ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0574.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Eucalypt chlorophyll-a reflectance ratio; Eucalypt chlorophyll-b reflectance ratio; vegetation identification; Sentinel-2; Planet Dove
Online: 23 November 2020 (09:27:41 CET)
The scale and accessibility of passive global surveillance have rapidly increased over time. This provides an opportunity to calibrate the performance of models, algorithms, and reflectance ratios between remote sensing devices. Here we test the sensitivity and specificity of Eucalypt chlorophyll-a reflectance ratio (ECARR) and Eucalypt chlorophyll-b reflectance ratio (ECBRR) to remotely identify eucalypt vegetation in Queensland, Australia. We compare reflectance ratio values from Sentinel-2 and Planet imagery across four sites of known vegetation composition. All imagery was transformed to reflectance values and Planet imagery was additionally scaled to harmonize across Planet Scenes. ECARR can identify eucalypt vegetation remotely with high sensitivity, but shows low specificity and is impacted by the density of the vegetation. ECBRR reflectance ratios show similar sensitivity and specificity when identifying eucalypt vegetation but with values an order of magnitude smaller than ECARR. We find that ECARR was better at identifying eucalypt vegetation in the Sentinel-2 imagery than Planet imagery. ECARR can serve as a general chlorophyll indicator but is not a specific index to identify Eucalyptus vegetation with certainty.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0112.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Cyanobacteria; Chlorophyll d; acaryochloris; NIR; photosynthesis; stromatolite
Online: 12 April 2022 (11:59:49 CEST)
Abstract: The genus Acaryochloris is unique among phototrophic organisms due to the dominance of chlorophyll d in its photosynthetic reaction centres and light-harvesting proteins. This allows Acaryochloris to capture light energy for photosynthesis over an extended spectrum of up to ~760 nm in the near infra-red (NIR) spectrum. Acaryochloris sp. has been reported in a variety of ecological niches, ranging from polar to tropical shallow aquatic sites. Here, we report a new Acarychloris strain isolated from an NIR-enriched stratified microbial layer 4-6 mm under the surface of stromatolite mats located in the Hamelin Pool of Shark Bay, Western Australia. Pigment analysis, by traditional spectrometry/fluorometry, flow cytometry and spectral confocal microscopy identify unique patterns in pigment distribution that likely reflect niche adaption. For example, unlike the original A. marina species (type strain MBIC11017), this new strain, Acarychloris LARK001, shows little change in the chlorophyll d/a ratio in response to changes in light wavelength, displays a different Fv/Fm response and lacks detectable levels of phycocyanin. Indeed, 16S rRNA analysis supports the identity of the A. marina LARK001 strain as distinct from the A. marina HICR111A strain first isolated from Heron Island, previously found on the Great Barrier Reef, under coral rubble on the reef flat. Taken together, A. marina LARK001 is a new cyanobacterial strain adapted to the stromatolite matts in Shark Bay.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0071.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: chlorophyll-a; downwelling; IOD; small pelagic fish; upwelling
Online: 2 November 2020 (19:45:51 CET)
Although researchers have investigated widely the impact of IOD phases on human lives, only a few have examined such impacts on fisheries. In this study, we analyzed the influence of negative (positive) of IOD on a chlorophyll a (Chl-a) concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and small pelagic fish production in the eastern Indian Ocean (EIO) off Java. We also conducted field surveys in the EIO off Palabuhanratu Bay at the peak (October) and the end (December) of the 2019 positive IOD phase. Our findings show that the Chl-a concentration had a strong and robust association with the 2016 (2019) negative (positive) IOD phases. The negative (positive) anomalous Chl-a concentration in the EIO off Java associated with the negative (positive) IOD phase induced strong downwelling (upwelling), leading to the preponderant decrease (increasing) of small pelagic fish production in the EIO off Java.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0327.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; remote sensing; ecosystems; spring-summer; forest
Online: 14 August 2020 (12:11:37 CEST)
The European heatwave of 2018 led to record-breaking temperatures and extremely dry conditions in many parts of the continent resulting in widespread decrease in agricultural yield, early tree-leaf senescence, and increase in forest fires in Northern Europe. Our study aims to capture the impact of the 2018 European heatwave on terrestrial ecosystem through the lens of a high-resolution solar-induced fluorescence (SIF) data acquired from the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) satellite. SIF is proposed to be a direct proxy for gross primary productivity (GPP) and thus can be used to draw inferences about changes in photosynthetic activity in vegetation due to extreme events. We explore spatial and temporal SIF variation and anomaly during spring and summer months across different vegetation types (agriculture, broadleaved forest, coniferous forest, and mixed forest) during the European heatwave of 2018 and compare it to non-drought conditions (most of Southern Europe). About one-third of Europe’s land area experienced a consecutive spring and summer drought in 2018. Comparing 2018 to mean (2015-2017) conditions, we found a change in intra-spring season SIF dynamics for all vegetation types, with lower SIF during the start of spring followed by an increase in fluorescence from mid-April. Summer, however, showed a significant decrease in SIF. Our results show that particularly agricultural areas were severely affected by the hotter drought of 2018. Furthermore, the intense heat wave in Central Europe showed about 31% decrease in SIF values during July and August as compared to the mean over three previous years. Furthermore, our MODIS and OCO-2 comparative results indicate that especially for forests, OCO-2 SIF has a quicker response and possible higher sensitivity to drought in comparison to MODIS’s fPAR and NDVI when considering shorter reference periods, which highlights the added value of remotely sensed solar-induced fluorescence for studying the impact of drought on vegetation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0091.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: coast; chlorophyll-a; COVID 19; social distancing; water
Online: 6 May 2020 (04:05:08 CEST)
