Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Meniscal injury; anatomical basis; physiological changes; biochemical changes
Online: 29 March 2021 (13:10:31 CEST)
The meniscus is a meniscus-shaped fibrocartilage tissue located between the femur and tibia，it is mainly composed of meniscus cells and related extracellular matrix.The synovial limbus area of the knee joint capsule near the meniscus is divided into red areas with rich blood vessels and white areas with less blood supply according to the distribution of blood vessels,there is a transition zone called the red and white zone between the two;Red zone has better self-repair ability,The injury in this area can be treated by conservative treatment or surgical suture;Once the white area of the meniscus is torn and involves the free edge area,It is often necessary to partially remove the damaged meniscus.When most of the entire meniscus is severely torn and involved,not only the course of the disease is very long, but it cannot be repaired by sutures,Often a subtotal or total meniscus resection is required,whether it is a partial meniscus resection, a subtotal meniscus resection or a complete resection.In the later period, it may cause quadriceps atrophy and osteoarthritis (OA）.OA is a refractory multi-system disease,involve the patient’s peripheral joints,it has high disability and teratogenicity, and is very harmful to human health.Chondrocyte pyrolysis, degradation, and inflammation play a vital role in the destruction of OA articular cartilage and chondrocyte apoptosis.Meniscus stem cells have strong proliferation and differentiation ability,has become one of the hot spots in the field of meniscus repair,this article studies the role of meniscal stem cells in the development of OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1815.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Phrenic; Nerve; Sonography; Structural changes
Online: 28 August 2023 (08:20:43 CEST)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects both the upper and lower motor neurons in the nervous system, causing muscle weakness and severe disability. The progressive course of the disease reduces the functional capacity in the affected patients, limits daily activities and leads to complete dependence on caregivers, ultimately resulting in a fatal outcome. Respiratory dysfunction mostly occurs later in the disease and is associated with a worse prognosis. 46 participans were included in our study, with 23 patients in ALS group and 23 individuals in the control group. The ultrasound examination of the phrenic nerve (PN) was performed by two authors using a high-resolution "Philips EPIQ 7" ultrasound machine with a linear 4-18 MHz transducer. Our study revealed that the phrenic nerve is significantly smaller on both sides in ALS patients compared to the control group arba controls (p < 0.001). Only one significant study on PN ultrasound in ALS, conducted in Japan, also showed significant results (p < 0.00001). These small studies are particularly promising, as they suggest that ultrasound findings could serve as a additinioal diagnostic tool for ALS
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0050.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Nigella sativa; Curcuma longa; Pasteurella multocida; feed conversion ratio; gross pathological changes; histopathological changes
Online: 2 November 2020 (14:34:20 CET)
The antibiotic residues and pathogenic resistance against the drug are very common in poultry due to usage of antibiotics in their feed. It is the need of the time to use natural feed additives as effective alternatives instead of synthetic antibiotic. The aim of this study was to investigate the immune response of Nigella sativa and Curcuma longa in broilers under biological stress against Pasteurella multocida. The total 100, one-day old chicks were divided into 5 groups. The Groups 1 and 2 were served as control negative and control positive. Both control groups were receiving simple diet without any natural feed additives but infection was given in Group 2 at day 28 with the dose of 5.14×107 CFU by IV. Groups 3A & 3B were offered 2% seed powder of Nigella sativa, Groups 4A & 4B were offered Curcuma longa 1% in powdered form and Group 5A & 5B were offered both Curcuma longa 1% & Nigella sativa 2% in feed from day 1 and groups 3B, 4B and 5B were challenged with Pasteurella multocida. The Haemagglutination inhibition titter against Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), feed conversion ratio, mortality, gross and histopathology were studied. The results of this study revealed that haemagglutination inhibition titers against NDV were highly significant (P< 0.05) in treated groups, highest titers (3A 6.8, 3B 6.4 and 5A 7.2) were obtained from treated Group. The feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Nigella sativa + Curcuma longa treated Groups (5A 1.57 and 3A 1.76) were higher as compared to other non-treated groups. The gross and histopathological changes were much severe in control positive, but less changes were seen in treated groups. Therefore, we recommend that natural feed additives; black cumin (Nigella sativa) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) act as immune enhancer in broilers against Pasteurella multocida.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0577.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: parenting; gender; children’s behavioral changes; pandemic
Online: 9 May 2023 (05:40:29 CEST)
