ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0080.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; ecosystem; city planning; urban project; city smartness; innovation
Online: 3 August 2021 (13:12:25 CEST)
Intelligent cities or smart cities evolve bottom-up along with the digitisation and the creation of digital entities linked to human activities, physical space, and institutional settings of cities; but also, they progress top-down through smart city strategies and projects designed and implemented by public authorities. Yet, thirty-five years since the first use of the term “smart city” or “intelligent city” in the second half of the 1980s, and more than ten years of intense publications in this field, since 2009, there is still a great deal of fuzziness about the projects that make cities intelligent or smart. There is low awareness about the big differences between large, complex urban projects, such as ‘Zero Energy Districts’ or “Mobility-as-a-Service” and projects for automation of city infrastructures, such as smart city lighting, smart metering or finding a parking place. There is a widespread misconception that city intelligence or smartness, the core attribute of smart cities, can be achieved through automation of the city infrastructure. This paper focuses on projects that make cities intelligent or smart. Our intention is to show the complexity and effort needed to achieve this objective. It is an inquiry on projects and data from a large number of smart cities around the world. We analyse core properties of smart city projects, such as (a) interventions on the physical, social, and digital space of cities, (b) the relation to city sectors and ecosystems, (c) engagement of users and stakeholders in decision-making, and (c) impact through optimisation and innovation of city processes and routines. We discuss also projects we have designed and implemented in the framework of URENIO Research and ITI-CERTH. Our conclusions are two-fold. First, we propose a typology of smart city projects along 3 axes and 9 properties. Second, we argue that success and failure to achieve city smartness are mainly institutional. Most barriers to implementation are organisational, legal, and institutional. This can be explained by the social and institutional inertia of the urban system against new solutions, especially when innovation and radical change of existing routines take place. Change management should be a permanent companion of smart city projects implementation, and the modification of routines should be clearly defined and considered already at the design phase of projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0101.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: intelligent city; smart city; smart ecosystem; ontology; city smartness
Online: 4 August 2021 (08:38:31 CEST)
The paper is a follow-up of a previous investigation and effort to develop the ontology of the smart city (Komninos, N., Bratsas, C., Kakderi, C., and Tsarchopoulos, P. "Smart city ontologies: Improving the effectiveness of smart city applications". Journal of Smart Cities, vol. 1(1), 1-17. https://www.komninos.eu/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/2015-Smart-City-Ontologies-Published.pdf). Since the publication of this article in 2015, research and literature on smart cities have evolved significantly, as have the technologies for digital spaces and applications that support city functions. These developments are reflected in the present form of the smart city ontology 2.0 we propose. It depicts the building blocks of the smart city ontology (technologies, structure, function, planning), and the object properties and data properties that connect structural blocks and classes. The aim of the SCO 2.0 is to provide a better understanding and description of the smart/intelligent city landscape; identify the main components and processes, the terms used to describe them, their definition and meaning; clarify key processes related to the integration of the different dimensions of the smart city, mainly the physical, social, and digital dimensions. The paper is accompanied by an owl file, developing the ontology through the editor Protégé.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2106.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: carbon net zero city; climate neutral city; smart city; digital transformation; standardization
Online: 30 June 2023 (02:28:57 CEST)
Abstract: Establishing carbon neutrality (or Net Zero) in cities appears to be an ambitious challenge, which drives urban transformation efforts around the world to enhance people-centric living. Cities launch corresponding strategies focusing mainly on the United Nations 2030 goals to form their climate-neutral future. This paper provides practical guidance on city digital transformation to achieve carbon net zero. These guidelines illustrate actionable recommendations to reduce their carbon footprint using digital technologies. Following a multi-method research approach, findings from a bibliometric literature and a standards’ gap analysis were combined with practical evidence and circulated with focus group experts to conclude to these guidelines, which are the foundation for further standardization. The outcomes provide concrete guidelines to policymakers, planners, and other stakeholders for city digital transformation to establish carbon neutrality, via emphasizing the need for digital technologies to enhance efficiency in several areas and via leveraging green ICTs for city economic growth while also transforming citizen behavior.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0587.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Berlin; city marketing; sustainability; green city; smart city; urban development; destination marketing
Online: 23 December 2020 (13:00:25 CET)
City Marketing has a strong tradition in Berlin, with two organisations, Berlin Partner and Visit Berlin, responsible for designing and implementing relevant strategies. Sustainability has been on and off the city marketing agenda, almost exclusively in its environmental dimension. In this article we examine the current representations of Berlin as a “sustainable city” in the official City Marketing strategies. We look at how sustainability is used and instrumentalized to create a specific city profile, and also to attract particular target groups in tourism. We propose an analysis of sustainable planning in Berlin since reunification, to show how it has moved into different directions over time and how this has (or has not) been followed by City Marketing. In this endeavour we move between the existing, and as we argue deeper and more sophisticated, environmental planning of the city on the one hand, and the reductions and simplifications of City Marketing representations on the other. Finally, we argue that there are inherent contradictions in marketing a sustainable city, where both in terms of tourism and economic development, the concept of growth seems to be reaching environmental limits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1091.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: disruptive technologies; emerging technologies; smart city; urban (city) resilience
Online: 15 June 2023 (07:57:50 CEST)
Smart Cities leverage technology to address various urban challenges and creating disaster resilience is one of them. Technology is a vast and ever-evolving field, and hence the research on technology for improving disaster resilience is scattered. A major drawback of prevailing studies is that they continue to overlook the bottlenecks to effectively harness the benefits of technological innovations and that includes the need for a holistic and multidisciplinary approach. Therefore, this research intends to address that need by methodising the scattered research to provide meaningful insights towards the linkages between society and technological innovations through an urban scholar’s perspective. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to explore emerging and disruptive technologies for improving disaster resilience in Smart Cities. The review findings identified the emerging and disruptive technologies for improving disaster resilience in Smart Cities which were then classified. The findings suggested 4 key criteria to classify technologies including their impact the society, adoption speed, technology maturity and capabilities offered to the community. A Smart City which plans the technologies/ tools for disaster resilience may conduct the assessments under the aforementioned criteria, together with their context-specific feasibility assessments to make informed decisions and ultimately prioritise the most suitable for them.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: island-type city; city park; waterfront area; space syntax
Online: 12 September 2020 (11:45:01 CEST)
The bay is a space barrier for the development of island-type cities and a high-quality waterfront landscape resource. This study takes Xiamen a typical island city in China as an example. First, It use the method of satellite telemetry technology combined with GIS software and spatial syntax, respectively, from the material space level and social space level, to summarize the rapid urbanization process of this city since 1990-2018, focusing on the construction process of three large-scale waterfront park systems in the transition period of inter-island development in it, and comparing the similarities and differences of their spatial forms. Further, from the choice of the axis model and the integrated analysis results, we discuss the spatial efficiency changes. The construction of the three major bay waterfront park systems in this city reflects a huge change in development pattern from lagging construction, synchronous planning, to advanced layout, providing a continuous and variable spatial form for the development of the bay region and improving space efficiency, which one of the important ways to develop and transform island-type cities. We hope to provide the reference for the development including sustainable development of other island cities around the world
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0604.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city ecosystem; urban economy; smart city; entrepreneurship; smart economy
Online: 11 September 2023 (04:08:09 CEST)
As digital technology has become an integral part of urban’s daily operations; the urban landscape is constantly evolving with the needs of its society. This new reality allowed Municipalities to exert a higher influence in the national and local economy. Through deliberate planning and executing initiatives, they can ignite the local financial ecosystem to growth. In line with this, the paper aims to understand the possibilities available to the Greek Municipalities to exploit the smart city benefits to foster economic development. It is essential to understand the role of different factors including the strategy during the planning and implementing phases of initiatives concerning economy and innovation in a smart city. To achieve this, a tailor-made questionnaire and advanced statistical techniques are applied. The main findings highlight the importance to plan initiatives aligned with the needs of the municipality and the business environment. The existence of a smart city strategy has a catalytic effect on the final impact of the implemented initiatives on the urban environment. A systematic analysis of the smart cities’ dynamics and the new state of the urban environment can help the local actors focus on the value creation and public service provision, fostering innovation and profitability.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1392.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Smart City; Smart City Assessment; Developing Economies; PRISMA; Assessment Tools
Online: 19 May 2023 (07:31:05 CEST)
There are limited research articles focusing on Smart City Assessment (SCA) applications since it is a relatively new field of research and practice. However, numerous studies have been conducted and published to date, particularly in developing countries, with the broad objective of building theoretical frameworks that are centered on smart city assessments. This scoping review systematically provides an examination on the available literature on SCA, with a goal of synthesizing smart city assessments in developing economies. In order to improve the quality and transparency of the reviews and meta-analysis, as well as to reduce the risk of bias, this paper adopted the PRISMA scoping review research design to analyze 25 journal articles. Results showed that conceptual modeling appears to be the most common method identified while industrial development emerged as the most common objective identified in the MFO Model. On the other hand, ISO 37122:2019 was the most prevalent framework used in the collected sample size with 6 journal articles followed by IoT-Enabled Smart City Framework with 5 journal articles while Smart Cities Index Framework obtained 3. Meanwhile, India emerged as a leader in the global Smart City movement followed by Malaysia and Africa. The Qualitative Research Design approach was the most common among the literatures while social science was the most common subject area among the 25 journals being studied. More so, sustainability and renewable energy are the two most important assessment categories in SCA tools. By collating and evaluating different criteria and metrics in existing SCA, cities can learn from their successes and failures, adjust their strategies, and share best practices with other cities. This can foster a culture of continuous improvement and innovation in urban governance, and ultimately lead to more livable, resilient, and prosperous cities for all.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0056.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: city grid; urban landscape; landmarks; urban nodes; city image; blitz; reconstruction
Online: 2 August 2021 (16:06:59 CEST)
Modernist planners were given the opportunity to apply the idea of the Modern Movement in the implementation of cities transforming after World War II, which was not possible before in long-term evolving structures. Usually, however, it was impossible to change everything: some urban and even architectural elements were necessary to be preserved. As a result, the elements of the ancient landscapes of these cities - historical objects and spaces - necessary for the continuity of evidence of history and identity have been preserved, sometimes through reconstruction. Finally, in some of these cities, both old and new elements contribute to the contemporary urban landscape. The aim of the research is to examine two key categories of urban structure in this perspective: 1. landmarks 2. urban network nodes. For this purpose: 1. the changes in the number and rank of the space with which the landmarks exhibition was carried out were compared; 2. the changes in the rank of nodes in the urban structure functioning both in the pre-war and in the present structure, as well as changes in their distribution and concentration areas were analyzed. The numbers of individual elements were balanced and the changes in the structure of their arrangement were analyzed with the use of a polygon grid. The analyzes were based on the case of a medium-scale European city (Białystok). Research shows that as a result of post-war reconstruction, the number of elements of the urban grid decreased, especially those of lower rank, the rank of others decreased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: information technology; infrastructure planning; town & city planning; municipal & public service engineering; smart city
Online: 7 July 2020 (08:32:10 CEST)
With the continuous emergence and application of new technologies, the construction of smart cities has entered the practical promotion period. Since 2012, the pilot construction of smart city has been promoted by the government in China. On the basis of these practical experiences, this paper presents an overview of the latest technologies and applications for smart city construction in China and demonstrates that smart city strategy needs to be implemented according to local conditions, adhering to the people-oriented concept and using scientific and effective top-level design and planning. The construction of smart city is comprehensive system engineering, including the integration of geographic information sharing service platform, full-cycle management and control system of urban planning, construction and social management, as well as intelligent business information management system of gardening, water conservancy, environmental protection and other industries and departments. The information system (GIS), satellite remote sensing (SRS), global navigation satellite system (GNSS), Internet of things, mobile applications, cloud computing, visualization technology ware used to promote urban construction and sustainable development, and to meet the needs of future smart city development. Results show that centralized management is very important for the construction of smart city. The government plays a major role in the construction of smart city, which will be conducive to the development of new technologies and the effective use of smart city construction resources.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0210.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: smart city; smart city construction; urban sustainability; driving factors; grounded theory; empirical research
Online: 26 August 2016 (11:18:30 CEST)
Driving factors of smart city construction are exploratively studied by grounded theory method based on text sources from journal papers in SCI and CSSCI databases. Initial scale of driving factors about smart city construction is obtained on the basis of above analyses. This paper modifies measuring items of the initial scale with a small sample pretest and reliability test, then forms final items by exploratory factor analysis. According to the above scale, questionnaires are designed to obtain empirical data, and confirmatory factor analysis is used to verify further validity and reliability of the scale. The results show that driving factors of smart city construction include three main dimensions: problem-oriented factors, business- or technology-driven factors and endogenous development requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0144.v1
Online: 9 July 2018 (13:35:05 CEST)
We studied generalization of a method for extending configurational studies to variables that are not exclusively geographical, in order to allow investigation of generic relationships in the built environment. We observed a number of limitations of the classical approach of configurational studies and we considered how a complex analytical method could be implemented in the study of non-topological variables, such as land use, noise pollution and financial or property rents. In order to do this we established a system of relationships based on a labeled primary graph. Categorization of the labels of the links was performed on a generic variable, specifically, the predominant use of roads. The graph was then contracted using an optimization algorithm, which we describe. The algorithm allows the network to be reduced to a more streamlined system that can better analyze the relationships between the different categories. Application of the method showed that it is faster to identify weaknesses in urban networks, and then take measures to resolve them. The case study concerns the pedestrianization of the Colosseum area in Rome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1879.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city; evaluation system; smart city convergence alliance enterprises; data envelopment analysis; operational efficiency
Online: 29 August 2023 (03:13:27 CEST)
This study identified, analysed, and prioritised significant factors for standardising the Korean smart city project evaluation system. We analysed the efficiency and productivity of companies currently providing smart city services to consider both policy and practical aspects. The prioritisation of smart city planning reflects the latest trends in South Korea, where urban planning is moving towards smart city planning. Furthermore, the capacity building of public-private/private-private partnerships indicate the importance of business scalability. This indicates that smart city services are only stabilised when the private sector is involved and leads the project, rather than focusing on public development. The feasibility of building intelligent facilities indicates that smart city projects should be implemented after securing cost-benefit feasibility. The results were used as the basis for building an evaluation system, showing that in smart city convergence alliances, small- and medium-sized enterprises achieved the highest efficiency by reducing inputs to 81% and 86%, under the assumptions of constant and variable returns to scales, respectively. As the operational aspect is more problematic than the technical aspect, policy alternatives are necessary for smooth business progress, including increased flexibility of laws and institutions and the activation of policies that temporarily relieve regulations to demonstrate smart city projects.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0321.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: City of Proximity; Walkability; 15 Minute City; Urban Regeneration; Urban Enclaves; Green Military Barracks