The COVID 19 related social distancing is hypothesized can affect the environmental quality including the air and water quality. Correspondingly, this study aims to study how the reduction of activities of people living near the rivers and the coastal areas due to social distancing may decrease the discharges of materials and nutrients to the water body. The chlorophyll-a was used as bio indicators of nutrient contents related to the anthropogenic activities in the coast. The study was conducted in the Jakarta coast considering that this coast was surrounded by populated cities with total population equal to 16 million people. The chlorophyll-a was measured in mg/m3 and monitored using remote sensing data from January to April 2020 representing the period before and after the implementation of social distancing. The determinant environmental factor measured was sea surface temperature (0C). The study considered that there were reductions of levels and areas of chlorophyll-a in the coast. The chlorophyll-a levels were reduced from January to April (p<0.05). The chlorophyll-a levels for January, February, March, and April were 7.36 mg/m3 (95%CI: 6.34-8.37), 7.90 mg/m3 (95%CI: 7.32-8.47), 6.52 mg/m3 (95%CI: 5.37-7.66), and 4.21 mg/m3 (95%CI: 3.34-5.07) respectively. However, the differences of chlorophyll-a were not influenced by the sea surface temperature factor (p>0.05). Based on remote sensing data in January and February, the sizes of coastal areas with chlorophyll-a levels >7.00 mg/m3 were larger than areas observed in March and April. Contrarily, the coastal area sizes with low chlorophyll-a levels <5.00 mg/m3 were increasing in April. To conclude the dynamic of anthropogenic activities in coastal setting is responsible and associated with the water quality and nutrient contents as indicated by chlorophyll-a levels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201909.0152.v1
Subject: Chemistry, Medicinal Chemistry Keywords: chlorophyll; carotenoids; methanol; photo-protection; phytoextraction; Portulaca oleracea
Online: 15 September 2019 (15:04:55 CEST)
The chlorophyll is one of the most important natural pigments used extensively in the food industry. Two important factors for the production of chlorophyll are the use of plants rich in chlorophyll and efficiency of extraction method. Present investigation was performed to compare the extraction of photosynthetic pigments by using solvents of different chemical nature. The purslane plants with different growth behavior viz. Scrollable and standing were grown under shade and sunshine stress condition. Different solvents including diethyl ether, 5% ethanol, pure acetone, 20% acetone, pure methanol and 10% methanol were used to extract chlorophyll and carotenoids from the purslane plant. The results indicated that stress, growth type and different solvents had a significant effect on the extraction of chlorophyll and carotenoids. Different trend was observed in extraction rate for chlorophylls and carotenoids. Among the solvents, pure methanol was the best for extraction of chl a. Methanol and acetone were appropriate solvents to achieve the highest amount of chlorophyll from plant tissues. Among different solvents, pure methanol for chl a, pure acetone and methanol for carotenoids were best solvent for purslane plant with a growing type scrollable of under shade.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0227.v2
Subject: Biology, Horticulture Keywords: oxidative stress; enzymatic antioxidants; malondialdehyde; membrane permeability; chlorophyll
Online: 28 March 2019 (11:15:50 CET)
Scarcity of water is one of the most serious concerns in plant biology with diverse implications at all the levels of molecular, biochemical, and physiological phenomena of plant growth, development, and consequently the productivity. Most of the strategies to induce or enhance drought tolerance in plants are unreasonably expensive and/or time-consuming. Some studies conducted in the recent past have shown that plant growth regulators (PGRs) may induce/improve physiological tolerance in plants to cope with adverse environmental conditions including drought. The present study was aimed at investigating the effects of foliar spray of GABA (0, 1, 2, and 4 mM) applied 20 days following the germination of seeds, on vegetative growth, morphological characteristics, integrity of cell-membrane, and the levels of photosynthetic pigments and enzymatic antioxidants in carrot cvs. Supertaj and Bharat, grown under 100% and 50% field capacity of soil moisture. The treated and untreated (control) carrot plants were harvested and analyzed 2 weeks following the GABA application. The results revealed that foliar application of GABA improved the vegetative growth and significantly increased the levels of free amino acids, plastid pigments, enzymatic antioxidants, and the relative water content in the root crop grown under 50% field capacity of soil moisture, compared to control. Additionally, the GABA application decreased the electrolyte leakage of ions and melondialdehyde (MDA) content in carrot leaves. The carrots harvested from GABA-treated or untreated (control) plants were not significantly different for their protein contents. In conclusion, the incorporation of GABA in the production management of carrots may help plants to mitigate the adverse effects of water deficit stress.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0301.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: Grain yield; reflectance; chlorophyll; semi-arid; grain filling; Algeria
Online: 20 July 2022 (10:23:42 CEST)
: Our study aim to test the influence of RGB reflectance and chlorophyll content on grain fill and grain yield of 15 durum wheat cultivars sown under semi-arid conditions. the evolution of chlorophyll content during three stages showed a stability during the heading stage, the chlorophyll content begins at this degradation during grain filling. Boutaleb genotype which was the best yielding genotype was characterized by low values of RGB reflectance and high values of majority of grain filling parameters and thousand kernels weight. Grain filling follows a sigmoid curve. Chlorophyll content was positively correlated with reflectance under the green band and negatively with both Red and Blue bands. A positive correlation was recorded between thousand kernel weight and grain yield, maximum grain dry weight and grain filling duration. The duration of the grain filling was positively influenced by the maximum dry weight of the grain and negatively by the grain filling ratio, the grain filling ratio was positively affected by reflectance at blue band. The principal component analysis separated the cultivars considered into 3 principal components, the absorption/reflectance component, the profitability component and the component of grain filling rate to which the local landrace Boutaleb belongs in terms of grain yield.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0478.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: antioxidant activity; chlorophyll; glycinebetaine; membrane stability index; salt stress
Online: 25 August 2021 (08:19:23 CEST)
Tagetes genus of Composite family consider one of the most favorite floriculture plant. Therefore, of particular interest examine the salt tolerance of this bedding and coloring agent plant. In this research, was report the role of glycinebetaine (GB) in attenuating the adverse impacts of salt stress in African marigold plant, along with their anti-oxidative capacities and biochemical attributes. The salt stressed African marigold (100 and 150 mM NaCl) was treated with GB at 200 mM, beside untreated control plants. According to the obtained results, the growth characters were negatively in salt stressed plants but a mitigate impact of GB were observed in this respect. Obviously, the morphological as well as some physiological characters were reduced with salinity treatments while GB treatment reverses these effects. Overall, the alleviate impact of GB on the negative impact of salt stress was enhanced through improving total phenolic and antioxidant enzyme activity. Further, it is concluded that GB concentration induces the activities of antioxidative enzymes which scavenged ROS increased under saline conditions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0379.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; fog system; greenhouse; energy flux; OJIP; photosynthesis
Online: 17 February 2021 (10:48:01 CET)