In a previous Argentine study, we found that, in the critical con-text of social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic, there were changes in maternal practices that influenced the relationship with their children. We also found that the impact of mandatory isolation was moderated positively by protective factors such as positive parenting and maternal school support, or negatively by risk factors such as maternal stress. Although this study only analyzed maternal behavior, we were interested in studying the behavior of both parents, comparing the parenting (positive parenting, parental stress, and school support) of the father and mother and the perceived behavioral changes in their children. The sample consisted of 120 Argentinean parents (70 mothers and 50 fathers) aged be-tween 27 and 56 years (M = 38.84; SD = 5.03). Questionnaires were administered on sociodemo-graphic and behavioral data of the children, as well as a brief scale to assess parenting. Mann Whitney U and MANOVA were used to analyze the influence of gender on perceived changes in children's behavior and perceived parenting, respectively. Mothers perceived more significant changes than fathers in their children's behavior. In addition, women reported more parental stress, greater child school sup-port, and greater perceived positive parenting, compared to men. These findings support the hypothesis that parenting developed differently in fathers and mothers which is likely influenced by culture.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1956.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Atlantic salmon; Melanized focal changes; Red focal changes; Eumelanin; Pheomelanin; PTCA; 4-AHP; AHPO; Melanomacrophages; Red blood cells
Online: 31 October 2023 (03:37:26 CET)
Superficial discolored spots on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets are a serious quality problem for commercial seafood farming. Previous reports proposed that the black spots (called melanized focal changes (MFC)) may be melanin, but no convincing evidence has been reported. In this study, we performed chemical characterization of MFC, and also of red pigment (called red focal changes (RFC)), of salmon fillets using alkaline hydrogen peroxide oxidation and hydroiodic acid hydrolysis. This revealed that the MFC contain 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA)-derived eumelanin whereas the RFC only contain trace amounts of eumelanin. Therefore, probably, the black color of MFC can be explained by the presence of eumelanin from accumulated melanomacrophages. For the red pigment, we could not find a significant signature of either eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the red color is probably predominantly hemorrhagic in nature. However, we found that in RFC the level of pigmentation did increase together with some melanogenic metabolites. Comparison with a “mimicking experiment,” in which a mixture of a salmon homogenate + DOPA was oxidized with tyrosinase, suggested that the RFC include conjugations of DOPAquinone and/or DOPAchrome with salmon muscle tissue proteins. In short, the results suggest that melanogenic metabolites in MFC and RFC derive from different chemical pathways, which would agree with the two different colorations deriving from distinct cellular origins, namely melanomacrophages and red blood cells, respectively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1207.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: flagellar attachment zone; morphological changes; CRISPR/Cas9
Online: 19 October 2023 (05:35:26 CEST)
The highly adaptable parasite Trypanosoma cruzi undergoes complex developmental stages to exploit host organisms effectively. Each stage involves the expression of specific proteins and precise intracellular structural organization. These morphological changes depend on key structures that control intracellular components’ growth and redistribution. In trypanosomatids, the flagellar attachment zone (FAZ) connects the flagellum to the cell body and plays a pivotal role in cell expansion and structural rearrangement. While FAZ proteins are well-studied in other trypanosomatids, there is limited knowledge about specific components, organization, and function in T. cruzi. This study employed the CRISPR/Cas9 system to label endogenous genes and conduct deletions to characterize FAZ-specific proteins during epimastigote cell division and metacyclogenesis. In T. cruzi, these proteins exhibited distinct organization compared to counterparts in T. brucei. TcGP72 is anchored to the flagellar membrane, while TcFLA-1BP is anchored to the membrane lining the cell body. We identified unique features in the organization and function of the FAZ in T. cruzi compared to other trypanosomatids. Deleting these proteins had varying effects on intracellular structures, cytokinesis, and metacyclogenesis. This study reveals specific variations that directly impact the success of cell division and differentiation of this parasite.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0192.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: local climate change; spring drying; rainfall pattern changes
Online: 22 March 2018 (03:59:30 CET)
The City of Pasadena is located in southern California; a region which has a Mediterranean climate and where the vast majority of rainfall occurs between October and April with the period between January and March being the most intense. A significant amount of the local water supply comes from regional rainfall, therefore any changes in precipitation patterns in the area has considerable significance. HYPOTHESIS: Local climate change has been occurring in the Pasadena area over the last 100 years resulting in changes in air temperature and rainfall. AIR TEMPERATURES: Between 1886 and 2016 the air temperature in Pasadena, California has increased significantly, from a minimum of 23.8°C in the daytime and 8.1°C at night between 1911 and 1920 to 27.2°C and 13.3°C between 2011 and 2016. The increase in nighttime temperature was uniform throughout the year, however daytime temperatures showed more seasonal variation. There was little change in the daytime temperatures May through July but more change the rest of the year. For example, the median daytime temperature for June between 1911 and 1920 was 27.9°C but was 28.7°C between 2011 and 2016, a difference of 0.8°C. In contrast, for October for the same periods the median daytime temperatures were 25.6°C and 28.9°C, a difference of 3.3°C. RAINFALL: There has been a change in local rainfall pattern over the same period. In comparing rainfall between 1883 – 1949 and 1950 – 2016, there appeared to be less rainfall in the months of October, December, and April while other months seemed to show no change in rainfall. For example, between the two periods mentioned above, the median rainfall in October was 12.4 mm and 8.9 mm respectively while for December they were 68.6 mm and 40.4 mm. There was comparatively a smaller change in the median volume of rainfall in April (18.8 mm vs. 17.5 mm). However, between 1883 and 2016 there were 13 with less than 1 mm of rain, 12 of which occurred after 1961. In the same line of logic, no measureable amount of rain occurred for 23 Octobers, 15 of those occurred after 1961. CONCLUSION: As air temperatures increased over the last 100 years in the Pasadena area, rainfall may have decreased in October, December, and April.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0353.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: pesticide; fipronil; pyriproxyfen; behavior; histopathological changes; zebrafish