Online: 22 October 2021 (09:04:56 CEST)
The concepts of accessibility and urban walkability are the cornerstones of urban policies for the contemporary city, called upon to adopt sustainable development models in line with the objectives of the 2030 Agenda and the ambitious objectives of the 'European Green Deal'. These concepts are closely linked to the paradigm of a sustainable city (livable, healthy and inclusive), founded on a system of quality public spaces and on a network of services and infrastructures, both tangible and intangible, capable of strengthening or building new relationships: social, economic and environmental. It is therefore necessary to recognize potential opportunities for connection and permeability in consolidated urban environments, very often fragmented and characterized by enclaves. Within this framework, the city of Cagliari represents an interesting case study as it is characterized by the presence of a series of military complexes, real 'enclaves' which condition the proximity connections and, more generally, the walkability. In this sense, building on previous research and analysis of policies and projects aimed at reintroducing, even partially, this military asset into civilian life (Green Barracks Project - GBP - 2019), this study proposes and applies a methodology to improve urban accessibility in a flexible network logic, where 'walkability' can become not only a moment of possible "choice" but the basis for planning oriented to the '15 min city' model or, more generally, to the renewed, inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable “City of proximity”.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1475.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: hydrochemical characteristics; nitrate; source; valley city
Online: 24 October 2023 (08:42:28 CEST)
With the rapid development of cities in northwest China, there has been an increasing focus on groundwater pollution in plateau cities, specifically the common occurrence of nitrate pollution. The special climatic, geological, and geomorphological characteristics of plateau and river valley cities contribute to distinct groundwater chemical characteristics. Therefore, the formation and evolution process of groundwater nitrate contamination differs from that of plain cities. To explore these issues, we conducted an analysis of eight major ions in various groups of water samples from rivers, springs, and groundwater in Haidong. By utilizing factor analysis and correlation analysis, we were able to identify the characteristics and formation of groundwater chemistry and nitrate pollution in Haidong. Our findings reveal that the chemical characteristics of groundwater in Haidong are primarily controlled by rock weathering, mineral dissolution, and evaporation, leading to the formation of highly mineralized groundwater. Additionally, the excessive nitrate content in certain areas is a result of domestic sewage discharge and agricultural fertilizer use, exceeding Chinese drinking water health standards. Furthermore, for cities located in valleys, the geological structure significantly impacts the nitrate content of groundwater in different regions. Areas with obstructed groundwater flow tend to have higher nitrate levels, while regions with unobstructed groundwater experience lower nitrate concentrations. Notably, shallow groundxwater is more vulnerable to nitrate pollution compared to deep groundwater. This study holds great significance in understanding the chemical characteristics of groundwater and the formation and evolution of nitrate pollution in highland river valley cities.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0151.v1
Online: 8 November 2022 (10:16:17 CET)
The urban future looks unclear. Even if some suggest that the future of urbanism would be drawn according to the needs and impositions of artificial intelligence or ecological requirements it is still not enough light shed on integral human development. Therefore the paper examines the relation between sacrum elements of the metaphysical dimension of living and potential technological innovations that would occur shortly. Keeping in mind that technology alone is not sufficient to transfigure human life completely into novel forms of being, metaphysical arguments are in use to bring fourth new urban patterns into a discussion. The relation or rather superposition of sacrum and future technologies is introduced as a basis of inverted city phenomenon whereby implicit manner would be explained and described in an explicit language. The inverted city, based on the sacrum and future tech dimensions, would introduce a new lifestyle model that relies on the juxtaposition of wanderer life qualities along with best practices of sedentary life. The inverted city is a completely new phenomenon though it is inherited from the deep past in terms of the total heritage approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0693.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Urban walkways; Creative city, Urban Space
Online: 28 May 2021 (10:57:07 CEST)
In recent years, urban planners and designers have paid attention to improve the creative factors in big and small cities in order to make the urban environment more attractive. It seems that improving desirable urban environmental qualities and walkability approaches such as flexibility, happiness, and vitality, provides the necessary background for creating creative urban spaces. The case study zone is urban walkways in Rasht that which has been completed four years ago. In this paper, after conceptualizing the nature of the creative city, as well as reviewing the views of the thinkers regarding the qualities of the environment, a conceptual model of creative urban space has been developed. Then, the indicators and criteria of creative urban space have been evaluated through the questionnaire and analysis through SPSS software and regression model, Pearson and Friedman. The result of the analyses of the five spatial, functional, social, perceptual, and environmental components and their relationship is expressed that factors such as paving streets, the development of local markets, the Suitability of urban walkways for physically and mentally handicapped people, the use of cultural elements, the use of diverse urban furniture and nightlife after building urban walkways play an important role in the realization of urban creative space in Rasht city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0727.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: city marketing; sustainable development; resillience; image
Online: 29 December 2020 (11:24:13 CET)
The focus of this study is to identify whether resilience and sustainable development can be used as an image for strategic planning of the city marketing. Resilience is about building and planning for future proof the cities. How urban challenges and crisis have the lowest impact and the maximum of bounce back and evolution. Resilience is part of the sustainable development. Thus, it is important for the decision-makers to define the mission on their strategic planning in a holistically way taking into consideration the basic assets of a city, the environment, the economy and the society and how can all of them can be combined to marketing the city and take into consideration the internal and external environment. As the past few years’ city marketing has become an important tool for the urban development. The main goal is to show how city marketing can be applied on a city that tries to be more resilient and more sustainable by using strategic urban planning to set the vision, to identify the challenges and the problematic areas and to set new goals and objectives in order to plan and build to future proof the complexity of an urban system. For answering the questions of this article we use two case studies Rotterdam (Netherlands) and Thessaloniki (Greece), using a literature review and researches conducted alongside with a benchmarking of their resilient strategies as both of the cities are members of the Resilient Cities Network. From a different perspective of resilient thinking, both of the cities have managed to use resilience as a marketing image for further sustainable development.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0487.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Planning; resilience; territory; Smart City; Sustainability
Online: 18 November 2020 (23:15:39 CET)
Urban planning is recognized as an interaction between the state and society, which aims to articulate public policies in the territory, facilitating their administration in favor of greater development and well-being of society. However, this interaction becomes complex because consumption demands increase, and the needs of the community exceed the capacity of the urban ecosystem to supply them, hindering its sustainable functionality. With this panorama, it becomes relevant to study urban planning from a sustainable environmental planning perspective, based on four topics: urban planning, sustainability, resilience and smart cities. The methodology used is based on a bibliometric study through a PRISMA adjustment to 87 articles, supported by VOSviewer® to construct and visualize the co-occurrence networks of important terms extracted from a body of scientific literature. The main result is to consider cities with a complex systems approach that works like a gear, that is, there is a connective element between inter- and intra-urban processes. This relationship is the key factor that allows understanding their synchronization, stating that the deepening of each of these topics is crucial to the ideal of a territorial administration through time scales, by means of adaptive cycles, allowing to provide new tools to concepts such as carrying capacity and the measurement of the environmental footprint.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0017.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Smart city; smart campus; open data
Online: 3 September 2018 (09:39:24 CEST)
Universities, like cities, have embraced novel technologies and data-based solutions to improve their campuses with ‘smart’ becoming a welcomed concept. Campuses in many ways are small-scale cities. They increasingly seek to address similar challenges and to deliver improved experiences to their users. How can data be used in making this vision a reality? What can we learn from smart campuses that can be scale up to smart cities? A short research study was conducted over a three-month period at a public university in the United Kingdom employing stakeholder interviews and user surveys, aiming at gaining insight into these questions. Based on the study, the authors suggest that making data publicly available could bring many benefits to different groups of stakeholders and campus users. These benefits come with risks and challenges such as data privacy and protection and infrastructure hurdles. However, if these challenges can be overcome, open data could contribute significantly to improving campuses and user experiences, and potentially set an example for smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0006.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Smart City Services; Sustainability; Living Lab
Online: 2 September 2018 (12:15:05 CEST)
In terms of sustainability, cities become smart when they provide intelligent services to the inhabitants using information and communication technologies without threatening the future of the environment, economy or the society. However, the process of developing such sustainable smart services has certain challenges, especially in understanding the real needs of the people living in the city. Inhabitants of the city or the citizens are the key stakeholders in case of smart services in a city. Active involvement of the people throughout the process is a way to design such services. On the other hand, integrating sustainability, for example including environmental data to the smart city services has been found challenging. Therefore, this research discusses an approach on combining environmental data with regular smart city services and to engage city inhabitants in the process, the approach that is adapted from the concept of living lab methodology. Finally, an application has been developed to represent a smart city service following this method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0375.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: electron insect traps; smart city; IoT
Online: 25 June 2018 (08:35:40 CEST)
We introduce a device for automatic detection and reporting of crawling insects in urban environments. It is a monitoring device for urban pests that complies with the context of smart homes, smart cities and is compatible with the emerging discipline of the Internet of Things (IoT). We believe it can find its place to every room of a hotel, hospital, military camp and residence. This box-shaped device attracts targeted insect pests, senses the entering insect and takes automatically a picture of the internal space of the box. The picture is communicated through the Wi-Fi commonly found in such establishments to an authorized person/stakeholder receiving the picture to take proper action. The e-trap includes strong attractants (pheromone and/or food) to increase capture efficiency. The insect is trapped on the sticky floor of the device. The device carries the necessary optoelectronic sensors to guard all entrances of the trap. As the insect enters it interrupts the infrared light source. This triggers a detection event; a picture is taken, and a time-stamp is set before reporting the event through the Wi-Fi. The device can be integrated seamlessly in urban environments and operates unobtrusively to human activities. We report results on various insect pests and depending on the insect species, can reach a detection accuracy ranging from 96-99%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0886.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Green development; Low-carbon development; Difference-in-difference method; New Energy Demonstration City Policy; City heterogeneity
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:04:12 CEST)
Developing new energy is critical to China's green and low-carbon development. And the New Energy Demonstration City Policy (NEDCP) is a vital innovation policy that inspires the development of new energy. Is the NEDCP facilitating green and low-carbon development, if so, how? Employing unbalanced panel data from 2003 to 2017, the impact of NEDCP on green and low-carbon development was studied by using the "difference in difference" (DID) model. We find that this policy can take significantly role. After various robustness tests, our results are still valid. According to the heterogeneity analysis, non-resource and non-old industrial base cities have a greater positive impact from this policy. The mechanism analysis denotes that the positive policy effect works through upgrading the industrial structure and stimulating urban innovation. The substantial empirical evidence presented in this article supports the continued promotion and implementation of new energy demonstration cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1869.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: biotechnological filter; moss; air pollution; smart city
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:17:49 CEST)
The research considers creating a network of moss-based biotechnological purification filters in the Smart City concept. The extent of absorption of heavy metals and gases by Sphagnopsida moss under different conditions was investigated. The efficiency of air purification with biotechnological filters was also investigated using the example of the city of Almaty, Republic of Kazakhstan, where an excess of the permissible concentration of harmful substances in the air, according to the WHO air quality guidelines, is recorded throughout the year. Data on the level of pollution recorded by sensors located in the biggest Kazakhstani cities from 06/21/2020 to 06/04/2023 were selected as the basis for calculating the efficiency. In total, there are two hundred twenty sensors in 73 settlements of the Republic of Kazakhstan, with 80 such sensors located in the city of Almaty. Since creating a single biotechnological filter is expensive, the task was to calculate the air purification effect in the case of increasing the number of filters placed in polluted areas. As a result, it is shown that ten filters provide an air purification efficiency of 0.77%, 100 filters 5.72%, and 500 filters 23.11%. A biotechnological filter for air purification based on moss was designed at Astana IT University, considering the climatic features, distribution, and types of pollution in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The obtained results are essential for ensuring compliance with the ISO 37120:2018 standard for environmental comfort in the Republic of Kazakhstan. Additionally, the research findings and the experience of implementing a moss-based biotechnological filter can be applied to designing similar air purification systems in other cities. This is of great importance for the advancement of the field of urban science.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0462.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: Apis; beta diversity; city; nestedness; network; pollinator
Online: 26 December 2022 (02:50:46 CET)
As the globe becomes more urban, the question how much natural biodiversity can subsist in cities becomes increasingly urgent to answer, and also how is urban diversity structured? To contribute to an answer, we studied the metacommunity of bees in a North European metropolitan area. The system consisted of 13 sites in the city of Aarhus, Denmark, censused from April to September during one year. Bees were sampled monthly in pan traps and a set of traits was related to their presence. In total, 40 species were collected–29 solitary species (40% of all sampled individuals), ten Bombus species (28%), and Apis mellifera (32%). Most sampled bees were soil-nesting, pollen generalists, and relatively common. Habitat diversity within a set of concentric circles with trap as centre and radius from 50 m to 1000 m was related to bee a diversity per site (total bee spp. with and without honeybee, solitary bees, and bumblebees). The relationship was only significant within the 1,000 m circle, and solitary bee diversity did not even correlate with habitat diversity at this large spatial scale level. The bee-site (space) and bee-month (time) networks were analyzed with respect to nestedness, modularity, and spatio-temporal b diversity. The two networks were weakly nested and strongly modular, being composed of five and six modules of tightly linked bees. Total b diversity, bTOTAL, is the sum of species turnover, bTURN, and species loss/gain or nestedness, bNEST; and for both space and time, bTURN was more important than bNEST. Furthermore, bTOTAL was higher than season bTOTAL. Thus, the urban bee metacommunity was well-structured in both space and time and the high bTURN indicated, that the network was strongly modular. We suggest the main reason is the high spatio-temporal patchiness of habitats, sustaining many unique species.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0576.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Anthropology Keywords: values; humanities; idea; urbanism; city; sustainable development
Online: 21 April 2021 (12:12:29 CEST)
The article discusses the role of humanistic values in the contemporary configuration of cities. Today's times put us in a privileged position as we can observe deep and clear changes happening very quickly. Visible changes are reflected not only in society and culture, but also in the space of developing cities, towns, and metropolises. While characterizing contemporary urban trends and ideas, the philosophical trends that contribute to them and the values on which they are based were discussed. Corrections are also shown, which usually start with slight dissonances and initially slight differences in the content of theses, and as a result lead to completely different views on the world. Contemporary determinants of postmodernism, deconstructivism, ecological ideas, sustainable development, social integration and participation, high-tech, digital, and smart city are discussed in detail.
