ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0162.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, General & Theoretical Physics Keywords: Circuit Complexity; Supersymmetry; QFT
Online: 10 June 2022 (16:12:58 CEST)
Computation of circuit complexity has gained much attention in the Theoretical Physics community in recent times to gain insights about the chaotic features and random fluctuations of fields in the quantum regime. Recent studies of circuit complexity take inspiration from the geometric approach of Nielsen, which itself is based on the idea of optimal quantum control in which a cost function is introduced for the various possible path to determine the optimum circuit. In this paper, we study the relationship between the circuit complexity and Morse theory within the framework of algebraic topology using which we study circuit complexity in supersymmetric quantum field theory describing both simple and inverted harmonic oscillators up to higher orders of quantum corrections. The expression of circuit complexity in quantum regime would then be given by the Hessian of the Morse function in supersymmetric quantum field theory, and try to draw conclusion from their graphical behaviour. We also provide a technical proof of the well known universal connecting relation between quantum chaos and circuit complexity of the supersymmetric quantum field theories, using the general description of Morse theory.
Online: 6 February 2020 (04:02:21 CET)
Learning models of the cerebellum propose that the cerebellum implements an algorithm which makes iterative adjustments to synaptic transmission strength that collectively determine the response to input in learned patterns following training. We propose instead that pattern recognition and control of firing by output cells are separately handled functions which process independently variable data. This can account for the evidence without a machine learning algorithm. The model is a hybrid of physiological arguments and computational methods used to test and quantify the ideas. We argue inter alia that learning operates at the level of functional groups of Purkinje cells defined by their shared climbing fibre input; Golgi cells have several functions and regulation of parallel fibre activity by Golgi cells is not in the expected way; recoding of input to the cerebellum received in the granular layer converts the number of input variables (variables expressed in mossy fibre input to the system) into a much reduced number of functional variables expressed by internal signals traffic; circuits simultaneously execute separate but integrated functions of pattern memory and output coding; they are able to operate separately because the expression of data used in each varies independently of the other; output rates are not learned but controlled by recent relevant input signals in a window opened by pattern memory; the moment-to-moment probability that a Purkinje cell spikes is synchronised across a microzone; a principal function of functional organisation of Purkinje cells into microzones is to increase resolution of rate coded information received by the output cells of the circuit, and to do so in a very short integration window, so that circuit architecture can be explained partly as a device with this function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0475.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: axon, neuron, electric circuit, capacitance , biophysics, HH model
Online: 18 June 2021 (11:08:11 CEST)
The most common and taught membrane theory assumes that the membrane behaves as a kind of electrical capacitance that is exposed to an electrical current generated by an ionic flow. If this statement is verifiable, it can be confirmed by the laws of physics, mathematics and in particular electricity. We will demonstrate that this hypothesis is not verified and that it is necessary to modify biophysics according to already established and experimentally verified principles of physics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0299.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Circadian rhythms, neural circuit, pacemaker, calcium imaging, behavior
Online: 24 May 2019 (14:07:50 CEST)
Drosophila circadian circuit is one of the best described neural circuits but is complex enough to obscure our understanding of how it actually works. Animals’ rhythmic behavior, the seemingly simple outcome of their internal clocks, relies on the interaction of heterogeneous clock neurons that are spread across the brain. Direct observations of their coordinated network interactions can bring us forward in understanding the circuit. The current challenge is to observe activity of each of these neurons over a long span of time –hours to days– in live animals. Here we review the progress in circadian circuit interrogation powered by in vivo calcium imaging.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Band-gap voltage reference; voltage reference; circuit design
Online: 29 December 2016 (15:47:33 CET)
By using 0.35-um CMOS process, this work achieves a design of analogous band-gap reference voltage circuit with low temperature coefficient. The proposed circuit operates at 3V and generates a reference current of 44 uA. The HSPICE simulation results show the temperature coefficient of this circuit is 23 ppm/℃ at range of -10 ℃ to 100 ℃, and the line regulation (the ratio of output current variation to supply voltage variation) is estimated as 1.95 uA/V from supply voltage variation of 3 V to 5 V. The experimental chip is fabricated and measured. The circuit provides adjustable capability for output voltage among temperature variation of -10 - 100 ℃. The chip area is 534 × 695 um^2. In this new design, the operational amplifier is not necessary. The chip design effort can be great reduced.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0321.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Photonic compact model; silicon photonic integrated circuit (PIC); photonic crystal cavity refractive index sensor; tunable sensing circuit; photonic layout rules
Online: 26 April 2021 (13:39:58 CEST)
Silicon-based photonic integrated circuit (PIC) is a research focus in producing high-density photonics. One of the potential applications of silicon PIC is the sensing and measurement system. In this work, we use the one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D-PhC) cavity design which and utilize it at the PIC level design. The 1D PhC design used as the compact model has the same characteristics as experimentally demonstrated in previous works. The compact model is made from the S-parameter extraction of the 1D-PhC device which is done by using Lumerical FDTD software. The PIC design integrates the 1D-PhC device as a sensing component with a PN-phase shifter (PN-PS) to function as a refractive index (RI) sensor calibration or tuning circuit. A custom design of PN-PS device is used by simulating and extracting the bias voltage-effective index (bias-Neff) data by using Lumerical DEVICE and MODE into the circuit simulator. The circuit-level simulation is done by using Lumerical Interconnect software. Finally, we show the GDSII layout design of the 1D-PhC based photonic sensor calibration circuit with an analysis of generic silicon PIC design rules. The designed PIC is applicable for the bio-sensing applications and photonic SOC component. This work also shows the promise of PIC design approach for further PIC development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0233.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: 3-D printing; circuit milling; circuit design; distributed manufacturing; electronics; electronics prototyping; free and open-source hardware; P2P; P2P manufacturing
Online: 13 August 2018 (16:42:54 CEST)
Barriers to inventing electronic devices involve challenges of iterating electronic designs due to long lead times for professional circuit board milling or high-costs of commercial milling machines. To overcome these barriers this study provides open source (OS) designs for a low-cost circuit milling machine. First, design modifications for mechanical and electrical sub-systems of the OS D3D Robotics prototyping system are provided. Next, Copper Carve, an OS custom graphical user interface, is developed to enable circuit board milling by implementing backlash and substrate distortion compensation. The performance of the OS D3D circuit mill is then quantified and validated for: positional accuracy, cut quality, feature accuracy and distortion compensation. Finally, the return on investment is calculated for inventors using it. The results show by properly compensating for motion inaccuracies with Copper Carve, the machine achieves a motion resolution of 10 microns, which is more than adequate for most circuit designs. The mill is at least five times less expensive than all commercial alternatives and the material costs of the D3D mill are repaid from fabricating 20-43 boards. The results show that the OS circuit mill is of high-enough quality to enable rapid invention and distributed manufacturing of complex products containing custom electronics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0061.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: printed circuit boards; gold; copper; electrochemical leaching; alternating current
