online: 26 November 2023 (06:01:36 CET)
Pyrolysis is a combustion process of woody biomass conducted under low or no oxygen conditions. New innovations and the need to limit open burning has resulted in numerous mobile and fixed plant pyrolysis methods that burn a variety of woody residues. Production technologies that reduce the need for open burning, the main source of potential pollutants, fall under the regulations in the Clean Air Act of 1990. This Act is the legal instrument to regulate air pollution at its source across the United States of America and it is implemented and enforced through the Environmental Protection Agency, in coordination with sister agencies. One newer innovation for reducing woody residues and emissions is an air curtain incinerator. Currently, the Clean Air Act regulates stationary solid waste incinerators, and this is also applied to mobile air curtain incinerators burning woody biomass. However, other woody biochar production methods (e.g., flame cap kilns) are not subject to these regulations. Discrepancies in the interpretation of definitions related to incineration and pyrolysis and the myriad of differences related to stationary and mobile air curtain incinerators, type of waste wood from construction activities, forest residues, and other types of clean wood make the permitting regulations confusing as permits can vary by jurisdiction. This review summarizes the current policies, regulations, and directives related to in-woods biochar production and the required permits.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0605.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Greenhouse gas emissions; sustainable energy system; clean energy; sustainability
Online: 10 October 2023 (08:36:23 CEST)
Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology is a cornerstone of the global effort to transition towards cleaner and more sustainable energy systems. This paper explores the pivotal role of PV technology in re-ducing greenhouse gas emissions and combatting the pressing issue of climate change. At the heart of its efficacy lies the efficiency of PV materials, which dictates the extent to which sunlight is transformed into electricity. Over the last decade, substantial advancements in PV efficiency have propelled the widespread adoption of solar PV technology on a global scale. The efficiency of PV materials is a critical factor, determining how effectively sunlight is transformed into electricity. Enhanced efficiency, achieved through a decade of progress, has driven the global expansion of solar PV. Multi-junction photovoltaic materials have now exceeded 40% efficiency in lab tests. China leads the world in solar PV installations, boasting over 253 GW of installed capacity by the end of 2021. Other prominent countries in this sector are the United States, Japan, Germany, and India. Supportive policies like feed-in tariffs, net metering, tax incentives, and cost reductions in PV modules have made solar PV increasingly competitive against fossil fuel-based power generation. Solar PV technology holds immense potential for creating a cleaner, reliable, scalable, and cost-effective electricity system. To expedite its deployment and foster a more sustainable energy future, continued investment in research and development, along with supportive policies and market mechanisms, is essential. This paper underscores the pivotal role of solar PV technology in the global energy transition and advocates for a concerted effort to unlock its full potential in achieving a more sustainable and resilient energy future.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0733.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Sustainable Science And Technology Keywords: clean cooking fuel and utilization technology; population ratio; earth big data
Online: 9 June 2023 (16:38:43 CEST)
Cooking is a very decentralized and private way of energy consumption in human activities. The existing investigation and statistical analysis can’t effectively calculate the proportion of population relying on clean cooking fuel and utilization technology in the region. Therefore, based on the big data of the earth, this paper adopts the combination of spatial analysis and statistical analysis to determine the survey sample area, and according to the economic conditions, topographic characteristics, national policies for new energy construction and living habits of the provinces and cities under investigation, the questionnaire survey is conducted for the research area to calculate the proportion of the regional population relying on clean cooking fuels and utilization technologies. Taking the south of the Yangtze River in China as an example, the paper effectively calculates that 88.25% of the population depends on clean cooking fuel and technology in this region, of which 89.81% are in urban areas and 79.87% are in rural areas. Analysis of the survey data shows that the proportion of the population using clean cooking fuels and technologies is related to factors such as economic development, income and resource endowment. There is a large urban–rural gap in terms of energy consumption tendency and structure in the south of the Yangtze River in China and cooking energy consumption in rural households also varies from region to region. The technical ideas and conclusions of the paper have high reference application value, which can help promote the upgrading of clean energy utilization and provide data basis for relevant decision and policy making.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0544.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: ecological restoration; illegal mining; Clean Development Mechanism; carbon sequestration; carbon credits
Online: 30 April 2020 (17:24:36 CEST)