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: New Jack City; textual analysis; neoliberalism; polity
Online: 25 March 2021 (15:09:38 CET)
Cinematic texts provide narrative insights into lived experiences. This paper uses a qualitative, content analysis of New Jack City to explore how conservative partisanship affected the African American diaspora during the Reagan Era. I explore how the characterizations and contexts of marginalized personae reflect social scripts and invoke judicial tropes to convey hegemonic institutions. Given the prevalent conditions respective to sociology and psyche, policy is embodied through micro- and macro-phenomena. While the former relates to individual narratives of personal capacity and agency, the latter concerns historical events and precedents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0087.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: public space; smart-city; children; affordance; Sardinia
Online: 4 September 2020 (07:41:08 CEST)
The global process of urbanization, and the modification of social interaction determined by the pandemic crisis poses the issue of the place of vulnerable users, and in particular children, within the contemporary city. This research aims to elaborate a theoretical and methodological framework, based on the concepts of affordance and capability, for analyzing the potential of public spaces to enable and support children’s independent activities. This potential, or meaningful usefulness, is expressed by the Index of Meaningful Usefulness of public Urban Spaces (IUIS). The latter is calculated via the tool ‘Opportunities for Children in Urban Spaces’ (OCUS). This methodology is applied to the analysis of significant public spaces within the historic center of the city of Iglesias in Sardinia, Italy. The results reveal adequate usefulness of the selected spaces, while underlining criticalities related to intrinsic spatial and physical attributes. The application to the case study confirms the validity of the theoretical and methodological framework embodied in the OCUS tool for supporting urban design and planning by orienting place-shaping processes towards the acknowledgement of children’s needs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0539.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid-19; dengue cases; Kupang city prediction
Online: 30 April 2020 (16:50:03 CEST)
With the pandemic of Corona Virus [Covid-19], another infectious disease such as dengue neglected In Indonesia. Since the majority of resources, both human and capital, are focusing more on Covid-19, it is still essential to also manage dengue as it is still becoming a threat to the community. This paper aims to predict the number of cases of dengue in Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, which can help the government to plan for dengue program activities. The result shows the forecast that dengue will remain high for the whole year. With the stay at the home approach to preventing COVID19, chances to get dengue virus increased. Maintaining a clean environment, reduction of breeding sites, and other protective measurements against dengue transmission is very important to perform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0483.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: city; CO; COVID 19; emission; social distancing
Online: 28 April 2020 (07:36:53 CEST)
The social distancing as a response to COVID 19 pandemic has led to the exceptional reductions of daily routine people activities and vehicle uses mainly in city. This same situation was also experienced by several busy, large, and populous cities in Southeast Asia (SA) countries. Correspondingly, this study aimed to test the hypothesis that the social distancing implementation period has increased the air quality in the term of carbon monoxide (CO) emission reduction as drawn from Jakarta city as an example of the one of populated cities in SA region. The CO was measured in parts per billions (ppb) and monitored on the daily basis employing remote sensor platform. The monitor periods were started from January, February, March, and April 2020 with 10 measurement days for each month. The social distancing was implemented from mid of March to the recent April. The CO measurement data were statistically tested to justify the significant effects of social distancing on the CO levels. Based on the CO data analysis, the order of CO mean by months is February > January > March > April. The CO levels for January, February, March, and April were 87.46 ppb (95%CI: 83.54-91.37), 88.20 ppb (95%CI: 81.65-94.74), 86.38 (95%CI: 81.06-91.69), and 78.68 (95%CI: 74.03-83.32) respectively. This study also find significant difference (p<0.05) of CO levels especially in April when social distancing has been implemented. Hence, these findings illustrate the potential air pollutant reduction gained from implementing social distancing as can be seen in April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0082.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: Mexico City; subsidence; InSAR; GPS; PSI; SVM
Online: 7 September 2019 (01:19:04 CEST)
This study presents an analysis of subsidence rates and their effects on Mexico City. Mexico City is well known for its subsidence as a result of excess water withdrawal for many years. This study focuses on this problem utilizing the integration of Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Continuous Global Positioning Systems (CGPS), and optical remote sensing data. Fifty-two ENVISAT-ASAR, nine GPS stations, and one Landsat ETM+ image from Mexico City area have been analyzed to prepare a better understanding of the subsidence rates and its effects on Mexico City’s commune. This study has utilized InSAR methods. It includes differential interferometry and Persistent Scatter Interferometry (PSI) to monitor the existing subsidence in the Mexico City area. The InSAR data covers the temporal baseline between 2002 until June 2010, and the GPS data include temporal baseline from 1998 until 2012. Maximum of 352 mm annually change in Line Of Sight (LOS) direction is in agreement with the previous geodetic studies. InSAR data have been compared with CGPS data at the same time interval. The finding of this study reveals a high amount of correlation (up to 0.98) between two independent geodetic methods. We also implemented the Support Vector Machine (SVM) analysis method based on Landsat ETM+ image to classify Mexico City’s populated density area. This method performed comparing the subsidence rates with populated area buildings. This integrated study shows that the fastest subsidence zone (i.e., areas greater than 100 mm/yr) in the over mentioned temporal baseline occurs in the high and sparsely populated areas
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0138.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: Raul Lino, architecture, city, circumstance, modernity, continuity
Online: 18 February 2019 (09:54:25 CET)
Over a period of nearly one hundred years, Raul Lino da Silva (1879-1974) experienced the profound political, social and economic changes that marked the twentieth century in Portugal. Having been born during the Constitutional Monarchy (1822-1910), he lived through the First Republic (1910-1926), the Military Dictatorship (1926-1933) and the Second Republic, or Estado Novo (New State, 1933-1974), and died shortly after the Carnation Revolution of 25 April 1974, at the dawning of the Third Republic. Raul Lino was the architect who published the most in Portugal, having become known through his advocacy of the “Campanha da casa portuguesa” (“Portuguese house campaign”), which provoked a great deal of controversy among his peers. He is less known for the transversal quality of his synthesis between architecture, the decorative arts and territory, and its underlying affirmation of an idea of the city, which we conjecture from a diagonal reading of his theoretical and plastic narrative. We limit the analysis to the first half of the 20th century, concentrating on ten case studies, that encompass architectural projects, urbanistic plans and reports. The above expound the broad conception which he defended in the same year as was held the First National Architecture Congress (1948), whose proposals ratified in Portugal the orthodoxy established in 1933 by the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (CIAM). Quoting Aristotle Raul Lino conceived the city as the locus of happiness, shaping the possibilities of consensus between tradition and modernity by means of architecture, which is both envelope and stage for our collective existence. In fact, Raul Lino anticipated themes to be found in the narratives of authors like Aldo Rossi (1966), Paul Virilio (2004, 2009) or Peter Zumthor (2006), and his thought proves particularly relevant and timely in the present day.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0716.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: carbon; energy; campus; sustainability; city; low carbon
Online: 30 October 2018 (08:53:17 CET)
The establishment of low carbon assessment initiatives is a crucial task especially at the city level. The determination of which source of carbon contributed more require robust data set and strategic approach. Hence, by using the campus as a small city approach, the establishment of carbon assessment and its’ reduction initiatives was required to keep track of the hotspot of the carbon source. The substantial amount of carbon source from campus operations such as energy consumption in the building, waste generation, and water consumption were identified. Moreover, as institutions of higher education, the execution of low carbon campus was initiated structurally involves the triangulation of research activities, teaching & learning and as well as campus operations or known as campus living lab approach. The application of low carbon cities framework, LCCF and assessment system enables to strategize the low carbon campus initiatives through the use of carbon footprint concept and the LCCF carbon track.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0688.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: smart city; mobility; IOT Applications; safety critical
Online: 29 October 2018 (13:57:36 CET)
The new IoT/IoE (internet of things/everythings) paradigm and architecture permits to rethink about the way the Smart City infrastructures are designed and managed, on the other hand a number of problems have to be solved. In terms of mobility the cities that embrace the sensoring era can take advantage of this disruptive technology to improve the quality of life of their citizen, also thanks the rationalization in the use of their resources. In Sii-Mobility, a national smart city project on mobility and transportation, a flexible platform has been designed and here, in this paper, is presented. It permits to setup heterogeneous and complex scenarios that integrate sensors/actuators as IoT/IoE in an overall scenario of Big Data, Machine Learning and Data Analytics. A detailed and complex case-study has been presented to validate the solution in the context of a system that dynamically reverse the traveling direction of a road segment, with all the safety conditions in place. This case study composes several building blocks of the IoT platform, which demonstrate that a flexible and dynamic set-up is possible, supporting off-grid, security, safety, cloud and mixed solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0103.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: manufacturing; world city; sustainable development; Guangzhou China
Online: 11 January 2018 (16:16:02 CET)
In the world city theory, most researchers focus on the service sector in the urban economy and less discuss the role of manufacturing. However, the path of only emphasizing financial and corporate service could not fit the sustainability concept. Compared to Anglo-American world city, Global South’s world cities have distinct pathway to be industrialization, tertiarization and globalization. This paper adopted dynamic historic perspective with first-hand materials including in-depth interviews with managers and government officers and second-hand data including yearbook statics and economic census to closely examine the emerging world city-- ‘World Factory’ in Global South, Guangzhou in China, from 1949 to 2015, to emphasize how manufacturing affects the urban globalization through three dimensions, economic, social and spatial dimensions. To make the confirmation of the role of manufacturing in Guangzhou as sustainable world city, we find manufacturing in Guangzhou builds up the basic foundation of export-oriented economy and makes positive effects on urban economic transformation. In addition, manufacturing remains important source of employment and foreign immigration. Along with urbanization and industrialization, urban spatial expansion and aggregation changes with different urban development concept. We provide new insights on multiple globalization on manufacturing for sustainable world city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0050.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart City; smart technology; internet of things; cloud technologies; mobile applications; innovation system; smart city concept; smart ecosystem
Online: 27 April 2023 (09:36:29 CEST)
The article describes the application of the Smart City concept and the economic opportunities it creates, infrastructure and services, and opportunities to improve governance. The main features of the Smart City concept, development directions and evolution, standards and solutions, factors and obstacles to its implementation have been analyzed by the author. The experience of different countries in the application of digital technologies is discussed. The article provides the scope and structure of the "smart" market, application stages and scenarios. International experience in this field was widely analyzed and examples were given, comparisons were made and suggestions were made. The article talks about smart cities, the construction of which has already begun in Azerbaijan. The application of the smart city concept in Azerbaijan has been studied. It is stressed that the spread of digital technologies for the construction of a smart city in Azerbaijan is a prerequisite. The Network Readiness Index (NRI) identifies the indicators that are holding back Azerbaijan in the ranking for 2021. In our study, based on the growth dynamics for 2017-2020, the forecast was calculated by analyzing the trend in the ICT development index in Azerbaijan for 2022-2025.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0946.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Prevalence; Covid-19; Children; Duhok City; Kurdistan; Iraq
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:13:41 CET)
Background: COVID-19 is a respiratory illness caused by SARS-CoV-2 that has become a global pandemic. Although children can contract the virus, they are generally less likely than adults to develop severe symptoms. Parents and caregivers should monitor their children for symptoms and seek medical attention if their child becomes ill. Practicing good hygiene and social distancing can help prevent the spread of the virus. Vaccines are available for children and can provide additional protection against COVID-19. Understanding the impact of COVID-19 on children is crucial for developing effective public health strategies to control the pandemic.Objectives: The current study aims to determine the prevalence of Covid-19 in pediatric age group in Duhok province and Zakho city, in Kurdistan region. among the children who tested positive for IgG test. If IgG antibodies are detected in a person's blood sample, it suggests that they have been infected with SARS-CoV-2 at some point in the past and their immune system has responded by producing antibodies against the virus.Methods: A cross-sectional investigation was undertaken involving youngsters aged 5 to 12 years. The study encompassed a total of 330 participants, selected between October and December 2022. The children underwent testing to detect IgG antibodies. Moreover, a questionnaire was employed to gather demographic and individual information from each contributor.Results: Among the studied sample, 302/330 (91.5%) of children were positive to IgG antibody test. No gender difference for COVID-19 was found in pediatric age group. Case fatality rate was 0%. 22/302 (6.6%) cases were symptomatic during the infection. However, 282(93.4%) cases were asymptomatic. Conclusions: Covid-19 infection in pediatric age group has good prognosis compared to adults. Intensive care unit (ICU) and death are rare. High-risk groups should be targeted for education and immunization/vaccination. Furthermore, more studies are needed to be conducted in order to investigate the risk factors of the infection and to assess the awareness among the general population about the risk of infection.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0659.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: Digital Twin; Smart City; Interoperability; High-Level Architecture
Online: 11 October 2023 (03:32:37 CEST)
Infrastructure and urban network operators, city users and industrialists are faced with complex issues to ensure the sustainability of the service, maintain, operate and develop their urban systems, while integrating environmental, economic and societal impacts and being resilient to unexpected geopolitical and climatic upheavals. Digital Twins are now recognized as the cornerstone of digital transformation. In the field of smart cities, they can enable all stakeholders to collaborate across disciplinary silos and foster digital transformation in urban and territorial projects to ensure sustainability, resilience and increased inventiveness. However, the application of the Digital Twin technology to Smart Cities lacks of standards. This paper proposes a high-level architecture for Digital Twins as an enabler of various levels of interoperation between key stakeholders of a Smart City. Such a technology-agnostic architecture, when implemented for a given Smart City, produces a middleware for large scale interoperability between actors involved in multiple supply chains of this territory.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1554.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Sustainability; model; municipal entities, City of Johannesburg, entity.