The low relative humidity (RH) levels in a greenhouse during the daytime in a strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch) cultivation period negatively affect the growth of strawberry related to photo-physiology. Therefore, this study was conducted to confirm an efficient RH management method by analyzing the phenotypic characteristics related to photo-physiology by controlling the RH in a greenhouse during the daytime with a fog system. Strawberry plants were grown respectively in a greenhouse affected by natural RH changes (control) and in a greenhouse with 40% ~ 50% RH adjusted during the daytime using a fog system. In the greenhouse, with controlled RH, the temperature decreased, and the RH was higher in the initial growth stage of strawberry planting than the control. It was observed a significant increase in the survival rate of the strawberry plant, as well as the incidence of powdery mildew, was lowered. In addition, the photosynthetic rate and OJIP chlorophyll a fluorescence transients related to photosystem II efficiency of strawberry leaves were significantly higher in the fog treatment than in the control. In winter, during the day, the number of days on which the temperature dropped below 20℃ has increased, the greenhouse temperature with controlled RH was lower due to the fog system. When the yield per strawberry plant in January and February was investigated, the control was higher than the RH treatment. Therefore, RH management using a fog system must be controlled at a level where a temperature range is adequate for plant growth, in which the efficient control of these parameters increases strawberry productivity.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Leaf monoterpene emission; heath stress; chlorophyll fluorescence; photosynthesis; grapevine
Online: 30 December 2020 (16:51:05 CET)
Rising temperature is among the most remarkably stressful phenomena induced by global climate changes with negative impacts on crop productivity and quality. It has been previously shown that volatiles belonging to the isoprenoid family can confer protection against abiotic stresses. In this work, two Vitis vinifera cv. ‘Chardonnay’ clones (SMA130 and INRA809) differing for a mutation of the DXS gene encoding for 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate (the first dedicated enzyme of the 2C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) pathway) and involved in the regulation of isoprenoids biosynthesis were investigated in field trials and laboratory experiments. Leaf monoterpene emission, chlorophyll fluorescence and gas-exchange measurements were assessed over three seasons at different phenological stages and either carried out in vivo or controlled conditions under contrasting temperatures. A significant (p<0.001) increase in leaf monoterpene emission was observed in INRA809 when plants were experiencing high temperatures and over two experiments while no differences were recorded for SMA130. Significant variation was observed for the rate of leaf CO2 assimilation under heat stress, with INRA809 maintaining higher photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance values than SMA130 (p=0.003) when leaf temperature increased above 30°C. At the same time, maximum photochemical quantum yield of PSII (Fv/Fm) was affected by heat stress in the non-emitting clone (SMA130), while the INRA809 showed a significant resilience of PSII under elevated temperature conditions. Consistent data were recorded between field seasons and temperature treatments in controlled environment conditions suggesting a strong influence of monoterpene emission on heat tolerance under elevated temperatures. This work provides further insights on the photoprotective role of isoprenoids under high temperatures in Vitis vinifera and additional studies should focus at unravelling the mechanisms underlying heat tolerance on the monoterpene-emitter grapevine clone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0005.v1
Subject: Biology, Forestry Keywords: birch; chlorophyll; leaves’ damage; plants’ pathogens; roots; secondary metabolites
Online: 2 August 2020 (08:47:32 CEST)
The purpose of this study was to better understand the interactive impact of two soil-borne pathogens, Phytophthora cactorum (as the primary pathogen) and Armillaria gallica (as secondary), on two-year-old seedlings of silver birch (Betula pendula) subjected to stress caused by mechanical defoliation simulating primary insect feeding. One year after treatments, the chlorophyll fluorescence measurement and gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to analyze the photosynthetic activity in leaves, the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by birch leaves and chemical compounds from roots. Only the infection of roots by P. cactorum increased photosynthetic rates in the leaves, which may suggest its cryptic development in contrast to fungi. The birch leaves in seedlings exposed to 50% defoliation, inoculation with P. cactorum and A. gallica emitted more aromatic carbonyls and alcohols, as well as half as much aliphatic esters, compared to untreated controls. In infected birch roots, the production of phenols, triterpenes and fatty alcohols increased, but fatty acids decreased. This was the first experimental confirmation of the pathogenicity of P. cactorum on silver birch seedlings in Poland. The most severe damage to roots took place only in the case of two-way or three-way interactions. Higher levels of aromatic carbonyls and alcohols in leaves, as well as phenolic compounds in roots of stressed birches (compared to control) suggest an activation of plant systemic acquired resistance (SAR).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0330.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: biostimulant; carotenoids; chlorophyll; IBA; leaf senescence; NAA; phenology; soluble proteins
Online: 21 December 2021 (12:40:44 CET)
Some biostimulants, including plant origin preparations, act similarly to plant hormones. Moreover, the supplementation of known and unknown rooting cofactors can stimulate rhizogenesis in cuttings. The aim of this research was to assess the response of difficult-to-root and long-rooting stem cuttings of the once-blooming old variety Rosa ‘Hurdal’ to preparations of plant origin. The hypothesis was that plant origin preparations could enhance rooting processes by inhibiting chlorophyll a/b degradation in leaves and postponing leaf senescence, simultaneously increasing the quality of cuttings. The one-bud stem cuttings were made in four phenological stages: (H1) flower buds closed, (H2) open flowers, (H3) just after petal fall, (H4) 7-14 days after petal shedding. They were treated with either standard commercial powder preparations containing 0.4% indolebutyric acid (IBA) or 0.2% naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) as well as with commercial plant origin preparations that this work will henceforth refer to as: Algae Extract, Organic Preparation, and Plant Extract. The cuttings were evaluated after 12 weeks of rooting them in two substrates: peat-perlite and peat-sand (v:v; 1:1). Mean root percentages for both substrates were noted after preparation from stage H1 (74.5 %), H2 (59.5 %), H3 (50.8 %) shoots. The H4 cuttings didn’t root at all and were not considered further. The means for all phenology stages together were the highest by the use of 0.6 % Algae Extract, 0.012 % and 0.02 % Organic Preparation, 0.2 % and 0.4 % Plant Extract. The lowest means were reported for the control cuttings as well as NAA and IBA treatment. Plant origin preparations encouraged growth parameters but did not unequivocally inhibit the decrease of chlorophyll content in the cuttings’ leaves. Rooting percentage depended on the quality of cuttings as well as chlorophyll a/b and soluble protein content in leaves in both rooting substrates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0131.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall.; cold stress; chlorophyll fluorescence; photosynthesis; antioxidant enzymes