Ghana has had a long-standing problem of illegal gold mining that has led to the destruction of the environment. The government of Ghana is taking steps to not only curb illegal mining but also to restore destroyed lands that resulted from illegal mining. The government intends to spend financially in the area of ecological restoration to returned disturbed lands to their natural states possible, but the question remains whether restoring those disturbed lands will be beneficial to the country. The study was undertaken in Bekwai Municipal Area in the Ashanti region of Ghana where most locals are farmers. The research studies whether the benefits of ecological restoration outweigh the cost of ecological restoration? The research deployed a quantitative data collection. The data collected was analyzed using benefit-Cost ratio. The result shows that the benefit of ecological restoration outweighs the cost incurred as dependent on the land use as a carbon sequestration project. In conclusion, investment in ecological restoration is a step in the right direction for a country endowed with gold resources. This will spur growth and at the same time improve and protect the country’s natural resources and environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0202.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Plants-Microbial Fuel Cells; clean energy; electric potential; power output; resistivity
Online: 18 September 2019 (08:21:05 CEST)
Plants Microbial Fuel Cells (PMFC) is a new technology that generates electricity in a renewable, clean and sustainable way. In spite of these advantages, it still faces limitations in power generation and current density, reaching lower production values than other renewable technologies. Different studies maintain that the high resistivity of the cathode is the main limitation in the generation of energy; therefore, non-metallic materials to obtain a better performance are replacing the metallic electrodes. The implementation of these materials applied to PMFC requires a complex interdisciplinary work. Through three experimental tests using metallic electrodes for the extraction of electrons, this research study shows that the treatment of the substrate with natural materials, the volume plant roots, and substrate temperature and humidity control have a significant influence in the increase of the electric potential and the generated current.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0968.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: tripotent ring; weakly tripotent ring; locally invo-regular ring; involution t-clean ring
Online: 25 October 2023 (09:56:55 CEST)
In this article some important observations have been reported on recent works related to weakly tripotent rings and locally invo-regular rings. Our findings give additional results as well as correct some recent results on weakly tripotent rings and locally invo-regular rings appeared in Rendiconti Sem. Mat. Univ. Pol. Torino (2021) and Azerbaijan Journal of Mathematics (2021) respectively. In addition we exhibit that if the Jacobson radical J(A) of a ring is strongly involution t-clean then the characteristic of J(A) need not be four. This finding improves an important result appeared in Eur. J. Pure Appl. Math (2022).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0890.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Applied Chemistry Keywords: Oxidized sodium alginate, nano-hydroxyapatite, tanning agent, flame retardant, clean technology, sustainable leather.
Online: 13 October 2023 (11:17:12 CEST)
In this study, sodium alginate (SA) was oxidized with potassium periodate to produce an alginate-based tanning agent. Using OSA as a biodegradable tanning agent and a nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) low concentration suspension to give flame retardancy to leather, eco-design concepts were applied to establish a chrome-, aldehyde-, and phenol-free tanning process. Micro-DSC, 1H NMR, attenuated total reflection mode Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR), and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) were used to investigate the complex matrix collagen-OSA-nano-HAp. Micro-differential scanning calorimetry (micro-DSC) was used to assess OSA's ability to interact with collagen and stabilize the collagen-OSA matrix, while 1H unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) was used to investigate the aqueous environment and limitations around collagen molecules caused by their association with OSA and nano-HAp. Industrial standard tests were used to assess mechanical properties and fire resistance of the new leather prototype. The findings reported here indicate that both OSA and nano-HAp are suitable alternatives for cleaner tanning technologies and more sustainable leather.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0147.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Surfaces, Coatings And Films Keywords: sol-gel; UV curing; fotocurable; coating; levelling; hydrophobic; easy to clean; contact angle
Online: 4 July 2023 (08:33:35 CEST)
Current methods for the hardening step of functional coatings over different materials imply the use of high temperatures, high energy consumption or long periods of time, which have repercussions on the speed and cost of the product. We report here a simple and low cost methodology for the functionalization of low cost stainless steel, which is modular, depending of the functionality pursued: a levelling layer for smooth the surface of the material, an “easy to clean” property, or both of them. The research is based on sol-gel coatings cured under UV light without requiring high thermal hardening processes making it applicable to plastics and other sensible materials and possessing high chemical and thermal stability. The film ensures lower processing costs, and higher rates of hardening if the adequate medium-pressure lamps are employed. This formulation is also well defined for scaling up the process, so it is possible to perform a continuous coating in large areas by employing mild processing conditions (low temperature, atmospheric pressure). In addition, the sol gel solution was fully characterized and studied in order to guarantee a long service life before deposition, with a focus on industrial applications in the domestic sector.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0127.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: Clean Energy Production; Nuclear Awareness; Nuclear Electrical Power; Nuclear Optimism; Nuclear Waste; Sustainable Development
