REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1990.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: ChatGPT; chatbot; Artificial Intelligence; AI; Pathology; Histology
Online: 29 August 2023 (13:15:21 CEST)
Abstract: The advent of Artificial Intelligence (AI) has in just a few years invested multiple areas of knowledge, also affecting the medical-scientific sector. An increasing number of AI-based applications have been developed, among which conversational AI has emerged. Among these, ChatGPT has risen to the headlines, scientific and otherwise, for its distinct propensity to simulate a 'real' discussion with its interlocutor, based on appropriate prompts. Although several clinical studies using ChatGPT have already been published in the literature, very little has yet been written about its potential application in human pathology. We conduct a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Re-views and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, using PubMed and Scopus as databases, with the fol-lowing keywords: ChatGPT OR Chat GPT, in combination with each of the following: Pathology, di-ag-nostic pathology, anatomic pathology. A total of 90 records were initially identified in the literature search, of which 6 were duplicates. After screening for eligibility and inclusion criteria, only 5 publications were ultimately included. The majority of publications were original articles (n = 2), followed by case reports (n = 1), letter to the editor (n = 1) and review (n = 1). Although the premises are exciting and ChatGPT is able to co-advise the pathologist in providing large amounts of scientific data for use in routine microscopic diagnostic practice, there are many limitations that need to be addressed and resolved, with the caveat that an AI-driven system should always provide support and never a decision-making motive during the anatomo-pathological diagnostic process.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0380.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chatbot technology; Artificial intelligence; Computer Science Education
Online: 18 August 2021 (13:57:15 CEST)
The number of AI applications in education is growing every day. One recent AI application in the educational sector is Chatbot technology, which is used to support teaching and administrative tasks. This document presents the design and implementation of a Chatbot called Tashi-Bot that helps applicants and university students to obtain information from an educational institution about certain academic and administrative processes. Among these are processes related to well-being, tuition, costs, admission, and other services. In order to design the Chatbot, an analysis of the state of the art, methodologies, and suitable tools was carried out, and a survey was conducted to discover the needs of users and their preferences in the use of a Chatbot for this specific purpose. Tashi-Bot was implemented on the SnatchBot platform and later deployed on a Telegram channel. In its evaluation, a final survey was carried out to check on the satisfaction of the users. The results suggest that Tashi-Bot could help applicants and university students to find information on academic and administrative processes with great certainty and without the need for human interaction. Tashi-Bot can be found at: https://web.telegram.org/#/im?p=@TashiE_Bot..
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: ChatGPT; Artificial intelligence; chatbot; Open AI; Digital engineering.
Online: 16 August 2023 (09:59:35 CEST)
Herein are reported the main pros and cons of using the conversational Artificial Intelligence (AI) called “ChatGPT” as a tool to write essays in the academic and scientific community. Also, selected mathematical and scientific problems were solved to determine the effectiveness of this platform. To this end, a systematic case study was designed and conducted to obtain data generated by the chatbot that was further analyzed. Six different topics were chosen for the essay evaluation, and the introduction section was created using this AI. Meanwhile, six mathematical problems related to integrals, z-transform, Laplace transform, and resolution of ordinary differential equations were solved. Furthermore, a scientific problem associated with the structural properties of material was also solved. After data analysis, we concluded that the conversational platform could quickly create written essays with well-structured words. Nonetheless, in almost all cases, the chatbot only used basic information to complete the introduction, and no critical writing was obtained. For the mathematical case study, we observed that under the current status of the ChatGPT, this platform has no ability or skills to solve complex equations. Thus, significant changes need to be conducted to improve the performance of ChatGPT for mathematical solutions.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0609.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Arabic; chatbot; transfer learning; AraBERT; CAMeLBERT; AarElectra (Generator/Discriminator); AraElectra-SQuAD
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:59:41 CEST)