Online: 6 October 2022 (09:59:38 CEST)
Modern technologies for recycling electronic waste (e-waste) impose high economic efficiency and environmental safety requirements. Among existing technologies, hydrometallurgy is considered the most promising technology for e-waste recycling. Increasing attention to the chlorination method is associated with the complex recycling of low-grade ores containing noble metals and secondary polymetallic raw materials. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for leaching metals from computer printed circuits (PCBs) pre-crushed in a disintegrator: the processes of chlorine production and hydrochlorination are implemented in one reactor under the action of alternating current (AC) of industrial frequency (50 Hz). It was found that complete leaching of gold is achieved from fine fractions of raw materials containing 0.03% and 0.01% of the gold at an experiment duration of 2 hours, a current density of 0.66 A·cm-2, and a solid/liquid ratio of 8.6 g·L-1. Under the same conditions of the electrochemical leaching process from the fraction of raw material with a gold content of 0.08%, the degree of metal leaching is 80.5%. At the same time, with an increase in the copper content in the raw material from 1.40% to 6.13%, an increase in the degree of its leaching from 84.6% to 95.2%, respectively, is observed. These results will serve as a foundation for developing a complex technology for recovering valuable metals from PCBs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0175.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Parametric excitation; Dry-Friction; Magnetic Spring Force; Electronic circuit
Online: 12 January 2022 (14:33:34 CET)
In this paper, we have shown the electronic circuit equivalence of a mechanical system consists of two oscillators coupled with each other. The mechanical design has the effects of the magnetic, resistance forces and the spring constant of the system is periodically varying. We have shown that the system’s state variables, such as the displacements and the velocities, under the effects of different forces, lead to some nonlinear behaviors, like a transition from the fixed point attractor to the chaotic attractor through the periodic and quasi-periodic attractors. We have constructed the equivalent electronic circuit of this mechanical system and have verified the numerically obtained behaviors using the electronic circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0344.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: BLDC; Dual Rotor; Magnetic Equivalent circuit; Operation mode; TRV
Online: 12 November 2020 (12:03:57 CET)
In this paper, the design process of BLDC adopting the dual rotor method that can reduce the overall size of the motor while generating the same torque as the conventional Permanent Magnet BLDC is analyzed. A simple size is selected by obtaining the torque per rotor volume (TRV), and a method of matching the counter electromotive force by selecting the pole arc of the magnet through a magnetic equivalent circuit is analyzed. Since the efficiency is low because the 120-degree commutation method is selected, the middle stator is optimized through detailed design through the experimental design method. Afterwards, it has the advantage of being able to shift without stopping due to the characteristic of a dual rotor. For this, an analysis of the driving characteristics for each mode is performed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0140.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: Energy Harvesting; energy management circuit; kinetic energy; vibratory transducer
Online: 17 March 2017 (16:58:48 CET)
Since the requirements in terms of power of the electronic applications range wide, the developed Energy Harvesting (EH) systems limit their availability to the less power demanding applications. However, this paper focuses on increasing the energy levels collected in the EH system so that it can be included in more demanding applications in terms of power. Therefore, an electronic system capable of grouping many single harvesting channels into one single system is analyzed in this paper. This multi-harvester electronic system is able to manage efficiently the energy collected by multiple vibratory transducers. The paper includes a comparison of its performance against some of the State-of-the-Art EH energy management circuits that interface the transducers. The method employed to demonstrate the intrinsic efficiency of each of the electronic circuits tested was based on experimental tests, where the average power transferred from several identical and simultaneous electric sources to a single storage element was measured. It was found out that only one energy management circuit was able to increase the transferred energy in a linear way while new input electric sources were added.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0432.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: CMOS analog integrated circuit; FD-SOI; feedback; linearity; operational amplifier
Online: 16 June 2021 (10:20:52 CEST)
Negative feedback to the back gate of MOS devices available in FD-SOI technologies can be used to improve linearity of operational amplifiers. Two operational amplifiers designed and fabricated in a 22nm FD-SOI technology illustrate this technique, its advantages and limitations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0518.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: dsPIC30F4011 microchip; injector driving circuit; fuel injection curves; GDI engines
Online: 30 August 2018 (06:02:46 CEST)
In GDI engine applications, high-pressure (H.P.) injectors typically require to be designed to be capable of rapid response for GDI engines in order to be driven in the rapid response with respect to magnetic actuators, allowing for example more precise air-fuel ratio control in the GDI engines. The H.P. fuel injector is a highly dynamic component requiring careful voltage and pressure input modulation to achieve the required fuel injection quantities of GDI engines. The accurate fuel injection curves are a key influence for this technology, therefore will require the estimation of the fuel ﬂow rate to be realized. In this paper, a PIC microchip for programming injector drive circuits is implemented to improve the performance of a H.P. fuel injector and tested to verify its feasibility. In the proposed injector drive circuit, powers MOSFETs directly control the charging/discharging current by a dsPIC30F4011 microchip. Design and analysis of the proposed injector drive circuit are presented. Next, effects of total pulse width, injector supply voltage, fuel system pressure and PWM operation on fuel injection quantities of a H.P. fuel injector are measured. Also, the measured data of the H.P. fuel injector fed by the injector driving circuit are defined as the fuel injection curves. Finally experimental results are provided for verification of the proposed injector drive circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0028.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control & Systems Engineering Keywords: film resistor; laser trimming; circuit model; oriented graph; transformation of nodes
Online: 2 March 2022 (01:53:40 CET)
This paper considers the principles of building a circuit model of film resistor cutting. The conductive resistive medium is defined with the component equations and the topology of the circuit model. A method of estimating the electric parameters of a resistor operating in the system with a measuring voltage source is shown. An equation system for the node voltages is defined, and the resistive layer parameters are analyzed as the circuit model structure changes during the cutting process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0346.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: MEMS gyroscopes; circuit phase delay; IQ coupling; real-time correction system
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:16:48 CEST)