Online: 10 May 2019 (14:31:53 CEST)
Relying on the United Arab Emirates (UAE) extract from the cross-national data sample on the environmental affection and cognition of adolescent students, and seemingly unrelated bivariate weighted ordered probit regression modeling, this study adopts a national perspective to investigate the determinants of adolescent students' awareness and expectations about nuclear power technology and nuclear waste in the UAE. Identification of model parameters is achieved through maximum simulated likelihood estimation. The findings show that each level increase in UAE youth's interest in ecosystem services and sustainability raises their awareness of nuclear electrical power and nuclear waste by 13.5%, while reducing by 2.4% their level of optimism towards the technology. Furthermore, we find significant heterogeneity in youth awareness and expectations about nuclear power technology across the seven Emirates. Accounting for all other factors (including interest in ecosystem services), UAE youth awareness about nuclear electrical power technology appears to not significantly influence their expectations about the evolution of this technology for the next 20 years. Given that the UAE first nuclear power plant ``Barakah'' is scheduled to start operations end of 2019 beginning 2020, and the typical long life-span of nuclear wastes, our results provide important insights for developing sustainable nuclear energy policies and establishing a long-term nuclear energy program in the UAE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0193.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: Science and policy - making; Environmental communication; Pan - Canadian Framework on Clean Growth and Climate Change
Online: 9 September 2020 (03:13:14 CEST)
The science‐policy interface in climate change adaptation became better managed over the past decades. However, the scientists and other knowledge producers, as well as policy makers still need to take bolder steps to more effectively engage with others to apply science and shape up policies. This paper aims to provide practical recommendations, intended to promote conversations between science and policy sectors to address climate change issues. Here, I used two different approaches to synthesize experiences and identify recommendations: a literature review and a case study. The paper stress main findings: (1) The linear communication model is still commonly involved in the science - policy dialogue and proved to be useful to increase the relevance of science and data products to decision makers. (2) When a gap between knowledge producer and knowledge user or decision maker exists, the need for a third party to specialize in bridging the gap become essential. (3) Indigenous people and knowledge must be involved in adaptation policy making based on legitimation local and traditional knowledge, designing the consultation process to broadly engage local and indigenous people, facilitating meaningful dialogues between traditional knowledge and science, and developing initiatives to strengthen skills and capacity of indigenous communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1833.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: cooking fuel choice; clean cooking fuels; wellbeing index; access to electricity; health; demographic variables; regression analysis
Online: 28 July 2023 (10:15:16 CEST)
This paper examines the importance of choice of cooking fuels in wellbeing, analysing relationships between the proportion of population with primary reliance on different types of fuels for cooking (predictor variable), and key wellbeing indices (outcome variables) - Personal Health, Social Life, Civic Engagement, Life Evaluation, Negative Experience. By combining two global datasets from Gallup and WHO, the study adds to current evidence by taking a global perspective. Controlling for demographic factors such as income per capita, age, education level, employment, etc., regression modelling of these relationships show that clean cooking fuels are influential in all of the key wellbeing indices with the exception of the Life Evaluation Index. Among the key wellbeing indices, Personal Health and Negative Experience Indices are the most strongly influenced by choice of clean cooking fuels. By adding access to electricity as an additional predictor variable, the analysis highlights the potential for integrating eCooking into national electrification plans as part of sustainable energy transitions, given that health outcomes (Personal health and Negative experience indices) appear to be as closely linked to choice of cooking fuels as to access to electricity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2232.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: clean sand; silty sand; elastoplastic model; critical state model; critical state line; simple model; three-dimensional stress
Online: 31 May 2023 (11:02:00 CEST)