Online: 17 March 2017 (04:46:21 CET)
Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall., live in Changbai Mountain being exposed to chilling temperature, high light intensities and water scarcity condition. To adapt to the harsh environment, the cold resistance mechanisms of R. chrysanthum have been successfully evolved in the long-term adaptive process. In our present work, the methods of proteomics combined with physiological and biochemical analyses were used to investigate the effects of cold stress on the photosynthesis and antioxidant system of Rhododendron chrysanthum Pall. and the molecular mechanisms involved in cold resistance of plants. A total of 153 photosynthesis related proteins were identified in present work, of which 7 proteins including Rubisco large subunit (rbcL) were up-regulated in experiment group (EG) compared with control group (CG). Simultaneously, four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters were measured in present study. The results showed that the maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), actual quantum yield of PSII (Y(II)) and photochemical quenching (qP) were significantly higher in EG, whereas the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was notably decreased. Cold stress could lead to a significant reduction in electron transport rate (ETR) accompanied with an increase in excitation pressure (1-qP). The abundance of PetE which involved in the plants photosynthetic electron transfer was also significantly influenced by cold stress. Moreover, the up-regulated expressions and higher levels of enzymatic activities of Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and Ascorbate peroxidases (APXs) were detected in EG. All these changes which can help plants to survive in low temperature are considered as the crucial parts of cold tolerance mechanisms. These results revealed that photosynthesis and redox adjustment play significant roles in the defense of cold-induced damage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0062.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: Nicotiana tabacum; solanesol; RNA-seq; solanesyl diphosphate synthase; gene expression; chlorophyll
Online: 18 September 2016 (10:45:27 CEST)
Solanesol is a noncyclic terpene alcohol composed of nine isoprene units and it mainly accumulates in solanaceous plants, especially tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). Here, RNA-seq analyses of tobacco leaves, stems, and roots were used to identify solanesol biosynthesis genes. Six 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase, two 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase, two 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate cytidylyltransferase, four 4-diphosphocytidyl-2-C-methyl-d-erythritol kinase, two 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase, four 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate synthase, two 1-hydroxy-2-methyl-2-(E)-butenyl 4-diphosphate reductase, six isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase, and two solanesyl diphosphate synthase (SPS) genes were identified to be involved in solanesol biosynthesis. Furthermore, the two N. tabacum SPS (NtSPS1 and NtSPS2), which had two conserved aspartate-rich DDxxD domains, were highly homologous with SPS enzymes from other solanaceous plant species. In addition, the solanesol contents of three organs, and leaves from four growing stages, corresponded with the distribution of chlorophyll. Our findings provide a comprehensive evaluation of the correlation between the expression of different biosynthetic genes and the accumulation of solanesol in tobacco.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0437.v1
Subject: Biology, Plant Sciences Keywords: cyanobacteria; Phormidium; Cyanothece; culture growth; light; chlorophyll; carotenoids; phycocyanin; phycoerythrin; allophycocyanin; phycobiliproteins
Online: 28 January 2022 (12:21:12 CET)
Cyanobacteria are extensively studied and cultured because they can produce many value-added substances among which are pigments, mainly the phycobiliproteins phycocyanin (PC), phycoerythrin (PE), allophycocyanin (APC) and chlorophyll-a and carotenoids as well. As numerous cyanobacterial species await optimization for maximizing pigment production, we examined here two local marine species, Phormidium sp. and Cyanothece sp. batch cultured under 18-19.5 oC, at 40 ppt salinity with Walne’s nutrient medium, using white LED light of low (2000 lux) and high (8000 lux) intensity and additionally blue, green and red LED light. Significant differences were found among the intensities and colors of light used. Maximum growth was induced by high white light in both species (2.15 g dw/L in Phormidium and 1.47 g/L in Cyanothece). Next to them was green light (1.25 g/L) in Cyanothece and low white and green (1.26 – 1.33 g/L) in Phormidium. Green light maximized phycocyanin content in Phormidium (0.45 mg/mL), while phycoerythrin was maximized (0.17 mg/mL) by blue light and allophycocyanin by all colors (~0.80 mg/mL). All colors maximized phycocyanin in Cyanothece (~0.32 mg/mL) while phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin were maximized under green light (~0.138 and 0.38 mg/mL respectively). In Phormidium maximization of chlorophyll-a (9.3 μg/mL) was induced by green light while total carotenoids and b-carotene (3.05 and 0.89 μg/mL respectively) by high white light. In Cyanothece both white light intensities along with green light maximized chlorophyll-a content (~9 μg/mL) while high white light and green maximized total carotenoids (2.6-3.0 μg/mL).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0390.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: tomato; low night temperature; flower; fruit; chlorophyll content, electrolyte conductivity; proline; photosynthesis
Online: 15 June 2021 (09:22:19 CEST)
Low night temperature (LNT) can be a practical and economical target in tomato breeding programs in terms of energy saving in greenhouses. This study was conducted to investigate the physiological responses to LNT using four tomato accessions of cherry and large fruit types with LNT tolerance and sensitivity grown in two greenhouses with night temperature set-points of 10 and 15°C for heating. LNT significantly reduced plant height regardless of fruit types and LNT tolerance. The number of flowers were significantly reduced in 10°C in cherry but not in large fruit types. Fruit set in 10°C was significantly lower in LNT sensitive accessions than tolerant ones regardless of fruit types, which was due to abnormal flower morphology in 10°C. Proline accumulation patterns between 10 and 15°C significantly differed between fruit types as well as between LNT tolerant and sensitive accessions. Chlorophyll content in 10 °C was significantly higher at later growth stages in LNT tolerant accessions than sensitive ones in both fruit types. No clear difference in photosynthetic parameters was observed between fruit types or tolerance and sensitive accessions except for photosynthetic rate, which was significantly lower in tolerant than sensitive accessions during early growing period. These results suggest that different tomato fruit types may have different mechanisms for LNT tolerance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0684.v1
Subject: Biology, Ecology Keywords: Chlorophyll Fluorescence; SIF; Drought; Spectral Vegetation Indices; GOME-2; Abiotic Stress; Caatinga