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:11:28 CEST)
Background: Lately, the high incidence of pesticide usage has attracted everyone's interest due to the serious effects produced. Fipronil (FIP) is a phenylpyrazole compound that acts on the insect’s GABA neurotransmitter by inhibiting its activity. Moreover, literature reports highlight its impli-cation in neurodevelopmental abnormalities and oxidative stress production in different organisms. Similarly, pyriproxyfen (PYR) is known to affect insects’ activity by mimicking the natural hormones involved in the maturation of the young insects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of these pesticides’ mixture on zebrafish tissues and behavior. Methods: To assess the in-fluence of this cocktail on zebrafish, three groups of animals were randomly selected and exposed to 0, 0.05 and 0.1 mg L-1 FIP and PYR mixture for 5 days. The fish were evaluated daily by the T-maze tests as locomotor activity and dark-light test and recorded for 4 minutes. The data was quantified using the EthoVision software. Results: Our results indicated significant changes in locomotor ac-tivity parameters showing increased levels following exposure to the mixture of FIP and PYR. On the other hand, the mixture also triggered anxiety in the zebrafish, which spent more time in the light area than in the dark. In addition, mixture-induced histological changes were observed in the form of numerous hemosiderin deposits found in various zebrafish tissues. Conclusions: The cur-rent findings indicate that the mixture of FIP and PYR can have considerable consequences on adult zebrafish and may promote or cause functional neurological changes in addition to histological ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0846.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Parasitology Keywords: Eimeria tenella; recombinant EtROP27 protein; expression changes; immunoprotective
Online: 13 October 2023 (07:49:42 CEST)
Eimeria tenella rhoptry protein has the properties of a protective antigen. EtROP27 is a pathogenic related gene detected by transcriptome, but its expression pattern, immunogenicity and potency have been unknown. Therefore, a gene segment of EtROP27 was amplified and transplanted to pET28a prokaryotic vector for recombinant protein expression and purified to generate polyclonal antibody. Then, RT-PCR, Western blotting were performed to know the expression pattern of EtROP27. Subsequently, animal experiments were conducted to evaluate the immunoprotective effect of the recombinant protein using different immunizing doses (50, 100, 150 μg). The results showed that the expression of EtROP27 gradually increased with the prolongation of infection time, reaching the highest level after 96 hours and then decreased. And EtROP27 was a natural antigen of coccidia which can stimulate the body to produce high levels of IgY. As recombinant protein vaccines, the immune protection evaluation tests of EtROP27 showed that the average weight gain rate of the immune challenge groups were significantly higher than that of the infection control group. The average lesion scores were significantly lower than that of the control group. The oocyst excretion decreased by 81.25%, 86.21%, 80.01% and the anticoccidial index were 159.45, 171.47, 166.75. EtROP27 is a promising candidate antigen gene for development of coccidiosis vaccine.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0321.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: Sundarbans; Fisheries; Natural disasters; Occupational changes; Climate change
Online: 16 February 2021 (13:20:45 CET)
The climate of Bangladesh has changed drastically which may put considerable adverse impacts on mangrove fishers but very few studies focused on this professional group. An attempt was made to perceive the impact and adaptation measures of the Sundarbans mangrove resource users, employing interviews and focus group discussions. A total of 150 respondents were randomly selected from the Sundarbans west under Shyamnagar Upazila of Satkhira District. It was revealed that the abundance of fishes, fuel woods, honey, golpata (Nypa fruticans), and shrimp post-larvae (PL) was reduced considerably. The resource users have adapted themselves by changing their occupation and becoming jobless and depending on the other family members. PL collection, honey collection, shrimp culture, and wood collection were found professional adapting strategies to adopt cyclone, flood, salinity intrusion, river erosion, and drought. Several recommendations are elicited, the implementation of which is important to ensure livelihood sustainability of the mangrove communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0373.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: Indus; Gilgit Watershed; Hydrological characteristics; glacier changes; Landsat
Online: 21 November 2022 (04:54:14 CET)