With the development of designing and manufacturing level for micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) gyroscopes, the control circuit system becomes a key point to determine their internal performances. Nevertheless, phase delay of electron components may result in some serious hazards. This paper describes a real-time circuit phase delay correction system for MEMS vibratory gyroscopes. A detailed theoretical analysis is provided to clarify the influences of circuit phase delay on the in-phase and quadrature (IQ) coupling characteristics and zero rate output (ZRO) utilizing force-to-rebalance (FTR) closed-loop detection and quadrature correction system. By deducing the relationship between amplitude-frequency, phase-frequency of MEMS gyroscope and the phase relationship of the whole control loop, a real-time correction system is proposed to automatically adjust the phase reference value of phase-locked loop (PLL) and thus compensate for the real-time circuit phase delay. The experimental results show that the correction system can accurately measure and compensate the circuit phase delay in real time. Furthermore, the unwanted IQ coupling can be eliminated and the ZRO is decreased by 755% to 0.095°/s. This correction system realizes a small angle random walk of 0.978°/√h, and a low bias instability of 9.458°/h together with a scale factor nonlinearity of 255 ppm at room temperature. Besides, the thermal drift of ZRO is reduced to 0.0034°/s/°C at a temperature range from -20°C to 70°C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0253.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: lithium niobate; waveguide; photonic integrated circuit; optical lithography; chemo-mechanical polish
Online: 23 July 2019 (10:03:57 CEST)
We demonstrate fabrication of single-mode optical waveguides on lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) by optical patterning combined with chemo-mechanical polishing. The fabricated LNOI waveguides have a nearly symmetric mode profile of a mode field size of ~2.5 µm (full-width at half maximum). We develop a high-precision measurement approach by which the single mode waveguides are characterized to have a propagation loss of ~0.042 dB/cm.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: lithium niobate; waveguide; photonic integrated circuit; optical lithography; chemo-mechanical polish
Online: 8 July 2019 (04:09:54 CEST)
We report fabrication of a multifunctional photonic integrated chip on lithium niobate on insulate (LNOI), which is achieved by femtosecond laser assisted chemo-mechanical polish. We demonstrate a high extinction ratio beam splitter, a 1 × 6 optical switch, and a balanced 3 × 3 interferometer on the fabricated chip by reconfiguring the microelectrode array integrated with the multifunctional photonic circuit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0013.v2
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: temperature modulation; gas sensors; volatile organic compounds; electronic nose; conditioning circuit
Online: 23 April 2018 (11:47:33 CEST)
This paper consists of the design and implementation of a simple conditioning circuit to optimize the electronic nose performance, where a temperature modulation method was applied to the heating resistor to study the sensor’s response and confirm whether they are able to make the discrimination when exposed to different volatile organic compounds (VOC’s). This study was based on determining the efficiency of the gas sensors with the aim to perform an electronic nose, improving the sensitivity, selectivity and repeatability of the measuring system, selecting the type of modulation (e.g., pulse width modulation) for the analytes detection (i.e., Moscatel wine samples (2% of alcohol) and ethyl alcohol (70%)). The results demonstrated that by using temperature modulation technique to the heating resistors, it is possible to realize the discrimination of VOC’s in fast and easy way through a chemical sensors array. Therefore, a discrimination model based on principal component analysis (PCA) was implemented to each sensor, with data responses obtaining a variance of 94.5% and accuracy of 100%.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0078.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: printed circuit heat exchanger; airfoil fin; supercritical LNG; thermal-hydraulic performance
Online: 12 October 2017 (05:19:21 CEST)
As a new kind of highly compact and efficient micro-channel heat exchanger, printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is a promising candidate satisfying the heat exchange requirements of liquefied natural gas (LNG) vaporization at low and high pressure. The effects of airfoil fin arrangement on heat transfer an flow resistance were numerically investigated using supercritical liquefied natural gas (LNG) as a working fluid. The thermal properties of supercritical LNG were tested by utilizing a REFPROF software database. Numerical simulation was performed using FLUENT. The inlet temperature of supercritical LNG was 121 K,and its pressure was 10.5MPa. The reference mass flow rate of LNG was set 1.22 g/s for the vertical pitch Lv = 1.67 mm and the staggered pitch Ls = 0 mm, with the Reynolds number of about 3750. The SST k-ω model with enhanced wall treatment was selected by comparing with the experimental data. The airfoil fin PCHE had better thermal-hydraulic performance than that of the straight channel PCHE. Moreover, the airfoil fins with staggered arrangement displayed better thermal performance than that of the fins with parallel arrangement. The thermal-hydraulic performance of airfoil fin PCHE was improved with increasing Ls and Lv. Moreover, Lv affected on the Nusselt number and pressure drop of airfoil fin PCHE more obviously. In conclusion, a sparser staggered arrangement of fins showed a better thermal-hydraulic performance in airfoil fin PCHE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0131.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electromagnetic devices; Iron losses; LS model; Magnetic equivalent circuit; Models coupling
Online: 30 January 2017 (08:20:38 CET)
In this paper, an original approach allowing the determination of the iron losses in the electromagnetic devices is presented. This new approach exploits the Loss Surface (LS) hysteresis model and the magnetic flux density waveforms resulting from a generalized nonlinear adaptive magnetic equivalent circuit (MEC) using a mesh-based formulation in two-dimensional (2-D) or quasi three-dimensional (3-D). The model coupling has been applied to a 18-slots/16-poles radial-flux interior permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous machine (PMSM) dedicated to automotive applications, mainly for electric/hybrid/fuel cell vehicles (EVs/HEVs/FCVs). The obtained results have been compared with those made retrospectively in the 2-D transient finite-element (FE) Flux. The influence of the MEC discretization on the iron loss calculation and the electromagnetic performances has been analyzed. The computation time is divided by 3/2 with an error less than 7 %.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0157.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biotechnology Keywords: neural; circuit; synthetic; biology; brain; neuron; psychiatry; neurology; development; connectome; synapse; engineering
Online: 8 August 2022 (11:12:57 CEST)
Recent biotechnological innovations make feasible the new paradigm of creating biological neural circuits de novo. With advances in protein, cell and tissue engineering techniques, as well as cellular reprogramming methods, we are entering an era where the construction of neural circuits can open completely new ways for studying nervous systems and for treating nervous system disorders. I explore here three technologies, namely cellular engraftment, neuronal reprogramming and transsynaptic molecule engineering, and delineate how they are being used in a variety of basic research and translational medicine contexts. In basic neuroscience, neural circuit construction methods are enabling ways to study causality in neural development (e.g. neural precursor differentiation and migration) and circuit function (e.g. excitation/inhibition balance, neural population dynamics). In translational neuroscience, they are providing opportunities for the targeted correction of circuit malfunction in brain disorders, both psychiatric (e.g. schizophrenia) and neurological (e.g. Parkinson’s, Huntington’s and Alzheimer’s disease, as well as epilepsy). I discuss the challenges that these methods currently face, such as targeting specificity and cell survival, and outline future paths and opportunities to realize the full potential of technologies for creating new biological neural circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0576.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Ball bearing; Fractional Lorenz chaos system; Extension theory; Chua’s Circuit Fault diagnosis
Online: 30 July 2018 (10:00:57 CEST)
In this study we used a non-autonomous Chua’s Circuit, and the fractional Lorenz chaos system together with a detection method from Extension theory to analyze the voltage signals. The measured bearing signals by acceleration sensor were introduced into the master and slave systems through a Chua’s Circuit. In a chaotic system minor differences can cause significant changes that generate dynamic errors, and extension matter-element models can be used to judge the bearing conditions. Extension theory can be used to establish classical and sectional domains using the dynamic errors of the fault conditions. The results obtained were compared with those from Discrete Fourier Transform analysis, Wavelet analysis and an integer order chaos system. The diagnostic ratio showed the fractional order master and slave chaos system calculations. The results show that the method presented in this paper is very suitable for monitoring the operational state of ball bearing system to be superior to the other methods. The diagnosis ratio was better and there were other significant advantages such as low cost and few.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0401.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Electric arc furnace; Arc short circuit; transient power quality; transient voltage; voltage sag
