ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: clade 22.214.171.124c h5n1 virus; immunity evasion; ha trimer stability; thermostability; mammalian pathogenicity
Online: 29 September 2019 (05:21:52 CEST)
Since 2007, highly pathogenic clade 2.3.2 H5N1 avian influenza A [A(H5N1)] viruses have evolved to clade 126.96.36.199a, b and c, and currently only 188.8.131.52c A(H5N1) viruses circulate in wild birds and poultry. During antigenic evolution, clade 184.108.40.206a and c A(H5N1) viruses acquired both S144N and V223I mutations around the receptor binding site of hemagglutinin (HA), with S144N generating an N-glycosylation sequon. We introduced single or combined reverse mutations, N144S and/or I223V, into the HA gene of clade 220.127.116.11c A(H5N1) virus and generated PR8-derived, 2 + 6 recombinant A(H5N1) viruses. When we compared replication efficiency in embryonated chicken eggs, mammalian cells and mice, the recombinant virus containing both N144S and I223V mutations showed increased replication efficiency in avian and mammalian hosts and pathogenicity in mice. The N144S mutation significantly decreased avian receptor affinity and egg white inhibition, but not all mutations increased mammalian receptor affinity. Interestingly, the combined reverse mutations dramatically increased the thermostability of HA. Therefore, the adaptive mutations possibly acquired to evade avian immunity may decrease viral thermostability as well as mammalian pathogenicity.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0200.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: clade 18.104.22.168b; fatal infection; avian flu; HPAIV H5N8; neurological symptoms; bird of prey; raptor
Online: 11 July 2018 (12:30:00 CEST)
In contrast to previous incursions of highly pathogenic H5 viruses, H5N8 clade 22.214.171.124b caused numerous lethal infections in white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla) in Germany during the winter 2016/2017. Until April 2017, 17 HPAIV H5N8-positive white-tailed sea eagles had been detected (three alive and 14 dead). Mainly young eagles died (before reaching the adult plumage at 5 years), often with severe neurological symptoms, where histopathology revealed mild to moderate, oligo- to multifocal necrotizing polioencephalitis. Lethal lead (Pb) concentrations, proven as main mortality factor of the sea eagles could be ruled out since values measured in liver or kidney tissue were all within background levels (< 1 ppm). Since the fall of 2016, the epizootic of HPAIV H5 clade 126.96.36.199b reportedly induced, for the first time, fatal disease in European white-tailed see eagles. The virus strain may become a new threat to a highly protected species across its distribution range in Eurasia. Positive cloacal swaps have proven that the eagles can spread the virus with their faeces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0235.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: acetabulum; antitrochanter; archosaur; clade; convergence; dinosauriform; epigenesis, foramen acetabuli; gallinaceous; gallo-anseres; paedomorphosis; pelvis; supracetabular crest; synapomorphy
Online: 3 November 2023 (10:12:41 CET)
That birds are maniraptoran theropod dinosaurs is now considered an evolutionary consensus. An “open” (i.e., completely, or substantially perforate) acetabulum is considered an important synapomorphy verifying the bird-dinosaur nexus. Here I present anatomical evidence from morphological aspects of the acetabulum and its important appurtenances, the supracetabular crest and the antitrochanter, that the hip anatomy differs substantially between dinosaurs and birds and for the current hypothesis of origins to be correct unlikely anatomical reversals would have been required. Given the thin bone of the acetabular walls and the varied tissue, both hard and soft, in the acetabular region and especially the lower part of the basin, it is apparent that many avian skeletons exhibit some anatomical loss of soft tissue and thin bone, some perhaps related to changes in gait, but also in part related to the dramatic trend in bone reduction associated with flight, especially in more advanced crown taxa. Many basal birds and early diverging neornithines tend to have a nearly closed or various levels of partially closed acetabula, thus rendering the current terms “open” or “closed” acetabula inaccurate; they should be modified or replaced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1579.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: highly pathogenic avian influenza A H5N8; clade 188.8.131.52b; Kosovo; domestic poultry; phylogenetic network analysis; viruses; persistent circulation