A unified critical state model has been developed for both clean sand and silty sand using the modified Cam-clay model (MCC). The main feature of the proposed model is a new critical state line equation in the e-ln(p) plane that is capable of handling both straight and curved test results. With this feature, the error in calculating plastic volumetric strain is eliminated in theory. Another crucial feature of the model is the transformed stress tensor based on the SMP (spatially mobilized plane) criterion, which takes into account the proper shear yield and failure of soil under three-dimensional stresses. Additionally, the proposed model applies the intergranular void ratio with the fines influence factor for silty sand. Only eight soil parameters are required for clean sand, and a total number of twelve soil parameters are needed for silty sand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0151.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: American Carbon Registry; California Action Reserve; California Air Resources Board; VERRA; Clean Development Mechanism; net ecosystem exchange
Online: 7 July 2021 (11:54:59 CEST)
Despite the use of commercial forest carbon protocols (CFCPs) for more than two decades, claiming ~566 MMtCO2e and a market value of ~USD $15.7 billion, comparative analysis of CFCP methodology and offset results is limited. In this study, five widely used biometric-based CFCPs are characterized, and common characteristics and differences are identified. CFCP claims of net forest carbon sequestration are compared with results of directly measured CO2 by eddy covariance, a meteorological method integrating gross vertical fluxes of forest and soil carbon, and the only alternative non-biometric source of net forest carbon sequestration data available. We show here that CFCPs share a structural feature delimiting forest carbon values by zero-threshold carbon accounting (gC m-2 ≤ 0), a pattern opposite to natural emissions of forest CO2 exchange based on direct measurement and a fundamental biological constraint on net forest carbon storage (i.e., soil efflux, ecosystem respiration). Exclusion of forest CO2 sources to the atmosphere precludes net carbon accounting, resulting in unavoidable over-crediting of CFCP project offsets. CFCP carbon results are significantly different from global forest CO2 net ecosystem exchange population results (FluxNet2015 gC m-2) at the 95% to 99.99% confidence levels, inferring an annual median error of ~247% (gC m-2), consistent with over-crediting. Direct CO2 measurement provides an urgently needed alternative method for commercial forest carbon products that has the potential to harmonize global markets and catalyze the role of forests in managing climate change through nature-based solutions.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0190.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: corona virus; environmental degradation; hydrogen economy; clean energy; renewable sources; non renewable sources; economic impact; environmental impact.
Online: 8 December 2020 (09:49:50 CET)
Covid-19 pandemic lockdown has slow down the world economic system. The pandemic has cleared the roads, close factories and grounded planes causing severe economic challenges. The damaging impact of the pandemic amid lockdown has been a blessing in guise for the environment because of significant drop in pollution level as transport and industrial sectors shutdown. Transport and industrial sectors are major contributors to environmental degradation through various emissions as a result of fossil fuel consumption. Energy consumed by transport and industrial sectors will have to shift to viable, readily available, economically and environmentally friendly with no carbon build up post Covid-19 pandemic. Hydrogen energy remains the best alternative option technologies containing green house gas emission and pollutions of several forms. Hydrogen holds the potential to provide a clean, reliable, renewable and economical source of energy for meeting the growing and unending global energy needs post pandemic. The present paper explores the economic feasibility and potential of hydrogen to serve as a competitive fuel option post pandemic. In this paper, the role of hydrogen as an energy carrier hydrogen economy structure, potential of hydrogen economy, hydrogen production methods, hydrogen application and the economic and environmental importance of hydrogen as a viable fuel option post covid-19 pandemic were discussed. There will be a surge in demand and investment for hydrogen economy post Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1216.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Adipose-derived stem cells; human cell therapy; mesenchymal stem cells; endothelial cells; pericytes; GMP-compliant-facility; clean room; ATMPs
Online: 17 May 2023 (09:53:20 CEST)
The adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells are becoming the tool of choice for many clinical applications and nowadays, nearly 200 clinical trials are running worldwide to prove the efficacy of this cell type for many diseases and pathological conditions. To reach the goal of cell therapies and produce ATMPs as drugs for regenerative medicine, it is necessary to properly standardize the GMP processes and thus collection methods, transportation strategies, extraction protocols and characterization procedures without forgetting that all the tissues of the human body are characterized by a wide inter-individual variability genetically determined and acquired during life. Here we compare 302 samples processed under GMP rules to exclude the influence of the operator and of the anatomical site of collection. Variability in the age of patients, gender and laboratory parameters like total cell number, cell viability, stem cell number and other stromal vascular fraction cell sub-populations have been compared to each other. Results show that, when the laboratory protocol is standardized, the variability in quantifiable cell parameters is widely statistically non-significant, meaning that we can make a further step toward standardized advanced cell therapy products.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1770.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: ethylene oxide (EtO); summa cannister; AERMOD air dispersion modeling; Human Exposure Model (HEM); Clean Air Act; EPA TO-15 method