Online: 20 January 2021 (14:24:47 CET)
Three-phase AC electric arc furnace (EAF) is a typical non-linear load, causing many power quality problems. Most of the researches on the voltage problems of EAF mainly focus on the voltage fluctuation, and less on the transient voltage problems caused by EAF short circuit and open circuit. In this paper, the relationship between voltage and current of EAF is obtained by combining hyperbolic function and exponential function, then the white noise and chaotic circuit are added to establish the EAF model which is suitable for the study of voltage fluctuation and transient voltage. This paper analyzes the causes of the transient voltage problem of the EAF, calculates the short-circuit current, reactive impact and the influence on voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC) in the three-phase short-circuit of the EAF, and compares the calculation results with the simulation results to prove the accuracy of this model. The results show that the reactive impact of three-phase short circuit is about twice as much as that of normal operation of EAF, resulting in about 30% voltage sag at the PCC, which is very unfavorable to the power grid. This paper provides reference for transient power quality evaluation and dynamic reactive power compensation of EAF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0127.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy & Fuel Technology Keywords: fault location; service restoration; particle swam optimization; microgrid; power flow; short-circuit fault
Online: 12 September 2019 (03:59:27 CEST)
This work aims to develop an integrated fault location and restoration approach for microgrids (MGs). This work contains two parts. Part I presents the fault location algorithm, and Part II shows the restoration algorithm. The proposed algorithms are implemented by particle swarm optimization (PSO). The fault location algorithm is based on network connection matrices, which are the modifications of bus-injection to branch-current and branch-current to bus-voltage (BCBV) matrices, to form the new system topology. The backward/forward sweep approach is used for the prefault power flow analysis. After the occurrence of fault, the voltage variation at each bus is calculated by using the Zbus modification algorithm to modify Zbus. Subsequently, the voltage error matrix is computed to search for the fault section by using PSO. After the allocation of the fault section, the multi-objective function is implemented by PSO for optimal restoration with its constraints. Finally, the IEEE 37-bus test system connected to distributed generations is utilized as the sample system for a series simulation and analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the proposed optimal algorithm can effectively solve the fault location and restoration problem in MGs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0119.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics Keywords: lithium niobate; waveguide; photonic integrated circuit; propagation loss; optical lithography; chemo-mechanical polishing
Online: 7 October 2018 (10:34:27 CEST)
We develop a technique for realizing lithium niobate on insulator (LNOI) waveguides of a multi-centimeter-length with a propagation loss as low as 0.027 dB/cm. Our technique relies on patterning a chromium (Cr) thin film coated on the top surface of LNOI into a hard mask with a femtosecond laser followed by the chemo-mechanical polishing for structuring the LNOI into the waveguides. The surface roughness on the waveguides is determined to be 0.452 nm with an atomic force microscope (AFM). The approach is compatible with other surface patterning technologies such as optical and electron beam lithographies or laser direct writing, enabling high-throughput manufacturing of large-scale LNOI-based photonic integrated circuits.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0506.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Economics Keywords: Commercial banks, Interest rate, Money creation, Monetary circuit of production, Resource distribution, Seigniorage
Online: 29 August 2018 (16:02:56 CEST)
This article evaluates the macroeconomic implications of commercial bank seigniorage, which emerges from the commercial banks’ power to create money in a fractional reserves regime. After evaluating the impact on aggregate output of commercial bank money relative to alternative exchange arrangements, the article identifies the determinants of commercial bank seigniorage and analyzes how equilibrium prices are determined in an economy where commercial banks extract seigniorage. The article also identifies the conditions under which commercial banks extract seigniorage, clarifies the relationship between seigniorage from commercial bank money creation and profits from pure financial intermediation, and shows how commercial bank seigniorage changes with different types of interbank payments settlement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0260.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: AISI 1045; Co-simulation; High-Frequency Induction Heat Treatment; Metal Phase Transformation; RLC Circuit
Online: 13 October 2020 (07:13:08 CEST)
Based on electromagnetic heat transfer and metal phase transformation co-simulations, we modeled an AISI 1045 specimen under high-frequency heat treatment. Hardening zone predictions were confirmed through cooling and metal phase transformation simulations after obtaining the results from electromagnetic heat transfer simulations. The cooling process was modeled by applying the cooling coefficient of the cooling water in the same way as the actual heat-treatment process. To obtain the current flowing through the coil during high-frequency induction heating, the voltage was measured and applied using the resistance–inductance–capacitance circuit calculation method. Experimental and simulated results of the heating temperature and curing depth of an AISI 1045 specimen with a carbon content of 0.45% were compared; the comparison indicated good agreement between the two. Using the simulation results, we established a method for obtaining the current flowing through the induction coil for predicting the extent and depth of the hardening zone during high-frequency induction heat treatment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0401.v1
Subject: Materials Science, Metallurgy Keywords: e-waste; e-waste mechanical pretreatment; disintegration; e-waste milling; printed circuit boards; precious metals
Online: 23 August 2022 (17:24:51 CEST)
Various metals and semiconductors containing Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs) are abundant in any electronic device equipped with controlling and computing features. These devices inevitably constitute E-waste after the end of service life. The typical construction of PCBs includes mechanically and chemically resistive materials, which significantly reduce the reaction rate or even avoid accessing chemical reagents (dissolvents) to target metals. Additionally, the presence of relatively reactive polymers and compounds from PCBs requires high energy consumption and reactive supply due to the formation of undesirable and sometimes environmentally hazardous reaction products. Preliminarily milling PCBs into powder is a promising method for increasing the reaction rate and avoiding liquid and gaseous emissions. Unfortunately, current state-of-the-art milling methods also lead to the presence of significantly more reactive polymers still adhered to milled target metal particles. This paper aims to find a novel single and two-stage disintegration-milling approach that can provide the formation of metal-rich particle size fractions. The morphology, particle fraction sizes, bulk density, and metal content in produced particles were measured and compared. Research results show the highest bulk density (up to 6.8 g·cm-3) and total metal content (up to 95.2 wt. %) in finest sieved fractions after the single-step milling of PCBs. Therefore, the concentrations of about half tested metallic elements are higher in the single milled specimen and with lower adhered plastics concentrations, as compared to double milled specimens.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: finite element method; hybrid magnetic equivalent circuit; the air gap flux density distribution; rotor shape.
