ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0601.v1
Online: 26 February 2021 (09:33:58 CET)
We present theoretical designs of high performance optical filters in integrated silicon photonic nanowire resonators. We use mode interference in formed by zig-zag waveguide coupled Sagnac loop reflectors (ZWC-SLRs), tailored to achieve diverse filtering functions with good performance. These include compact bandpass filters with improved roll-off, optical analogues of Fano resonances with ultrahigh spectral extinction ratios (ERs) and slope rates, and resonance mode splitting with high ERs and low free spectral ranges. The analysis verifies the feasibility of multi-functional integrated photonic filters based on ZWC-SLR resonators for flexible spectral engineering in diverse applications.
Online: 30 November 2020 (12:39:23 CET)
We theoretically investigate advanced multi-functional integrated photonic filters formed by three waveguide coupled Sagnac loop reflectors (3WC-SLRs). By tailoring the coherent mode interference, the spectral response of the 3WC-SLR resonators is engineered to achieve diverse filtering functions with high performance. These include optical analogues of Fano resonances that yield ultrahigh spectral extinction ratios (ERs) and slope rates, resonance mode splitting with high ERs and low free spectral ranges, and classical Butterworth, Bessel, Chebyshev, and elliptic filters. A detailed analysis of the impact of the structural parameters and fabrication tolerances is provided to facilitate device design and optimization. The requirements for practical applications are also considered. These results theoretically verify the effectiveness of using 3WC-SLR resonators as multi-functional integrated photonic filters for flexible spectral engineering in diverse applications.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Classical electromagnetism; Applied classical electromagnetism. Radiation by moving charges; radiation or classical fields
Online: 2 November 2020 (10:29:35 CET)
We examine here the discrepancy between the radiated power, calculated from the Poynting flux at infinity, and the power loss due to radiation reaction for an accelerated charge. It is emphasized that one needs to maintain a clear distinction between the electromagnetic power received by distant observers and the mechanical power loss undergone by the charge. In literature both quantities are treated as almost synonymous, the two in general could, however, be quite different. It is shown that in the case of a periodic motion, the two formulations do yield the power loss in a time averaged sense to be the same, even though, the instantaneous rates are quite different. It is demonstrated that the discordance between the two power formulas merely reflects the difference in the power going in self-fields of the charge between the retarded and present times. In particular, in the case of a uniformly accelerated charge, power going into the self-fields at the present time is equal to the power that was going into the self-fields at the retarded time plus the power going in acceleration fields, usually called radiation. From a comparison of the far fields with the instantaneous location of the uniformly accelerated charge, it is shown that all its fields, including the acceleration fields, remain around the charge and are not radiated away from it.
Subject: Social Sciences, Accounting Keywords: Classical Test Theory; Classical True-Score Theory; Correction for Attenuation; Partial Correlation Coefficient
Online: 25 December 2020 (12:17:02 CET)
Bohrnstedt’s (1969) attempt to derive a formula to compute the partial correlation coefficient and simultaneously correct for attenuation sought to simplify the process of performing each task separately. He suggested that his formula, developed from algebraic and psychometric manipulations of the partial correlation coefficient, produces a corrected partial correlation value. However, an algebraic error exists within his derivations. Consequently, the formula proposed by Bohrnstedt does not appropriately represent the value he intended it to estimate. By correcting the erroneous step and continuing the derivation based upon his proposed procedure, the steps outlined in this paper ultimately produce the formula that Bohrnstedt desired.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0049.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: classical general relativity; gravitational lenses
Online: 13 September 2017 (04:54:57 CEST)
One application of the Cosmological Gravitational Lensing in General Relativity is the measurement of the Hubble constant H_0 using the time delay Delta t between multiple images of lensed quasars. This method has already been applied, obtaining a value of H_0 compatible with that obtained from the SNe 1A, but non compatible with that obtained studying the anisotropies of the CMB. This difference could be a statistical fluctuation or an indication of new physics beyond the Standard Model of Cosmology, so it desirable to improve the precision of the measurements. At the current technological capabilities it is possible to obtain H_0 to a percent level uncertainty, so a more accurate theoretical model could be necessary in order to increase the precision about the determination of H_0. The actual formula which relates Delta t with H_0 is approximated; in this paper we expose a proposal to go beyond the previous analysis and, within the context of a new model, we obtain a more precise formula than that present in the Literature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0184.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Other Keywords: instability; attractors; randomness; quantum-classical hybrid
Online: 20 August 2016 (05:39:37 CEST)
The challenge of this work is to re-define the concept of intelligent agent as a building block of social networks by presenting it as a physical particle with additional non-Newtonian properties. The proposed model of an intelligent agent described by a system of ODE coupled with their Liouville equation has been introduced and discussed. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as superposition, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that the proposed model can be linked to mathematical models of livings as well as to models of AI. The model is presented in two modifications. The first one is illustrated by the discovery of a stochastic attractor approached by the social network; as an application, it was demonstrated that any statistics can be represented by an attractor of the solution to the corresponding system of ODE coupled with its Liouville equation. It was emphasized that evolution to the attractor reveals possible micro-mechanisms driving random events to the final distribution of the corresponding statistical law. Special attention is concentrated upon the power law and its dynamical interpretation: it is demonstrated that the underlying micro- dynamics supports a “violent reputation” of the power-law statistics. The second modification of the model of social network associated with a decision-making process and applied to solution of NP-complete problems known as being unsolvable neither by classical nor by quantum algorithms. The approach is illustrated by solving a search in unsorted database in polynomial time by resonance between external force representing the address of a required item and the response representing the location of this item.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0243.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: factorials; binomial coefficients; combinatorial numbers; non-classical hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials; non-classical second-order hypergeometric linear DEs
Online: 9 June 2021 (07:39:47 CEST)
In this article, the usual factorials and binomial coefficients have been generalized and extended to the negative integers. Basing on this generalization and extension, a new kind of polynomials has been proposed, which led directly to the non-classical hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials and the non-classical second-order hypergeometric linear DEs. The resulting polynomials can be used in non-relativistic and relativistic QM, particularly, in the case of the Schrödinger equation, and Dirac equations for an electron in a Coulomb potential field.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0238.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: non-classical logic; scholasticism; theology; epistemology; condemnation
Online: 8 March 2021 (16:36:59 CET)
We suggest that the 14th century scholar Nicholas of Autrecourt can be regarded as a precursor of the paraconsistent logics developed around 1950. We show how the Sorbonne licentiatus in theology provided in his few extant writings a refutation of both the principle of explosion and the law of non-contradiction, in accordance with the tenets of paraconsistent logics. This paves the way to the most advanced theories of truth in natural language and quantum dynamics.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0060.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Experimenter effect; “Memory of water”; Classical conditioning
Online: 24 February 2020 (12:18:27 CET)
The “memory of water” experiments suggested the existence of molecular-like effects without molecules. Although no convincing evidence of modifications of water – specific of biologically-active molecules – has been reported up to now, consistent changes of biological systems were nevertheless recorded. We propose an alternate explanation based on classical conditioning of the experimenter. Using a probabilistic model, we describe not only the biological system, but also the experimenter engaged in an elementary dose-response experiment. We assume that during conventional experiments involving genuine biologically-active molecules, the experimenter is involuntarily conditioned to expect a pattern, namely a relationship between descriptions (or “labels”) of experimental conditions and corresponding biological system states. The model predicts that the conditioned experimenter could continue to record the learned pattern even in the absence of the initial cause, namely the biologically-active molecules. The phenomenon is self-sustained because the observation of the expected pattern reinforces the initial conditioning. A necessary requirement is the use of a system submitted to random fluctuations with autocorrelated successive states (no forced return to the initial position). The relationship recorded by the conditioned experimenter is, however, not causal in this model because blind experiments with an “outside” supervisor lead to a loss of correlations (i.e., system states randomly associated to “labels”). In conclusion, this psychophysical model allows explaining the results of “memory of water” experiments without referring to water or another local cause. It could be extended to other scientific fields in biology, medicine and psychology when suspecting an experimenter effect.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0091.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: quantum mechanics; operators; basic presumptions; wave-particle duality; the first quantization; commutation relation; quantum communication; classical statistical mechanics; classical mechanics