Online: 24 July 2023 (10:38:35 CEST)
The main purpose is to create a model for managing sustainability in the metro and its entities in Gauteng. Within this context, the study will focus on the issue of measures, outcomes, and impacts in the City of Johannesburg (CoJ). The study will clarify a public sector application in municipal entities of the CoJ because sustainability is not well understood or used in the public sector. This article investigates the sustainability phenomena in a metropolitan setting, including the CoJ and its municipal entities. The purpose is rather two-fold. A focus group discussion was held with CoJ senior executive managers to provide feedback on the sustainability model. The information and insights were used to refine the sustainability model to manage sustainability in Coj and its enti-ties. The data was analysed using thematic analysis to refine the sustainability model. The re-sults indicated that sustainability is a function of having a shared understanding of sustainabil-ity, the ability to mainstream and integrate sustainability thinking into all programmes and ac-tivities, leadership commitment, requisite competencies, and monitoring and evaluation of sus-tainability. The implication for leadership is to ensure the alignment of sustainability to the strategic objec-tives of CoJ and to foreground any planning in CoJ with a sustainability lens. Achieving this focus requires a shared understanding, development of competencies, committed leadership to imple-ment measurement and impact framework, and adjusting plans based on monitoring and evalua-tion outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1474.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: satisfaction; slum dwellers; assistance; city corporation; Covid19; Bangladesh
Online: 21 June 2023 (03:46:10 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has affected Bangladesh's economic and social well-being in many ways. During the lockdown, many households lost their full income. The day labors and the slum dwellers including rickshaw pullers, CNG drivers, housemaids, hawkers, and street vendors were the worst victims of this pandemic. Besides the voluntary organizations, the city corporation, being instructed by the central government took the initiative to distribute necessary food as well as financial assistance to the city dwellers to survive during the lockdown. The objective of this study is to identify the satisfaction level of the slum dwellers with the assistance received from the City Corporation and get an idea of how far these supports were enough for them to lead their livelihood. It is a mixed-method research consisting of both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Researchers conducted a field survey in Sylhet City Corporation, the northeastern part of Bangladesh, and collected primary data from eighty respondents through a semi-structured questionnaire along with an interview schedule. Samples have been selected by applying a multistage sampling technique. Researchers analyzed quantitative data using SPSS software and qualitative data using the thematic analysis method. Study findings reveal that, although this aid was very inadequate compared to the needs of the slum dwellers, it was able to alleviate food shortages to some extent in times of extreme hardship. However, some dwellers got deprived of the aid due to having different political ideologies and corruption. Proper aid management, well coordination, and community participation are indispensable for dealing with any crisis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0637.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: Traditional To Smart cities; Smart Transportation; Mashhad City
Online: 8 June 2023 (10:57:47 CEST)
Background: Smart transport plays a crucial role in urban planning and the transition from traditional to smart cities in developing countries with sustainability requirements.Traditional cities in developing countries often suffer from traffic congestion,air pollution, and inadequate public transportation systems,which can impede economic growth and negatively impact the quality of life for residents. Smart transport solutions can address these challenges by providing more efficient, sustainable.Here is a possible business model for an ITS system in a high-potential city in Iran,Based on IoT analysis, Mashhad city in Iran selected as a high-potential city to be changed to a smart city in the transportation sector.In the localization business model,the Uber smart transportation business model as a successful world experience is considered the base model. Methods: Based on the literature review,various criteria and sub-criteria were identified and determined in designing a new localized transportation business model.A questionnaire was prepared and filled with the help of 11 experts,method IAHP technique; Results:The present study showed the possibility of monthly payments for customers,software development, and the addition of luxury cars are among the most important sub-criteria with high weights;Conclusions: Working with transport companies,schools and universities as key partners solves reaching a strong and sustainable smart transportation system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0281.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Covid-19; Medicine; Practice; Bedelle city; Self-Medication
Online: 19 October 2022 (10:09:14 CEST)
Abstract Introduction There is a clear link between self-medication practice and ongoing pandemic diseases like COVID-19, According to studies conducted globally and the general Ethiopian population turned to self-medication and symptomatic treatment as a result of inadequate COVID-19 treatment and also about 80% of the population amassed drugs for pandemic use. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess self-medication practice for treatment of Covid-19 and reason to use self- medication among residents in Bedelle city and its surrounding, Southwest Oromia, Ethiopia. Methodology: A cross sectional study design was employed and the standardized questionnaire was developed by reviewing relevant literatures then the data was collected using face to face interview. Final data was analyzed by using SPSS version 23. Result: The final study contained 415 respondents in total, with a response rate of 98.5%. The majority of responses were females and between the ages of 18 - 25 Category. In this study population, the use of self-medication since the onset of the Covid-19 epidemic was reported by participants were around 50.6%. Analgesics (42.4%) and cold medicines (29.5%) were the most frequently used medications for treatment of COVID-19. Also the reported uses of these drugs included treatment of Covid-19 symptoms like the Headache (22.2%), Fever (13.2%), respiratory infective (14.3%), and cold (21.4%) were the most frequently reported symptoms for self-medication. Self-medication methods were used more frequently by women than Men. Conclusion: According to this study, analgesics and cold medications are commonly self- medicated drugs used for Covid-19 therapy. It is a serious health concern, particularly when COVID-19 symptoms are present, and high consumption of self-medication has been linked to COVID-19 prevention or treatment. Key words: Covid-19, Medicine, Practice, Bedelle city, Self-Medication
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0205.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: city trees; landscape design; nursery production; urban greenspace
Online: 16 May 2022 (10:38:21 CEST)
While many practitioners and experts understand the risks associated with low urban tree diversity, they often lack the ability to rectify issues they encounter on their own. The current system of tree production and procurement is complex – shaped by market pressures, nursery and site constraints, local governance, and differing professional objectives among those who grow, specify, and plant trees. To understand this complexity as well as constraints to- and opportunities for increasing urban tree diversity, we conducted a series of focus groups comprised of nursery growers, landscape architects, and urban foresters. Our results highlight a significant list of considerations and constraints to diversity (both shared among green industries and some specific to growers or purchasers). More importantly, in discussing our findings we outline actionable strategies for increasing urban tree diversity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0487.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: 3D City Model; CityGML 2.0; Spatial Data Integration
Online: 30 December 2021 (12:51:35 CET)
3D city models integrate heterogeneous urban data from multiple sources in a unified geospatial representation, combining both semantics and geometry. Although in the last decades, they are predominantly used for visualization, today they are used in a large range of tasks related to exploration, analysis, and management across multiple domains. The complexity of urban processes and the diversity of urban environment bring challenges to the implementation of 3D city models. To address such challenges, this paper presents the development process of a 3D city model of a single neighborhood in Sofia city based on CityGML 2.0 standard. The model represents the buildings in LOD1 with a focus on CityGML features of related to the buildings like building part, terrain intersection curve and address. Similar building models of 18 cities provided as open datasets are explored and compared in order to extract good modeling practices. As a result, workflows for generation of 3D building models in LOD1 are elaborated and improvements in the feature modeling are proposed. Two options of building model are examined: modeling of a building as a single solid and modeling of a building with separate building parts. Finally, the possibilities for visualization of the model in popular platforms such as ArcGIS Pro and Cesium Ion are explored.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0242.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: global south; indicators; urban; city; poverty; neighborhood-level
Online: 3 March 2021 (10:16:45 CET)
The majority of urban inhabitants in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) cities live in deprived urban areas. However, statistics and data (e.g., local monitoring of Sustainable Development Goals - SDGs) are hindered by the unavailability of spatial data at metropolitan, city and sub-city scales. Deprivation is a complex and multidimensional concept, which has been captured in existing literature with a strong focus on household-level deprivation while giving limited attention to area-level deprivation. Within this scoping review, we build on existing literature on household- as well as area-level deprivation frameworks to arrive at a combined understanding of how urban deprivation is defined with a focus on LMIC cities. The scoping review was enriched with local stakeholder workshops in LMIC cities to arrive at our framework of Domains of Deprivations, splitting deprivation into three different scales and nine domains. (1) Socio-Economic Status and (2) Housing Domains (Household scale); (3) Social Hazards & Assets, (4) Physical Hazards & Assets, (5) Unplanned Urbanization and (6) Contamination (Within Area scale); and (7) Infrastructure, (8) Facilities & Services and (9) city Governance (Area Connect scale). The Domains of Deprivation framework provides a clear guidance for collecting data on various aspects of deprivation, while providing the flexibility to decide at city level which indicators are most relevant to explain individual domains. The framework provides a conceptual and operational base for the Integrated Deprived Area Mapping System (IDEAMAPS) Project for the creation of a data ecosystem, which facilitates the production of routine, accurate maps of deprived “slum” areas at scale across cities in LMICs. The Domains of Deprivation Framework is designed to support diverse health, poverty, and development initiatives globally to characterize and address deprivation in LMIC cities.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0127.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Case study; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Smart city; Sustainability
Online: 6 October 2020 (12:55:13 CEST)
Despite the increasing interest in ‘smart city’ initiatives worldwide, current literature still lacks the approaches and models that address challenges in organization and collaboration, which boost sustainability and ‘smartness’ in modern cities. This paper provides an overview of ‘smart city’ ecosystems as a mechanism to promote the expected outcomes of their sustainable development, and highlights the importance of conceptualizing cities from organizational and managerial perspectives. Representative exploratory models of ‘city organization’, which emphasize on the role of ‘governance’ and synergies, are presented to ‘decode’ complex city mechanisms and to determine key components that lead to ‘smart’ initiatives. Interesting case studies and applications are then analysed to examine the practical dimension of these approaches. As a review paper, this article lays out a general framework on the importance of ‘collaboration’, ‘governance’, ‘management’, and ‘ecosystem’. However, 'planning smartly’ and achieving ‘sustainability’ at the level of city ‘organization’ remain as challenges in this pioneering study of smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0095.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Language And Linguistics Keywords: Romanization; urbanonyms; geographical names; practical transcription; city navigation
Online: 7 June 2020 (15:05:46 CEST)
The paper investigates the issues of transliteration of Russian toponyms in a city environment and studies the efficiency of the Technical Reference Manual for the Standardization of Geographical Names published by the United Nations group of experts. The paper demonstrates the feasibility of the UN and Russian official transliteration standards and compares the suggested theoretical models with the practical applications found on the street signs, labels, maps, and other sources of navigation. The author presents a comprehensive account of practical transcription methods used in Moscow and offers a solution to a number of issues and discrepancies between popular transliteration models and their real-life application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0070.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: city; large urban regions; Russia; globalization; open database
Online: 6 August 2019 (08:33:24 CEST)
This study explores how to delineate Russian cities in order to make them comparable on the world scale. In doing so we introduce the concept of large urban regions (LUR) applicable to the Russian urban context. This research is motivated by a principal research question: how to construct a statistical urban delineation, which would allow first, to demonstrate integration of cities into globalization, and second, to make global urban comparative research. Previous studies on urban delineation in Russia have focused almost exclusively on functional urban areas, which have substantial limitations and are not suitable for global urban comparisons. Addressing this research gap, we propose a new definition of Large Urban Regions (LUR). In doing so, first, we introduce the context of Russian cities (2), then we discuss existing Russian urban concepts (3), and justify a need for a new urban delineation (4). Afterwards, we present a general method to delineate Large Urban Regions in Russian context (5.1), and illustrate it in the two case studies of St. Petersburg (polycentric region) and Samara (monocentric region) (5.2). In the last part (6), we discuss the 10 the largest urban regions in Russia and describe a constructed database including all Russian LURs.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: emergy analysis; foreign trade; sustainable development; Shenzhen City