Online: 6 July 2021 (12:21:49 CEST)
Recently, the demand for electric vehicle is increasing worldwide due to eco-friendly policies and stricter emission regulations. As a traction motor for electric vehicle, interior permanent magnet synchronous motors are mainly used. For the design of the interior permanent magnet synchronous motor, the magnetic equivalent circuit method, which is a method of lumped constant circuit, and the finite element method, which is a method of distributed constant circuit, mainly are used. Magnetic equivalent circuit method is useful for simple design through fast and intuitive parameters, but it cannot derive the distribution of magnetic field. The finite element method can derive an accurate magnetic field distribution, but it takes a long time to analyze and it is difficult to analyze intuitive design parameters. In this paper, magnetic equivalent circuit method and Carter coefficient are mixed for rotor structure design. This design method will be called the hybrid magnetic equivalent circuit method. Intuitive design parameters are derived through this hybrid magnetic equivalent circuit method. We will derive the Air gap flux density distribution according to rotor shape, no-load induced voltage, and cogging torque, and compare and verify it with the finite element method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0626.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Quantum Gravity; General Relativity; Cosmology; Circuit Complexity; AdS space time; Quantum Extremal Islands; Black Holes
Online: 26 May 2021 (08:48:25 CEST)
Recently in various theoretical works, path-breaking progress has been made in recovering the well-known Page Curve of an evaporating black hole with Quantum Extremal Islands, proposed to solve the long-standing black hole information loss problem related to the unitarity issue. Motivated by this concept, in this paper, we study cosmological circuit complexity in the presence (or absence) of Quantum Extremal Islands in negative (or positive) Cosmological Constant with radiation in the background of Friedmann-Lemaî tre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) space-time. Without using any explicit details of any gravity model, we study the behaviour of the circuit complexity function with respect to the dynamical cosmological solution for the scale factors for the above mentioned two situations in FLRW space-time using squeezed state formalism. By studying the cosmological circuit complexity, Out-of-Time Ordered Correlators, and entanglement entropy of the modes of the squeezed state, in different parameter space, we conclude the non-universality of these measures. Their remarkably different features in the different parameter space suggests their dependence on the parameters of the model under consideration.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0279.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: circuit breaker; switching arc; optical emission spectroscopy; ablation; current zero; SF6 alternative gases; CO2; PTFE
Online: 12 August 2020 (09:41:36 CEST)
Wall–stabilized arcs dominated by nozzle–ablation are key elements of self–blast circuit breakers. In the present study, high–current arcs were investigated using a model circuit breaker (MCB) in CO2 as gas alternative to SF6 and in addition a long polytetrafluoroethylene nozzle under ambient conditions for stronger ablation. The assets of different methods for optical investigation were demonstrated, e.g. high-speed imaging with channel filters and optical emission spectroscopy. Particularly the phase near current zero (CZ) crossing was studied in two steps. In the first step using high-speed cameras, radial temperature profiles have been determined until 0.4 ms before CZ in the nozzle. Broad temperature profiles with a maximum of 9400 K have been obtained from analysis of fluorine lines. In the second step, the spectroscopic sensitivity was increased using an intensified CCD camera, allowing single-shot measurements until few microseconds before CZ in the MCB. Ionic carbon and atomic oxygen emission were analyzed using absolute intensities and normal maximum. The arc was constricted and the maximum temperature decreased from >18000 K at 0.3 ms to about 11000 K at 0.010 ms before CZ. The arc plasma needs about 0.5-1.0 ms after both the ignition phase and the current zero crossing to be completely dominated by the ablated wall material.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0272.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: ambient human energy, piezoelectric energy harvester, RC circuit model, self-powered device, wireless PPG sensor
Online: 24 July 2019 (11:50:43 CEST)
A new circuit model of the self-powered device for heart rate measurement is presented in this paper. This device consists of piezoelectric energy harvester (PEH), power management circuit (PMC) with energy storage, microcontroller, Photoplethysmography (PPG) sensor, and Wi-Fi module. The PEH is placed under the insole to harvest the pressure energy from human foot-step to generate ac power. In our model, a PEH is represented by sine voltage source, where its parameters were taken from experiments with 20 volunteers. The PMC is simplified by a switch with gain δ placed in series with the main circuit. The model of the main circuit is RC elements in parallel, where C is the capacitance of the storage device, and R is the equivalent parallel resistance of the microcontroller, PPG sensor, and Wi-Fi modules, respectively. The value of R depends on the power and current absorbed by those modules during sleep, deep sleep, sense, and transmit modes which collected from the datasheet. Finally, the proposed circuit model of the self-powered device was built and simulated in SPICE. The simulation results were compared with the laboratory experiment using commercial devices. Based on the results, the proposed model had small gaps compared to the real self-powered devices in terms of average current, voltage, power and efficiency.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0189.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: compensation techniques; dynamic voltage restore; harmonic distortion; power quality; short circuit; voltage sag; voltage swell
Online: 28 February 2018 (05:35:56 CET)
Power quality is a major concern in electrical power systems. The power quality disturbances such as sags, swells, harmonic distortion and other interruptions have impact on the electrical devices and machines and in severe cases can cause serious damages. Therefore it is required to recognize and compensate all types of disturbances at an earliest to ensure normal and efficient operation of the power system. To solve these problems, many types of power devices are used. At the present time, one of those devices, Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is the most efficient and effective device used in power distribution system. In this paper, design and modeling of a new structure of multifunctional DVR for voltage correction is presented. The performance of the device under different conditions such as voltage swell, voltage sag due to symmetrical and unsymmetrical short circuit, starting of motors, and voltage distortion are described. Simulation result shows the superior capability of proposed DVR to improve power quality under different operating conditions. The proposed new DVR controller is able to detect the voltage disturbances and control the converter to inject appropriate voltages independently for each phase and compensate to load voltage through three single- phase transformers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0155.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: electrical machine; field weakening; IEM-formula; wind energy; iron loss; synchronous generator; equivalent circuit; harmonic loss
Online: 24 October 2017 (04:52:15 CEST)
During flux weakening operation time (FWOT), the total iron loss rises and affects the accuracy of loss prediction and efficiency especially if a large range of FWOT exists. Iron loss prediction is widely employed in investigations for a fast electrical machine analysis using 2-D FEA. This paper studies harmonic loss analytically by a steady-state equivalent circuit. Consideration of skin effects and iron saturation are utilized in order to examine the accuracy through the relative error distribution in the frequency domain of each model from 50 to 700 Hz. Additionally, this comparative study presents a torque-frequency-flux density calculation over each single term of the modified IEM-formula. The analytical calculation is performed using 2-D FEA for a classic and modified IEM-formula along with experimental verifications on a surface-mounted PMSG for a wind generation application.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0074.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Solid-state DC circuit breaker; Coupled inductor; Pole-to-ground fault protection; LVDC(Low voltage DC) microgrid protection
Online: 5 July 2021 (07:58:00 CEST)