Online: 30 August 2020 (18:24:28 CEST)
Sun-Induced chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF) relates directly to photosynthesis yield and stress but there are still uncertainties in its interpretation. Most of these uncertainties concern the influences of the emitting vegetation’s structure (e.g., leaf angles, leaf clumping) and biochemistry (e.g., chlorophyll content, other pigments) on the radiative transfer of fluorescent photons. The Caatinga is a large region at northeast Brazil of semiarid climate and heterogeneous vegetation, where such biochemical and structural characteristics can vary greatly even within a single hectare. With this study we aimed to characterize eleven years of SIF seasonal variation from Caatinga vegetation (2007 to 2017) and to study its responses to a major drought in 2012. Orbital SIF data from the instrument GOME-2 was used along with MODIS MAIAC EVI and NDVI. Environmental data included precipitation rate (TRMM), surface temperature (MODIS) and soil moisture (ESA CCI). To support the interpretation of SIF responses we have used red and far-red SIF adjusted by the Sun’s zenith angle (SIF-SZA) and by daily Photosynthetically Active Radiation (dSIF). Furthermore, we have also adjusted SIF through two contrasting formulations using NDVI data as proxy for structure and biochemistry, based on previous leaf-level and landscape level studies: SIF-Yield and SIF-Prod. Data was tested with time-series decomposition, rank correlation, spatial correlation and Linear Mixed Models (LMM). Results show that GOME-2 SIF and adjusted SIF formulations responded consistently to the observed environmental variation and showed a marked decrease in SIF emissions in response to a 2012 drought, that was generally larger than the corresponding NDVI and EVI decreases. Drought sensitivity of SIF, as inferred from LMM slopes, was correlated to land cover at different regions of the Caatinga. This is the first study to show correlation between landscape-level SIF and an emergent property of ecosystems (i.e., resilience), showcasing the value of remotely sensed fluorescence for ecological studies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0097.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: fluorescence; absorption; chlorophyll-a; remote sensing; hyperspectral; ocean color; IOP; TAPIR; EnMAP
Online: 14 February 2018 (07:11:09 CET)
The Total Algae Peak Integration Retrieval TAPIR relates the chlorophyll-a absorption coefficient at 440 nm (a440) to the reflectance peak near 683 nm induced by chlorophyll-a properties. The two-step retrieval provides both the hyperspectral quantification of the phytoplankton fluorescence and scattering and the estimation of a440 from reflectance signals. Integrating the peak, the Total Algae Peak (TAP) accounts for the variance in the peak's magnitude, shape, and central peak wavelength. TAPIR is a solely optical approach estimating a440 and supports the application of retrieval-independent individual regional bio-optical models afterwards to retrieve the chlorophyll-a concentration. Simulations reveal the major sensitivity on the considered model chlorophyll-a absorption spectrum and its single scattering albedo. Additional water and atmosphere constituents have a low impact. An uncertainty assessment reveals uncertainties of less than 30% for TAPIR a440 greater than 0.8 m-1 and less than 38% for lower a440. In optically complex waters, first validation efforts promise the applicability of TAPIR for high chlorophyll-a concentration estimations in the presence of additional water constituents. The technique is generic and considers external conditions (sun zenith angle, number of measurement bands, surface or satellite measurements, and radiometric quantity). TAPIR applies to all kind of waters including optically complex waters, arctic to tropical regions, and inland, coastal, and open ocean waters. Among other hyperspectral satellite sensors, the Environmental Mapping and Analysis Program (EnMAP) provides sufficient sampling bands for the application of TAPIR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0395.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: chilling requirement; chlorophyll fluorescence; non-photochemical quenching; PAM; photoprotection; stress resilience; winter dormancy
Online: 26 September 2022 (11:01:44 CEST)
Dormancy is a physiological state that confers winter hardiness to and orchestrates phenological phase progression in temperate perennial plants. Weather fluctuations caused by climate change increasingly disturb dormancy onset and release in many plant species including tree crops leading to aberrant growth, flowering, and fruiting. Currently, research in this field is impeded by the lack of affordable non-invasive methods for on-line monitoring of dormancy. We report on an automatic framework for low-cost, long-term, and scalable dormancy studies in deciduous plants. The proposed method is based on continuous near-field sensing of the photosynthetic activity of shoots via pulse-amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorescence sensors connected remotely to a data processing system. The resulting high-resolution time series of JIP-test parameters indicative of the responsiveness of the photosynthetic apparatus to environmental stimuli are subjected to frequency-domain analysis. The proposed approach allows to overcome the variance coming from diurnal changes of insolation and to derive estimations on the depth of dormancy. Our approach was validated over three seasons in an experimental apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) orchard by collating the non-invasive estimations with the results of traditional methods (growing of the cuttings obtained from the tress at different phases of dormancy) and the output of commonly used chilling requirement models. We discuss the advantages of the proposed monitoring framework such as prompt detection of freeze damages along with its potential limitations.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: aerial vehicle; algal bloom index; autonomous; chlorophyll-a mapping; GNDVI; NDVI; surface vehicle; unmanned
Online: 19 January 2021 (09:14:00 CET)
The current study investigated the use of two-dimensional spatial distribution mapping representing the chlorophyll-a level in a river generated via an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and an unmanned surface vehicle (USV). A domestically developed UAV (Remo-M, Uconsystem Inc., Korea) and a USV developed by our research team were used to collect data from the Nae Seong stream in Korea. An adaptation of the “Data Cleaner” tool was developed and used for USV data processing and analysis. The operation of the autonomous USV was successful. Four previously described indices for quantifying algal blooms in rivers were utilized to create chlorophyll-a images, the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), the normalized green red difference index, the green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI), and the normalized difference red edge index. The suitability of the linear regression analysis of the correlation between the spectral indices obtained using the UAV and the in situ chlorophyll-a data obtained using the USV was evaluated with the coefficient of determination (R2) at a significance level of p < 0.001. In field application and correlational analysis the NDVI was strongly correlated with chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.88, p < 0.001), and the GNDVI was moderately correlated with chlorophyll-a (R2 = 0.74, p < 0.001). The map of chlorophyll-a was successfully quantified using the UAV and USV hybrid platforms.