Online: 25 May 2023 (08:32:59 CEST)
Ethylene Oxide (EtO) is a colorless, flammable gas at room temperature, produced by the catalytic oxidation of ethylene. EtO is widely used by medical sterilization facilities to clean medical supplies and equipment. Recent epidemiological studies showed that EtO is a more potent carcinogen than previously documented, leading the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to update, in December 2016, the inhalation unit risk estimate for EtO. This resulted in the identification of EtO as a potential health concern in several areas across the US, including the state of Utah. The geography surrounding Salt Lake Valley creates a bowl; ideal for collecting air pollution emissions. The region often experiences inversion episodes which inhibit vertical mixing and cause an accumulation of air pollutants, leading to unhealthy pollution levels. Using the EPA's dispersion modeling software, AERMOD, this study estimated EtO concentrations through facility stack and fugitive emissions modeling results. These values were compared with those of canister-based concentrations from ambient air samples taken near a medical device sterilization facility in the Salt Lake Valley. Stainless steel, whole-air passivated canisters were used to collect 24-hour ambient concentration samples of EtO. Eight locations surrounding a Salt Lake Valley medical device sterilization facility and four background sites were chosen to measure the ambient concentrations. Accounting for potential atmospheric impacts on EtO, measurements were sampled in winter 2022 (January-March) and summer 2022 (July-September). The modeled EtO concentrations were adjusted to account for background values associated with the winter or summer data. Then the two methodologies were compared using a Wilcoxon Sign-ranked, paired test. The statistical analysis resulted in six of the eight sample locations surrounding the sterilization facility being significantly different when comparing canister-based measurements of ambient EtO to modeled estimates. Canister-based measurements taken at sites one, three, and four were statistically greater than the modeled estimates, while sites two, five, and seven were statistically less than the modeled estimates. Also, the summer background value calculated was almost 2.5 times greater than the winter. The results do not suggest whether one method is more or less conservative than the other. In conclusion, the five of the closest sites and site seven were statistically different when comparing measured and modeled ambient concentrations of EtO. The comparison results do not clearly indicate if a correction factor could be derived for future human exposure to cancer risk assessment modeling. However, it is reasonable that the closer to the sterilization facility, the more total EtO exposure will be realized.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0239.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: EU Green Deal; Horizon 2030; clean energy production; High-rate algal ponds (HRAP); activated sludge system (AS); photovoltaic power (PV)
Online: 9 March 2021 (07:23:01 CET)
The European Union Green Deal aims at curbing planet-warming greenhouse gas emissions and introducing clean energy production. But to achieve energy efficiency, the opportunity cost of different energies must be assessed. In this article, we analyse two different systems for the treatment of wastewater that, at the same time, produce energy for its own operation. On the one hand, high-rate algal ponds system (HRAP) is considered; on the other hand, we study a conventional activated sludge system which uses photovoltaic power (AS+PV). This paper offers a viability analysis of both systems based on the capacity to satisfy their energetic consumption. In order to assess this viability, the probability of not achieving the energy consumption threshold at least one day is studied. The results point that the AS+PV system self-sufficiency is achieved using much lesser surfaces than those of HRAP system (for the former, less than 6.500 m2, for the latter 40.000 m2). However, the important AS capital cost makes still the HRAP system more economic, although storage provides a great advantage for using the AS+PV in locations where we have a lot of irradiance. This viability analysis, along with the opportunity cost analysis, will be used to assess these two projects devoted to the treatment of wastewater.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0109.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: clean hydrogen; water electrolysis; energy transition; electrolysis technologies; energy analysis; benchmark data; performance measurement; electrolysers’ scaling up; renewable energy sources integration
Online: 1 November 2023 (17:21:42 CET)
This paper explores the latest developments in electrolysis technology, a key player in the transition to sustainable energy systems. Electrolysis, despite currently contributing a small share to global hydrogen production, holds immense potential for producing green hydrogen. The study delves into the efficiency of electrolysis systems, emphasizing ongoing efforts to enhance energy conversion rates. It investigates the impact of high-temperature electrolysis on reducing electricity consumption, thus making the process more efficient. The paper discusses the various challenges in the research on water electrolysis and underscores the critical role electrolysis plays in integrating renewable energy sources. The study emphasizes the need for continuous advancements in electrolysis technology to bridge existing gaps, making a compelling case for its pivotal role in the green hydrogen revolution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear; nuclear energy; nuclear waste; final disposal; nuclear reactors; reactor physics; molten salt reactors; nuclear chemistry; fission products; salt clean-up