Chatbots are computer programs that use artificial intelligence to imitate human conversations. Recent advancements in deep learning have shown interest in utilizing language transformers, which do not rely on predefined rules and responses like traditional chatbots. This study provides a comprehensive review of previous research on chatbots that employ deep learning and transfer learning models. Specifically, it examines the current trends in using language transformers with transfer learning techniques to evaluate the ability of Arabic chatbots to understand conversation context and demonstrate natural behavior. The proposed methods explore the use of AraBERT, CAMeLBERT, AraElectra-SQuAD, and AraElectra (Generator/Discriminator) transformers, with different variants of these transformers and semantic embedding models. Two datasets were used for evaluation: one with 398 questions and corresponding documents, and another with 1395 questions and 365,568 documents sourced from Arabic Wikipedia. Extensive experimental works were conducted, evaluating both manually crafted questions and the entire set of questions, using confidence and similarity metrics. The experimental results showed that the AraElectra-SQuAD model achieved an average confidence score of 0.6422 and an average similarity score of 0.9773 on the first dataset, and an average confidence score of 0.6658 and similarity score of 0.9660 on the second dataset. The study concludes that the AraElectra-SQuAD model consistently outperformed other models, displaying remarkable performance, high confidence, and similarity scores, as well as robustness, highlighting its potential for practical applications in natural language processing tasks for Arabic chatbots. The study suggests that the AraElectra-SQuAD model can be further enhanced and applied in various tasks such as chatbots, virtual assistants, and information retrieval systems for Arabic-speaking users. By combining the power of transformer architecture with fine-tuning on SQuAD-like large data, this trend demonstrates its ability to provide accurate and contextually relevant answers to questions in Arabic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0329.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Other Keywords: chatbot; cyber security; artificial intelligence; threats; vulnerability; data manipulation; social media; sentiment analysis
Online: 3 August 2023 (10:08:49 CEST)
In recent years, groups of cyber criminals/hackers have carried out cyber-attacks using various tactics with the goal of destabilizing web services in a specific context for which they are motivated. Predicting these attacks is a critical task that assists in determining what actions should be taken to mitigate the effects of such attacks and to prevent them in the future. Although there are programs to detect security concerns on the internet, there is currently no system that can anticipate or foretell whether the attacks will be successful. This research aims to develop sustain-able strategies to reduce threats, vulnerability, and data manipulation of chatbots, consequently improving cyber security. To achieve this goal, we develop a conversational chatbot, an application that uses artificial intelligence (AI) to communicate, and deploy it on social media sites (e.g., Twitter) for cyber security purposes. Chatbots have the capacity to consume large amounts of information and give an appropriate response in an efficient and timely manner, thus rendering them useful in predicting threats emanating from social media. The research utilizes sentiment analysis strategy by employing chatbots on Twitter (and analyzing Twitter data) for predicting future threats and cyber-attacks. The strategy is based on a daily collection of tweets from two types of users: those who use the platform to voice their opinions on important and relevant subjects, and those who use it to share information on cyber security attacks. The research pro-vides tools and strategies for developing chatbots that can be used for assessing cyber threats on social media through sentiment analysis leading to a global sustainable development of businesses. Future research may utilize and improvise on the tools and strategies suggested in our research to strengthen the knowledge domain of chatbots, cyber security, and social media.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0513.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: ChatGPT; artificial intelligence; chatbot; education technology; machine learning; dental education; natural language processing
Online: 28 February 2023 (08:18:33 CET)
Background and Purpose: Open-source Artificial intelligence (AI) applications are fast transforming access to information and allow students to prepare assignments and offer quite accurate responses to a wide range of exam questions which are routinely used in assessments of students across the board including undergraduate dental students. This study aims to evaluate the performance ChatGPT, an AI-based application, on a wide range of dental assessments and discusses the implications for undergraduate dental education. Methods: This was an exploratory study investigating the accuracy of ChatGPT to attempt a range of recognized assessments in undergraduate dental curricula. ChatGPT was used to attempt ten items based on each of the five commonly used question formats including single-best answer (SBA) multiple-choice questions (MCQs); short answer questions (SAQs); short essay questions (SEQs); True/False questions and fill in the blanks items. In addition, ChatGPT was used to generate reflective reports based on multisource feedback (MSF); research methodology; critical appraisal of the literature. Results: ChatGPT application provided accurate responses to majority of knowledge-based assessments based on MCQs, SAQs, SEQs, Tue/False and fill in the blanks items. However, it was only able to answer text-based questions and did not allow processing of questions based on images. Responses generated to written assignments were also of good quality apart from those for critical appraisal of literature. Word count was the key limitation observed in outputs by ChatGPT as it was only able to produce reports limited to approximately 650 words. Conclusion: Notwithstanding their current limitations, AI-based applications have the potential to revolutionize virtual learning. Instead of treating it as a threat, dental educators need to adapt teaching and assessments in dental education to the benefits of the learners whilst mitigating against dishonest use of AI-based applications.