Glaciers in northern Pakistan are a prime source of freshwater, providing headwater in the Indus river system and serving as a lifeline to millions of people in the region. These glaciers undergo continuous changes by melting due to global warming or accumulation due to snowfall/precipitation at higher altitudes. In this study, we used remote sensing data to quantify glacier changes in spatiotemporal variability in the past three decades. Five glaciers in the Gilgit region (near the junction of the Hindukush and Karakoram Mountains) with an extent of less than 5 square kilometers were selected, namely Phakor glacier, Karamber glacier, East Gammu glacier, Bhort glacier, and Bad-e-Swat glacier. The fluctuations in these glaciers were monitored using a digital elevation model (DEM) and a cloud-free continuous series of Landsat satellite pictures from the minimal snow cover season. The annual climatic trends were studied through spatially interpolated gridded climate data WοrldClim version-1 climate database for 1970 – 2000. We used it to study the variations of minimum and maximum temperature, solar radiation, and precipitation through the preparation of sub-sets from the original global grids. Because of its exact delineation in the Gilgit sub-basin, the characterized watersheds were visually compared to optical Landsat 8 OLI data for mountainous ridge matching, revealing that SRTM 30m (radar-based) demonstrated greater accuracy than other DEMs. The temporal assessment of Bhort, Bad-e-Sawat, East Gammu, Karamber, and other rivers was also carried out. It is observed that the glaciers in the Gilgit watershed are rather stable. The little variability of glaciers is due to their geographic condition, altitude, topography, and orientation. Validation of the mapped glacier classes has been performed to check the accuracy assessment through an error matrix method. The kappa coefficient from the error matrix has been calculated to be 84 %. The study makes a critical input to a greater understanding of watershed controlling and hydrological processes in the upper Indus catchment's Gilgit watershed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1043.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: business transformation; digital process maturity; business maturity framework (BMF); incremental changes; maturity assessment; disruptive changes; oil and gas industry
Online: 15 September 2023 (05:01:31 CEST)
This paper examines the use of business maturity models as a tool for achieving business maturity and improving organizational performance in a rapidly changing business environment. Specifi-cally, the paper evaluates existing maturity models and methodologies, analyzes their effective-ness, and develops a novel and enhanced model tailored to the oil and gas sector. The authors highlight the importance of considering fundamental factors that underlie the implementation of maturity models and the need to evaluate their fit with organizational goals and values. The pa-per concludes by emphasizing the ongoing nature of business maturity and the effectiveness of theproposed Business Maturity Framework (BMF) model in enhancing operational excellence, competitiveness, and sustainable growth in the oil and gas industry. The paper makes a notable contribution to the specialized literature precisely through the differ-ent approaches to the business maturity process and through the proposed business maturity model itself as a base of strategy formulation, which includes a new dimension. This dimension analyzes whether the market and customers are ready for the level of digitization that the com-pany wants to achieve in a future state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0295.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: WGCNA; lung development; histological structure; molecular changes; amphibian
Online: 20 January 2022 (10:16:10 CET)
Metamorphosis is a critical process for most anurans to transition from water to land. The appearance of air-breathing lungs occurs during the change in oxygen medium from water to air. Revealing the structural construction and molecular switches of lung organogenesis is essential to understand the realization of air-breathing function. In this study, histology and transcriptomics were combinedly conducted to explore these issues in Microhyla fissipes lungs during metamorphosis. During the pro-metamorphic phase, histological structure improving of the alveolar wall was accompanied by robust substrate metabolism and protein turnover. The lungs, at the metamorphic climax phase, are characterized by an increased number of cilia in the alveolar epithelial cells and collagenous fibers in the connective tissues, corresponding to the transcriptional upregulation of cilia and extracellular matrix-related genes. The post-metamorphic lungs strengthen the contracting function, as suggested by the thickened muscle layer and the upregulated expression of genes involved in muscle contraction. The blood–gas barrier is fully developed in adult lungs whose transcriptional features are tissue growth and differentiation regulation and immunity. Importantly, significant transcriptional switches of pulmonary surfactant protein and hemoglobin facilitate air-breathing. Our results illuminated four key steps of lung development for amphibians to transition from water to land.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0004.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: hydrological changes; wetlands; Arctic; Subarctic; microwave remote sensing
Online: 1 December 2021 (10:32:31 CET)
Specific emissivity features of swamps and wetlands of Western Siberia were studied for changing seasonal conditions with the use of daily data of satellite microwave sounding. The research technique involved the analysis of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface at the test sites. Variations in seasonal dynamics of brightness temperatures were mainly caused by different rates of seasonal freezing of the upper waterlogged layer of the underlying surface and dielectric characteristics of water containing natural media (water body, soil, vegetation). We analyzed long-term trends in seasonal and annual dynamics of brightness temperatures of the underlying surface and estimated hydrological changes in the Arctic and Subarctic. The findings open up new possibilities for using satellite data in the microwave range for studying natural seasonal dynamic processes and predicting hazardous hydrological phenomena.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2075.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Forestry Keywords: land use changes; zoning; community forest; resilience; Togo
Online: 30 May 2023 (07:57:57 CEST)