TECHNICAL NOTE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0386.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: remote sensing; water quality; chlorophyll concentration; suspended sediment; sentinel-2; sentinel-3; open science
Online: 31 January 2020 (11:59:22 CET)
Easy to use satellite-based water quality visualizations are needed for monitoring and understanding coastal and inland waters, but to date, no publicly accessible real-time global visualization system was in place. Here we introduce the Ulyssys Water Quality Viewer (UWQV), a Sentinel Hub EO Browser Custom script designed for qualitative views of aquatic chlorophyll and suspended sediment concentrations. The viewer avoids unmixing of the chlorophyll and suspended sediment spectral signal by visualizing these parameters together, with high concentrations of suspended sediment obscuring chlorophyll if present. Cloud masking uses the Hollstein and Braaten algorithms (existing EO Browser custom script code), additionally water surfaces are masked using the Normalized Differential Water Index. Chlorophyll is estimated using reflectance line height-based indicators such as fluorescence line height and maximum chlorophyll index. Suspended sediment is visualized based on single-band reflectances at 620 or 700 nm. Data sources are Sentinel-2 and Sentinel-3 images, allowing either 20 m spatial resolution or up to daily imaging. This visualization system is easy to operate and interpret, and combined with the data service capacity of the Sentinel Hub, it is expected that UWQV will contribute to monitoring of remote water bodies and to our overall understanding of physical limnology and aquatic ecology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0207.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Oceanography Keywords: striations; satellite data; sea surface temperature; sea surface salinity; chlorophyll-a; eastern boundaries; Pacific Ocean
Online: 8 June 2021 (10:31:07 CEST)
Eastern boundary upwelling systems feature strong zonal gradients of physical and biological ocean properties between cool, productive coastal oceans and warm, oligotrophic subtropical gyres. Zonal currents and jets (striations) are therefore likely to contribute to the transport of water properties between coastal and open oceanic regions. Multi-sensor satellite data are used to characterize the signatures of striations in sea surface temperature (SST), salinity (SSS), and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in subtropical eastern North/South Pacific (ENP/ESP) upwelling systems. In the ENP, tracers exhibit striated patterns extending up to ~2500 km offshore. Striations in SST and SSS are highly correlated with quasi-zonal jets, suggesting that these jets contribute to SST/SSS mesoscale patterns via zonal advection. Chl-a striations are collocated with sea surface height (SSH) bands, a possible result of mesoscale eddy trains trapping nutrients and forming striated signals. In the ESP, striations are only found in SST and coincide with SSH bands, consistently with quasi-zonal jets located outside major zonal tracer gradients. An interplay between large-scale SST/SSS advection by the quasi-zonal jets, mesoscale SST/SSS advection by the large-scale meridional flow and eddy advection may explain the persistent ENP hydrographic striations. These results underline the importance of quasi-zonal jets for surface tracer structuring at the mesoscale.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0038.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Karenia brevis, harmful algal bloom (HAB), moderate resolution imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), prediction, chlorophyll, multivariate regression
Online: 3 September 2018 (13:52:41 CEST)
Over the past two decades, persistent occurrences of harmful algal blooms (HAB; Karenia brevis) have been reported in Charlotte County, southwestern Florida. We developed data-driven models that rely on spatiotemporal remote sensing and field data to identify factors controlling HAB propagation, provide a same-day distribution (nowcasting), and forecast their occurrences up to three days in advance. We constructed multivariate regression models using historical HAB occurrences (213 events reported from January 2010 to October 2017) compiled by the Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission and validated the models against a subset (20%) of the reported historical events. The models were designed to specifically capture the onset of the HABs instead of those that developed days earlier and continued thereafter. A prototype of an early warning system was developed through a threefold exercise. The first step involved the automatic downloading and processing of daily Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Aqua products using SeaDAS ocean color processing software to extract temporal and spatial variations of remote sensing-based variables over the study area. The second step involved the development of a multivariate regression model for same-day mapping of HABs and similar subsequent models for forecasting HAB occurrences one, two, and three days in advance. Eleven remote sensing variables and two non-remote sensing variables were used as inputs for the generated models. In the third and final step, model outputs (same-day and forecasted distribution of HABs) were posted automatically on a web-based GIS (http://www.esrs.wmich.edu/webmap/bloom/). Our findings include the following: (1) the variables most indicative of the timing of bloom propagation are bathymetry, euphotic depth, wind direction, SST, chlorophyll-a [OC3M] and distance from the river mouth, and (2) the model predictions were 90% successful for same-day mapping and 65%, 72% and 71% for the one-, two- and three-day advance predictions, respectively. The adopted methodologies are reliable, dependent on readily available remote sensing data sets, and cost-effective and thus could potentially be used to map and forecast algal bloom occurrences in data-scarce regions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0149.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: landsat 8 OLI; Nalban Lake; East Kolkata Wetland; chlorophyll-a prediction; study points; validation points
Online: 15 August 2016 (13:51:19 CEST)