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:07:08 CET)
Density distribution function of classical statistical mechanics is generally generalized as a product of a general complex function and its complex Hermitian conjugate function, and the average of classical statistical mechanics is generalized as the average of the quantum mechanics. Furthermore, this paper derives three ones of the five axiom presumptions of quantum mechanics, e.g., deduces Schrȍdinger equation by two general ways, makes the three axiom presumptions into three theorems of quantum mechanics, not only solves the crisis to hard understand, but also gets new theories and new discoveries, e.g., this paper solves the crisis of the origin of the wave-particle duality, derives operators, eigenvalues and eigenstates, deduces commutation relations for coordinate and momentum as well as the time and energy, and discovers quantum mechanics is just a generalization ( mechanics ) theory of the complex square root of ( real density function of ) classical statistical mechanics. Quantum mechanics being just a generalization theory of the complex square root of classical statistical mechanics is both new physics and revolutionary discovery, which are affecting people’s deep philosophical thinking for modern physics development, solve all the crisises of quantum mechanics, quantum information and so on, and make quantum mechanics have scientific solid bases being checked and both no basic axiom presumption and no all the quantum strange incomprehensible properties, because classical statistical mechanics and the complex square root of classical statistical mechanics have the scientific solid bases being checked. In addition, this paper discovers the reason no taking the time derivative of space coordinates in Schrȍdinger equation. Therefore, this paper gives solution to the crisis of the first quantization origin, and mainly deduces quantum physics no all the quantum current strange incomprehensible properties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0006.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum computing superioty; Google's claim; complementarity principle; quantum versus classical superposition; quantum versus classical entanglement; quantum versus classical probability; interference of probabilities; constructive and destructive interference of probabilities; non-Bayesian update
Online: 2 December 2019 (04:54:12 CET)
The recent Google’s claim on breakthrough in quantum computing is a gong signal for further analysis of foundational roots of (possible) superiority of some quantum algorithms over the corresponding classical algorithms. This note is a step in this direction. We start with critical analysis of rather common reference to entanglement and quantum nonlocality as the basic sources of quantum superiority. We elevate the role of the Bohr’s principle of complementarity1 (PCOM) by interpreting the Bell-experiments as statistical tests of this principle. (Our analysis also includes comparison of classical vs genuine quantum entanglements.) After a brief presentation of PCOM and endowing it with the information interpretation, we analyze its computational counterpart. The main implication of PCOM is that by using the quantum representation of probability, one need not compute the joint probability distribution (jpd) for observables involved in the process of computation. Jpd’s calculation is exponentially time consuming. Consequently, classical probabilistic algorithms involving calculation of jpd for n random variables can be over-performed by quantum algorithms (for big values of n). Quantum algorithms are based on quantum probability calculus. It is crucial that the latter modifies the classical formula of total probability (FTP). Probability inference based on the quantum version of FTP leads to constructive interference of probabilities increasing probabilities of some events. We also stress the role the basic feature of the genuine quantum superposition comparing with the classical wave superposition: generation of discrete events in measurements on superposition states. Finally, the problem of superiority of quantum computations is coupled with the quantum measurement problem and linearity of dynamics of the quantum state update.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0292.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: paracetamol; ibuprofen; caffeine; classical least-square; simultaneous; spectroscopy
Online: 22 March 2022 (03:26:27 CET)
In this paper, the classical least square (CLS) method with molecular absorption spectrophotometric measurement was used to determine simultaneously of paracetamol (PAR), ibuprofen (IBU), and caffeine (CAF) in tablets. The absorbance spectra of the standard solutions and samples were measured over a wavelength from 220 to 300 nm with a 0.5 nm step. The concentration of PAR, IBU and CAF in the sample solutions were calculated by using a program called CLS-Excel written in Microsoft Excel 2016 and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). The method and CLS-Excel program were tested on mixed standard laboratory samples with different PAR, IBU, and CAF concentration ratios, and they showed small errors and satisfying repeatability. An analytical procedure for tablets containing PAR, IBU, and CAF was developed. The reliability of the procedure was proved via the recovery and repeatability of the analysis results with an actual tablet sample and comparing the mean contents of active substances in the tablets obtained from the analytical procedure with the from the HPLC method. The procedure is simple with a reduced cost compared with the HPLC standard method.
Online: 19 April 2021 (09:09:32 CEST)
Hybrid Classical-Quantum computing has already arrived at several commercial quantum computers, offered to researchers and businesses. Here, applications are made to a model of financial options, Statistical Mechanics of Financial Markets (SMFM). These applications were published in many papers since the 1980's. This project only uses Classical (super-)computers to include quantum features of these models. Since 1989, an optimization code, Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), has been to fit parameters in such models. Since 2015, a path-integral algorithm, PATHINT, used previously to accurately describe several systems in several disciplines, has been generalized from 1 dimension to N dimensions, and from classical to quantum systems, qPATHINT. Published papers have described the use of qPATHINT to neocortical interactions and financial options. The classical space by SMFM applies nonlinear nonequilibrium multivariate statistical mechanics to fit parameters in conditional short-time probability distributions, while the quantum space described by qPATHINT deals specifically with quantum systems, e.g., quantum money. This project thereby demonstrates how some hybrid classical-quantum systems may be calculated quite well using only classical (super-)computers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0051.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Particle & Field Physics Keywords: classical gauge theory; pair creation/annihilation; temporal paradoxes
Online: 8 March 2017 (09:06:25 CET)
Stueckelberg-Horwitz-Piron (SHP) electrodynamics formalizes the distinction between coordinate time (measured by laboratory clocks) and chronology (temporal ordering) by defining 4D spacetime events xμ as functions of an external evolution parameter τ. Classical spacetime events xμ (τ) evolve as τ grows monotonically, tracing out particle worldlines dynamically and inducing the five U(1) gauge potentials through which events interact. Since Lorentz invariance imposes time reversal symmetry on x0 but not τ, the formalism resolves grandfather paradoxes and related problems of irreversibility. The action involves standard first order field derivatives but includes a higher order τ derivative that while preserving gauge and Lorentz invariance removes certain singularities and makes the related QFT super-renormalizable. The resulting field equations are Maxwell-like but τ-dependent and sourced by a current that represents a statistical ensemble of instantaneous events distributed along the worldline. The width λ of this distribution defines a correlation time for the interactions and a mass spectrum for the photons that carry the interaction. As λ becomes very large, the photon mass goes to zero and the field equations become τ-independent Maxwell’s equations. Maxwell theory thus emerges as an equilibrium limit of SHP, in which λ is larger than any other relevant time scale. Particles and fields are not constrained to mass shells in SHP theory, and by exchanging mass may produce pair creation/annihilation processes at the classical level. On-shell evolution with fixed particle masses is restored through a self-interaction associated with the 5D wave equation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0489.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Integrated optics; resonators; Fano resonance; mode splitting; classical filters
Online: 19 April 2021 (13:27:26 CEST)
We propose and theoretically investigate integrated photonic filters based on coupled Sagnac loop reflectors (SLRs) formed by a self-coupled wire waveguide. By tailoring coherent mode interference in the device, three different filter functions are achieved, including Fano-like resonances, wavelength interleaving, and varied resonance mode splitting. For each function, the impact of device structural parameters is analyzed to facilitate optimized performance. Our results theoretically verify the proposed device as a compact multi-functional integrated photonic filter for flexible spectral shaping.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0157.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Music Studies Keywords: Guru-Shishya parampara; gharana; Indian Classical Music; MFDFA; MFDXA
Online: 15 April 2019 (10:46:10 CEST)