Ensuring a protection scheme in DC distribution is more difficult to achieve against pole-to-ground fault than in AC distribution system because of the absence of zero crossing points and low line impedance. To complement the major obstacle of limiting the fault current, several compositions have been proposed related to mechanical switching and solid-state switching. Among them, solid-state circuit breakers(SSCBs) are considered a possible solution to limit fast fault current. However, they may cause problems in circuit complexity, reliability and cost-related troubles due to the use of multiple power semiconductor devices and additional circuit configuration to commutate current. This paper proposes the SSCB with a coupled inductor(SSCB-CI) which has symmetrical configuration. The circuit is comprised of passive components like commutation capacitors, a CI and damping resistors. Thus, proposed SSCB-CI offers the advantages of simple circuit configuration and fewer utilized power semiconductor devices than another typical SSCBs in LVDC microgrid. For analysis, six operation states are described for the voltage across main switches and fault current. The effectiveness of the SSCB-CI against a short-circuit fault is proved via simulation and experimental results in a lab-scale prototype.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0740.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Elliptical dipole antenna; EM/circuit co-simulation; Low-cost; Low-Power; RF oscillator; RTLS; Ultrawide band antennas; Power gating
Online: 30 June 2021 (16:00:12 CEST)
The goal of this paper is to present a low-cost, low-power prototype of a pulsed Ultra Wide Band UWB) oscillator and an UWB elliptical dipole antenna integrated on the same Radio Frequency (RF) Printed Circuit Board (PCB) and its digital control board for Real Time Locating System (RTLS) applications. The design is compatible with IEEE 802.15.4 high rate pulse repetition UWB standard being able to work between 6 GHz and 8.5 GHz with 500 MHz bandwidth and with a pulse duration of 2 ns. The UWB system has been designed using the CST Microwave Studio transient Electro-Magnetic (EM) circuit co-simulation method. This method integrates the functional circuit simulation together with the full wave (EM) simulation of the PCB’s 3D model allowing fast parameter tuning. The PCB has been manufactured and the entire system has been assembled and measured. Simulated and measured results are in excellent agreement with respect to the radiation performances as well as the power consumptions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0026.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: analog circuit design; buffer amplifiers; offset voltage's systematic component; voltage followers; operational amplifiers; depletion-mode; СMOS; JFET; Si; GaAs; GaN
Online: 5 May 2022 (08:42:15 CEST)
The authors of the article performed computer simulation of buffer amplifiers (BA), which have medium and extremely small values of the offset voltage's systematic component (Voff), for different technological processes (Si, GaAs and GaN). The proposed control units are distinguished by a small number of elements and allow operation in the range of low and high temperatures. The variants of circuitry implementation of control units based on GaAs, GaN depletion-mode CMOS and JFET technological processes are considered. The results of the comparative modeling showed that the basic circuit of the BA on two field-effect transistors, when implemented on various modifications of GaN MOS and depletion-mode MOS transistors, provides sufficiently low values of the offset voltage's systematic component (less than 2 μV). The proposed BAs are designed for use in the structure of the Sallen-Key low-pass filter (LPF) when they are implemented both on mid-frequency Si CJFET and on GaAs microwave transistors. Low values of the LPF Voff have a positive effect on the effective capacity of the ADC. An example of switching on a BA in the JFET OpAmp structure based on the depletion-mode MOS input stage and a “folded” cascode, which, with 100% negative feedback, can be used in the Sallen-Key LPF, is considered. Computer simulation of the JFET/MOS OpAmp showed that the OpAmp has an open-loop voltage gain of 76-85dB, and its Voff is within 7µV in the temperature range from -60°C to +120°C. The presented circuitry of buffer amplifiers is intended, first of all, for the tasks of designing precision Sallen-Key low-pass filter (low-pass filter, high-pass filter, PF, RF).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0135.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Applied Mathematics Keywords: algorithmic information theory; universal distribution; Kolmogorov complexity; quantum algorithms; quantum circuit model; quantum Turing machine; genomics; viral genomics; meta-biology
Online: 4 February 2021 (12:04:02 CET)
Inferring algorithmic structure in data is essential for discovering causal generative models. In this research, we present a quantum computing framework using the circuit model, for estimating algorithmic information metrics. The canonical computation model of the Turing machine is restricted in time and space resources, to make the target metrics computable under realistic assumptions. The universal prior distribution for the automata is obtained as a quantum superposition, which is further conditioned to estimate the metrics. Specific cases are explored where the quantum implementation offers polynomial advantage, in contrast to an indispensable exhaustive enumeration in the corresponding classical case. The unstructured output data and the computational irreducibility of Turing machines make this algorithm impossible to approximate using heuristics. Thus, exploring the space of program-output relations is one of the most promising problems for demonstrating quantum supremacy using Grover search that cannot be dequantized. Experimental use cases for quantum acceleration are developed for self-replicating programs and algorithmic complexity of short strings. With quantum computing hardware rapidly attaining technological maturity, we discuss how this framework will have significant advantage for various genomics applications in meta-biology, phylogenetic tree analysis, protein-protein interaction mapping and synthetic biology. This is the first time experimental algorithmic information theory is implemented using quantum computation. Our implementation on the Qiskit quantum programming platform is copy-left and can be found on https://github.com/Advanced-Research-Centre/QPULBA
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0290.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: circuit breaker; switching arc; optical emission spectroscopy; optical absorption spectroscopy; current zero; SF6 alternative gases; CO2; PTFE; Swan bands; CuF
Online: 13 August 2020 (06:00:47 CEST)
Molecule radiation can be used as a tool to study colder regions in switching arc plasmas like arc fringes in contact to walls and ranges around current zero (CZ). This is demonstrated in the present study for the first time for the case of ablation-dominated high–current arcs as key elements of self–blast circuit breakers. The arc in a model circuit breaker (MCB) in CO2 with and an arc in a long nozzle under ambient conditions with peak currents between 5 and 10 kA were studied by emission and absorption spectroscopy in the visible spectral range. The nozzle material was polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) in both cases. Imaging spectroscopy was carried out either with high-speed cameras or with intensified CCD cameras. A pulsed high-intensity Xe lamp was applied as background radiator for the broad-band absorption spectroscopy. Emission of Swan bands from carbon dimers was observed at the edge of nozzles only or across the whole nozzle radius with highest intensity in the arc center, depending on current and nozzle geometry. Furthermore, absorption of C2 Swan bands and CuF bands were found with the arc plasma serving as background radiator. After CZ, only CuF was detected in absorption experiments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0356.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Information Technology & Data Management Keywords: quantum computing; quantum computing framework; quantum simulator; quantum technology; quantum theory; quantum mechanics; quantum circuit; quantum algorithm; ibm qiskit; notebooks jupyter
Online: 22 December 2021 (12:00:48 CET)
The shortage of quantum computers, and their current state of development, constraints research in many fields that could benefit from quantum computing. Although the work of a quantum computer can be simulated with classical computing, personal computers take so long to run quantum experiments that they are not very useful for the progress of research. This manuscript presents an open quantum computing simulation platform that enables quantum computing researchers to have access to high performance simulations. This platform, called QUTE, relies on a supercomputer powerful enough to simulate general purpose quantum circuits of up to 38 qubits, and even more under particular simulations. This manuscript describes in-depth the characteristics of the QUTE platform and the results achieved in certain classical experiments in this field, which would give readers an accurate idea of the system capabilities.