Online: 22 August 2023 (12:59:41 CEST)
In this study, we report the first outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) A H5N8, clade 184.108.40.206b in Kosovo on May 19, 2021. The outbreak consisted of three temporal phases: May–June 2021, September–November 2021, and January–May 2022. In total, 32 backyard and 10 commercial holdings tested positive for the virus, affecting 179,198 poultry. Interestingly, the third and last phase of the outbreak coincided with the massive H5N1 clade 220.127.116.11b epidemic in Europe. Phylogenetic analyses of 28 viral strains from Kosovo revealed that they were closely related to the H5N8 clade 18.104.22.168.b viruses that have been circulating in Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Hungary, and Russia in early 2021. Whole genome sequencing of the 25 and partial sequencing of 3 H5N8 viruses from Kosovo showed high nucleotide identity, forming a distinctive cluster and suggesting a single introduction. The results of the network analysis were in accordance with the three epidemic waves and suggested that the viral diffusion could have been caused by secondary spreads among farms and/or different introductions of the same virus from wild birds. The persistent circulation of the same virus over a one-year period highlights the potential risk of the virus becoming endemic, especially in settings with non-adequate biosecurity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0024.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses; H5N8; H5N5; Clade 22.214.171.124; phylogenetic network analyses; next-generation sequencing; MinION; epidemiology
Online: 1 August 2022 (14:57:42 CEST)
During autumn/winter in 2016 – 2017 and 2020 – 2021, highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIV) caused severe outbreaks in Germany and Europe. Multiple clade 126.96.36.199b H5 HPAI subtypes were responsible for increased mortality in wild birds and high mortality and massive losses in the poultry sector. To clarify putative entry sources and delineate interconnections between outbreaks in poultry holdings and wild birds, we applied whole-genome sequencing and phylodynamic analyses combined with the results of epidemiological outbreak investigations. Varying outbreak dynamics of the distinct reassortants allowed for the identification of individual, putatively wild bird-mediated entries into backyard holdings, several clusters comprising poultry holdings, local virus circulation for several weeks, direct farm-to-farm transmission and potential reassortment within a turkey holding with subsequent spill-over of the novel reassorted virus into the wild bird population. Whole-genome sequencing allowed for allowed for a unique high-resolution molecular epidemiology analysis of HPAIV H5Nx outbreaks, recommended to be used as a standard tool. The presented detailed account of the genetic, temporal and geographical characteristics of the recent German HPAI H5Nx situation emphasizes the role of poultry holdings as an important source of novel genetic variants and reassortants.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: white biotechnology; metabolic engineering; non-conventional yeast; oleaginous yeast; cell factory; heterologous expression; biodiversity; Yarrowia lipolytica; Yarrowia clade; GMO
Online: 7 June 2021 (10:50:26 CEST)
Among non-conventional yeasts of industrial interest, the dimorphic oleaginous yeast Yarrowia lipolytica appears as one of the most attractive for a large range of white biotechnology applications, from heterologous proteins secretion to cell factories process development. The past, present and potential applications of wild type, traditionally improved or genetically modified Yarrowia lipolytica strains will be resumed, together with the wide array of molecular tools now available to genetically engineer and metabolically remodel this yeast. The present review will also provide a detailed description of Yarrowia lipolytica strains and highlight the natural biodiversity of this yeast, a subject little touched upon in most previous reviews. This work intends to fill this gap by retracing the genealogy of the main Yarrowia lipolytica strains of industrial interest, by illustrating the search for new genetic backgrounds and by providing data about the main publicly available strains in yeast collections worldwide. At last, it will focus on exemplifying how advances in engineering tools can leverage a better biotechnological exploitation of the natural biodiversity of Yarrowia lipolytica and of other yeasts from the Yarrowia clade.