Indian classical music is entirely based on the “Raga” structures. In Indian classical music, a “Gharana” or school refers to the adherence of a group of musicians to a particular musical style of performing a raga. The objective of this work was to find out if any characteristic acoustic cues exist which discriminates a particular gharana from the other. Another intriguing fact is if the artists of the same gharana keep their singing style unchanged over generations or evolution of music takes place like everything else in nature. In this work, we chose to study the similarities and differences in singing style of some artists from at least four consecutive generations representing four different gharanas using robust non-linear methods. For this, alap parts of a particular raga sung by all the artists were analyzed with the help of non linear multifractal analysis (MFDFA and MFDXA) technique. The spectral width obtained from the MFDFA method gives an estimate of the complexity of the signal whereas the cross correlation coefficient obtained from the MFDXA technique gives the degree of correlation between two nonlinear time series. The observations give a cue in the direction to the scientific recognition of “Guru-Shisya Parampara” (teacher-student tradition)—a hitherto much-heard philosophical term. Moreover the variation in the complexity patterns among various gharanas will give a hint of the characteristic feature of that particular gharana as well as the effect of globalization in the field of classical music happening through past few decades.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0499.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: music acoustics, melody discovery, pitch tracking, Indian classical music
Online: 20 November 2018 (11:31:10 CET)
Music acoustics is an interdisciplinary field and mathematics is the basis in the music art form. Music and mathematics correlation exist since the inception of music. Various philosophers, scientists, mathematicians and musicians have expressed their views about this relationship. This paper attempts to explore this association with focus on melodic pattern identification. Mathematics in Indian Classical music with raga as the basis and just intonation tuning system is discussed. Indian vocal music clips are used for different pitch estimation algorithms in the experimentation. Harmonic product spectrum and auto-correlation algorithms are tested for accurate pitch estimation. Enhanced auto-correlation function using audio segmentation is compared with other approaches for effective pitch extraction. Results indicate pitch extraction with enhanced auto-correlation function provides accurate results as compared with other approaches tested.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0251.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Rotating Disk; Special Relativity; Sagnac, synchronization; metric; Coriolis; transition; classical
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:23:34 CET)
On a rotating disk, two particles bounce at the vertices of a regular polygon in opposite directions. On the return to the entry point, a clock measures the time difference, called Sagnac effect. Due to Coriolis effects, the counterclockwise and clockwise paths are different. The particular case of the slow disk where the two trajectories are very close and almost polygonal is studied. The existence of a transition between a classical and a relativistic regime is proved. An experimental verification is proposed. Although the two Sagnac effects seem analogous, in detail their behavior is quite different.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0175.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: surround suppression; extra-classical receptive field; optic tectum; size tuning
Online: 10 December 2021 (14:29:15 CET)
Surround modulation is a phenomenon whereby costimulation of the extra-classical receptive field and classical receptive field would modulate the visual responses induced individually by classical receptive field. However, there lacks systematic study about surround modulation properties existing in avian optic tectum. In this study, neuronal activities are recorded from pigeon optic tectum, and the responses to moving and flashed squares and bars of different sizes are compared. The statistical results showed that most tectal neurons presented surround suppression as stimuli size grew larger both in moving and flashed paradigms, and the suppression degree induced by larger flashed square was comparable with that by moving one when it crossed near the cell’s RF center, which corresponds to fully surrounding condition. The suppression degree grew weaker when the stimuli move across the RF border, which corresponds to partially surrounding condition. Meanwhile, the fully surround suppression induced by flashed square was also more intense than partially surrounded by flashed bars. The results provide new insight for understanding the spatial arrangement of lateral inhibitions from feedback or feedforward streams, which would help to make clear the generation mechanism of surround modulation found in avian optic tectum.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0440.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: classical dynamics; conservation laws; ordinary differential equations; phase-space geometry
Online: 17 December 2020 (16:27:02 CET)
New class of conserved quantities is constructed. These quantities find direct application in mechanics of dissipative (generally non-conservative) dynamical systems. Approach demands formulation in the language of geometric mechanics, providing theoretical framework for situations with energy flow in and out of the system. As a by product, we suggest possibility of existence of Hamiltonian form for every autonomous ODE system, evolution of which is governed by non-potential generator of motion. Various examples are provided, ranging from physics and mathematics, to chemical kinetics and population dynamics in biology. Applications of these ideas in geometric integration techniques (GNI) of numerical analysis are discussed, and as an example of such, new discrete gradient-based numerical method is introduced.
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: computational molecular biology, biochemistry, quantum computing, hybrid quantum-classical algorithms
Online: 24 August 2020 (09:37:44 CEST)
Chemistry has been viewed as one of the most fruitful near-term applications to science of quantum computing. Recent work in transitioning classical algorithms to a quantum computer has led to great strides in improving quantum algorithms and illustrating their quantum advantage. Much less effort has been placed on how one finishes these calculations by using the results from the quantum computer (on the active region of the molecule) and embeds them back into the remainder of the molecule in order to determine the properties of the entire molecule. Such strategies are critical if one wants to expand the focus to biochemical molecules that contain active regions that cannot be properly explained with classical algorithms on classical computers. While we do not solve this problem here, we provide an overview of where the field is going to enable such problems to be tackled in the future.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0539.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Non-normality, Classical Linear Regression Model, Modified Maximum Likelihood Estimation.
Online: 27 September 2018 (10:04:26 CEST)
Regression models form the core of the discipline of econometrics. One of the basic assumptions of classical linear regression model is that the values of the explanatory variables are fixed in repeated sampling. However, in most of the real life cases, particularly in economics the assumption of fixed regressors is not always tenable. Under a non-experimental or uncontrolled environment, the dependent variable is often under the influence of explanatory variables that are stochastic in nature. There is a huge literature related to stochastic regressors in various aspects. In this paper, a historical perspective on some of the works related to stochastic regressor is being tried to pen down based on literature search.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0088.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Astronomy & Astrophysics Keywords: classical gravitation, Planck units, natural units, radial density, Planck scale, proportionality
Online: 6 December 2022 (02:26:11 CET)
The gravitational constant is equivalent to natural units in its six unit dimensions. Evaluating the classical formulas in each of these dimensions shows that gravitational potentials are proportional to the Planck scale by the ratio of a body's radial density to a radial density limit in the ratio of Planck length to Planck mass.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0208.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: Quantum neural network; Breast cancer; Classical neural network; Machine learning; Mammography
Online: 14 October 2022 (10:11:54 CEST)
Computer-aided image diagnostics (CAD) have been used in many fields of diagnostic medicine. It relies heavily on classical computer vision and artificial intelligence. Quantum neural network (QNN) has been introduced by many researchers around the world and presented recently by research corporations such as Microsoft, Google, and IBM. In this paper, the investigation of the validity of using the QNN algorithm for machine-based breast cancer detection was performed. To validate the learnability of the QNN, a series of learnability tests were performed alongside with classical convolutional neural network (CCNN). QNN is built using the Cirq library to perform the assimilation of quantum computation on classical computers. Series of investigations were performed to study the learnability characteristics of QNN and CCNN under the same computational conditions. The comparison was performed for real Mammogram data sets. The investigations showed success in terms of recognizing the data and training. Our work shows better performance of QNN in terms of successfully training and producing a valid model for smaller data set compared to CCNN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0088.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Classical limit; Semiclassical system; Semiclassical Chaos; Clasiccal Chaos; MaxEnt; Density matrix
Online: 5 April 2021 (10:19:59 CEST)
We work with reference to a well-known semiclassical model, in which quantum degrees of freedom interact with classical ones. We show that, in the classical limit, it is possible to represent classical results (e.g., classical chaos) by means a pure-state density matrix.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0065.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Atomic & Molecular Physics Keywords: oscillatory integrals; stationary point approximation; semi-classical theory, uniform Airy approximation
Online: 5 March 2019 (12:34:07 CET)
