Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: waste management; civil construction waste; sustainability
Online: 27 October 2019 (10:26:32 CET)
Given the importance of the development of urban infrastructure and environmental impacts produced by the civil construction waste (CCW), it is important to correct the handling of CCW with objective solutions that are more environmentally friendly. In that sense the present study aimed to determine indicators that make it possible to estimate the amount of CCW generated from construction sites in the city of Londrina, Parana State, Brazil. The generation of CCW was estimated in a general way, regarding the composition of its mixture, correlated to the gross areas of the buildings studied and their generated volumes of RCC. This generating rate was evaluated in a general way and specifies two types of sites: the new residential and new non-residential constructions. The data required for the development of these indicators was obtained through extensive survey and interviews carried out at the environment secretariat of the City Hall. The generating rate of CCW obtained for non-residential buildings was 0.2052m3/m2 or 170.44kg/m2, for new residential sites was 0.2054m3/m2 or 170.60kg/m2 and for new commercial or non-residential construction sites, it was 0.20453 m3/m2 or 169.85kg/m2. It was also possible to estimate the amount generated annually per inhabitant in the municipality, which is 0.60m3/inhabit.year or 498.55kg/inhabit.year.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0132.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Microbiology Keywords: civil science; antibiotic producers screening; actinomycetes; reporter systems; chartreusin; pikromycin
Online: 8 August 2022 (05:27:03 CEST)
Since streptomycin discovery, actinomycetes were the main source for new antibiotics, but after the Golden age (1950-1960th) the discovery rate significantly decreased. The high probability to rediscover well-known antibiotics led to a reduction in interest in soil bacteria as a source for new antibiotics. At the same time, actinomycetes remain a very promising reservoir for searching for new active molecules. In this work, we present several reporters containing eye-visible fluorescent protein genes, which can be used to increase the efficiency of determining the mechanism of antibiotics at the very initial stage of screening. Presented reporters and the following pipeline were optimized given the involvement of citizen scientists without specialized skills and equipment in order to utilize the reservoir of soil bacteria in the search for new antibiotic producers. The combination of mechanism-based approaches and civil science has proved its effectiveness in practice revealing a significant increase in the screening rate. Two new strains Streptomyces sp. KB-1 and BV113 were found to produce antibiotics pikromycin and chartreusin, respectively, demonstrating the efficiency of the pipeline.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Other Keywords: stray dogs; Pasteur Institute; vaccination; colonial; British India; Civil Veterinary Department
Online: 24 September 2020 (11:13:30 CEST)
India bears the highest burden of global dog-mediated human rabies deaths. Despite this, rabies is not notifiable in India, and continues to be underprioritized in public health discussions. This review examines the historical treatment of rabies in British India, a disease which has received relatively less attention in the literature on Indian medical history. Human and animal rabies was widespread in British India and treatment of bite victims imposed a major financial burden on the colonial Government of India. It subsequently became a driver of Pasteurism in India and globally and a key component of British colonial scientific enterprise. Efforts to combat rabies led to the establishment of a wide network of research institutes in India and important breakthroughs in development of rabies vaccines. As a result of these efforts, rabies no longer posed a significant threat to the British and it declined in administrative and public health priorities in India towards the end of colonial rule; a decline that has yet to be reversed in modern-day India. The review also highlights features of the administrative, scientific and societal approaches to dealing with this disease in British India which persist to this day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0004.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: civil engineering; construction contract; court strategy; conflict modelling; decision analysis; game theory
Online: 28 January 2019 (10:51:40 CET)
Recently there has been growing interest in the application of game theory (GT) to solve many diverse problems in the field of construction, including i.a.: tender preparation, selection of a contractor for construction works, negotiating terms and conditions of cooperation of the parties to the contract, analysis and modeling of investment risk. In the authors opinion, the use of GT by general contractor (GC) of construction works to indicate the best strategy leading to winning court proceedings in a situation of conflict with investor (IN), so far has not been the subject of research. Taking into account the above, the aim of the presented paper is to indicate the optimal strategy from the GC point of view in the conflict situation with IN. The article presents a list of the most common causes of conflicts between parties of the construction works' contract, defines the background of the problem and the cause of the dispute, and on its basis, the authors generate the theoretical model of the game. Based on the analyzed game model, expected payoffs for players were calculated and the probability border value at which GC should apply the indicated strategy determined. The results of the study show that in the case when the probability of issuing a judgment favorable for GC is at least equal to 69.23%, it is justified to use an aggressive strategy. The analysis also confirms that from the financial perspective, litigation in most cases of conflicts in the area of construction should be the last choice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0168.v1