1) Landsat operational land imager (OLI) data and consequent laboratory measurements were used to predict Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration and the trophic states for an inland lake within the East Kolkata Wetland, India; 2) The most suitable band ratio was identified by performing Pearson correlation analysis between Chl-a concentrations and possible OLI band and band ratios from the study points; 3) The results showed highest correlation coefficient from the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 with an R value of 0.85. The prediction model was then developed by applying regression analysis between the band ratio OLI5/OLI4 and Chl-a concentration of the study points. The reflectance ratios of the validation points were given as input on the prediction model and the model output was considered as predicted Chl-a values of the validation points to check the efficiency of the prediction model. The regression model between laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points revealed a high correlation with an R2 value of 0.78. Trophic State Index (TSI) of the lake was also calculated from laboratory-derived Chl-a value and model-fitted Chl-a value of the validation points. The study presented a high correlation of TSI determined from predicted data with TSI from laboratory reference data (R = 0.88). The TSI values of the lake ranged from 65 to 75 which indicate that the lake is appeared to be eutrophic to hypereutrophic conditions. 4) This empirical study showed that Landsat 8 OLI imagery can be effectively applied to estimate Chl-a levels and trophic states for inland lakes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0440.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Other Keywords: disspative structuring; non-equilibrium thermodynamics; entropy production; origin of life; organic pigments; plants; ecosystems; evolution; chlorophyll; biosignatures
Online: 27 December 2021 (15:59:20 CET)
Through a modern derivation of Planck's formula for the entropy of an arbitrary beam of photons we derive a general expression for the entropy production due to the irreversible process of the absorption of an arbitrary incident photon spectrum in material and its dissipation into an infrared-shifted grey-body emitted spectrum, the rest being reflected or transmitted. Employing the framework of Classical Irreversible Thermodynamic theory, we define the generalized thermodynamic flow as the flow of photons from the incident beam into the material and the generalized thermodynamic force is then just the entropy production divided by the photon flow which is the entropy production per unit photon at a given wavelength. We compare the entropy production under sunlight of different inorganic and organic materials (water, desert, leaves and forests) and show that organic materials are the greater entropy producing materials. Intriguingly, plant and phytoplankton pigments (including chlorophyll) have peak absorption exactly where entropy production through photon dissipation is maximal for our solar spectrum $430<\lambda<550$ nm, while photosynthetic efficiency is maximal between 600 and 700 nm. These results suggest that the evolution of pigments, plants and ecosystems has been towards optimizing entropy production rather than photosynthesis. We propose using the wavelength dependence of global entropy production as a biosignature for discovering life on planets of other stars.
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Chlorophyll fluorescence; clary sage; nutrient uptake; oxidative stress; photosynthesis; phytoremediation; phytostabilization; photosynthetic pigments; phenolic content; Zn toxicity
Online: 2 December 2020 (15:36:30 CET)
The responses of the aromatic and medicinal plant Salvia sclarea (clary sage) to 900 µM Zn exposure for 8 days in a hydroponic culture were investigated. The tolerance mechanisms under excess Zn exposure were assessed by changes in nutrient uptake, photosynthetic characteristics and leaf structure. The uptake and the distribution of Zn, as well as some essential nutrient elements such as: Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn and Cu, were examined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results revealed that Salvia sclarea is a Zn accumulator plant that tolerates significantly high toxic levels of Zn in the leaves by increasing the leaf content of Fe, Ca and Mn ions to protect the photosynthetic function and even stimulate photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII) activities. Additionally, the leaf photosynthetic pigments and the total phenolic and anthocyanin content were also studied. Data showed that the exposure to excess Zn significantly increases the synthesis of phenolic compounds in the leaves which plays an important role in the Zn detoxification and protection against oxidative stress. Lipid peroxidation and electrolyte leakage in leaves used as clear indicators for heavy metal damage were slightly increased. All these data highlight that Salvia sclarea is an economically interesting plant for phytoextraction and/or phytostabilization of Zn contaminated soils.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0456.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: chlorophyll fluorescence; J8-1 plum line; mandelonitrile; Prunus domestica; redox signalling; salicylic acid; salt-stress; soluble nutrients
Online: 19 October 2018 (14:57:02 CEST)
Salinity is considered as one of the most important abiotic challenges that affect crop productivity. Plant hormones, including salicylic acid (SA), are key factors in the defence signalling output triggered during plant responses against environmental stresses. We have previously reported in peach a new SA biosynthetic pathway from mandelonitrile (MD), the molecule at the hub of the cyanogenic glucoside turnover in Prunus sp. In this work, we have studied whether this new SA biosynthetic pathway is also present in plum and the possible role this pathway plays in plant plasticity under salinity, focusing on the transgenic plum line J8-1, which displays stress tolerance via an enhanced antioxidant capacity. The SA biosynthesis from MD in non-transgenic and J8-1 micropropagated plum shoots was studied by metabolomics. Then the response of J8-1 to salt stress in presence of MD or Phe (MD precursor) was assayed by measuring: chlorophyll content and fluorescence parameters, stress related hormones, levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants, the expression of two genes coding redox-related proteins, and the content of soluble nutrients. The results from in vitro assays suggest that the SA synthesis from the MD pathway demonstrated in peach is not clearly present in plum, at least under in vitro conditions. Nevertheless, in J8-1 NaCl-stressed seedlings, an increase in SA was recorded as a result of the MD treatment, suggesting that MD could be involved in the SA biosynthesis under NaCl stress conditions in plum plants. We have also shown that the plum line J8-1 was tolerant to NaCl under greenhouse conditions, and this response was somewhat different in MD-treated plants. In that regards, the MD treatment produced an increase in SA, jasmonic acid (JA) and reduced ascorbate (ASC) contents as well as in the coefficient of non-photochemical quenching (qN) and the gene expression of Non-Expressor of Pathogenesis-Related 1 (NPR1) and thioredoxin H (TrxH) under salinity conditions, suggesting a crosstalk between different signalling pathways (NPR1/Trx and SA/JA) leading to salinity tolerance in the transgenic plum line J8-1.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0554.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Remote Sensing; Ocean Colour; Retrievals; Fluorescence; Optical Properties; Satellite; Spectral; Radiative Transfer; optically complex waters; chlorophyll; absorption; scattering