Online: 3 August 2022 (08:29:33 CEST)
Traditionally there is a gap between reactor operation and the consideration of nuclear waste in the final disposal. Fuel is produced and fuel must be disposed of in the view of the reactor operator, fuel has to be cleaned in the reprocessing and new solid fuel has to be produced in the view of the chemist. iMAGINE is designed to overcome this separation through the breakthrough development applying an optimized, integrative approach from cradle to grave of nuclear energy production as a first step to come as close as possible to the vision of zero waste nuclear power. It is described here the first time all in three the steps: reactor, fuel cycle, waste, providing the ratio behind each of the choices taken to come to the overall solution to open the discussion and thinking process on what could be achieved by a really innovative approach to integrated nuclear energy production. The opportunities regarding the handling of the remaining waste will be discussed with a view on the expectation of the final disposal community, the study ‘Nuclear waste from small modular reactors’, and the IAEA report ‘waste from innovative types of reactors and fuel cycles - a preliminary study. The aim of the is not to find answers to each of the raised points, but to identify first potential approaches and potentially promising ways to go, as well as to stimulate a discussion among experts. In the best case this could lead to a change of track for nuclear to become an even more sustainable and at least as important, trusted technology to help solve the net-zero challenge.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0317.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear; nuclear energy; nuclear reactors; reactor physics; modelling and simulation; molten salt reactors; nuclear chemistry; fission products; salt clean-up; plutonium management
Online: 17 November 2022 (01:11:10 CET)
Nuclear technologies have a strong potential and a unique role to play in delivering reliable low carbon energy for a future net-zero society. However, to assure the sustainability required for the long-term success, nuclear will need to deliver innovative solutions as proposed in iMAGINE. One of the most attractive features, but also a key challenge for the envisaged highly integrated nuclear energy system is the need for a demand driven salt clean-up system. The work described provides an insight into the interplay between a potential salt clean-up system and the reactor operation in a plutonium started core in a dynamic approach. The results presented will help to optimize the parameters for the salt clean-up process as well as to understand the differences which appear between a core started with enriched Uranium and Plutonium as the fissile material. The integrated model is used to investigate the effects of the initial fissile material on core size, achievable burnup, and long term operation. Different approaches are tested to achieve a higher burnup in the significantly smaller Pu driven core. The effects of different clean-up system throughputs on the concentration of fission products in the reactor salt and its consequences are discussed for general molten salt reactor design. Finally, an investigation of how a plutonium loaded core could be used to provide fuel for future reactors through fuel salt splitting is presented with the outcome that one Pu started reactor of the same size as a uranium started core could deliver fuel for 1.5 new cores due to enhanced breeding. The results provide an essential understanding for the progress of iMAGINE as well as the basis for inter-disciplinary work required for optimizing iMAGINE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0158.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Sponge city; Active, Beautiful, Clean water design; sustainable drainage systems; water-sensitive urban drainage systems; low impact developments; best management practices; literature mining; literature review
Online: 17 January 2018 (12:34:38 CET)
As the increase threat of flood risk and environmental safety due to the urbanization, Sponge city research has been attracting extensive attention both in practical and theoretical research field. To date, there are only scattered studies about Sponge city. Moreover, vary names of Sponge city prevalent in different countries, which leads to disconnection of literature in the same field of Sponge city. In this paper, a thorough systematic literature mining of Sponge city is presented. A literature analysis system is created, which includes literature export from Web of Sciences and systematic analysis via NoteExpress and CiteSpace. Some literature statistical results are derived. Challenges and opportunities for future research are anticipated. Our goals are to promote this promising thought, summarize past research, and identify issues for future research to create impacts on the practice of Sponge city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0024.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: resource efficiency; zero waste; resource recovery from waste; low-carbon economy; circular economy infrastructure; clean growth; resource productivity; sustainable development goals; transdisciplinary research; participatory action research
Online: 5 February 2018 (03:27:02 CET)