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Algebra & Number Theory Keywords: thin film transistor (TFT); organic light emitting diode (OLED); compensation circuit; luminance degradation; artificial intelligence; deep neural network; convolutional neural networks
Online: 29 April 2021 (09:10:06 CEST)
We propose a deep learning algorithm that directly compensates for luminance degradation owing to the deterioration of organic light emitting diode (OLED) devices to address the burn-in phenomenon of OLED displays. Conventional compensation circuits are encumbered by a high cost of development and manufacturing processes owing to their complexity. However, given that deep learning algorithms are typically mounted on a system on chip (SoC), the complexity of the circuit design is reduced, and the circuit can be reused by re-learning only the changed characteristics of the new pixel device. The proposed approach comprises deep feature generation and multi-stream self-attention, which decipher the importance of the variables, and the correlation between burn-in-related variables. It also utilizes a deep neural network that identifies the nonlinear relationship between the extracted features and luminance degradation. Thereafter, the luminance degradation is estimated from the burn-in-related variables, and the burn-in phenomenon can be addressed by compensating for the luminance degradation. The experimental results revealed that compensation was successfully achieved within an error range of 4.56%, and demonstrate the potential of a new approach that can mitigate the burn-in phenomenon by directly compensating for pixel-level luminance deviation.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0714.v2
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Earthquake reconnaissance; damage assessment; data sources; data collection; fieldwork surveys; closed-circuit television videos (CCTV); remote sensing (RS); crowdsourcing platforms; social media (SM)
Online: 4 October 2021 (14:54:59 CEST)
Earthquakes are one of the most catastrophic natural phenomena. After an earthquake, earthquake reconnaissance enables effective recovery by collecting building damage data and other impacts. This paper aims to identify state-of-the-art data sources for building damage assessment and provide guidance for more efficient data collection. We have reviewed 38 articles that indicate the sources used by different authors to collect data related to damage and post-disaster recovery progress after earthquakes between 2014 and 2021. The current data collection methods have been grouped into seven categories: fieldwork or ground surveys, omnidirectional imagery (OD), terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), remote sensing (RS), crowdsourcing platforms, social media (SM) and closed-circuit television videos (CCTV). The selection of a particular data source or collection technique for earthquake reconnaissance includes different criteria depending on what questions are to be answered by this data. We conclude that modern reconnaissance missions can not rely on a single data source and that different data sources should complement each other, validate collected data, or systematically quantify the damage. The recent increase in the number of crowdsourcing and SM platforms used to source earthquake reconnaissance data demonstrates that this is likely to become an increasingly important source of data.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0685.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: Physics, Helmholtz Hamiltonian Mechanics, stringmetrics, Electromagnetism, Pauli Dirac Planck circuit like monopole particle assembly, Gage, asymmetric\strings\gage\metrics, Transforms, SUSY, Quantum Astrophysics.
Online: 30 July 2021 (09:20:05 CEST)
This article will continue ansatz gage matrix of Iyer Markoulakis Helmholtz Hamiltonian mechanics points’ fields gage to Pauli Dirac monopole particle fields ansatz gage general formalism at Planck level, by constructing a Pauli Dirac Planck circuit matrix field gradient of particle monopole flow loop. This circuit assembly gage (PDPcag) that maybe operating at the quantum level, demonstrates the power of point fields matrix theoretical quantum general formalism of Iyer Markoulakis Helmholtz Hamiltonian mechanics transformed to Coulomb gage metrics, to form eigenvector fields of magnetic monopoles as well as electron positron particle gage metrics fields. Eigenvector calculations performed based on Iyer Markoulakis quantum general formalism are substituted for gage values of typical eigenvectors of dipolar magnetically biased monopoles with their conjugate eigenvectors, as well as eigenvector fields that are of the electron and positron particles. Then they are compiled to form combinatorial eigenvector matrix bundle of the monopole particle circuit field constructs assembly. Evaluation of this monopole particle fields matrix provided eigenvector fields results like SUSY, having Hermitian quantum matrix with electron-positron annihilation alongside north and south monopoles collapsing to dipolar “stable” magnetism, representing electromagnetic gaging typical metrics fields. Applying experimental observations on magnetic poles with measuring magnetic forces John Hodge’s results were showing asymmetrical pole forces; author has mathematically constructed asymmetric\strings\gage\metrics to characterize electromagnetic gravity, putting together while integrating with stringmetrics gravity that author has been reporting in earlier published articles. Physical Analysis with generalization of mass-charge and charge-fields gage metrics to quantum relativity gage metrics fields are proposed based on author’s proof formalism paper providing derivational algorithmic steps, to determine gage parametric values within the equation of Coulomb gage. Vortex fields’ wavefunctions and the scalar potential characterized by a function and a coupling constant having quantum density matrix together define the gage metrics quantifiable observable measurement physics of electron-positron cross-diagonal fields; contrastingly, diagonal terms of PDPcag matrix characterizes electron-positron particle eigenvector fields, while Hilbert Higgs mass metrics characterizes eigen-matter. Author is already working with Christopher O’Neill about magic square symmetry configurations to quantitatively understand symmetry, structure, and the real space geometry that are expected to form out of vacuum quanta point fields’ quantitative quantum general formalism theory of Iyer Markoulakis. In addition, author is currently collaborating with Manuel Malaver’s astrophysical Einstein Minkowski modified space time metrics evaluations of the sense-time-space relativistic general metrics to have means to account for curving or shaping of spacetime topology of a five-dimensional sense-time-space. Manuel Malaver’s specialization with modified Einstein Maxwell equations for modeling galaxies and stars cosmological physics, utilizing Einstein-Maxwell-Tolman- Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordström spacetime and black holes theoretical formalisms have author of this paper collaboratively model quantum astrophysics of dark energy Star’s theory with Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity equations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0082.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: current source; diode; divergent current density; new superconductivity type; zero voltage; symmetric electric circuit; Meissner effect; electric potential; vector potential; Lorentz conservation law