To determine the photon emission or absorption probability for a diatomic system in the context of the semiclassical approximation it is necessary to calculate the characteristic canonical oscillatory integral which has one or more saddle points. Integrals like that appear in a whole range of physical problems, e.g. the atom-atom and atom-surface scattering and various optical phenomena. A uniform approximation of the integral, based on the stationary phase method is proposed, where the integral with several saddle points is replaced by a sum of integrals each having only one or at most two real saddle points and is easily soluble. In this way we formally reduce the codimension in canonical integrals of "elementary catastrophes" with codimensions greater than 1. The validity of the proposed method was tested on examples of integrals with three saddle points ("cusp" catastrophe) and four saddle points ("swallow-tail" catastrophe).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0091.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: Hamiltonian systems; classical statistical mechanics; ensemble equivalence; long-range interacting systems
Online: 20 September 2017 (04:08:44 CEST)
We investigate the stationary and dynamic properties of the celebrated Nosé-Hoover dynamics of many-body interacting Hamiltonian systems, with an emphasis on the effect of inter-particle interactions. To this end, we consider a model system with both short- and long-range interactions. The Nosé-Hoover dynamics aims to generate the canonical equilibrium distribution of a system at a desired temperature by employing a set of time-reversible, deterministic equations of motion. A signature of canonical equilibrium is a single-particle momentum distribution that is Gaussian. We find that the equilibrium properties of the system within the Nosé-Hoover dynamics coincides with that within the canonical ensemble. Moreover, starting from out-of-equilibrium initial conditions, the average kinetic energy of the system relaxes to its target value over a size-independent timescale. However, quite surprisingly, our results indicate that under the same conditions and with only long-range interactions present in the system, the momentum distribution relaxes to its Gaussian form in equilibrium over a scale that diverges with the system size. On adding short-range interactions, the relaxation is found to occur over a timescale that has a much weaker dependence on system size. This system-size dependence of the timescale vanishes when only short-range interactions are present in the system. An implication of such an ultra-slow relaxation when only long-range interactions are present in the system is that macroscopic observables other than the average kinetic energy when estimated in the Nosé-Hoover dynamics may take an unusually long time to relax to its canonical equilibrium value. Our work underlines the crucial role that interactions play in deciding the equivalence between Nosé-Hoover and canonical equilibrium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0092.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: quantum mechanics; operator; basic presumptions; wave-particle duality; principle of measurement; identical principle; superposition principle of states; entanglement origin; quantum communication; wave collapse; classical statistical mechanics; classical mechanics
Online: 5 January 2021 (11:09:21 CET)
This paper derives measurement and identical principles, then makes the two principles into measurement and identical theorems of quantum mechanics, plus the three theorems derived earlier, we deduce the axiom system of current quantum mechanics, the general quantum theory no axiom presumptions not only solves the crisis to understand in current quantum mechanics, but also obtains new discoveries, e.g., discovers the velocities of quantum collapse and entanglement are instantaneously infinitely large. We deduce the general Schrȍdinger equation of any n particles from two aspects, and the wave function not only has particle properties of the complex square root state vector of the classical probability density of any n particles, but also has the plane wave properties of any n particles. Thus, the current crisis of the dispute about the origin of wave- particle duality of any n microscopic particles is solved. We display the classical locality and quantum non-locality for any n particle system, show entanglement origins, and discover not only any n-particle wave function system has the original, superposition and across entanglements, but also the entanglements are of interactions preserving conservation or correlation, three kinds of entanglements directly give lots of entanglement sources. This paper discovers, one of two pillars of modern physics, quantum mechanics of any n particle system is a generalization ( mechanics ) theory of the complex square root ( of real density function ) of classical statistical mechanics, any n particle system’s quantum mechanics of being just a generalization theory of the complex square root of classical statistical mechanics is both a revolutionary discovery and key new physics, which are influencing people’s philosophical thinking for modern physics, solve all the crisises in current quantum theories, quantum information and so on, and make quantum theory have scientific solid foundations checked, no basic axiom presumption and no all quantum strange incomprehensible properties, because classical statistical mechanics and its complex square root have scientific solid foundations checked. Thus, all current studies on various entanglements and their uses to quantum computer, quantum information and so on must be further updated and classified by the new entanglements. This and our early papers derive quantum physics, solve all crisises of basses of quantum mechanics, e.g., wave-particle duality & the first quantization origins, quantum nonlocality, entanglement origins & classifications, wave collapse and so on.Key words: quantum mechanics, operator, basic presumptions, wave-particle duality, principle of measurement, identical principle, superposition principle of states, entanglement origin, quantum communication, wave collapse, classical statistical mechanics, classical mechanics
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0168.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: quantum mechanics; classical field theory; unified Maxwell-Dirac theory; stress-energy tensor
Online: 18 April 2022 (11:02:47 CEST)
We show that quantum mechanics can be constructed as a classical field theory that correctly describes all basic quantum effects, by combining the Maxwell and Dirac equations. It is shown that for a self-consistent union of the Maxwell and Dirac equations into a unified classical field theory, it is necessary to introduce an additional short-range tensor field, which compensates the intrinsic electrostatic field of the electron wave inside the atom. For the combined Maxwell-Dirac field, the stress-energy tensor is constructed. We show that in the nonrelativistic limit this theory naturally transforms into the self-consistent Maxwell-Pauli theory and allows describing all basic quantum effects in the framework of classical field theory without any quantization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0052.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Polymers & Plastics Keywords: Crystallization; Nucleation; Cross-links; Fast scanning calorimetry (FSC); Classical nucleation theory (CNT)
Online: 4 October 2021 (11:50:36 CEST)
The crystal nucleation and overall crystallization kinetics of cross-linked poly(ε-caprolactone) was studied experimentally by fast scanning calorimetry in a wide temperature range. With an increasing degree of cross-linking, both the nucleation and crystallization half-times increase. Concurrently, the glass transition range shifts to higher temperatures. In contrast, the temperatures of the maximum nucleation and the overall crystallization rates remain the same independent of the degree of cross-linking. The cold crystallization peak temperature generally increases as a function of heating rate, reaching an asymptotic value near the temperature of the maximum growth rate. A theoretical interpretation of these results is given in terms of classical nucleation theory. In addition, it is shown that the average distance between the nearest cross-links is smaller than the estimated lamellae thickness, which indicates the inclusion of cross-links in the crystalline phase of the polymer.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0298.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: Quantum games; classical games; sequential quantum games; groups of actions; winning strategies
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:45:52 CEST)
This paper studies sequential quantum games under the assumption that the moves of the players are drawn from groups and not just plain sets. The extra group structure makes possible to easily derive some very general results, which, to the best of our knowledge, are stated in this generality for the first time in the literature. The main conclusion of this paper is that the specific rules of a game are absolutely critical. The slightest variation may have important impact on the outcome of the game. It is the combination of two factors that determine who wins: (i) the sets of admissible moves for each player, and (ii) the order of moves, i.e., whether the same player makes the first and the last move. Quantum strategies do not a priori prevail over classical strategies. By carefully designing the rules of the game the advantage of either player can be established. Alternatively, the fairness of the game can also be guaranteed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0309.v1
Subject: Engineering, Construction Keywords: Acoustic design; Reverberation time; Clarity; Lateral fraction; Acoustic measurements; Classical concert hall
Online: 22 May 2018 (13:49:31 CEST)
This study aims at an acoustic design of the classical concert hall and evaluation of the acoustic performance. In terms of three acoustic parameters (i.e., reverberation time (RT), clarity (C80), and lateral fraction (LF)), this study performed acoustic simulation modeling and site measurement with the K Art Hall located in South Korea as a case study. First, in order to meet the acoustic performance of the K Art Hall (target RT: 1.4~1.7 seconds, target C80: -2dB or more +2dB or less, and target LF: 10~35%), the finish materials and shape of the room as an interior acoustic design were determined. Second, the average values of the RT, C80, and LF using the acoustic simulation modeling were estimated at 1.4 second, 1.2~1.6 dB, and 29%, respectively. Third, the average values of the RT, C80, and LF through site measuring were measured at 1.5~1.64 second, 0.07~1.31dB, and 22.22~31.37%, respectively. Thus, the results of both the acoustic simulation modeling and site measuring were analyzed so as to satisfy the target acoustic performance. The results of this study will help the decision-makers (i.e., owner, construction managers, etc.) to plan the classical concert hall in terms of the RT, C80, and LF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0146.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: bipolar fuzzy set; decision making problem; non-classical logic; scholasticism; transcranial magnetic stimulation.