The UK economy is overly reliant on unsustainable production and consumption practices, depleting finite resources at rates that will increase production costs, business risk and economic instability. This over-consumption produces emissions and waste that cause climate change and environmental degradation, impacting on the wellbeing of people in the UK and beyond. The Resource Recovery from Waste programme (RRfW) promotes a transition towards waste and resource management in a circular economy that restores the environment, creates societal benefits and promotes clean growth by engaging relevant actors in the transition process. RRfW collaborates with academia, government, and industry to co-produce a shared vision and approach to realise such a transition. Reflecting insights from RRfW’s government engagement, this article presents a positive outlook for changing the UK economy and society. It envisions a long-term future for waste and resource management that maximises the value of materials by circulating them in the economy for as long as possible. Four themes and an approach are proposed, including recommendations for regulatory instruments and a stable policy framework. It recommends further collaborative research to capitalise on opportunities for economic growth, innovation and resilient infrastructure whilst contributing to quality jobs and welfare in all four UK nations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1637.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: nuclear; nuclear energy; nuclear reactors; nuclear waste management; partitioning & transmutation; reactor physics; modelling and simulation; molten salt reactors; fission products; salt clean-up; plutonium management; minor actinides
Online: 25 July 2023 (05:31:58 CEST)
The demand for improving the nuclear waste management has since long been identified as one of the major hurdles for widespread use of nuclear energy. Nuclear waste management, through partitioning and transmutation (P&T) has been researched since the 1990ies with partitioning being a pre-requisite for the process. Recently, an innovative approach of reactors directly operating on spent nuclear fuel, iMAGINE, has been proposed which could deliver on the aims of P&T as a side effect to more efficient nuclear energy production in the future. The results shown here confirm that it is possible to achieve the aims of P&T without prior partitioning, but it is certainly less efficient since the high concentration of MAs, required for efficient burning, are impossible to obtain in a short operational time. The proposed nuclear waste management approach will be a long-term effort when it is accomplished without partitioning/separation technologies. However, none of the analyses contradicts this effort – the key points are a) when the technology for treating the waste is possible and reliable, the time horizon will not be a major concern b) the waste management is now intrinsically linked with energy production instead of requiring dedicated costly facilities, delivering a promising economic basis c) the waste management is now associated with long-term energy production and massively improved resource utilization. In summary, the objectives of P&T are achievable without prior partitioning – this is a ground-breaking result. However, the approach will require continued nuclear energy production for a very long time. In case of a nuclear phase-out decision, a much more efficient transmutation scenario would have to be envisaged as already discussed several years ago for Germany.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0298.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Affinity chromatography; matrix; solid support; resin; support materials; glass filter; glass frit; high-pressure; HPLC; FPLC; antibodies; immunoglobulins; purification; downstream processing; protein purification; preparative; analytical; separation; clean-up; automation
Online: 11 March 2021 (08:37:01 CET)
A novel stationary phase for affinity separations is presented. This material is based on sintered borosilicate glass readily available as semi-finished filter plates with defined porosity and surface area. The material shows fast binding kinetics and excellent long-term stability under real application conditions due to lacking macropores and high mechanical rigidity. The glass surface can be easily modified with standard organosilane chemistry to immobilize selective binders or other molecules used for biointeraction. In this paper, the manufacturing of the columns and their respective column holders by 3D printing is shown in detail. The model system protein A/IgG was chosen as an example to examine the properties of such monolithic columns under realistic application conditions. Several specifications, such as (dynamic) IgG capacity, pressure stability, long-term performance, productivity, non-specific binding, and peak shape, are presented. It could be shown that due to the very high separation speed, 250 mg antibody per hour and column can be collected, which surpasses the productivity of most standard columns of the same size. The total IgG capacity of the shown columns is around 4 mg (5.5 mg/mL), which is sufficient for most tasks in research laboratories. The cycle time of an IgG separation can be less than 1 minute. Due to the glass material's excellent pressure resistance, these columns are compatible with standard HPLC systems. This is usually not the case with standard affinity columns, limited to manual use or application in low-pressure systems. The use of a standard HPLC system also improves the ability for automation, which enables the purification of hundreds of cell supernatants in one day. The sharp peak shape of the elution leads to an enrichment effect, which might increase the concentration of IgG by a factor of 3. The final concentration of IgG can be around 7.5 mg/mL without the need for an additional nanofiltration step. The purity of the IgG was > 95% in one step and nearly 99% with a second polishing run.