Online: 21 March 2019 (07:01:35 CET)
The foreign trade sustainable development index system of Shenzhen City, including the three subsystems of environment, economy, and society, was constructed based on the theory of emergy analysis.The sustainable development of foreign trade in Shenzhen City from 2009 to 2016 was evaluated, and a detailed analysis of changes in the emergy of light and heavy industries was performed. The results showed that the scale of economy has been expanding, and the total volume of imports and exports has turned from a rise to a decline in 2013. The status of sustainable development is not optimistic. The transaction volume of energy is reduced, and the quality of people's living environment is declining. The sustainable development of Shenzhen City is not perfect, but it is in a phase of gradual optimization. Moreover, the proportion of heavy industry in import and export trade is significantly higher than that of light industry, which has caused the outflow of energy to a certain extent. Therefore, to improve the level of foreign trade sustainable development, we must improve the efficiency of resource utilization, increase the import of energy products, strengthen the ability to cope with external interference and adjust the foreign trade industrial structure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0588.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: carbon; energy; campus; sustainability; city; low carbon campus
Online: 25 October 2018 (05:15:25 CEST)
The establishment of low carbon assessment initiatives is a crucial task especially at the city level. The determination of which source of carbon contributed more require robust data set and strategic approach. Hence, by using the campus as a small city approach, the establishment of carbon assessment and its’ reduction initiatives was required to keep track of the hotspot of the carbon source. The substantial amount of carbon source from campus operations such as energy consumption in the building, waste generation, and water consumption were identified. Moreover, as institutions of higher education, the execution of low carbon campus was initiated structurally involves the triangulation of research activities, teaching & learning and as well as campus operations or known as campus living lab approach. The application of low carbon cities framework, LCCF and assessment system enables to strategize the low carbon campus initiatives through the use of carbon footprint concept and the LCCF carbon track.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0167.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: spatio-temporal pattern; land cover; mountainous city; Chongqing
Online: 10 May 2018 (14:59:19 CEST)
The urban heat island (UHI) becomes more and more serious with the acceleration of urbanization. Many researchers have shown interest in studying the UHI by using remote sensing data. But these studies rarely examine the mountainous cities. The studies on UHI in mountainous cities often used empirical parameters to estimate the land surface temperature (LST), and lacked satellite-ground synchronous experiment to test the accuracy. This paper revised the parameters in mono-window algorithm used to retrieve the LST according to the characteristics of mountainous cities. This study examined the spatial and temporal patterns of the UHI intensity in Chongqing, a typical mountainous city, and its relationship with land cover from 2007 to 2011 based on the Landsat TM data and the improved method. The accuracy of the LST derivation increased by about 1°C compared to the traditional method. The high LST areas increased and extended from the downtown to suburban area each year, but the rate of change decreased. The UHI is dramatically impacted by the rivers. There is a good relationship between the urban sprawl and the UHI. The LST was reduced by about 1°C within a 300m distance from large urban fringe green spaces. The urban landscape parks had a strong effect relieving the UHI at a 100m distance. The LST was reduced by about 0.5°C. The study greatly improves the accuracy of LST derivation, and provides a reliable parameters for the UHI researched in mountainous city.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: adolescent; young adults; gender; smoking; drinking; Asian city
Online: 16 January 2018 (04:49:45 CET)
The study aims to explore gender differences in smoking and drinking in three Asian cities—Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei, and assesses the magnitude of these gender differences across cities. A total of 17,016 adolescents and young adults, aged 15 to 24 years, residing in both urban and rural area of Hanoi, Shanghai and Taipei were selected by multistage sampling methods and surveyed by face to face interview. The gender differences are significant for smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors in each city. With respect to smoking-only, males are more than 30.66 times as likely to report it compared with females in Hanoi, followed by Shanghai and Taipei. The above trend holds true when further examining drinking-only and both smoking and drinking. The magnitude of gender differences in smoking-only, drinking-only, and both behaviors widely vary across the three cities. Future research is needed to further examine the mechanisms behind these gender differences and how these differences may be utilized to prevent and reduce smoking and drinking in the adolescent and young adult population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1350.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: economic sustainability; university city; socio-economic inequality; index assessment
Online: 20 October 2023 (12:32:52 CEST)
The study is devoted to analyzing the economic sustainability of the town of Amherst, MA. The city's top employer and core enterprise is the University of Massachusetts Amherst, with over 32,000 students and almost 2,000 staff members. Based on a literature review, a hypothesis was put forward that a university city should have a high level of economic sustainability. To assess economic sustainability, the USCESI Index was developed. It evaluates sustainability in three groups of parameters: society, economy, and ecology. The first group includes the level of racial diversity, the level of education of the population, and the access to medical services. The second group consists of the Gini coefficient by income level, the median cost of housing, and the unemployment rate. The environmental situation is assessed according to the Air Quality Index developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency. For comparison, the town of Braintree, MA, was taken. The USCESI was calculated for both locations. The analysis showed that both Amherst and Braintree have a high degree of economic sustainability. However, it was revealed that proximity to a significant economic center has a more powerful positive impact on economic sustainability than the location of a large university.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0772.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Pollution Keywords: removal; contamination; FTIR; regulatory standards; receiving bodies; tourist city
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:46:59 CEST)
Contamination by microplastics (MP) in aquatic ecosystems is largely due to the release of millions of these particles from treated effluents from Wastewater Treatment Plants (WWTP). Due to the lack of policies and regulations that establish criteria for the control and elimination of MP from WWTP effluents, this research evaluated the presence of MP for particle sizes of 38 and 150 µm in influents and effluents from three WWTP in the port of Acapulco, Mexico. Using optical microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques, the MP detected were polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC). MP removal efficiencies of 82.5 to 98.7% (38 µm) and 86.8 to 97.5% (150µm) were obtained; the MP average daily emissions to the receiving bodies of these three WWTPs were in the ranges of 9.5 x 106 - 4.70 x 108 particles and the annual emissions in the range of 3.05 x 109 - 1.72 x 1011 particles. This work reveals the urgency of implementing regulatory policies to avoid the continuous emission of MP to aquatic ecosystems from WWTPs in Acapulco, Mexico.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0873.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city framework; critical analysis; sustainable development; literature review
Online: 13 July 2023 (04:37:37 CEST)
With the rise of serious problems of urbanization and climate change, the call for intelligent and sustainable urban development is increasing nowadays. Therefore, smart cities have become a hot topic in academia, industry, and politics, resulting in the emergency of numerous smart city programs and projects. This study selected 26 evaluation frameworks proposed in recent years or large-scale research projects that have lasted for many years and analyzed and compared them from the 7 aspects of generalizability, comprehensiveness, availability, flexibility, scientific, transparency, and interpretability. The result indicates that the current smart city evaluation framework still needs to be upgraded and updated. These standards can not only guide the development direction and hotspot of the future smart city evaluation model but also serve as a guide for model demanders to test results and an effective tool to verify the framework designed by themselves.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0224.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: hukou; floating population; city growth; intercounty moves; labor relocation
Online: 13 March 2023 (08:50:15 CET)
When we discuss migration and compare national trends, the topic most commonly centers on undocumented immigrants and asylum seekers. However, there is also considerable variation in internal migration patterns, with differences found between and within nations. Many factors shape whether, why, and where people relocate. Over the last few decades, the world's two largest economies - the United States and China - have seen domestic migration changes happening in opposite directions. China has become increasingly mobile and experienced urbanization. In contrast, the U.S. has seen a steady decline in the rate at which its population relocates, with cities experiencing net migration losses as citizens leave for suburbs. This paper examines these trends using data from the last decade to compare the two nations in areas of internal migration, urbanization, housing, social mobility, and economic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Circular City Index; Urban Regeneration; Energy and Ecological Transition
Online: 8 October 2022 (03:06:49 CEST)
Cities consume over 75% of natural resources, produce over 50% of global waste and emit 60 - 80% of greenhouse gases. The scenario that by 2050 two thirds of the world population will live in cities, highlights how cities are still responsible of the growing consumption characterized by linear economy processes, with the production of various types of waste. In this unsustainable framework, the Circular Economy offers the opportunity to shape the urban system by means of rethinking the possibility to produce and use goods and services exploring new ways to ensure long-term prosperity. The Circular City paradigm contains in fact all the principles of the Circular Economy: recovery, recycling and sharing. In particular, Circular City also introduces actions related to the development of renewable energy communities, use of green materials, CO2 absorption approaches and Proximity Cities. The aim of this work is to develop a methodology to build a composite index (Circular City Index) capable of measuring the degree of implementation of urban policies that enable the territory to initiate an ecological transition of public assets. The city of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) represents the case study to apply circular urban policies in public properties, for civil and military use.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Salt reduction; pilot experience; saltiness perception; Bizerte city; Tunisia
Online: 8 January 2021 (14:28:00 CET)
As bread is the most consumed food by Tunisian population and the major source of salt, a pilot experience of salt reduction in bread has already begun in Bizerte city. Salt analysis in bread collected from Bizerte city was realized with Volhard titration method. Application of the “salt reduction programme” allowed a gradual decrease of salt content in bread by 35 % during three years without detection by Tunisian consumers. A final salt concentration of 1.1 ± 0.1 g/100 g was then achieved. The establishment of an effective salt reduction strategy with lifestyle education is needed to reduce hypertension that is the first cause of death in Tunisia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0036.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: city marketing; sustainability; mega project; Nuevo Norte Madrid; research
Online: 4 January 2021 (12:40:52 CET)
Madrid Nuevo Norte (Madrid New North) is an urban redevelopment program applied in the city of Madrid in Spain. In relevance with this, the aim of this paper is twofold: firstly, the project examines if Nuevo Norte project is aligned with the principles of sustainability. Secondly, the paper investigates the impact of Nuevo Norte on the application of city marketing strategies in Madrid. For that purposes, questionnaires were distributed through Internet in 122 urban developers and planners located in the Spanish capital. The results indicated that overall, Nuevo Norte contributes in the sustainable development of Madrid; however, concerns were identified regarding the budget and the timeline of the project. In addition, NNMP provides significant opportunities to local authorities to implement sustainable city marketing strategies, aiming to improve the competitiveness and the quality of life in the city of Madrid. To this end, it seems that city marketing, through the construction of Mega projects, should sift to sustainability, ensuring a better life for local residents and communities in general. The research is expected to assist local authorities in Spain to harness the potential of mega projects, such as Nuevo Norte, in designing city marketing strategies and to promote Madrid in an international context as a city that gives emphasis in urban sustainability.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Panyawan (Tinospora rumphii); Knock-down time; Experimental; Davao City
Online: 3 May 2020 (07:27:40 CEST)
This paper aims to determine the insecticidal activity of Panyawan (Tinospora rumphii) leaf extract against American cockroach (Periplaneta americana). A quantitative experimental research design was employed in the study. Cockroach strains were collected through trapping and hand catch methods. Panyawan leaf was collected and extracted to achieve seven different concentrations. The concentrations and controls were tested against the strains through the standard contact glass jar bioassay. Results revealed that the shortest knock-down time was achieved by the positive control at 1.08 minutes while the Extracts of Panyawan leaf reported a 1.42 to 20.25 minutes knock-down time. Probit Regression reported that the lethal concentration 50 of Panyawan leaf extract was 15.836%. One-Way ANOVA revealed that there is a significant difference in the knock-down times of cockroaches when exposed to different Panyawan leaf extract concentrations, negative and positive controls (p<0.01). Homogeneous subsets derived from Post Hoc Test using Tukey’s Honest Significant Difference reported that there is no significant difference between positive control and Extract 100% (p>0.01).