Online: 4 July 2019 (17:26:56 CEST)
This paper proposes a method of extracting energy from zero-point energy and evaluates the amount of energy gained. In addition, this electric circuit-based approach exhibits the Meissner effect, suggesting a new type of superconductivity that does not require refrigeration. The proposed method can provide extremely large amounts of energy, which is more than a conventional power station, without consuming fossil fuels or emitting radiation. Thus, it has the potential to solve the global energy problem. It involves preparing two electric loops containing diodes and connecting the loops together with current sources. The diodes are oriented in the same direction within each loop but in opposite directions in different loops. With this setup, the currents from the current sources build iteratively within the loops, resulting in large output currents. Our numerical analysis indicates that extremely large electric potentials are produced, which in turn yield large output currents. In addition, we confirm numerically that the voltage is zero around a loop and show analytically that the Meissner effect is present, proving the existence of a new type of superconductivity. Furthermore, when we introduce induction coils to not break the loop’s symmetry, they store extremely large amounts of energy and we can thus obtain energy from them via discharge currents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0160.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Strain gauge load cell; machine design; axial force measurement; force test bench; shape optimiza-tion; finite element method (FEM); Wheatstone bridge; amplifier circuit; calibration test
Online: 13 September 2022 (05:47:32 CEST)
The load cell is an indispensable component of many engineering machinery and industrial automation for measuring and sensing force and torque. This paper describes the design and analysis of the strain gauge load cell, from the conceptional design stage to shape optimization (based on the finite element method (FEM) technique) and calibration, providing ample load capacity with low-cost material (aluminum 6061) and highly accurate force measurement. The amplifier circuit of the half Wheatstone bridge configuration with two strain gauges has been implemented experimentally with an actual load cell prototype. The calibration test was conducted to evaluate the load cell characteristics and derive the governing equation for sensing the unknown load depending on the measured output voltage. The measured sensitivity of the load cell is approximately 15 mV/N and 446.8 µV/V at a maximum applied load of 30 kg. The findings are supported by FEM results and experiments with an acceptable percentage of errors, which revealed an overall error of 6% in the worst situation. Therefore, the proposed load cell meets the design considerations for axial force measurement for the laboratory test bench, which has a light weight of 20 g and a maximum axial force capacity of 300 N with good sensor characteristics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201911.0033.v2
Subject: Physical Sciences, Condensed Matter Physics Keywords: temperature-independent superconductivity; circuit-approached superconductivity; electron pair; Bose–Einstein condensation; large superconducting energy gap; London equation; Meissner effect; macroscopic wave function; critical current density; negative voltages
Online: 15 July 2020 (03:30:06 CEST)
This paper proposes a method to generate a new type of superconductivity that is temperature independent with a high critical current density. This study is significant because the method does not require refrigeration, specific setups, or specific substances. That is, the method for generating the superconductivity is very simple. Many conventional superconductor studies have not yet reached this point. Moreover, compared with our previously developed superconductivity (PNS) [1-3], the critical currents in this study are much larger, which is important for practical applications. In the theoretical approaches, even though the mechanism of pairing, and the Bose–Einstein condensation are the same in this study as in PNS, the present paper emphasizes the mechanism of the Meissner effect in addition to formulating the critical current density. Further, we establish a simulation method with an equivalent circuit that reveals the superconductivity properties in terms of the transport current and the electromagnetic characteristics.The principles of the presented system are as follows:First a voltage source, a current source and a load are connected in series.Then, the voltage of the voltage source is adjusted to balance the voltage of the load.Under this condition, the balance of the two voltages provides a zero voltage between the taps of the current source and the generated current from the voltage source becomes zero because of the internal infinite resistance of the current source.As a result, the electric power generated by the two sources is zero, and therefore, the load cannot generate Joule heating because of energy conservation.However, the current from the current source (not the voltage source) is not zero; therefore, we can predict that the resistance of the load must be zero.A summary of our theory and numerical calculations is as follows. First, the strong combination of a two-electron pair is demonstrated. Then, given that two electrons combine extremely strongly because of the spin magnetic attractive force, analytical calculations of the center-of-mass motion of the Hamiltonian of the pair eventually result in a macroscopic wave function. From this macroscopic wave function, we derive a London equation using the concept of an internal toroid. The key point is that, when a sample exhibits a Meissner effect, it should release the additional energy from the internal magnetic field as a discharge current, which involves a negative voltage. Based on the inductance of this toroid, an equivalent circuit is produced. Using this circuit, we simulate this phenomenon, which results in the generation of a negative voltage and evidence of the Meissner effect, in addition to zero voltages and non-zero currents for the sample.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0062.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical & Electronic Engineering Keywords: piezoelectric cantilever energy harvester 1; autonomous 2; adaptive 3; self-powered 4; voltage doubler interface circuit 5; closed loop control 6; feed-forward 7; multi-shot technology 8
Online: 12 January 2017 (10:45:23 CET)
The abundant mechanical vibration energy in bridge road environment can be converted into electric energy by using the piezoelectric energy harvest technology, which could be an efficient way to provide energy required by the wireless sensor network in the bridge condition monitoring system. An autonomous energy harvesting system has been designed based on cantilever beams for sensing and acquiring the bridge vibration energy. After the analysis of the dynamic properties of the piezoelectric cantilever beam in the energy conversion, three kinds of interface circuits were compared through simulation and experimental results. It was shown that the VD interface circuit has less power loss. Furthermore, the proposed closed loop control method based on the VD circuit was simple, adaptive, and self-powered, which is suitable for the road energy harvesting application. Finally, the energy harvesting system based on VD circuit was realized with harvested power of around 0.8mW.