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: Artificial intelligence; Education 6.0; Personalized learning; Adaptive pedagogy; Intelligent tutoring systems; Ethical considerations; chatbot
Online: 8 September 2023 (13:29:02 CEST)
This article aims to investigate the potential of artificial intelligence (AI) in revolutionizing the education sector and further advancing the vision of Education 6.0. This study explores how AI can foster personalized learning experiences and adaptive pedagogy. By analyzing recent developments and real-world applications of AI in education, this article offers insights into how AI can support educators in tailoring instruction to individual students' needs, promoting engagement, and optimizing learning outcomes. The article also discusses ethical considerations and challenges associated with the integration of AI in education, emphasizing the importance of responsible implementation and human supervision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0142.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: AI; academic advising; artificial intelligence; advising; chatbot; ChatGPT; higher education; student success; student support
Online: 2 August 2023 (04:13:15 CEST)
ChatGPT, a freely-accessible AI language model designed to generate human-like text responses to users, has been utilized in several areas, such as healthcare industry, to facilitate interactive dissemination of information. Academic advising has been an important factor in promoting success among university students, particularly those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Unfortunately, however, student advising has been marred with problems, with the availability and accessibility of advisors being among the hurdles. The current study explores how ChatGPT might serve to make academic advising more accessible, efficient, and even effective. Researchers compiled a list of questions frequently asked by current and prospective students in a teacher education Bachelor’s degree program in the United States. Then, the questions were typed into the free version of ChatGPT and the answers generated were evaluated for their content and delivery. ChatGPT generated surprisingly high-quality answers, written in an authoritative yet supportive tone, and it was particularly adept at addressing general career-related questions comprehensively, such as career outlook. We argue that ChatGPT may complement, but not replace, human academic advisors and it may very well promote educational equity through empowering students from a wide range of backgrounds with the means to access effective advising.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0660.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Chat Generative Pre-Trained Transformer (ChatGPT); Artifcial Intelligence; Human-Computer Interaction; Human-AI Interaction Chatbot; App Development; Coding
Online: 11 July 2023 (09:30:02 CEST)
OpenAI has managed to turn 100 million heads in two months towards their new Language model tool (LM) ChatGPT. The third generation Generative Pretrained Transformer (GPT-3) has the capacity to tackle simple to complex and sophisticated problems, while providing reasoning behind its generated answers. ChatGPT can be used to increase productivity and improve efficiency and face challenging problems. Programming mobile applications is a challenging task that requires professional software engineers, skills and abilities to be developed. The following paper takes a case study approach to assess how novice app developers can use ChatGPT to generate Java scripts that will be used in Android studio to create a functional application. The results after, many iterations and ongoing conversations with ChatGPT managed to create an application for the anticipated function. Important insights have been drawn from the case study that could set the ground for any novice user seeking to create applications using Java scripting and Android Studio.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0418.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: keyword 1; chatbots 2; chatbot validation 3; bots 4; A Testing Framework for AI Linguistic Systems (testFAILS) 5; AIDoctor
Online: 6 June 2023 (08:26:58 CEST)
This paper presents an innovative testing framework, testFAILS, designed for the rigorous evaluation of AI Linguistic Systems, with a particular emphasis on various iterations of ChatGPT. Leveraging orthogonal array coverage, this framework provides a robust mechanism for assessing AI systems, addressing the critical question, "How should we evaluate AI?" While the Turing test has traditionally been the benchmark for AI evaluation, we argue that current publicly available chatbots, despite their rapid advancements, have yet to meet this standard. However, the pace of progress suggests that achieving Turing test-level performance may be imminent. In the interim, the need for effective AI evaluation and testing methodologies remains paramount. Our research, which is ongoing, has already validated several versions of ChatGPT, and we are currently conducting comprehensive testing on the latest models, including ChatGPT-4, Bard and Bing Bot, and the LLaMA model. The testFAILS framework is designed to be adaptable, ready to evaluate new bot versions as they are released. Additionally, we have tested available chatbot APIs and developed our own application, AIDoctor, utilizing the ChatGPT-4 model and Microsoft Azure AI technologies