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: healthy city, sustainable development, environmental sustainability, key success factor
Online: 31 May 2019 (13:07:49 CEST)
The coexistence of human beings and environmental sustainability becomes individually and even globally concerned issue. In addition to environment issues, people also encounter negative issues of infectious diseases, gap between rich and poor, violence in society, uneven resource distribution, people’s health decline, and population structure aging, which would affect the sustainable development of cities. When taking sustainable development from the world to cities, it appears sustainable cities. The goal of a healthy city is to pursue the sustainability of a city. Aiming at residents in Shanghai, total 360 copies of questionnaire are distributed, and 277 valid copies are retrieved, with the retrieval rate 77％. The research results conclude that 1.“safety” is the most emphasized dimension, followed by “convenience & prosperity”, “sustainable ecology”, “vitality & health”, and “culture friendly” and 2.security, Internet city, pollution control, space use, and inheritance education are top five indicators, among 15 evaluation indicators. According to the results, suggestions are proposed to provide the government with correct, objective, and simply understandable healthy city indicators and sustainable development indicators for the appropriate planning and review of the administration objectives to enhance the public awareness of healthy city and the participation. It would stop the worsening of environment and promote residents’ health and the sustainable development of cities to have the city and the public moving towards healthy development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0735.v2
Subject: Social Sciences, Ethnic And Cultural Studies Keywords: urban commerce; cultural landscape; historic city; cultural heritage; management
Online: 17 December 2018 (04:58:43 CET)
By analyzing the urban landscape, this investigation focuses on commercial typologies in historical urban areas and its relationship with the urban landscape and its heritage values. Trade plays an essential role in historical urban areas, both in the past and in the present, since it is part of the urban landscape—creating it and modifying it, but also preserving it. Historical protected urban areas contain diverse elements reflecting the impacts of commercial activities that have existed in cities throughout history. At present, the urban landscape of commercial activity is made up of a multiplicity of typologies and formats which interact with the historical landscape and its values, using them to strengthen its strategies of attraction, differentiation, and sales. Shop owners contribute to the preservation of historic urban areas by maintaining the commercial functions within them. Therefore, we affirm that the role of commercial activity in the preservation of urban protected areas is essential. However, further research is needed because this aspect has not been addressed in depth by the scientific community specializing in the management of cultural heritage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: smart city; smart citizen; participation; smartmentality; open data; metaphor
Online: 5 November 2018 (10:19:03 CET)
The goal of the paper is to investigate the expected participation and mentality of smart citizens in smart cities. The key question is the role of the human factor in smart environments globally studied through a research corpus of the mainstream summaries, trend reports, white papers and visions of business – governmental – university research co- operations. Foremost, a short review of the changing scholarly trends is presented as a theoretical framework. Concerning its key ideas, the corpus based findings are recapped and analysed by content networks and the most referred city strategies. Besides, a critical approach reveal further required factors and risks to investigate. The ultimate goal is to understand how the smart city landscape is shaped by citizen-based strategies, open data, empowerment and responsibility. Accordingly, the paper closes with theoretical, practical and metaphor-based recommendations to support the business and political decision making, and also, the emerging scholarly trends in the context of upcoming technological-structural changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0536.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: playable city; age-friendly environments; games; mobility; active ageing
Online: 23 October 2018 (10:11:15 CEST)
A key concern in an ageing society is citizens’ mobility. As populations age, disability impairments can affect active ageing, health-related wellbeing and quality of life. In this paper, we present the on-going research project SeriousGiggle—Game-based learning for triggering active ageing. Its goal is to assess the potential of game-based learning for active ageing and contribute to a sense of wellbeing and quality of life. It also seeks to improve the mobility of older adults by creating a set of journey plans with route guidance that are rated in terms of safety, community support, environment and age-friendliness. Drawn on our field work with 33 co-designers, 40 end users and 10 semi-structured interviews with Subject Matter Experts, we identify a set of necessary design requirements to an Age-friendly Playable City. This study recommends the use of gamification and playful techniques to engage the end-users to provide information about local traffic signs, pavement conditions, wayfinding and, therefore, help to create route guidance and walking assistance that are personalized to older adults’ context in terms of location, travel fitness, mobility impairments and motivations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0073.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: circular city model; city-port; Sustainable Indicators; SDGs; Role Play Game (RPG); PROMETHEE method; Stakeholders analysis; multi-dimensional evaluation; adaptive decision-making process
Online: 9 January 2020 (07:03:51 CET)
The city-port involves a decisive reality for the economic development of the territories and nations, capable of significantly influencing the conditions of well-being and quality of life, and of making the Circular City Model operational, preserving and enhancing seas and marine resources in a sustainable way, through the construction of appropriate production and consumption models, with attention to relations with the urban and territorial system. The Circular Economy paradigm identifies the ideal context in the city-port to rethink traditional development models and make ports driver areas for the regeneration of the city and metropolitan territories, in compliance with the EU Directive 2014/89 which considers maritime spatial planning as a tool for public authorities and stakeholders to achieve an integrated approach, promoting the development of maritime and coastal economies and the sustainable use of resources. The paper, starting from these assumptions, presents an adaptive decision-making process for the strategies development of the Naples (Italy) commercial port, aimed at re-establishing a sustainable city-port relationship and making operative Circular Economy principles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0613.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: IP strategy; national IP model city; university innovation；DID model
Online: 8 December 2023 (11:34:57 CET)
Colleges and universities play a crucial role in fostering innovation, making it essential to explore effective strategies for promoting innovation at the institutional policy level. This paper focuses on the establishment of intellectual property (IP) model cities as a starting point and conducts an empirical analysis using innovation data from 234 cities and 942 colleges and universities between 2007 and 2017. By constructing a multi-temporal double-difference model, this study reveals that the establishment of IP model cities effectively fosters innovation in colleges and universities. Further analysis demonstrates that this promotion effect is particularly significant in the western region, key cities, key colleges and universities, as well as in the fields of invention and utility model patents. These conclusions withstand a series of robustness tests, confirming their validity. In terms of the underlying mechanisms, it is found that the national IP pilot city policy has a substantial impact on university innovation by promoting research and development (R&D) investment and strengthening innovation cooperation. The insights provided by this study offer valuable policy recommendations for leveraging the innovation potential of the IP model city policy, thereby driving economic transformation, upgrading, and fostering innovation development in China.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1280.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Security Systems Keywords: information security; smart city; technical collaborations networks; applications; bibliometric analysis
Online: 20 October 2023 (06:30:51 CEST)
This paper aims to analyze the intellectual structure and research fronts in application information security in smart cities to identify research boundaries, trends, and new opportunities in the area. It applies bibliometric analyses to identify the main authors and their influences on the information security and smart city area. Moreover, this analysis focuses on journals indexed in Scopus databases. The results indicate that there is an opportunity for further advances in the adoption of information security policies in government institutions. Moreover, the production indicators presented herein are useful for the planning and implementation of information security policies, and the knowledge of the scientific community about smart cities. The bibliometric analysis provides support for the visualization of the leading research technical collaboration networks among authors, co-authors, countries, and research areas. The methodology offers a broader view of the application information security in smarty city areas and makes it possible to assist new research that may contribute to further advances. The smart city topic has been receiving much attention in recent years, but to the best of our knowledge, there is no research on reporting new possibilities for advances. Therefore, this article may contribute to an emerging body of literature that explores the nature of application information security and smart city research productivity to assist researchers in better understanding the current emerging of the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1462.v2
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Pedestrian safety; Traffic characteristics, City of Kigali; Binary logistic regression
Online: 20 June 2023 (03:46:20 CEST)
The safety of a pedestrian crossing may depend on infrastructure, vehicular and pedestrian traffic characteristics. This research portrays the safety challenges caused by vehicles on crosswalk in the City of Kigali. Through observing the stopping of drivers in pedestrian crossing events, the study aims to evaluate driver’s behaviors against traffic flow parameters. 10 collection sites were finally selected purposively and randomly to suit observations for data recording. A total of 10,259 crossing events were recorded within 280 hours. Statistical analysis, tests and Binary logistic regression model were used to evaluate the behaviors. Sadly,82.4% drivers violate crosswalks, endangering crossing. Motorcyclists exhibit the most aggressive behavior. Car drivers are relatively less aggressive,60% managed to brake in the events. Buses and bicycles share a negligible collective of 2%, being aggressive and would not stop. Cars are 10.389 times more likely to stop compared to bicycles. Having more vehicles in a row is safer to cross, for each unit increase on the vehicle density scale, there were 1.956 more chances that every driver would stop.13% to 21% of traffic variables predict the variance in stopping behaviors model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0578.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Insect Science Keywords: horse chestnut tree; diversity; population dynamics; mite density; city parks
Online: 31 January 2023 (08:45:45 CET)
Phytoseiidae inhabit a wide range of herbs, shrubs and trees. Aesculus hippocastanum is an important ornamental tree in Europe and is likely reservoir of these mites. We therefore assessed the species composition and the spatial and seasonal variability in the abundance of Phytoseiidae in city parks in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. Leaf samples were randomly collected from horse chestnut tree branches at eight sites, five times during the vegetation season in 2013. The mites were collected by washing technique and mounted on slides for identification. In total, 13,903 specimens of phytoseiid mites were found, and eight species were identified: Amblyseius andersoni, Euseius finlandicus, Kampimodromus aberrans, Neoseiulella tiliarum, Phytoseilus macropilis, Paraseiulus talbii, Paraseiulus triporus and Typhlodromus (Typhlodromus) pyri. Paraseiulus talbii and P. macropilis were recorded on the leaves of horse chestnut trees for the first time in the Czech Republic in this study. The predominant species was E. finlandicus (96.25%). The number of mites per compound leaf was, on average, 2.53, 10.40, 23.54, 11.59 and 9.27 on the sampling dates in each month between May and September, respectively. The mite density was significantly affected by the sampling site and date.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0387.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: renewable energy, Internet of Thinks, renewable energy storage, smart city
Online: 21 November 2022 (09:53:30 CET)
Transportation, environmental conditions, quality of human life within smart cities, and system infrastructure have all needed practical and dependable smart solutions as urbanization has accelerated in recent years. In addition, the emerging Internet of Things (IoT) provides access to a plethora of cutting-edge, all-encompassing apps for smart cities, all of which contribute significantly to lowering energy consumption and other negative environmental impacts. For smart cities to meet the challenge of using less energy, the authors of this research article suggest planning and implementing an integrated power and heat architecture that puts renewable energy infrastructure and energy-storage infrastructure at the top of the list. To address these issues, we describe a smart proposed NEOSRD architecture that uses a distributed smart area domain to optimize renewable demand energy in a smart city across a wide area network. The energy requirements of desalination procedures are negligible when compared to the total local energy consumption and transportation, a feat accomplished by the proposed NEOSRD system. Here, the computational model shows how the established system is a valuable response to our problems and a cost-effective strategy for creating smarter structural elements that cut down on overall smart cities' energy costs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0137.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Aquaculture; Davao Oriental; management; Mati City; shrimp farms; water quality
Online: 25 April 2022 (05:52:22 CEST)
The shrimp industry in the Philippines play a vital role in the local and national economy through exports with markets abroad such as in South Korea, Japan, the USA, and others. This study aimed to describe the various cultural and operational characteristics of small-holder and commercial shrimp farms (P. vannamei) in the Davao region. It also evaluated the current risks and challenges faced by the shrimp farmers. A semi-structured questionnaire that focused on shrimp farmers, and operators in the region was used to collect data with N=41 farmers and operator. The results showed that respondents were engaged in small-holder farming activities which had an average yield of 10 tons/ha. On the other hand, the commercial farms that operate intensively had an average yield of 24 tons/ha. Most small-holder operators used electric generator machines to conduct aeration in their farms using paddlewheels and blowers. For the commercial farms, more paddlewheels and blowers were employed per pond compared to small-holder farms. Generally, the income of a farm was related to the yield of farms or the number of fries rather than social factors or size of farms cultivated. In terms of input costs, feeds were found to have the highest input costs, followed by the fry, fuel, labor, and others (fertilizers and water treatment chemicals). Most of the farmers mentioned that they are affected by diseases such as white spot syndrome (60%), black gills (35%), and red tail (5%). They perceived that the main contamination come from the water source (31%). The main threats mentioned are declining shrimp prices in the market, source of fry, water disposal, and overstocking, and water quality. Based on this study, farmers should follow good shrimp aquaculture practices and there is a need for them to regularly monitor their water quality.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Philippines; Cebu city; physical activity; Zumba, exercise; non-communicable diseases
Online: 5 April 2021 (15:57:11 CEST)
The prevalence of overweight/obesity in the adult population in the Philippines has doubled in the past 20 years. Zumba exercise has recently been implemented throughout the Philippines. However, there is scarce information on the effects of Zumba on obesity and Zumba participants’ characteristics in the Philippines. This study described the current practice of Zumba in the Philippines, along with the practitioners’ characteristics, and identified factors associated with Zumba participation. In this observational, cross-sectional study, a structured questionnaire was used to survey 10 Zumba locations in September 2019. Anthropometric measurements of participants were assessed. Respondents included 171 women (88.6%) and 22 men (11.4%), with a mean (±SD) age of 44.1 (± 8.9) years. All respondents answered that Zumba was enjoyable, and some answered “very enjoyable.” Determinants of frequent participation were as follows: being older than the mean age of participants, starting Zumba to enjoy dancing, starting Zumba not to lose weight, shopping mall location, and participation fee required. “To enjoy dance” being a motivation for Zumba practice was identified as a determinant of frequent participation, rather than “to lose weight.” The element of “enjoyable” may strongly influence continuation and frequent participation of Zumba exercise in the Philippines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0324.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: LoRa; LoRaWAN; Trial; Waste Management; Smart City; Internet of Things
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:32:05 CET)
The city of Lisbon, has any other capital of a European country, has a large number of issues while managing the waste and recycling containers spread throughout the city. This document presents the results of a study promoted by the Lisbon City Council for trialing LPWAN technology on the waste management vertical under the Lisbon Smart City initiative. Current waste management is done using GSM sensors, and the aim is to use LPWAN to reduce the costs, improve range and reduce provisioning times when changing the communications provider. After an initial study, LoRa was selected as the LPWAN of choice for the trials. The study is composed of multiple use cases at different distances, types of recycling waste containers, placements (underground and surface) and different kinds of waste level measurement LoRa sensors, deployed in order to assess the impact of the different use cases on the LoRa sensor usage. The results shown that the underground waste containers present the most difficult challenge, where the container itself imposes attenuation levels of 26dB on the link budget. The results promoted the deployment of a city wide LoRa network available to all departments inside the Lisbon City Council, and considering the network capacity the network, the network is also available to citizens to be used freely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0172.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Citizen Security; Smart Cities; Crime Prediction; Artificial Intelligence; Safe City
Online: 8 February 2021 (07:44:57 CET)