Online: 23 September 2020 (16:39:53 CEST)
The retrieval of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence is greatly beneficial to studies of marine phytoplankton biomass, physiology, and composition and is required for user applications and services. Customarily phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence is determined from satellite measurements through a fluorescence line-height algorithm using three bands around 680 nm. We propose here a modified retrieval, making use of all available bands in the relevant wavelength range with the goal to improve the effectiveness of the algorithm in optically complex waters. For the Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) we quantify a Fluorescence Peak Height from fitting a Gaussian function and related terms into the top-of-atmosphere reflectance bands between 650 and 750 nm. This algorithm retrieves, what we call Fluorescence Peak Height from fitting a Gaussian function upon other terms to top-of-atmosphere reflectance bands between 650 and 750 nm. This approach is applicable to Level-1 and Level-2 data. We find a good correlation of the retrieved fluorescence product to global in-situ chlorophyll measurements, as well as a consistent relation between chlorophyll concentration and fluorescence from radiative transfer modelling and OLCI/in-situ comparison. The algorithm is applicable to complex waters without needing an atmospheric correction and vicarious calibration and features an inherent correction of small spectral shifts, as required for OLCI measurements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0246.v1
Subject: Biology, Agricultural Sciences & Agronomy Keywords: agriculture 4.0; chlorophyll; early diagnosis; fungal tree pathogens; mycology; plant disease; plant pathology; smart viticulture; vegetation indices; wine grapes
Online: 11 May 2021 (14:21:25 CEST)
The Armillaria genus represents one of the most common causes of chronic root rot disease in woody plants. The disease damage prompt assessment is crucial for pest management. However, the disease detection current methods are limited at the field scale. Therefore, an alternative approach that can enhance or supplement traditional techniques is needed. In this study, we investigated the potential of hyperspectral methods to identify the changes between fungi-infected and uninfected plants of Vitis vinifera in early detecting the Armillaria disease. The hyperspectral imaging sensor Specim-IQ was used to acquire images of leaves of the Teroldego Rotaliano grapevine cultivar. We analysed three groups of plants: healthy, asymptomatic, and diseased. Highly significant differences were found in the Near infrared (NIR) spectral region with a decreasing pattern from healthy to diseased plants attributable to internal leaf structure changes. Asymptomatic plants emerged from the other groups due to a smaller reflectance in the red-edge spectrum (around 705nm). Hypothetically associated with the presence of secondary metabolites involved in plant defence strategy. Furthermore, significant differences were observed in the wavelengths close to 550 nm in diseased plants versus asymptomatic. We used linear discriminant analysis from a machine learning context to classify the leaves based on the most significant variables (vegetation indices and single bands), with resulting overall accuracies of 85% and 84% respectively in healthy vs. diseased and healthy vs. asymptomatic. To our knowledge, this study represents the first report on the possibility of using hyperspectral data for root rot disease diagnosis on woody plants. Although further validation studies are required, it appears that the spectral reflectance technique, possibly implemented on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), could be a promising tool for a cost-effective, non-destructive method of Armillaria disease early diagnosis and mapping in the field, contributing to a significant step forward in precision viticulture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0283.v1
Subject: Biology, Anatomy & Morphology Keywords: Salvia sclarea; chlorophyll fluorescence imaging; non-photochemical quenching; tolerance mechanism; photoprotective mechanism; photosynthesis; reactive oxygen species; toxicity; adaptive response, photochemical efficiency
Online: 9 November 2020 (16:06:01 CET)
Five-day exposure of clary sage (Salvia sclarea) to 100 μM cadmium (Cd) in hydroponics was sufficient to increase Cd concentrations significantly in roots and aboveground parts and affect negatively whole plant levels of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), since Cd competes for Ca channels, while reduced Mg concentrations are associated with increased Cd tolerance. Total zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) uptake increased but their translocation to the aboveground parts decreased possible due to translocation barriers. Despite the substantial levels of Cd in leaves, without any observed defects on chloroplast ultrastructure, an enhanced photosystem II (PSII) efficiency was observed, with a higher fraction of absorbed light energy to be directed to photochemistry (ΦPSΙΙ). The concomitant increase in the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching of photosynthesis (NPQ) resulted in an important decrease in the dissipated non-regulated energy (ΦNO), modifying the homeostasis of reactive oxygen species (ROS), through a decreased singlet oxygen (1O2) formation. Thus, when clary sage was exposed to Cd for a short period, tolerance mechanisms were triggered, with PSII photochemistry to be regulated by NPQ in such a way that PSII efficiency to be enhanced. However, exposure to a combination of Cd and high light or for longer duration (8 days) to Cd alone, resulted in an inhibition of PSII functionality pointing out towards Cd toxicity. Thus, the rapid activation of PSII functionality at short time exposures and the inhibition at longer duration suggests a hormetic response and describes these effects in terms of “adaptive response” and “toxicity”, respectively.