Online: 8 November 2021 (13:38:04 CET)
Instead of the conventional 0 and 1 values, bipolar reasoning uses -1, 0, +1 to describe double-sided judgements in which neutral elements are halfway between positive and negative evaluations (e.g., “uncertain” lies between “impossible” and “totally sure”). We discuss the state-of-the-art in bipolar logics and recall two medieval forerunners, i.e., William of Ockham and Nicholas of Autrecourt, who embodied a bipolar mode of thought that is eminently modern. Starting from the trivial observation that “once a wheat sheaf is sealed and tied up, the packed down straws display the same orientation”, we work up a new theory of the bipolar nature of networks, suggesting that orthodromic (i.e., feedforward, bottom-up) projections might be functionally coupled with antidromic (i.e., feedback, top-down) projections via the mathematical apparatus of presheaves/globular sets. When an entrained oscillation such as a neuronal spike propagates from A to B, changes in B might lead to changes in A, providing unexpected antidromic effects. Our account points towards the methodological feasibility of novel neural networks in which message feedback is guaranteed by backpropagation mechanisms endowed in the same feedforward circuits. Bottom-up/top-down transmission at various coarse-grained network levels provides fresh insights in far-flung scientific fields such as object persistence, memory reinforcement, visual recognition, Bayesian inferential circuits and multidimensional activity of the brain. Implying that axonal stimulation by external sources might backpropagate and modify neuronal electric oscillations, our theory also suggests testable previsions concerning the optimal location of transcranial magnetic stimulation’s coils in patients affected by drug-resistant epilepsy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0005.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Cosmology; nonlinear electrodynamics; inflation; acceleration of the universe; causality; classical stability; variable $G$
Online: 14 April 2021 (14:07:07 CEST)
In a bid to resolve lingering problems in cosmology, more focus is being tilted towards cosmological models in which physical constants of nature are not necessarily real constants, but varying with cosmic time. In this paper we have study cosmology in nonlinear electrodynamics with the Newton's gravitational constant $G$ not a constant but vary in form of power-law of the scale factor of the universe. The evolution of the scale factor $a (t)$ is studied in this model which depends on nonlinear electrodynamics fine tuning term of $\alpha$. Then we check the stability of the model using the speed of sound.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0297.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: generalized hyperharmonic numbers, classical Euler sums, binomial coefficients, combinatorial approach, partial fraction approach
Online: 12 April 2021 (12:43:36 CEST)
In this paper, we mainly show that generalized hyperharmonic number sums with reciprocal binomial coefficients can be expressed in terms of classical (alternating) Euler sums, zeta values and generalized (alternating) harmonic numbers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0814.v2
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: biosystems; order-stability; classical versus quantum entropy; open quantum systems; quantum channel; entanglement
Online: 5 February 2021 (22:04:17 CET)
This paper is our attempt on the basis of physical theory to bring more clarification on the question ``What is life?'' formulated in the well-known book of Schr\"odinger in 1944. According to Schr\"odinger, the main distinguishing feature of biosystem's functioning is the ability to preserve its order structure or, in the mathematical terms, to prevent increasing of entropy. Since any biosystem is fundamentally open, it is natural to use open system's theory. However, Schr\"odinger's analysis shows that the classical theory is not able to adequately describe the order-stability in a biosystem. Schr\"odinger should also appeal to the ambiguous notion of negative entropy. We suggest to apply the quantum theory. As is well-known, behaviour of the quantum von Neumann entropy crucially differs from behaviour of the classical entropy. We consider a complex biosystem $S$ composed of many subsystems, say proteins, or cells, or neural networks in the brain, i.e., $S=(S_i).$ We study the following problem: if the composed system $S$ can preserve the ``global order'' in the situation of increase of local disorder and if $S$ can preserve its entropy while some of $S_i$ increase their entropies We show that within quantum information theory the answer is positive. The significant role plays entanglement of the subsystems states. In the absence of entanglement, increasing of local disorder generates disorder increasing in the compound system $S$ (as in the classical regime).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0101.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: elativity and gravitation; classical black hole; deflection angle; Gauss-Bonnet; non-linear electrodynamics
Online: 12 June 2019 (04:10:32 CEST)
In this paper, we are interested in a model of exact asymptotically flat charged hairy black holes in the background of dilaton potential. We study the weak gravitational lensing in the spacetime of hairy black hole in Einstein-Maxwell theory with a non-minimally coupled dilaton and its non-trivial potential. In doing so, we use the optical geometry of the flat charged hairy black hole for some range of parameter $\gamma$. For this purpose, by using Gauss-Bonnet theorem, we obtain the deflection angle of photon in a spherically symmetric and asymptotically flat spacetime. Moreover, we also investigate the impact of plasma medium on weak gravitational lensing by asymptotically flat charged hairy black hole with a dilaton potential. Our analytically analyses show the effect of the hair on the deflection angle in weak field limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0260.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: relativity and gravitation; classical black hole; deflection angle; Gauss-Bonnet; non-linear electrodynamics
Online: 28 March 2019 (09:38:57 CET)
In this paper, we proposed a new model of non-linear electrodynamics with parameter. Firstly, we study the weak limit approximation and by using the Gauss Bonnet theorem, we obtain the deflection angle of photon from magnetized black hole and effect of bnon-linear electrodynamics. In doing so, we find the corresponding optical metric after that we calculate the Gaussian curvature which is used in Gauss Bonnet theorem. Then we show the deflection angle in the leading order terms. We also analyzed that our results reduces into Maxwell's electrodynamics and RN solution with the reduction of parameters. Moreover, we also investigate the graphical behavior of deflection angle w.r.t correction parameter, black hole charge and impact parameter.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0377.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: quantum-classical dynamics; quantum brain; open quantum systems; neuroscience; electromagnetic brain stimulation; clinical psychology
Online: 29 January 2023 (02:46:38 CET)
In this article, we posit an approach to study brain processesnby means of the quantum-classical dynamics of a Mixed Weyl symbol. The Mixed Weyl symbol is used to describe brain processes at the microscopic level and, when averaged over an appropriate ensemble, provides a link to the results of measurements made at the mesoscopic scale. The approach incorporates features of three well-known approaches (which are also reviewed in this paper), namely the electromagnetic field theory of the brain, orchestrated objective reduction theory, and the dissipative quantum model of the brain. Within this approach, quantum variables (such as nuclear and electron spins, dipolar particles, electron excited states, and tunnelling degrees of freedom) may be represented by spinors while the electromagnetic fields and phonon modes involved in the processes are treated either classically or semiclassicaly, by also considering quantum zero-point fluctuations. In the proposed computation scheme, zero-point quantum effects can be incorporated into numerical simulations by controlling the temperature of each field mode via coupling to a dedicated Nosè-Hoover chain thermostat. The temperature of each thermostat is chosen in order to reproduce quantum statistics in the canonical ensemble. Viewing the brain in terms of QC processes has consequences on the theory of clinical psychology and potential implications for its practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0338.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: renewable energy; economic; institutional factors; social factors; Bayesian Average Classical Estimates (BACE); Paris Agreement
Online: 20 September 2021 (14:39:27 CEST)
The aim of the paper is to identify the most likely factors that determine the demand for Renewa-ble Energy Consumption (R.E.C.) in European countries. Although in Europe a high environmen-tal awareness is omnipresent, countries differ in scope and share of R.E.C. due to historical ener-getic policies and dependencies, investments into renewable and traditional energetic sectors, R&D development, structural changes required by energetic policy change, and many other fac-tors. The study refers to a set of macroeconomic, institutional, and social factors affecting energetic renewable policy and R.E.C. in selected European countries in two points of time: i.e., before and after the Paris Agreement. The Bayesian Average Classical Estimates (BACE) is applied to indicate the most likely factors affecting R.E.C. in 2015 and 2018. The comparison of the results reveals that the G.D.P. level, nuclear and hydro energy consumption were the determinants significant in both analyzed years. Furthermore, it became clear that in 2015 the R.E.C. depended strongly on the energy consumption structure, while in 2018, the foreign direct investment and trade openness played their role in increasing renewable energy consumption. The direction of changes is positive and complies with sustainable development goals (S.D.G.s).
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: Power-law duality; Classical and quantum mechanics; Semiclassical quantization; Supersymmetric quantum mechanics; Quark confinement
Online: 25 January 2021 (16:42:35 CET)
The Newton-Hooke duality and its generalization to arbitrary power laws in classical, semiclassical and quantum mechanics are discussed. We pursue a view that the power-law duality is a symmetry of the action under a set of duality operations. The power dual symmetry is defined by invariance and reciprocity of the action in the form of Hamilton’s characteristic function. We find that the power-law duality is basically a classical notion and breaks down at the level of angular quantization. We propose an ad hoc procedure to preserve the dual symmetry in quantum mechanics. The energy-coupling exchange maps required as part of the duality operations that take one system to another lead to an energy formula that relates the new energy to the old energy. The transformation property of Green function satisfying the radial Schrödinger equation yields a formula that relates the new Green function to the old one. The energy spectrum of the linear motion in a fractional power potential is semiclassically evaluated. We find a way to show the Coulomb-Hooke duality in the supersymmetric semiclassical action. We also study the confinement potential problem with the help of the dual structure of a two-term power potential.
ARTICLE | doi:10.3390/sci2040072
Subject: Keywords: Yang–Baxter equation (QYBE); Euler’s formula; dual numbers; UJLA structures; classical means inequalities; poetry
Online: 21 October 2020 (00:00:00 CEST)
We consider a multitude of topics in mathematics where unification constructions play an important role: the Yang–Baxter equation and its modified version, Euler’s formula for dual numbers, means and their inequalities, topics in differential geometry, etc. It is interesting to observe that the idea of unification (unity and union) is also present in poetry. Moreover, Euler’s identity is a source of inspiration for the post-modern poets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0207.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Kepler's third law; n-body system; periodic orbits; dimensional analysis, classical and quantum mechanics
Online: 31 January 2019 (11:52:22 CET)
Inspired by amazing result obtained by Semay , this study revisits generalised Kepler's third law of an n-body system from the perspective of dimension analysis. To be compatible with Semay's quantum n-body result, this letter reports a conjecture which had not be included in author's early publication  but formulated in the author's research memo. The new conjecture for quantum N-body system is proposed as follows: Tq|Eq|3/2 = πG/√2[(ΣNi=1 ΣNj=i+1 mimj)3/(ΣNk=1 mk)]1/2. This formulae is, of course, consistent with the Kepler's third law of 2-body system, and exact same as Semay's quantum result for identical bodies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0009.v2
Subject: Life Sciences, Genetics Keywords: satellite DNA; repetitive DNA; tandem repeats; classical human satellites; HSATI; HSATII; HSATIII; HSat1; HSat2; HSat3
Online: 28 April 2022 (10:18:37 CEST)
The classical human satellite DNAs, also referred to as human satellites 1, 2 and 3 (HSat1, HSat2, HSat3, collectively HSat1-3) constitute the largest individual arrays of tandemly repeated DNA sequences in the genome. Even though they were among the first human DNA sequences to be isolated and characterized at the dawn of molecular biology, HSat1-3 have been left behind in the genomics era and remain among the most enigmatic sequences in the human genome. Although HSat1-3 total roughly 3% of the genome on average, they were almost entirely missing from the human genome reference assembly for 20 years. Recently, the Telomere-to-Telomere Consortium produced the first truly complete assembly of a human genome, including the enormous HSat1-3 arrays, opening them up for a new wave of discovery. Towards this end, here, I provide an account of the history and current understanding of HSat1-3 genomics, evolution, and roles in disease.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0681.v1
Subject: Keywords: non-classical logic; Richard Avenarius; Nicholas of Autrecourt; aganglionosis; Paolo and Francesca; Scholastics; Mohammed Ali.