Affem Boussou community forest (AFC) abounds in important biological resources. This study, which contributes to its better management, examines the spatiotemporal dynamics of the vegetation and its ecological and structural characteristics to propose a zoning plan for the said forest. The analysis of the spatiotemporal dynamics of land use in the AFC from Google Earth images of 2015, 2018, and 2021 revealed a regressive trend of formations: crops and fallows (-33.98%), dense dry forests (-7.92%), gallery forests (-3.46%), plantations (-100%), grassy savannahs and meadows (-18.84%) except for tree/shrub savannahs (484.23%). The floristic inventory identified 163 species divided into 129 genera and 55 families. Fabaceae (14.02%), and Combretaceae (10.55%) are the most represented families. Anogeissus leiocarpa (5.19%) and Vitellaria paradoxa (4.72%) are the most frequent species. We note the dominance of individuals of small diameters. The regeneration potential of the AFC is 64 feet/ha due to 21 feet/ha of suckers, 29 feet/ha of seedlings, and 14 feet/ha of shoots. As a zoning plan, the AFC was subdivided into four series: the agroforestry zone (18.80%), the sustainable production forest zone (42.22%), the buffer zone (11%), and the biological conservation zone (28%). These results constitute a scientific basis for testing ecological indicators of sustainable management of community forests in Togo.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0208.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: I Ching; Coin toss method; 64 hexagram changes; Big data analysis; Hexagram changes topographic map
Online: 3 August 2023 (08:16:04 CEST)
Chinese divination of I Ching has a history of thousands of years. The six lines changes in 64 hexagrams have exceeded one billion scenarios, and the inherent laws among them have not been well revealed to this day. By using big data's technology and coin toss method, this paper simulates the change of 64 hexagrams, and explores the probability and proportion of each hexagram during the change from the perspective of quantification, as well as the maximum and minimum conversion rate of hexagram change. This paper summarizes the basic characteristics and the basic law of hexagram change, and accordingly constructs the spatial form of hexagram change, and reveals the hidden secrets of the ancient Book of changes (I Ching). To achieve this goal, we randomly toss three coins 600 million times to generate 100 million hexagrams. According to the basic rules of hexagram divination, we calculate the hexagram changes. The results showed that: (1) Changes of things are mostly simple changes. The probability of 1 billion randomly generated hexagrams from one to three dynamic lines is close to 80%. (2) About 17% of the 64 hexagrams have no dynamic lines, which means that a significant proportion of the 64 hexagrams are invariant. (3) Small probability changing hexagram certainty and large probability changing hexagram uncertainty. (4) After generating one billion hexagrams at random, the topographic map with the probability of changing hexagrams has axial symmetry and fractal geometric characteristics, and the fractal characteristics are mainly manifested in that the changes on both sides of the symmetry are presented based on the triangle background. These results reflect the obvious characteristics and internal regularity of the changes in the 64 hexagrams of the I Ching. This article provides new ideas for scientific exploration of the internal laws of the 64 hexagrams in the I Ching.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0909.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: psychological changes; self esteem; resilliance; Nurses
Online: 14 September 2023 (04:56:08 CEST)
Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) almost ceased to spread across the globe, but post Covid psychological experiences are rarely documented. It is essential to understand the individual psychological needs and challenges regarding working during the covid-19 pandemic and resilience and psychological health to continuing work in the aftermath of this crisis. Objective To explore the psychological transformation of staff nurses after COVID-19 Methods A phenomenological and purposive sampling approach was employed. Registered nurses working at the largest health organization in Qatar includes 14 health facilities were invited to participate in this study. 17 nurses who were working in the facilities and were deployed during the first, second and third wave of Covid 19 participated in the interview. Data were collected through semi-structured face-to-face interviews using quarantine measures. The interview data were analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. Results The psychological transformation of participants was summarized into three themes fear zone, Learning zone and growth zone. These themes were classified into 10 sub-themes Fear and anxiety, Influence of media and news, Frequent change in policies and guidelines were the fear zone factors .Secondly Coping mechanism, teamwork, establishing compassionate care, social acceptance, personal and professional benefits helps them learn psychologically. Thirdly growth factors such as confident & resilient, Sense of purpose and Change life perception and meaning Conclusion Working during COVID-19 imposed many challenges on nurses such as workload and stress. However, the different waves of the pandemic may increase the resilience, confidence and life meaning in nurses. Their previous experiences in handling difficult situations during the pandemic may make the nurses become more confident in dealing with stressful situations and working under pressure.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0135.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: epigenetics; epigenetic variation; chromatin changes; omics; climate-resilient crops
Online: 6 July 2021 (11:32:11 CEST)