Smart city infrastructure has a significant impact on improving the quality of humans life. However, a substantial increase in the urban population from the last few years is posing challenges related to resource management, safety, and security. In order to ensure safe mobility and security in the smart city environment, this paper proposes a novel Artificial Intelligence (AI) based approach empowering the authorities to better visualize the threats and to help them identify the highly-reported crime zones yielding greater predictability of crime hot-spots in a smart city. To this end, it first investigates the Hierarchical Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise (HDBSCAN) to detect the hot-spots that have a higher risk of crimes to be committed. Second, for crime prediction, Seasonal Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (SARIMA) exploited in each dense crime region to predict the number of crimes in the future with spatial and temporal information. The proposed HDBSCAN and SARIMA based crime prediction model is evaluated on ten years of crime data (2008-2017) for New York City (NYC). The accuracy of the model is measured by considering different time period scenarios i.e. (a) year-wise, i.e., for each year and (b) for the whole period of ten years, using an 80:20 ratio where 80\% data was used for training and 20\% data was used for testing. The proposed approach outperforms with an average Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 11.47.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0184.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: covid-19 lockdown; mobility and transport; environmental data; smart city
Online: 11 May 2020 (03:24:26 CEST)
According to the changed operative conditions due to lockdown and successive reopening a number of facts can be analysed. The main effects have been detected on: mobility, environment, social media and people flows. While in this first report only mobility, transport and environment are reported. The analysis performed identified a strong reduction of the mobility and transport activities, and in the pollutants. The mobility reduction has been assessed to be quite coherent with respect to what has been described by Google Global mobility report. On the other hand, in this paper a number of additional aspects have been put in evidence providing detailed aspects on mobility and parking that allowed us to better analyze the impact of the reopening on an eventual revamping of the infection. To this end, the collected data from the field have been compared from those of google and some considerations with respect to the Imperial college Report 20 have been derived. For the pollutant aspects, a relevant reduction on most of them has been measured and rationales are reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0322.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: people’s experiences; pattern of behavior; city liveliness; urban heritage trail
Online: 31 January 2019 (07:28:13 CET)
Populaces are prominent indicators of livability in creating ‘street life’ for cities and public spaces. Evaluating people’s experiences is significant in creating a city liveliness and urban heritage trail. The exploration of design strategies that could allow them to integrated and connected with other spaces in the context of city and heritage as well as creating a social life among them. The measuring variables are people’s experience on the spaces; thus, create the pattern of behavior, which cause spaces liveliness, using Kuala Lumpur Heritage Trail as an example of pedestrian priority streets, city environment and heritage value. The aim of this research is to evaluate people’s experiences and analyze their behavior towards the urban street design within cities environment and Malaysia heritage values. The analyzed review comprising on the livability of the street in the context of interrelation between behavioral patter of people and the preferences of urban heritage. Hence, this paper will give an understanding of how people experiences the presence of urban streets and heritage values, thus, bringing liveliness to the streets.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0118.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Library And Information Sciences Keywords: smart library; smart city; library marketing; public library; academic library
Online: 6 July 2018 (14:13:31 CEST)
Can the smart city provide a new perspective for public and academic libraries? How does the smart city impact the libraries as cultural and scientific assets? And how can libraries contribute to the development of the smart city? An overview of recent library models, like the learning center or the green library, reveals affinities with the concept of the smart city, especially regarding the central role of information and the integration of technology, people and institution. From this observation, the paper develops the outline of a new concept of the smart library which can be described on four dimensions, i.e. smart services, smart people, smart place and smart governance. However, the smart library concept does not constitute a unique model or project but a process, a way how to get things done, less linear, less structured, more creative and innovative. Also, smartness may not be a solution for all library problems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0265.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: CO2; Carbon dioxide; mega-city; diurnal cycle; CO2 emission; GOSAT
Online: 20 April 2018 (11:35:55 CEST)
Site environments and instrumental characteristics of carbon dioxide (CO2) measurements operated by local governments in the Kanto Plain, the center of which is Tokyo were summarized for this study. The observation sites were classified into environments of three types: urban, suburban, and woodland. Based on a few decades of accumulated hourly data, the diurnal and seasonal variations of CO2 concentrations were analyzed as a composite of anomalies from annual means recorded for each site. In urban areas, the highest concentrations appear before midnight in winter. The second peak corresponds to the morning rush hour and strengthening of the inversion layer. Suburban areas can be characterized as having the highest concentration before dawn and the lowest concentration during the daytime in summer in association with the activation of respiration and photosynthesis of vegetation. In these areas, concentration peaks also appear during the morning rush hour. Woodland areas show background features, with the highest concentration in early spring: higher than the global background by about 5 ppmv.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0861.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Child-Friendly City; Cross-sectoral Collaboration; Confirmatory Factor Analysis; Validity; Reliability
Online: 14 November 2023 (09:05:02 CET)
There is currently no set of instruments or procedures to evaluate the effectiveness of cross-sectoral collaboration in the current CFC program. This study aimed to develop a tool for evaluating the cross-sectoral contributions to the CFC program. A paper-based questionnaire was developed by the research team after a preliminary qualitative procedure, and it was subsequently employed to collect data. This process resulted in 17 indicators (41 items) of cross-sectoral collaboration in the development of the CFC in Makassar. These indicators were categorized into five dimensions: governance, administration, autonomy, mutuality, and norms. There were 32 items remaining after several items that were determined not to correspond with the model were eliminated prior to the CFA analysis. According to the CFA results, the five-domain model corresponded to the data with standardized loading factor (SLF)<0.5, indicating that the convergent validity of SLF was acceptable. In addition, these results suggested that the items employed in the tool were really significant in reflecting these five domains. The developed and validated tool was expected to be beneficial in evaluating cross-sectoral collaboration in the CFC program developed in Makassar City. The findings of this study would serve as a benchmark indicator, enabling the assessment process to gauge the significance with which a city is developing with cross-sectoral restriction measures.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1168.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: autonomous; vehicle; electric; survey; smart city; Saudi Arabia; intelligent transport system
Online: 19 October 2023 (04:51:40 CEST)
Autonomous vehicles (AV)s will transform transport, but public opinion will play a key role in the decision how widely and quickly, they will be adopted. The purpose of the study presented here, was to investigate community’s views on the transition. As a method for primary data collection on public awareness, attitudes, and readiness to use autonomous cars, survey was conducted in Saudi Arabia. Following that, we have used statistical tools to analyse responses. Our findings indicate that the participants are mainly open to use new technology and had favourable attitude towards transition. Ordinal logistic regression model showed a wide variation in public opinion regarding the expected benefits that may accompany the transition, despite an average high score on this factor. Our findings reveal that awareness of AVs' benefits is more positively correlated to the age of participants. Perceived cost, on one side, and convenience, and safety, on the other side, have substantial impact on opinions. Investigation, presented here, shows how AVs are seen in Saudi Arabia. This can guide the development of AVs and deployment in that region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1113.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Sustainable Developmental Goal; Sustainable City; Industry 4.0; Multi-Criteria Decision Making
Online: 18 September 2023 (04:03:00 CEST)
Due to a shortage of funding and other market challenges, Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) have a tough time adopting new technologies. Numerous technological obstacles nega-tively impact the long-term commercial achievement of SMEs. The deployment of Industry 4.0 might resolve several technological challenges. A sustainable city is a difficult structure whose economical, societal, and ecological components interact and compete with one another. There is a dearth of actual methodologies for measuring interaction. The objective of Industry 4.0 is to obtain a better degree of performance effectiveness and profitability, and greater automation. Conse-quently, the purpose of the research is to determine the influence of Industry 4.0 in fostering economic efficiency in small and medium enterprises' sustainability. A Sustainable City using Multi-Criteria Decision Making (SC-MCDM) system is designed in this research to test and achieve sustainable developmental goals. This paper then gives a technique for calculating the interaction between various standards, such as static interactions and dynamical pattern resemblance, as well as the weight variables of every indication generated by the connection. Furthermore, the ap-plication of the suggested technique is proved by assessing the sustainable development goals of twelve Chinese cities within the Triple Bottom Line (TBL) paradigm. From a geographic-temporal viewpoint, spatial variations in city sustainability reveal regional inequalities in sustainability. Indicator scores suggest that the lack of research spending, falling financing in stationary assets, shortage of financial development, and inadequate shared transit are the most significant limiting factors for most communities. Furthermore, the growth of tertiary industries, the improvement of energy performance, the expansion of green areas, and the reduction of pollution emissions are the key driving forces for enhancing sustainability. Compared to other methodologies, Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) considers the interplay between conditions, which is an excellent way to assess the sustainability of a city. The experimental findings show the impact of MCDM and sustainability to achieve sustainable development goals.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0978.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Sociology Keywords: city biodiversity; bibliometric analysis; bibliometrix; research development; research trend; science mapping
Online: 26 April 2023 (10:55:37 CEST)
The biodiversity loss in urban areas has attracted public concern, which is one of the urgent global environmental issues. This study used bibliometric methods to analyze 3351 publications from 1995-2021 that retrieved from the Web of Science and visually represented the state-of-the-art of researches in city biodiversity field. The prolific authors, journals(sources), institutions, and countries are clearly identified. The most cited and influential paper proposed a conceptual framework of associations between urban green space, and ecosystem and human health, and then concluded that green infrastructure could physically and psychologically benefits people by ecosystem services it provides, and make a better socio-economic benefit. The theme hotspots are urbanization, urban ecology, ecosystem services, urban planning, green infrastructure, urban forest and urban park et al. Ingo Kowarik is the most productive author in terms of number of publications. Michael L. McKinney is the most cited authors by the publications in analyzed corpus, who identified how urbanization harms native ecosystems, however, a well ecologically educated population could greatly enhance species richness in all ecosystems. Urban park, garden, fragmented green spaces and green corridor networks could help enhance city biodiversity. In general, the city biodiversity research presents a trend that involves intensive global cooperation, and become more comprehensive.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0304.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: CGAN; Styles & Features Renovation; Street Façade; world heritage city; Wuyi area
Online: 16 November 2022 (09:55:23 CET)
With the development of society and the economy, the unified planning of architectural style has become a difficult problem in the competition between urban expansion and the protection of tra-ditional buildings in villages and towns. At the same time, it also allows people to re-examine the appearance and quality of life of traditional village buildings. In this paper, the Conditional Gen-erative Adversarial Network (CGAN) is used to construct a method of building facade generation in villages and towns, so as to gradually realize the governance of the style of villages and towns. At the same time, it has also reduced the restoration of the facades of villages and towns and the graphic design of rural tourism products, showing its application value and potential in the field of planning and design. In the research, taking villages and towns in the Wuyishan area of China as an example, the method is used to carry out model training, image generation, and comparison of the derivation results of different assumed building contours and product contours. The research shows that: (1) CGAN can be used to derive and design the facades of conventional civil buildings in villages and towns. (2) In terms of product graphic design, especially the common tourist cultural products fans and water cups, show significant potential. (3) The construction of this method is not only applicable to villages and towns under the World Heritage City, but can be further promoted and used in the future for cities and villages that have a demand for architectural style consistency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0207.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Aquaculture; Climate change; Davao Oriental; FishVool; Management; Mati City; Shrimp culture
Online: 17 March 2022 (10:58:39 CET)
The impacts of climate change on shrimp aquaculture can vary widely and can have environmental and socioeconomic consequences. This study assessed the vulnerability to climate change impacts of selected small-scale shrimp farms of Penaeus vannamei and shrimpfish market vendors in Davao region, Philippines using a modified Fisheries Vulnerability Assessment Tool (FishVool). Shrimp farmers and vendors were interviewed using two separate semi-structured questionnaires. A total of thirty-nine (N=39) shrimp farmers and forty-eight (N=48) market vendors from various market areas within the region were interviewed. Data regarding exposure (E), sensitivity (S), and adaptive capacity (AC) were collected following the FishVool parameters with modifications. Results revealed that overall climate change vulnerability of the shrimp farmers was medium (M), where both exposure and adaptive capacity were low (L) while sensitivity was medium (M). In addition, the shrimp market vulnerability of the various sites examined revealed medium (M) scores for markets in Pantukan, Mabini, Tagum, Maco, Lupon, Davao City, and Digos. But high (H) vulnerability scores for the markets in Panabo and Sta Cruz. Overall, the study provided a better understanding about shrimp farming in relation to climate change impacts and vulnerability and provided information for future shrimp farm management, marketing and climate change adapation in the region.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0108.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: intestinal parasitic; contagions; diseases; pediatric patients; Metropolitan City of Bangladesh; cryptosporidiosis
Online: 7 March 2022 (15:51:25 CET)
Background: Gastrointestinal parasitic infections are one of the global health concerns in developing countries like Bangladesh. Among them, Cryptosporidium spp. plays an essential role in causing diarrhea, malnutrition, and poor cognitive function, especially in children. The study was conducted to identify the frequency of cryptosporidium cases and other parasitic agents. Methods: A Cross-sectional observational study was conducted among 219 hospitalized children with diarrhea. The conventional microscopic technique was applied for parasitic detection. A particular staining procedure was performed to identify oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. And PCR was conducted to determine the SSU rRNA and gp60 gene of Cryptosporidium. Results: Cyst of Giardia, ova of Ascaris lumbricoides (AL), Trichuris trichiura (TT), AL, and TT were identified in 2.3%, 1.4%, 0.5%, and 0.9% samples by wet mount preparation. The distribution of Cryptosporidium spp. was 1.4% and 4.1%, which was detected by the staining method and nested PCR. Factors independently associated with Cryptosporidium infection are unsafe water, lack of regular hand washing, and insufficiency of exclusive breastfeeding. Conclusions: This is the first report to detect the frequency of Cryptosporidium and other intestinal parasites and associated factors in Chattogram city of Bangladesh.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0399.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Urban Heat Island; Building Footprint; Remote Sensing; ASTER; New York City
Online: 19 August 2021 (10:35:33 CEST)
Urban areas have very complex spatial structures. These spatial structures are primarily composed of a complex network of built environments, which evolve rapidly as the cities expand to meet the growing population’s demand and economic development. Therefore, studying the impact of spatial structures on urban heat patterns is extremely important for sustainable urban planning and growth. We investigated the relationship between surface temperature obtained by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER, at 90 m spatial resolution) on the current EOS-Terra platform and different urban components based on the classification of high-resolution QuickBird imagery. We further investigated the relationships between surface temperature and building footprint and land use information acquired from the New York City (NYC) Department of City Planning. The ASTER image reveals fine-scale urban heat patterns in the NYC metropolitan region. The dark and medium-dark impervious surfaces, along with bright surfaces, generate higher surface temperatures. Even with highly reflective urban materials, the presence of impervious materials leads to an increased surface temperature. At the same time, trees and shadows are effective in reducing urban heat. The data aggregated to the census tract reveals high-temperature clusters in Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx region of NYC. These clusters are associated with industrial and manufacturing areas and multi-family walk-up buildings as dominant land use. The census tracts with more trees and higher building height variability generate lower surface temperatures, consistent with shadow cast by high-rise buildings and trees. The results of this study can be valuable for urban heat island modeling on the effects of building heights variability and tree shadows on small-scale surface temperature patterns. It can also help identify the risk areas during extreme heat events to protect public health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0129.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Water Sensitive City; Water Sensitive Urban Design; Water Cycle; Water Utilities
Online: 4 February 2021 (09:34:58 CET)