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:12:32 CEST)
Set theory faces two difficulties: formal definitions of sets/subsets are incapable of assessing biophysical issues; formal axiomatic systems are complete/inconsistent or incomplete/consistent. To overtake these problems reminiscent of the old-fashioned principle of individuation, we provide formal treatment/validation/operationalization of a methodological weapon termed “outer approach” (OA). The observer’s attention shifts from the system under evaluation to its surroundings, so that objects are investigated from outside. Subsets become just “holes” devoid of information inside larger sets. Sets are no longer passive containers, rather active structures enabling their content’s examination. Consequences/applications of OA include: a) operationalization of paraconsistent logics, anticipated by unexpected forerunners, in terms of advanced truth theories of natural language, anthropic principle and quantum dynamics; b) assessment of embryonic craniocaudal migration in terms of Turing’s spots; c) evaluation of hominids’ social behaviors in terms of evolutionary modifications of facial expression’s musculature; d) treatment of cortical action potentials in terms of collective movements of extracellular currents, leaving apart what happens inside the neurons; e) a critique of Shannon’s information in terms of the Arabic thinkers’ active/potential intellects. Also, OA provides an outer view of a) humanistic issues such as the enigmatic Celestino of Verona’s letter, Dante Alighieri’s “Hell” and the puzzling Voynich manuscript; b) historical issues such as Aldo Moro’s death and the Liston/Clay boxing fight. Summarizing, the safest methodology to quantify phenomena is to remove them from our observation and tackle an outer view, since mathematical/logical issues such as selective information deletion and set complement rescue incompleteness/inconsistency of biophysical systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0255.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: arabidopsis thaliana; floral development; flower morphology; ds transposon; classical/sequencing-based mapping; LEAFY; DNA-binding
Online: 22 November 2019 (06:39:06 CET)
The transition to reproduction is a crucial step in the life cycle of any organism. In Arabidopsis thaliana the establishment of reproductive growth can be divided into two phases: Firstly, cauline leaves with axillary meristems are formed and internode elongation begins. Secondly, lateral meristems develop into flowers with defined organs. Floral shoots are usually determinate and suppress the development of lateral shoots. Here, we describe a transposon insertion mutant in the Nossen accession with defects in floral development and growth. Most strikingly is the outgrowth of stems from the axillary bracts of the primary flower carrying secondary flowers. Therefore, we named this mutant flower-in-flower (fif). However, the transposon insertion in the annotated gene is not the cause for the fif phenotype. By means of classical and genome sequencing-based mapping, the mutation responsible for the fif phenotype was found to be in the LEAFY gene. The mutation, a G-to-A exchange in the second exon of LEAFY, creates a novel lfy allele and results in a cysteine-to-tyrosine exchange in the α1-helix of LEAFY´s DNA-binding domain. This exchange abolishes target DNA-binding, whereas subcellular localization and homomerization are not affected. To explain the strong fif phenotype against this molecular findings, several hypotheses are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0303.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: classical extensional mereology; summative mereology; mereology of quantum chemical systems; mereology of chemical wholes; behavioral mereology
Online: 13 August 2020 (11:28:55 CEST)
This paper examines whether classical extensional mereology is adequate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in quantum chemical systems. Although other philosophers have argued that classical extensional and summative mereology does not adequately formalize whole-parts relation within organic wholes and social wholes, such critiques often assume that summative mereology is appropriate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in inorganic wholes such as atoms and molecules. However, my discussion of atoms and molecules as they are conceptualized in quantum chemistry will establish that standard mereology cannot adequately fulfill this task, since the properties and behavior of such wholes are context-dependent and cannot simply be reduced to the summative properties of their parts. To the extent that philosophers of chemistry have called for the development of an alternative mereology for quantum chemical systems, this paper ends by proposing behavioral mereology as a promising step in that direction. According to behavioral mereology, considerations of what constitutes a part of a whole is dependent upon the observable behavior displayed by these entities. Thus, relationality and context-dependence are stipulated from the outset and this makes behavioral mereology particularly well-suited as a mereology of quantum chemical wholes. The question of which mereology is appropriate for formalizing the whole-parts relation in quantum chemical systems is relevant to contemporary philosophy of chemistry, since this issue is related to the more general question of the reducibility of chemical wholes to their parts and of the reducibility of chemistry to physics, which have been of central importance within the philosophy of chemistry for several decades. More generally, this paper puts contemporary discussions of mereology within the philosophy of chemistry into a broader historical and philosophical context. In doing so, this paper also bridges the gap between formal mereology, conceived as a branch of formal ontology, and ‘applied’ mereology, conceived as a branch of philosophy of science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0104.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Bell’s theorem; EPR paradox; quantum entanglement; non-locality; classical superposition; quantum superposition; Malus’ law; joint measurements; correlation
Online: 25 November 2022 (04:36:01 CET)
The EPR paradox was caused by the provision that quantum variables must have pre-existing values. This type of “hidden property realism” was later falsified by Bell’s Theorem. Accordingly, the physical basis for action-at-a-distance between entangled quanta was removed. Yet, modern interpretations present Bell’s inequality as a Locality Criterion, as if Bell violations can only happen at the quantum level, and only with remote interactions. This is a questionable practice, considering that classical joint measurements also violate such inequalities for mutually exclusive wave properties. In particular, consecutive measurements of polarization produce the same coef-ficients of correlation as parallel measurements with entangled quanta, yet they are explicitly local. Furthermore, it is possible to combine parallel and consecutive measurements of Type I polariza-tion-entangled photons in a single experiment, conclusively showing that quantum Bell violations can be local. Surprisingly, classical phenomena also require nonlocal interpretations if pre-existing properties are taken for granted. Hence, the solution is to reject the models with pre-existing properties for both classical and quantum wave-like phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0046.v1
Subject: Biology, Animal Sciences & Zoology Keywords: zebrafish; classical conditioning; operant-conditioning; software; auditory discrimination; learning; spatial working memory; decision making; reward; vision; hearing
Online: 2 November 2022 (06:08:45 CET)
Directed movement towards a target requires spatial working memory, including processing of sensory inputs and motivational drive. In a stimulus-driven, operant conditioning paradigm designed to train zebrafish, we present a pulse of light via LED’s and/or sounds via an underwater transducer. A webcam placed below a glass tank records fish swimming behavior. During operant conditioning, a fish must interrupt an infrared beam at one location to obtain a small food reward at the same or different location. A timing-gated interrupt activates robotic-arm and feeder stepper motors via custom software controlling a microprocessor (Arduino). “Ardulink”, a JAVA facility, implements Arduino-computer communication protocols. In this way, full automation of stimulus-conditioned directional swimming is achieved. Precise multiday scheduling of training, including timing, location and intensity of stimulus parameters, and feeder control is accomplished via a user-friendly interface. Our training paradigm permits tracking of learning by monitoring, turning, location, response times and directional swimming of individual fish. This facilitates comparison of performance within and across a cohort of animals. We demonstrate the ability to train and test zebrafish using visual and auditory stimuli. Current methods used for associative conditioning often involve human intervention, which is labor intensive, stressful to animals, and introduces noise in the data. Our relatively simple yet flexible paradigm requires a simple apparatus and minimal human intervention. Our scheduling and control software and apparatus (NemoTrainer) can be used to screen neurologic drugs and test the effects of CRISPR-based and optogenetic modification of neural circuits on sensation, locomotion, learning and memory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0395.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: mathematical formalism; quantum mechanics; quantum instruments; psychological effects; cognition; decision making; classical rationality; quantum rationality; information overload
Online: 15 March 2021 (14:12:53 CET)
This is a short introductory review on quantum-like modeling of cognition with applications to decision making and rationality. The aim of the review is twofold: a) to present briefly the apparatus of quantum information and probability theory useful for such modeling; b) to motivate applications of this apparatus in cognitive studies and artifical intelligence, psychology, decision making, social and political sciences. We define quantum rationality as decision making that is based on quantum information processing. Quantumly and classically rational agents behaves differently. A quantum-like agent can violate the Savage Sure Thing Principle, the Aumann theorem on impossibility of agreeing to disagree.Such an agent violates the basic laws of classical probability, e.g., the law of total probability and the Bayesian probability inference. In some contexts, ``irrational behavior'' (from the viewpoint of classical theory of rationality) can be profitable, especially for agents who are overloaded by a variety of information flows. Quantumly rational agents can save a lot of information processing resources. At the same time, this sort of rationality is the basis for quantum-like socio-political engineering, e.g., social laser. This rationality plays the important role in the process of decision making not only by biosystems, but even by AI-systems. The latter equipped with quantum(-like) information processors would behave irrationally, from the classical viewpoint. As for biosystems, quantum rational behavior of AI-systems has its advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we point out that quantum-like information processing in AI-systems can be based on classical physical devices, e.g., classical digital or analog computers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0334.v3