Subject: Keywords: avulsion, civil defence, dispersal barrier, flood, Rio Madeira, rain forest, species distribution
Online: 10 September 2018 (11:59:52 CEST)
The scene for regional biogeography and human settlements in Central Amazonia is set by the river network, which presumably consolidated in the Pliocene. However, we present geomorphological and sediment chronological data showing that the river network has been anything but stable. Even during the last 50 kyr, the tributary relationships have repeatedly changed for four major rivers, together corresponding to one third of the discharge of the Amazon. The latest major river capture event converted the Japurá from a tributary of the Rio Negro to a tributary of the Amazon only 1000 years ago. Such broad-scale lability implies that rivers cannot have been as efficient biogeographical dispersal barriers as has generally been assumed, but that their effects on human societies can have been even more profound. Climate change and deforestation scenarios predict increasing water levels during peak floods, which will likely increase the risk of future river avulsions. This may have disastrous consequences for the local human societies, especially in those areas where the current floodplains are at only marginally lower elevations than the nearest water divide. We suggest that the prevailing paradigm of rivers as principal structuring elements of Amazonian biogeography needs to be re-evaluated, and that land use planning and civil risk assessment should take the possibility of river avulsions into account.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201709.0150.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: overall risk; technical infrastructure; major accident; explosive for civil use; terrorist attack
Online: 29 September 2017 (04:38:10 CEST)
The paper presents the results of the theoretical and practical research on developing the infrastructure for assessment of overall risk (explosion / occupational / terrorist attack) associated with unwanted events such as major accidents that can occur at explosive storehouses for civilian use. The scientific research outlined in this article was carried out within the Nucleu Project PN 16 43 02 15 - “Research on increasing safety levels at technical facilities for storage of explosives for civil use”.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Yezidi/ Yazidi; ISIS / IS; Northern Iraq offensive; Iraq / Syrian civil war; women's mental health; PTSD
Online: 24 June 2019 (09:11:36 CEST)
The Yezidis who represent a religious minority living in Northern Iraq were particularly affected of the persecution by ISIS that gained power after 2013. This paper gives an overview of the events and the mental health consequences as well as associated influences on affected female Yezidis. Based on systematic literature search the aspects “Persecution by ISIS and actual situation of the Yezidi community”, “Gender-specific aspects of the persecution and its consequences”, “Mental health of the affected women” and “Cultural-historical and religious context” are worked out. Research indicates a high burden of health strain and mental health problems in the surviving Yezidi women, especially PTSD and depression. Concerning transgenerational trauma, the recent genocide revive past experiences in the history of the community. Like the narrow cultural and religious rules of the community, this can be both a resource and a burden. The actual extent of the attacks is neither predictable for the affected individuals nor for the community, consequences could also be passed on descendants. Long-term care and support of the affected persons, their descendants and the Yezidi community seems indispensable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: REDD+; FLEGT VPA; civil society organisations; participation; resources; rules of the game; Policy Arrangement Approach; Lao PDR
Online: 15 February 2017 (15:27:21 CET)
REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) aims to achieve its purpose by working across multiple sectors and involving multi-level actors in reducing deforestation and forest degradation in tropical countries. By contrast, the European Union (EU) Action Plan on Forest Law Enforcement, Governance and Trade (FLEGT) and its Voluntary Partnership Agreements (VPAs) focus on forestry and functions at bilateral state level. The FLEGT Action Plan specifically aims to tackle illegal logging, legalise timber production and trade improve forest governance in countries exporting tropical timber to the EU. Since illegal logging is just one driver of deforestation and forest degeneration, and legalisation of logging does not necessarily reduce deforestation and forest degradation, the two instruments differ in scale and scope. However, by addressing the causes of deforestation and forest degradation and their underlying governance issues, the EU FLEGT and REDD+ share many functional linkages at higher levels of forest policy and forest governance. The contribution and participation of civil society organisations (CSOs) and other actors is imperative to both processes. Our study is based on a survey of key actors (national and international) in REDD+ and FLEGT VPA processes in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Our analysis was guided by the theoretical perspectives of the policy arrangement approach and examination of two specific dimensions of this approach, namely resources and rules of the game. This paper argues that participation of CSOs in both processes is crucial as it facilitates and nurtures the very much needed cooperation between other national and international actors. The paper also argues that participation of CSOs feeds valuable information and knowledge into REDD+ and FLEGT VPA processes, thus contributing to increased legitimacy, justice and transparency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0131.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Pan-Africanism; African Diaspora; human rights; liberation; transformational leadership; civil rights; colonialism; Martin Luther King Jr.; Nelson Mandela