Climate change has had a significant impact on many ecosystems worldwide, prompting native population species to adapt to the current weather patterns eventually. Pre-existing genetic variation in populations explains part of this adaptation. Still, recent studies have shown that new stable phenotypes can be generated through epigenetic modifications in just a few generations, thereby contributing to the stability and survival of plants in their natural habitat as they eventually adjust to the surrounding impacts. The state of chromatin inside plant cells varies, allowing cells to fine-tune their transcriptional profiles to better adapt to stimuli from the external environment. Within a cell, chromatin state changes such as post-transcriptional histone modifications and variations, DNA methylation, and non-coding RNA activity are all examples of chromatin state alterations that may epigenetically dictate certain transcriptional outputs. Recent advances in the field of ‘Omics’ in major crops has made it easier to identify epigenetic changes and their impact on plant responses to environmental stresses. These epigenetic mechanisms thus play an important role in improving crop adaptation and resilience to changing environments. This variation that has emerged can thus be exploited in crop breeding, ultimately leading to the generation of stable climate-resilient genotypes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0244.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Phentolamine Mesylate; dental implants; haemodynamic changes; adverse effects; satisfaction
Online: 11 August 2021 (08:59:37 CEST)
The clinical application of Phentolamine Mesylate (PM) as an anaesthetic reversal agent has been documented in paediatric patients and in conservative dentistry, but no studies have been found in implant surgery. A prospective randomised study was conducted in 60 patients eligible for mandibular implant treatment, randomly divided between the Control Group (CG) and Experimental Group (EG), who were administered PM. Haemodynamic changes, adverse effects and patient satisfaction were assessed. No statistically significant differences in haemodynamic changes and postoperative pain were found between CG and EG (p<0.05), except for Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) which increased slightly in EG, without posing a risk to the patient. There were no differences in the presence of adverse effects between the two groups, except in the CG which presented greater difficulty in chewing and biting (p<0.05) and the EG with greater pain in the injection area (p=0.043). 83.3% of the EG patients would request PM again for future dental treatment. The use of PM offers an alternative in implant surgery, without increasing the risks and increasing the patient's quality of life.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Soil Science Keywords: and cover changes; soil mapping; random forest; plain areas
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:53:33 CEST)
The flat terrain in plain areas makes the land easily accessible for cultivation and farming, providing vast opportunities for agricultural development. Additionally, these areas are crucial for urban construction and economic growth. Soil mapping plays a crucial role in understanding soil characteristics and guiding land management practices. However, accurately mapping soils in plain regions can be challenging due to their low spatial variability and diverse land use types. This study focuses on the impact of land cover changes on the accuracy of soil mapping in plain areas, aiming to provide effective assistance in soil mapping through the analysis of their coupling relationship. Starting with a 20-year land cover change analysis, this study utilizes a unified approach that combines expert knowledge, mixed sampling methods, and random forest mapping techniques. The study incorporates environmental covariates that have minimal period influence and synergistically use NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and land cover data from the same year. The analysis is based on transition matrices, confusion matrices, and their derived indicators. The research findings indicate that Tongzhou District has experienced rapid development over the past 20 years, with the area of construction land nearly doubling. 29% of arable land has been converted into construction land, resulting in an increase in the accuracy of the soil map from 58.99% to 66.91% over the 20-year period. The soil change area during this period accounts for 16.5% of the total area, with 51.9% of the changed areas overlapping with land cover change areas. These overlapping regions are predominantly influenced by human activities. In terms of cultivated land types in the study area, the quantity of arable land has decreased by approximately 29% over the 20 years, while the proportion of sandy loam calcareous fluvo-aquic soil and light loam calcareous fluvo-aquic soil, which constitute nearly half of the soil types, has increased. These data demonstrate the coupling relationship between land cover changes and soil type variations, particularly the significant influence of human activities on soil structure. It is evident that on one hand, improving the extent of land use in plain areas enhances the credibility of soil mapping. On the other hand, human activities impact land cover, which in turn affects and reflects changes in the soil.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0464.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: hydrodynamic model; coastal changes; DELFT3D; erosion and sedimentation rates
Online: 7 November 2023 (13:24:52 CET)
Deception Island is an active volcano with a submerged caldera open to the sea, giving it a horseshoe-shaped structure. Several post-caldera-collapsed volcanic events, as well as hydrodynamics within this natural bay, have modified its inner coastline, shaping new tephra deposits and altering the landscape. A hydrodynamic model is presented to predict accretion and erosion trends on the coast, which impact the mobility of researchers and tourists, whether on foot or by boat. Historical orthophoto images and spatiotemporal differences in digital elevation and bathymetric models have been used for validation purposes. The model reveals that the south-facing coast is more susceptible to erosion, while the east-west-facing coast experiences sedimentation. However, a visual study of the coastline has indicated erosion ratios in cliff areas in sedimentary zones. This is likely due to the erosive effect caused by ice floe fragments accumulating in these areas due to wave action. Only a portion of the significant total loss of surface material is received within the bay, including its own erosion, and accumulates on the bay's floor. This is partially due to the volume being composed of snow, and there is also a transfer of material to the exterior to balance the figures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0129.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: COVID-19; Pandemic; Lockdown; Lifestyle changes; Public Health; Society