Subject: Physical Sciences, Mathematical Physics Keywords: variational principle, Noether theorem, mathematical physics, fundamental interaction, physics law, unification theory, classical and quantum new physics
Online: 15 October 2020 (16:50:48 CEST)
This paper discovers that current variational principle and Noether theorem for different physics systems with (in)finite freedom systems have missed the double extremum processes of the general extremum functional that both is deduced by variational principle and is necessarily taken in deducing all the physics laws, but these have not been corrected for over a century since Noether's proposing her famous theorem, which result in the crisis deducing relevant mathematical laws and all physics laws. This paper discovers there is the hidden logic cycle that one assumes Euler-Lagrange equations, and then he finally deduces Euler-Lagrange equations via the equivalent relation in the whole processes in all relevant current references. This paper corrects the current key mistakes that when physics systems choose the variational extreme values, the appearing processes of the physics systems are real physics processes, otherwise, are virtual processes in all current articles, reviews and (text)books. The real physics should be after choosing the variational extreme values of physics systems, the general extremum functional of the physics systems needs to further choose the minimum absolute extremum zero of the general extremum functional, otherwise, the appearing processes of physics systems are still virtual processes. Using the double extremum processes of the general extremum functionals, the crisis and the hidden logic cycle in current variational principle and current Noether theorem are solved. Furthermore, the new mathematical and physical double extremum processes and their new mathematical pictures and physics for (in)finite freedom systems are discovered. This paper gives both general variational principle and general Noether theorem as well as their classical and quantum new physics, which would rewrite all relevant current different branches of science, as key tools of studying and processing them.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: solids; quantum linear harmonic oscillator; classical linear oscillator; partition function; Hamiltonian; position fluctuations; Hamilton function; thermodynamic properties
Online: 19 June 2019 (08:06:19 CEST)
As known all physical properties of solids are described well by the system of quantum linear harmonic oscillators. It is shown in the present paper that the system consisting of classical linear harmonic oscillators having temperature dependent masses or (and) frequencies has the same partition function as the system consisting of quantum linear harmonic oscillators having temperature independent masses and frequencies while the means of the square displacements of the positions of the oscillators from their mean positions for the system consisting of classical linear harmonic oscillators having: the temperature dependent masses; temperature dependent frequencies; and temperature dependent masses and frequencies differ from each other and from that of the system consisting of quantum linear harmonic oscillators, and hence, the system consisting of classical linear harmonic oscillators describes well the thermodynamic properties of the system consisting of quantum linear harmonic oscillators and solids.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0703.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Feynman, Bell, Ballentine, Koopman, two slit experiment, Bell type experiments, classical probability theory, Kolmogorov, conditional versus unconditional probability
Online: 29 June 2021 (12:50:11 CEST)
We start with the discussion on misapplication of classical probability theory by Feynman in his analysis of the two slit experiment (by following the critical argumentation of Koopman, Ballentine, and the author of this paper). The seed of Feynman's conclusion on the impossibility to apply the classical probabilistic description for the two slit experiment is treatment of conditional probabilities corresponding to different experimental contexts as unconditional ones. Then we move to the Bell type inequalities. Bell applied classical probability theory in the same manner as Feynman and, as can be expected, he also obtained the impossibility statement. In contrast to Feynman, he formulated his no-go statement not in the probabilistic terms, but by appealing to nonlocality. This note can be considered as a part of the author's attempts for getting rid off nonlocality from quantum physics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0244.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: CAMs; Classical Cadherins; Nectins; Neocortical Development; Radial Glia Cells; Neurons; Neuronal Migration; Axon Targeting; Synaptogenesis; Autism/Neurodevelopmental disorders
Online: 10 December 2020 (10:23:42 CET)
The neocortex is an exquisitely organized structure achieved through complex cellular processes from the generation of neural cells to their integration into cortical circuits after complex migration processes. During this long journey, neural cells need to stablish and release adhesive interactions through cell surface receptors known as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Several types of CAMs have been described regulating different aspects of neurodevelopment. Whereas some of them mediate interactions with the extracellular matrix, others allow contacts with additional cells. In this review, we will focus on the role of two important families of cell-cell adhesion molecules (C-CAMs), classical cadherins and nectins, as well as in their effectors, in the control of fundamental processes related with corticogenesis, with especial attention in the cooperative actions among the two families of C-CAMs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0400.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Classical relativistic dynamics; Static interatomic potentials; Retarded interactions; Irreversibility phenomenon; Probability-free kinetics; Klein-Gordon equation; Principle of causality
Online: 26 October 2022 (05:38:05 CEST)
A method is proposed for describing the dynamics of systems of interacting particles in terms of an auxiliary field, which in the static mode is equivalent to given interatomic potentials, and in the dynamic mode is a classical relativistic composite field. It is established that for interatomic potentials, the Fourier transform of which is a rational algebraic function of the wave vector, the auxiliary field is a composition of elementary fields that satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation with complex masses. The interaction between particles carried by the auxiliary field is nonlocal both in space variables and in time. The temporal non-locality is due to the dynamic nature of the auxiliary field and can be described in terms of functional-differential equations of retarded type. Due to the finiteness mass of the auxiliary field, the delay in interactions between particles can be arbitrarily large. A qualitative analysis of the dynamics of few-body and many-body systems with retarded interactions has been carried out, and a non-statistical mechanisms for both the thermodynamic behavior of systems and synergistic effects has been established.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0478.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Stern-Gerlach experiment; phenomenological theory of spin behavior in a magnetic field; classical field theory; self-consistent Maxwell-Pauli theory
Online: 31 October 2022 (10:02:16 CET)
We propose a phenomenological theory of spin behavior in a magnetic field, which explains from the point of view of classical physics the two-valued result of the Stern-Gerlach experiment. The behavior of the spin and intrinsic magnetic moment of an electron wave of an atom in an external magnetic field is considered. We show that in a weak magnetic field, the intrinsic magnetic moment of an electron wave is always oriented parallel to the magnetic field strength vector, while in a strong magnetic field, depending on the initial orientation of the intrinsic magnetic moment, two orientations are realized: either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field strength vector. Within the framework of classical electrodynamics, the calculation of the motion of an atomic beam in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is carried out, which reproduces the results of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0227.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: classical field theory; unified Maxwell-Pauli theory; non-linear Pauli equation; non-linear Schrödinger equation; spin behavior in a magnetic fiel
Online: 17 October 2022 (04:52:02 CEST)
In the framework of the self-consistent Maxwell-Pauli theory, the non-linear Pauli equation is obtained. Stationary and nonstationary solutions of the nonlinear Pauli equation for the hydrogen atom are studied. We show that spontaneous emission and the related rearrangement of the internal structure of an atom, which is traditionally called a spontaneous transition, have a simple and natural description in the framework of classical field theory without any quantization and additional hypotheses. The behavior of the intrinsic magnetic moment (spin) of an electron wave in an external magnetic field is considered. We show that, according to the self-consistent Maxwell-Pauli theory, in a weak magnetic field, the intrinsic magnetic moment of an electron wave is always oriented parallel to the magnetic field strength vector, while in a strong magnetic field, depending on the initial orientation of the intrinsic magnetic moment, two orientations are realized: either parallel or antiparallel to the magnetic field strength vector.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0359.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: Spinal plasticity; spinal neuronal networks; spinal muscular atrophy; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; spinal cord injury; stroke; spasticity; classical conditioning; instrumental conditioning; operant conditioning
Online: 24 October 2022 (10:05:33 CEST)
In former times, the spinal cord was considered a hard-wired network for spinal reflexes and a conduit for long-range connections. This view has changed dramatically over the past few decades. It is now recognized as a plastic device whose structures and functions adapt to changing circumstances. While such changes also occur under physiological conditions, the most dramatic alterations take place during or after various pathological events. It is astonishing what mechanisms the musculo-skeletal system has evolved to come to grips with the damages. Many of these changes are maladaptive, but some appear to help adapt to the new conditions. Although myriads of studies, using manifold methods, have been devoted to elucidating the underlying mechanisms, in humans and animal models, the etiology and pathophysiology of various diseases are still little understood, due to a number of reasons. We will here try to summarize some results and remaining problems in a selection of diseases, in particular spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic laterals sclerosis (ALS), and predominantly spinal cord injury (SCI) with occasional relations to stroke. Especially the changes in SCI (and stroke) depend on the cause, site and extent of the afflicted damage and are therefore multifarious. At the end, we will briefly summarize results indicating that operant, classical and instrumental conditioning can be used to produce plastic changes in healthy people, with potentials for applications to patients with spinal cord injury. In order not to overload the article, we will not delve deeply into sub-cellular processes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0398.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: canonical variational principle; canonical Noether theorem; mathematical physics; fundamental interaction; physics law; unification theory; classical and quatum new physics in phase space