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201612.0027.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: chatbot technology; ontology-based systems; expert systems; diagnosis; conversational agents; robotics; human-robot interaction; physician-patient relationship; intelligent agents
Online: 6 December 2016 (04:46:32 CET)
Access to medical care is a global issue. Technology-aided approaches have been applied in addressing this. Interventions have however not focused on medical diagnosis as a fully automated procedure and available applications employ mainly text-based inputs rather than conversation in natural language. We explored the utility of ontology-based chatbot technology for the design of intelligent agents for medical diagnosis through a systematic review of the most recent related literature. English articles published in 2011-2016 returned 233 hits which yielded 11 relevant articles after a 3-stage screening. Findings showed that the creation of expert systems had been the focus of many the studies which utilize the physician-system-patient framework with system training based mostly on expert knowledge for designing web- or mobile phone-based applications that serve assistive purposes. Findings further indicated gaps in the design and evaluation of more effective systems deployable as standalone applications, for example, on an embodied robotic system. The need for technology supporting the physical examination part of diagnosis, connection to data sources on patients’ vitals and medical history are also indicated in addition to the need for more qualitative work on natural language-based interaction. The system should be one that is continuously learning. Future works should also be directed towards the building of more robust knowledge base as well as evaluation of theory-based diagnostic methodological options
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0265.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: chatbot; conversational agents; human-computer dialogue system; social chatbots; ChatScript; conversational modelling; conversation systems; conversational system; conversational entities; embodied conversational agents
Online: 16 December 2021 (10:35:06 CET)
Chatbots are intelligent conversational computer systems designed to mimic human conversation to enable automated online guidance and support. The increased benefits of chatbots led to their wide adoption by many industries in order to provide virtual assistance to customers. Chatbots utilise methods and algorithms from two Artificial Intelligence domains: Natural Language Processing and Machine Learning. However, there are many challenges and limitations in their application. In this survey we review recent advances on chatbots, where Artificial Intelligence and Natural Language processing are used. We highlight the main challenges and limitations of current work and make recommendations for future research investigation
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1661.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Chatbots; Dynamic knowledge base; Internet wizard; Search engine integration; Google Feature snippets; Open-domain question-answering chatbot; Knowledge graph; Student engagement; Higher education
Online: 23 June 2023 (11:02:10 CEST)
Chatbots have gained widespread popularity for their task automation capabilities and consistent availability in various domains, including education. However, their ability to adapt to the continuously evolving and dynamic nature of knowledge is limited. This research investigates the implementation of an internet wizard to enhance the knowledge base of an open-domain question-answering chatbot. The proposed approach leverages search engines, particularly Google, and its features, including feature snippets, knowledge graph, and organic search, in conjunction with data science and natural language models. This mechanism empowers the chatbot to dynamically access the extensive and up-to-date knowledge available on the web, enabling the provision of real-time and pertinent answers to user queries sourced from web documents. A pilot study in a higher education context evaluated the chatbot's mechanism and features, confirming its proficiency in generating responses across a broad range of educational and non-educational topics. Positive feedback and high user satisfaction validate these findings. Notably, the chatbot's dynamic feature of retrieving related or follow-up questions from search engines significantly enhances student engagement and facilitates exploration of supplementary information beyond the curriculum.