Online: 5 August 2020 (10:48:12 CEST)
The Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. and Nelson Mandela were two of the world's most iconic civil (political) (human) rights advocates and leaders of all time. Both advocated for, and to varying degrees, applied elements of peaceful protests to the achievement of their goals. Both spent time in jail, often concurrently, but eventually forced their respective countries to extend the same rights that white populations had denied Africans and African Americans. For the US, civil rights, voting rights, right to education, housing and housing loans suggested that equality had been achieved, capped in South Africa by the election of Nelson Mandela as the first majority-rule president, and in the US, by Barack Obama’s election to the presidency. Yet the historical over-policing, police mistreatment and more generally, the judicial system’s inordinate ‘targeting’ of African Americans, with egregious cases running from Emmett Till to Rodney King to Walter Scott to Breonna Taylor to George Floyd to Rayshard Brooks and thousands of others shows the danger of such magical thinking. The now-persistent global wave pursuing human rights, civil rights and the right to be treated equally, primarily driven by the loosely-organized Black Lives Matter (BLM) movement, has become the leading voice in pursuit of equality. Riots such as those in LA, protests in Ferguson and everywhere in summer 2020 has ushered new civil rights campaign. In the US and elsewhere, it has morphed to include historical issues such as monuments to colonialism, the US civil war, slavery and slave owners and traders, institutions, companies and people whose wealth and existence has links to slavery. Instructively, the protests persisted even as COVID-19, the hundred-year plague, continues to ravage the world. Lost in the moment is the absence of central leadership and leaders such as MLK or Mandela. Their charisma and effectiveness has been lacking for 50 years. This paper evaluates whether this has led to inconsistent civil and human rights pursuit for equality, or whether perchance, Mandela and MLK were extraordinary, once-in-a-lifetime transformative leaders uniquely selected by history for their time.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: structural safety assessment; experimental monitoring; strain transducers; reinforcement; civil engineering; optical fiber sensors; life time structural monitoring; Brillouin
Online: 4 June 2020 (03:54:44 CEST)
This work describes a new transducer prototype for continuous monitoring both in the structural and geotechnical fields. The transducer is synthetically constituted by a wire of optical fiber embedded between two fiber tapes (fiberglass or carbon fiber) and glued by a matrix of polyester resin. The fiber optical wire ends have been connected to a control unit whose detection system is based on Brillouin optical time-domain frequency analysis. Three laboratory tests were carried out to evaluate the sensor's reliability and accuracy. In each experiment, the transducer was applied to a sample of inclinometer casing sets in different configurations and with different constraint conditions. The experimental data collected were compared with theoretical models and with data obtained from the use of different measuring instruments to perform validation and calibration of the transducer at the same time. Several diagrams allow comparing the transducer and highlighting its suitability for monitoring and maintenance of structures. The characteristic of the transducer suggests its use as a mixed system for reinforcing and monitoring, especially in lifetime maintenance of critical infrastructures such as transportation and service networks, and historical heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Response Surface Methodology; Hybrid; Genetic Algorithm Artificial Neural Network; Concrete; Flexural Strength; Steel Fibre Reinforced Concrete; Civil Engineering
Online: 15 March 2019 (09:54:22 CET)
The study presents a comparative approach between response surface methodology (RSM) and hybridized, genetic algorithm artificial neural network (GA-ANN) in predicting the water absorption, compressive strength, flexural strength split tensile strength and slump for steel fiber reinforced concrete. The effect of process variables such as aspect ratio, water cement ratio and cement content were investigated using the central composite design of response surface methodology. This same experimental design was used in training the hybrid-training approach of artificial neural network. The predicting ability of both methodologies were compared using the root mean sqaured error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), model predictive error (MPE) and absolute average deviation (AAD). The RSM model was found more accurate in prediction compared to hybrid GA-ANN.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0476.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: Religion; migration; Political Economy; demographic economic policies; sanctuary movement; persecution; civil disobedience; The United States of America (USA/US).