Online: 19 October 2020 (16:04:39 CEST)
This paper discovers that current canonical variational principle and canonical Noether theorem of (in)finite freedom systems for different physics systems have neglected doublet extreme value processes of the general extreme value functional that both is derived by variational principle and is necessarily be taken in deriving all ( quantum ) physics laws in phase space, but which have not been done for over one century since Noether's showing her distinguished theorem, which lead to the crisis deriving all (quantum) physics laws (necessary) in phase space. We discover there is the hidden logic cycle that people assume canonical equations, and then they finally deduce canonical equations by the equivalent relation in the whole processes in all current references. We correct the current key mistake concepts that when physics systems take the variational extreme values, the appearing processes of the physics systems are real physics processes, otherwise, are virtual processes in all current references. The real physics should be what after taking the physics systems' variational extreme values, the physics systems' general extremum functional needs to further take the general extremum functional's minimum absolute extremum zero, otherwise, the appearing processes of physics systems still are virtual processes. Conservation current equations and conservation currents, in phase space, of general canonical variational principle and general canonical Noether theorem are, respectively, deduced for the first time. Using the general extremum functionals' doublet extreme value processes, the hidden logic cycle and the crisis in current canonical variational principle and current canonical Noether theorem are solved. Consequently, the new mathematical pictures, classical and quantum new physics in phase space and the new mathematical and physical doublet extremum processes for (in)finite freedom systems are discovered. General canonical variational principle and general canonical Noether theorem naturally are given, which would rewrite all the different sciences in phase space, as key tools of studying and dealing with them.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0209.v2
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: identity; inverse matrix; explicit formula; generating function; Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind; Catalan number; triangular matrix; classical hypergeometric function; integral representation
Online: 7 August 2017 (15:49:11 CEST)
In the paper, the authors establish two identities to express the generating function of the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind and its higher order derivatives in terms of the generating function and its derivatives each other, deduce an explicit formula and an identities for the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind, derive the inverse of an integer, unit, and lower triangular matrix, present several identities of the Catalan numbers, and give some remarks on the closely related results including connections of the Catalan numbers respectively with the Chebyshev polynomials, the central Delannoy numbers, and the Fibonacci polynomials.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0029.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: fundamental physical theory; classical and quantum physics; p-adic numbers; disordered field; zero dimensional space; hologram; dendrogram; Planck conatnt; light velocity; Berll correlations
Online: 1 April 2021 (14:50:38 CEST)
proposal for a fundamental theory is described in which classical and quantum physics as a representation of the universe as a gigantic dendrogram are unified. The latter is the explicate order structure corresponding to the purely number-theoretical implicate order structure given by p-adic numbers. This number field was zero-dimensional, totally disconnected, and disordered. Physical systems (such as electrons, photons) are sub-dendrograms of the universal dendrogram. Measurement process is described as interactions among dendrograms; in particular, quantum measurement problems can be resolved using this process. The theory is realistic, but realism is expressed via the the Leibnitz principle of the Identity of Indiscernible. The classical-quantum interplay is based on the degree of indistinguishability between dendrograms (in which the ergodicity assumption is removed). Depending on this degree, some physical quantities behave more or less in a quantum manner (versus classic manner). Ideologically, our theory is very close to Smolin’s dynamics of difference and Rovelli’s relational quantum mechanics. The presence of classical behavior in nature implies a finiteness of the Universe-dendrogram. (Infinite Universe is considered to be purely quantum.) Reconstruction of events in a four-dimensional space type is based on the holographic principle. Our model reproduces Bell-type correlations in the dendrogramic framework. By adjusting dendrogram complexity, violation of the Bell inequality can be made larger or smaller.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0570.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Anthropology & Ethnography Keywords: bit and qubit, classical and quantum information, epoché, physical and mathematical transcendentalism, qubit space (qubit Hilbert space), separable complex Hilbert space, the totality, transcendental time
Online: 23 June 2021 (11:12:11 CEST)
Information can be considered as the most fundamental, philosophical, physical and mathematical concept originating from the totality by means of physical and mathematical transcendentalism (the counterpart of philosophical transcendentalism). Classical and quantum information, particularly by their units, bit and qubit, correspond and unify the finite and infinite. As classical information is relevant to finite series and sets, as quantum information, to infinite ones. A fundamental joint relativity of the finite and infinite, of the external and internal is to be investigated. The corresponding invariance is able to define physical action and its quantity only on the basis of information and especially: on the relativity of classical and quantum information. The concept of transcendental time, an epoché in relation to the direction of time arrow can be defined. Its correlate is that information invariant to the finite and infinite, therefore unifying both classical and quantum information.
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: The Koopman-von Neumann formulation of classical mechanics; THe measurement problem; Bell’s theorem; The EPR paradox; Schrödinger’s cat; The double-slit experiment; quantum interference; Probability theory
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:06:38 CEST)
It is claimed that classical mechanics (CM) in terms of its equivalent Koopman-von Neumann formulation (KvN) is indeed a ’real’ quantum theory since the formalism of quantum mechanics (FQM) does not, nor need it, exclude it as a such. This claim is made manifest by suggesting a common structure of which both KvN and ordinary quantum mechanics (OQM) correspond to unitary representations of, although unitarily inequivalent such. It is shown that OQM is obtained by enforcing the extra physical condition of quantized energy levels, which by itself does not constitute the ’quantum mystery’. It is furthermore shown that KvN in a physically realizable sense contain the hallmark quantum behavior of quantum interference. It is hence concluded that both CM and OQM are subjected to the same foundational issues. As the central part of both KvN and OQM is the introduction of probabilities via FQM it is suggested that the foundational issues regarding FQM are less about FQM itself and more about the concept of probability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0248.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: Relativistic probability; relativistic synchronization; classical relativistic variability; quantized states of light; polarization inversion; light resonance curve; relativistic photon ignition; angular momentum; moment of inertia; relativistic constant; relativistic energy wave; photon-matter in-teraction
Online: 17 June 2022 (04:59:41 CEST)
The transport and entanglement of photons is becoming prominent in optics applied to information and quantum computing, where the angular momentum of light stands out in the exchange and inversion of quantized states, with prospects for several technological applications, such as the transport and storage of quantum information. In order to contribute to the understanding of quantized states in photon-matter interaction, we describe a quantized state equation in multidimensional Hilbert space for the diagnosis of OAM states, where probabilities arise in a relativistic setting. It was found that the classical-relativistic variability of the probabilities constitutes a resultant capable of describing the quantized states of light, where the state variable is the variation of the angular momentum of the photon, capable of estimating the orbital angular momentum inversion points at angular incidence. It was found that the chances of finding the quantized states of light at angular incidence can be treated by purely relativistic probabilities, explaining that when both states have equal chances of being found and the angular momentum variation is zero, the source-observer synchronizations occur at the step of increasing relativistic regime of the photon dynamics. We found that the relativistic effect from the perspective of the source referential is able to alter the chances of an event occurring, dilating and contracting the probabilities of finding a quantized state of light at angular incidence.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0242.v1
Subject: Keywords: Lorentzian SRT-transformation factors as solutions of oscillation-equations Holger Döring IQ-Berlin-Spandau Germany e-mail:email@example.comAbstract:Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass.key-words: undamped oscillation; SRT; k-factor; Differential-equation of second order; Einstein-Lorentz; Amplitude-analogy; damped oscillation; developed SRT of fourth order
Online: 11 May 2021 (11:16:44 CEST)
Abstract:Shown is the derivation of Lorentz-Einstein k-factor in SRT as an amplitude-term of oscillation-differential equations of second order.This case is shown for classical Lorentz-factor as solution of an equation for undamped oscillation as well as the developed theorem as a second solution for advanced SRT of fourth order with an equation for damped oscillation-states.This advanced term allows a calculation for any velocities by real rest mass