Online: 10 June 2020 (09:22:11 CEST)
The emergence of COVID -19 pandemic has severely impacted individuals from all walks of life. The rapid spread of the disease to nearly all parts of the country has posed enormous health, economic, environmental and social challenges to the entire human population. In the absence of any effective drugs and vaccines for treatment, social distancing and other preventive measures are the only alternatives. Lockdown is among one of the options suggested by WHO to reduce spread of the virus. India was quick to close its international borders and enforce the world’s largest COVID lockdown on March 22, 2020. The present study attempts to highlight the impact of imposed nationwide lockdown on society and environment alike along with analysis of lifestyle changes. The study was based on an online survey using a structured questionnaire with over 1000 responders across the country. The pandemic situation demands a certain way of shaping the society to reduce virus spread and safeguard oneself. In this study, we analysed the changes that the society has undergone during lockdown to mitigate the spreading of the infection. We also addressed the changes that have become part of our lives during lockdown – hygiene and health consciousness, work from home (WFM), online teaching, digital shopping, changing internet habits and societal changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0454.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: LaiPen; Management Tools; Remote sensing; Vegetation indices; Spatio-temporal changes
Online: 17 June 2021 (09:26:34 CEST)
The leaf area index (LAI) is an important vegetation biophysical index that provides broad information on the dynamic behavior of ecosystems productivity and related climate, topography, and edaphic impacts. The spatio-temporal changes of LAI were assessed throughout Ardabil Province, a host of relevant plant communities within the critical ecoregion of a semi-arid climate. In a comparative study, novel data from Google Earth Engine- GEE was tested against traditional ENVI measures to provide LAI estimations. Besides, it is of important practical significance for institutional networks to quantitatively and accurately estimate LAI at large areas in a short time and using appropriate baseline vegetation indices. Therefore, LAI was characterized for ecoregions of Ardabil Province using remote sensing indices extracted from Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI), including Enhanced Vegetation Index calculated in GEE (EVIG) and ENVI5.3 software (EVIE), as well as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index estimated in ENVI5.3 software (NDVIE). Besides, a new field measurement method, i.e., the LaiPen LP 100 portable device (LP 100), was used to evaluate the accuracy of the derived indices. Accordingly, the LAI was measured on June and July 2020 in 822 ground points distributed in 16 different ecoregions-sub ecoregions having various Plant Functional Types (PFTs) of the shrub, bush, and tree. The analyses revealed heterogeneous spatial and temporal variability in vegetation indices and LAIs within and between ecoregions. The mean (standard deviation) value of EVIG, EVIE, and NDVIE at Province scale yielded 1.1 (0.41), 2.20 (0.78), and 3.00 (1.01), respectively in June, and 0.67 (0.37), 0.80 (0.63), and 1.88 (1.23), in that respect in July. The highest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June are found in Meshginshahr (1.40), Meshginshahr (2.80), and Hir (4.33) ecoregions and in July are found in Andabil ecoregion respectively with values of 1.23, 1.5, and 3.64. The lowest mean values of EVIG-LAI, EVIE-LAI, and NDVIE-LAI in June were observed for Kowsar (0.67), Meshginshahr (1.8), and Neur (2.70), ecoregions and in July were for Bilesavar ecoregion respectively with values of 0.31, 0.31, and 0.81. High correlation and determination coefficients (r>0.83 and R2>0.68) between LP 100 and remote sensing derived LAI were observed in all three PFTs (except for NDVIE-LAI in June with r=0.56 and R2=0.31). On average, all three examined LAI measures tended to underestimation compared to LP 100-LAI (r>0.42). The findings of the present study can be promising for effective monitoring and proper management of vegetation and land use in Ardabil Province and other similar areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0191.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Process science; Data science; Concept drift detection and Branching frequency changes
Online: 10 September 2021 (15:44:14 CEST)
Business processes are continuously evolving in order to adapt to changes due to various factors. One important process drift perspective yet to be investigated is the detection of branching condition changes in the process model. None of the existing process drift detection methods focus on detecting changes of branching conditions in process models. Existing branching condition detection methods do not take changes within the process into account, hence results are inadequate to represent the changes of decision criteria of the process. In this paper, we present a method which can detect branching condition changes in process models. The method takes both process models and event logs as input, and translates event logs into decision sequences for change points detection. The proposed method is evaluated by simulated event logs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0393.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: tourism destinations; tourism planning; land-use/land-cover changes; Kızkalesi
Online: 7 December 2023 (07:30:59 CET)