Online: 28 September 2021 (21:27:59 CEST)
This is a study of Political Economy on religion and migration management in the United States of America (USA). This paper offers a review of migrants-citizens relations in the USA, with attention to the pendulum effect, moving from integration policies (open doors and melting pot agenda) to official persecution (raids and deportations), with a high social opportunity cost. There has been a split between the State and civil society, causing civil disobedience and sanctuary network across the country. Also, it is paid attention to the American post-modern paradox, as a result of culture wars and identity politics that imply a violation of American constitutional principles (i.e. religious liberty, freedom of movement, to pursuit the happiness). Special attention is paid to the development of the Sanctuary Movement, as an ongoing example of the sociocultural upheaval bringing grassroots society into confrontation with powerful elites by promoting resistance and offering help to the needy, even if this results in sanctions. This movement was revitalized after the values crisis of 2008, but it has also been polarized between those who follow the traditional approach to socio-religious action in the form of peaceful civil disobedience, and those who follow the ideological anti-system and communitarian approach, which causes greater tension for the immigrants themselves
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0392.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Geophysics Keywords: Earth’s natural pulse electromagnetic field; stress-strain state of rock mass; magnetic field strength; magnetic induction; pipeline; measurement; accident; civil communication
Online: 15 December 2020 (19:52:19 CET)
The paper presents an analysis of the method of recording the magnetic component of the Earth’s natural pulse electromagnetic field in an urban environment. This method of recording has already proved itself to be a method that allocates the stressed sections of rock mass at mining and, therefore, authors suppose its effectiveness for allocating active tectonic disturbances and forecasting accidents at underground utilities, what will help reduce the potential environmental hazard of these objects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0557.v1
Subject: Keywords: Civil Society; Climate Politics; Environmental Governance; Faith-Based Environmentalism; Faith-Based Nonprofits; Global Governance; International Relations; Religion and Ecology; Religion and Society; Sustainability
Online: 24 February 2021 (16:45:12 CET)
How much is religion quantitatively involved in global climate politics? After assessing the role of the Conference of Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change from a normative perspective, this descriptive, transdisciplinary and unconventional study offers the first comprehensive quantitative examination of religious nongovernmental organizations that formally participate in its annual meetings, the largest attempts to solve the climate crisis through global governance. This study finds that although their numbers are growing, only about 3 percent of registered nongovernmental organizations accredited to participate in the conference are overtly religious in nature — and that more than 80 percent of those faith-based groups are Christian. Additionally, this study finds that religious nongovernmental organizations that participate in the conference are mostly from the Global North. The results call for greater participation of religious institutions in the international climate negotiations in order for society to address the planetary emergency of climate change.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:25:18 CET)
Appropriate estimation of soil settlement is of significant importance since it directly influences the performance of building and infrastructures that are built on soil. In particular, the settlement of fine-grained soils is critical because of low permeability and continuous settlement with time. Coefficient of consolidation (Cc) is a key parameter to estimate settlement of fine-grained soil layers. However, estimation of this parameter is time consuming, needs skilled technicians, and specific equipment. In this study, Cc was estimated using several soil parameters such as liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), and initial void ratio (e0). Estimating such parameters in laboratory is straight forward and needs substantially less time and cost compared to conventional tests to estimate Cc such as Oedometer test. This study presents a novel prediction model for Cc of fine-grained soils using gene-expression programming (GEP). GEP is a biologically inspired technique capable of offering closed-form solution for the optimal solution. A database consisted of 108 different data points was used to develop the model. A closed-form equation solution was derived to estimate Cc based on LL, PL, and e0. The performance of developed GEP-based model was evaluated through coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), and mean average error (MAE). High R2 and low error values indicated the descent performance of the model. Furthermore, the model was evaluated using the additional performance measures and met all the suggested criteria. Furthermore, the model had a better performance in terms of R2, RMSE, and MAE compared to most of existing models. It is expected that the developed model will decrease the time and cost associate with determining Cc of fine-grained soils.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation
Online: 25 March 2019 (10:21:45 CET)
Appropriate estimation of soil settlement is of significant importance since it directly influences the performance of building and infrastructures that are built on soil. In particular, the settlement of fine-grained soils is critical because of low permeability and continuous settlement with time. Coefficient of consolidation (Cc) is a key parameter to estimate settlement of fine-grained soil layers. However, estimation of this parameter is time consuming, needs skilled technicians, and specific equipment. In this study, Cc was estimated using several soil parameters such as liquid limit (LL), plastic limit (PL), and initial void ratio (e0). Estimating such parameters in laboratory is straight forward and needs substantially less time and cost compared to conventional tests to estimate Cc such as oedometer test. This study presents a novel prediction model for Cc of fine-grained soils using gene-expression programming (GEP). GEP is a biologically inspired technique capable of offering closed-form solution for the optimal solution. A database consisted of 108 different data points was used to develop the model. A closed-form equation solution was derived to estimate Cc based on LL, PL, and e0. The performance of developed GEP-based model was evaluated through coefficient of determination (R2), root mean squared error (RMSE), and mean average error (MAE). High R2 and low error values indicated the descent performance of the model. Furthermore, the model was evaluated using the additional performance measures and met all the suggested criteria. Furthermore, the model had a better performance in terms of R2, RMSE, and MAE compared to most of existing models. It is expected that the developed model will decrease the time and cost associate with determining Cc of fine-grained soils.Keywords: evolutionary model, gene-expression programming (GEP), prediction, soil compression index, estimation, soil engineering, soil informatics, civil engineering, machine learning, data science, big data, soft computing, deep learning, forecasting, subject classification codes, construction informatics, computational intelligence (CI), artificial intelligence (AI), estimation