Mexico is currently facing important water management challenges. Cities in the country are facing water scarcity and at the same time, they struggle with floods during the raining season. The water sensitive urban design (WSUD) approach has proved to be helpful in tackling urban water challenges such as floods and water scarcity and it is being implemented in cities around the world. The WSUD approach highlights the role of both the water cycle and the water utilities systems, when transitioning towards a water sensitive stage. Therefore, the objective of this research is to analyse the current situation of the water cycle and the water utility (SIAPA). To do so, we have selected the Metropolitan Area of Guadalajara (MAG) and proposes a case study approach. Within our case of study, we answer two questions: 1) What are the causes of water scarcity and flooding in the MAG? and 2) What are the proposals to solve these problems under a WSUD approach? By answering these questions, we identified that the water management in the MAG corresponds to a single purpose infrastructure. This type of management does not contribute to solve the problems of water scarcity and floods. The water supply policy is based only on the construction of large dams disregarding the storage and use of rainwater, and reuse of greywater, and water-conservation devices. In order to transition towards a water sensitive stage, a WSUD approach that includes multi-purpose infrastructure should be considered. Such as green roofs, swales, rainwater gardens, infiltration trenches, etc.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0030.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi); Ripening; Cavendish Banana (Musa acuminata); Experimental; Davao City
Online: 3 May 2020 (07:40:40 CEST)
This paper aims determine the efficacy of Kamias (Averrhoa bilimbi) fruit as a ripening agent for Cavendish banana (Musa acuminata). A quantitative experimental research design was employed in the study. Unripe Cavendish bananas and Kamias fruits were procured from the local market and the fruits were extracted to three different concentrations. Calcium carbide was used as positive control. Six bunches of unripe bananas were allowed to ripe and labeled according to the type of treatment. Ripe bananas were then subjected to sensory evaluation, titratable acidity and Benedict’s tests. Results showed that the use of Kamias fruit allowed ripening of banana for 76 hours while a 25-75% concentration of Kamias fruit extract allowed ripening for 76-96 hours. The bananas treated with Kamias Extract 75% had the highest level of acceptability and titratable acidity while the bananas treated with Kamias fruit had the highest level of reducing sugar. One-Way MANOVA reported that there is a significant difference in the duration of ripening, level of acceptability, titratable acidity and level of reducing sugar when treated with various ripening agents (p<0.05).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0101.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: accessibility; food service facilities; grocery retailers; city logistics; last-mile delivery
Online: 8 February 2020 (05:48:17 CET)
Access to food systems is essential to sustain urban life. In this paper, we discuss the differences concerning accessibility levels to food systems among potential consumers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. The goal was to characterize spatial mismatches regarding food opportunities and identify suitable areas for sustainable food mile solutions, such as non-motorized home delivery and purchase trips. For this, we have spatially related: (i) the population concentration; (ii) the income of households; and (iii) accessibility measures considering both the spatial structure of food retailers and the distance between households and stores, considering the food mile. We have then used spatial statistics and spatial analysis methods to determine the spatial pattern of variables and the cumulative opportunity measure for households. There is great spatial differentiation regarding the accessibility levels of food retailers and the results can be considered to support the development of policy and land use regulation that can stimulate non-motorized and collaborative delivery as an effective last-mile solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0085.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: water use efficiency; economic development; comprehensive evaluation; coupling coordination; Jinan City
Online: 6 February 2020 (10:48:09 CET)
In order to realize the sustainable utilization of water resources and the sustainable development of economy, the evaluation index system of water use efficiency system and economic development system was constructed. Entropy weight method and comprehensive evaluation method were adopted to determine the index weights and conduct comprehensive evaluation for the two systems. The coupling coordination model was used to calculate the coupling degree, coordination degree and coupling coordination degree of the two systems. The annual coupling stage and coupling coordination intensity of the two systems were analyzed and determined. The results showed that the comprehensive evaluation values of both water use efficiency system and economic development system in Jinan City increased greatly from 2008 to 2017, and showed a changing trend of ups and downs. The two systems were in the antagonistic stage, and were gradually approaching the running-in stage, indicating that they were in the state of common development. The coupling coordination degree of the two systems gradually increased in waves, progressed from the moderately to the highly coordinated coupling. In the future, if the water control path appropriate to Jinan City can be explored actively, the water-saving kinetic energy of economic development can be increased constantly, and the linkage effect between economic development and water resources utilization can be given full play to, the two systems will be in the orbit with the benign interaction and healthy harmonious development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0183.v2
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: informal settlement; sustainable neighborhood; approaches; district 13 of Kabul city Afghanistan
Online: 20 November 2019 (11:20:52 CET)
Abstract: Afghanistan witnessed rapid urbanization in recent decades due to the post-war recovery process. When the war ended in 2001 by fall of Taliban regime, most Afghans refugees returned to urban areas of Afghanistan, especially in Kabul city. Moreover, the rapid urbanization, migration from rural areas, and population growth impacted on Kabul city with the manifestation of informal settlement. The residents of informal settlements suffer social and economic exclusion from the benefit and opportunity of an urban environment. Furthermore, the residents of informal settlements experience disadvantages by geographical marginalization, shortage of basic infrastructure, improper governance framework, vulnerability into the effect of poor environment, and natural disasters. With all the above, the problems of informal settlements are considered enormous challenges for informal residents. Therefore, this paper aims to identify the proper approaches to addressing informal settlement problems in District 13 of Kabul city. To reach the aim of the research, the interview and questionnaires survey used as an instrument in data collection. Consequently, the finding of this paper indicates that through the resident’s preferences, government capacity, and District 13 physical condition there are three approaches which can be implemented and adopted for improvement of informal settlement in District 13 of Kabul city, which is settlement upgrading as the first option, the land readjustment as the second option and urban redevelopment as the last option.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0024.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Geometry And Topology Keywords: 3D city model; topology; combinatorial map; linear cell complex; CityJSON; CityGML
Online: 5 May 2019 (12:56:21 CEST)
3D city models are being extensively used in applications such as evacuation scenarios and energy consumption estimation. The main standard for 3D city models is the CityGML data model which can be encoded through the CityJSON data format. CityGML and CityJSON use polygonal modelling in order to represent geometries. True topological data structures have proven to be more computationally efficient for geometric analysis compared to polygonal modelling. In a previous study, we have introduced a method to topologically reconstruct CityGML models while maintaining the semantic information of the dataset, based solely on the combinatorial map (C-Map) data structure. As a result of the limitations of C-Map's semantic representation mechanism, the resulting datasets could suffer either from semantic information loss or the redundant repetition of them. In this article, we propose a solution for a more efficient representation of both geometry, topology and semantics by incorporating the C-Map data structure in the CityGML data model and implementing a CityJSON extension to encode the C-Map data. In addition, we provide an algorithm for the topological reconstruction of CityJSON datasets to append them according to this extension. Finally, we apply our methodology to three open datasets in order to validate our approach when applied to real-world data. Our results show that the proposed CityJSON extension can represent all geometric information of a city model in a lossless way, providing additional topological information for the objects of the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0214.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Smart city; energy management; electric vehicle; classification; state of charge; intelligence.
Online: 22 January 2019 (11:18:42 CET)
Smart cities and smart technologies have been incorporated into several axes to increase the comfort of life. The connected building's concept was introduced for this reason. However, it was utilized in power management for better organizing, greater buildings management, and monetary savings. Cars technologies and the number of vehicles are also involved; Nowadays, each house has at least one car. Technological evolution helped to make those cars intelligent and connected. In the latest versions, the majority of those cars were equipped with several sensors, several communication protocols and a principal electrical control unit (ECU), especially for the electric vehicle model. This type of architecture was an essential element in a smart city, thus, it helps to manage power and decide when a vehicle needs to be charged. Based on the smart city concept and using possible network communication between buildings and vehicles, EVs can share their own information related to the powerful experience on a specific path. This information can be gathered in a gigantic database and used for managing the power inside these vehicles. In this field, we propose in this paper a new approach for power management inside an electric vehicle based on bi-communication between vehicles and buildings. The proposed approach is founded on two essential parts; the first is related to vehicles’ classification and buildings’ recommendation according to different car positions. Two algorithms, related to the SVC and neural network was employed in this work for implementing the final process. Different possibilities and situations were discussed for this approach. The proposed method was tested and validated using Simulink/Matlab application. The state of charge of the used battery was compared at the end of this work, for two specified cases, for showing the contribution of this approach.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201812.0269.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: city logistics; environmental sustainability; social sustainability; urban bus transport; IPA; AHP
Online: 24 December 2018 (05:09:11 CET)
Logistics in urban areas are currently suffering a radical transformation due to increasingly population concentration and the massive use of cars as the preferred transport mode. These issues have resulted in higher pollution levels in urban environments and traffic congestion impacting the world globally. Facilitating the use of sustainable transport modes is widely regarded as a necessity to cope with these adverse effects on citizens’ life quality. Hence, some regions, as the European Union, are encouraging bus transport firms to make their business models more environmentally and socially sustainable. The aim of this research is thus to explore how practices adopted by urban bus companies can improve cities’ sustainability. With this in mind, a combined Importance Performance Analysis (IPA)-Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method was applied. In this way, both environmental and social sustainability effects of developed practices were represented through hierarchical structures separately. Subsequently, importance and performance ratings of practices in each sustainability dimension were estimated, and thus two IPA grids were generated. These grids support managers in the establishment of more effective action plans to improve logistics sustainability in cities. Findings also provide guidance to governments on the practices that should be promoted in future urban mobility plans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0407.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: participatory sensing; smart city; Internet of Things; distributed event-based systems
Online: 16 November 2018 (11:23:30 CET)
Since smart cities aim at becoming self-monitoring and self-response systems, their deployment relies on close resource monitoring through large-scale urban sensing. The subsequent gathering of massive amounts of data makes essential the development of event filtering mechanisms that enable the selection of what is relevant and trustworthy. Due to the rise of mobile event producers, location information has become a valuable filtering criterion as it not only offers extra information on the event described but also enhances trust on the producer. Implementing mechanisms that validate the quality of location information becomes then imperative. The lack of such strategies in cloud architectures compels the adoption of new communication schemes for IoT-based urban services. To serve the demand for location verification in urban event-based systems (DEBS), we have designed three different fog architectures that combine proximity and cloud communication. Moreover, we have successfully assessed their performance using network simulations with realistic urban traces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0609.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: positioning; ultra-wide band; filtration; Kalman filter; smart city; industry 4.0
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:04:47 CEST)
As a part of the proposed article, the authors presented comprehensive data analysis for movement data that comes from a positioning system based on ultra-wide band (UWB) technology. For purpose of this article, a test was carried out during which the car equipped with cruise control overcame the given path at a speed from 10 km/h to 60 km/h. The obtained motion models (information about position) have been filtered through a series of filters - from fundamentals filters with a variable window (median, moving average, Savitzky-Golay filter), through more complex ones like the Wiener or Kalman filter. As a result, the authors proposed a form of data analysis and filtration depending on the speed of the moving object. In addition, the maximum accuracy that can be obtained for a given traffic model was also determined. The whole research proves that it is possible to use a system based on UWB technology in positioning objects for urban applications - smart city, in industry 4.0 applications as well as for positioning autonomous vehicles in urban applications, such as well as on highways to maintain cohesion of convoys vehicles.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0335.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: distance from coast; air temperature; land use; city size; Japan; Germany
Online: 18 September 2018 (08:57:14 CEST)
The relationship between city size, coastal land use and air temperature rise with distance from coast during summer day is analyzed using the meso-scale Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model in five coastal cities in Japan with different sizes and coastal land use (Tokyo, Osaka, Nagoya, Hiroshima and Sendai) and inland cities in Germany (Berlin, Essen and Karlsruhe). Air temperature increased as distance from the coast increased, reached its maximum, and then decreased slightly. In Nagoya and Sendai, the number of urban land use in coastal areas is less than the other three cities, where air temperature is a little lower. As a result, air temperature difference between coastal and inland urban area is small and the curve of air temperature rise is smaller than those in Tokyo and Osaka. In Sendai, air temperature in the inland urban area is the same as in the other cities, but air temperature in the coastal urban area is a little lower than the other cities, due to about one degree lower sea surface temperature influenced by the latitude. In three German cities, the urban boundary layer may not develop sufficiently because the fetch distance is not enough.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0195.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: thermal comfort; green spaces; South American city; urban morphology; climate perception
Online: 23 March 2018 (05:03:39 CET)
This paper presents a research carried out in the city of Chillan, a medium size city located on the southern limit of the Chilean Mediterranean domain, at 36º 36`s south latitude. Chillán provides a good representative example of warm summers in central and southern Chilean cities. Five public spaces were selected, representing different typologies and relating to different urban background conditions. Users in these public spaces were observed, counted and photographed five times a day (12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 hours, local time) during a heat wave event in the summer of 2016, while meteorological parameters were established at different points within the public space. The variables evaluated were impervious surfaces, Skyview factor, H/W, azimuth, shadow and radiation. Local public environmental management should pay attention to the complex relations between urban climate, public spaces and thermal comfort since they affect the quality of life of the most vulnerable sectors of the population. This is particularly important given the increasing episodes of high temperatures and intense heat waves occurred in the city of Chillán in recent summers, which are related to urban heat islands and climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1098.v1
Subject: Engineering, Transportation Science And Technology Keywords: signalized intersections; intelligent transport systems; adaptive traffic control; sustainable smart city concept
Online: 16 November 2023 (14:28:06 CET)
Efficient traffic systems control in large cities with complex traffic management of signalized intersections is a challenging task, particularly when dealing with high traffic volumes. The city of Zagreb faces this challenge, as all administrative and governmental institutions are located in the old city centre, and routes for escorted vehicles have a significant impact on the traffic network. This paper addresses the issue of the impact of unconditional priority for escorted vehicles on the energy efficiency of the urban traffic network in the city of Zagreb. The traffic network model is developed by using the PTV Vissim microsimulation software. The evaluation was conducted with node (delay, queue length, number of stops) and network evaluation parameters (CO2 emission, NOx emission, PM10 emission, and fuel consumption). The results show that unconditional priority has minimal impact on energy consumption and exhaust emission in the observed scenario. This is a significant result considering all actions that have to be done to manage the passage of the escorted vehicles through the traffic network.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: old city regeneration; sustainability; plug-in design; public space; Xudi-Gaodijie area
Online: 7 August 2023 (11:37:48 CEST)
The current regeneration mode of public space in the old city of Guangzhou is ineffective, thus necessitating supplementation with a more systematic methodology. The “plug-in design” targets sustainable regeneration while preserving the overall urban texture and context, i.e., has little impact on the spatial qualities of the old city. The ultimate goal is to activate the public space of the old city of Guangzhou point-to-area through the insertion of various plug-ins. In this study, the methodology is applied to Xudi Gaodi Street, the core area of the old city of Guangzhou, to explore its effects on sustainability. The internal public space is isolated and supplied with rigid and flexible plug-ins from multiple dimensions, which not only improves the spatial environment but also injects new urban formats. This work provides a specific solution for regeneration in Guangzhou’s old city while enhancing empirical knowledge of the plug-in design to support urban regeneration theory and further practical development.