Tourism is widely recognised as a significant economic source for local communities. Nevertheless, tourism may potentially result in adverse effects on the environment. In order to mitigate adverse effects and enhance the advantages, tourism development necessitates a comprehensive planning process. In order to effectively manage and guide the growth of tourism, it is imperative to ensure that local-level spatial plans are integrated with national policies and regional strategies. The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of national policies and regional strategies on local spatial plans in tourism destinations, specifically, by analysing the land-use/land-cover changes along the western coastline of Mersin, with a particular emphasis on the Kızkalesi tourism destination.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0719.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus; endothelial progenitor cells; angiogenesis; PCDH10; epigenetic changes
Online: 11 October 2023 (17:26:31 CEST)
Maternal hyperglycemia, induced by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), has detrimental effects on fetal vascular development, ultimately increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases in offspring. The potential underlying mechanisms by which these complications occur are through functional impairment and epigenetic changes in fetal endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), however, remain less defined. We confirm that intrauterine hyperglycemia leads to impaired angiogenic function of fetal EPCs, as observed through functional assays of outgrowth endothelial cells (OECs) derived from fetal EPCs of GDM pregnancies (GDM-EPCs). Notably, PCDH10 expression is increased in OECs derived from GDM-EPCs, which is associated with the inhibition of angiogenic function in fetal EPCs. Additionally, increased PCDH10 expression is correlated with hypomethylation of the PCDH10 promoter. Our findings demonstrate that in utero exposure to GDM can induce angiogenic dysfunction in fetal EPCs through altered gene expression and epigenetic changes, consequently increasing the susceptibility to cardiovascular diseases in offspring of GDM mothers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: QTc interval; Torsades de Pointes; neonates; infants; maturational changes; pharmacovigilance
Online: 17 October 2022 (04:09:55 CEST)
QTc interval measurement is a widely used screening tool to assess the risk of cardiac diseases, arrhythmias, and is a useful biomarker for pharmacovigilance. However, interpretation of QTc is difficult in neonates due to hemodynamic maturational changes and uncertainties on reference values. To describe trends in QTc values throughout infancy (1 year of life), and to explore the impact of (non)-maturational changes and medicines exposure, a structured systematic review (PROSPERO CRD42022302296) was performed. In term neonates, a decrease was observed over the first week of life, whereafter values increased until two months of age, followed by a progressive decrease until six months. A similar pattern, with longer QTc values was observed in preterms. QTc is influenced by cord clamping, hemodynamic changes, therapeutic hypothermia, illnesses and sleep, not by sex. Cisapride, domperidone and doxapram result in QTc prolongation in neo-nates. Further research in this age category is needed to improve primary screening practices, earlier detection of risk factors and precision pharmacovigilance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0291.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: temperature extremes; day-to-day variability; large changes; circulation types; Grosswetterlagen; Poland
Online: 10 November 2020 (08:59:40 CET)
The primary purpose of the study was the determination of the spatial day-to-day variability of extreme temperatures in Poland and the dependency of large temperature changes on atmospheric circulation in accordance with the Grosswetterlagen (GWL) classification. The goal was implemented based on data from 1966 to 2015, made available by the Institute of Meteorology and Water Management – National Research Institute. Day-to-day changes in maximum and minimum temperatures were designated with a rate of ≥ 6 °C (large) and with a rate of ≥ 12 °C (very large) and their spatial distribution was presented. Finally, the analysis of the dependency of considerable temperature changes on atmospheric circulation in accordance with the Grosswetterlagen (GWL) classification was conducted. The obtained results showed that in Poland in the period 1966-2015 the number of large changes in both Tmax and Tmin slightly increased, although the fluctuations show spatial variability. Large changes in Tmax occur more frequently in spring, and in Tmin in winter. Large changes in Tmax and Tmin are mainly recorded during cyclonic circulation, however, the anticyclonic circulation types favour especially large decreases in Tmin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201902.0191.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Area Studies Keywords: Fukushima-gata lagoon; attachment; changes in lifestyle; actual condition of use
Online: 20 February 2019 (12:09:01 CET)
The growing shortage of human resources to manage landscape in the water environment has led to problems concerning preservation of the landscape in Japan. To cultivate people with awareness about preserving the landscape, it is important to understand the process of how a region’s residents develop an attachment toward the water environment in their area. This paper identified factors influencing the attachment of residents toward the Fukushima-gata lagoon, Niigata prefecture, Japan, as a case study while focusing on changes in the lifestyle of the regional residents. The findings are as follows: (1) The target households frequently used Fukushima-gata lagoon for “fishing and for picking edible wild plants” and “gathering reeds to make thatched roofs” before “the reclamation project was carried out by the government in Fukushima-gata lagoon.” They also frequented Fukushima-gata lagoon for “walking and cherry blossom viewing” after “the reclamation project” was implemented. (2) Even the fact that distance from the lagoon to their place of residence increased after the project did not lose their attachment to the lagoon. (3) It was suggested that the project contributed to increase the attachment of regional residents towards Fukushima-gata lagoon because of multiple factors such as “playing in the water,” “livelihood opportunity,” “recreational use,” and so on. (4) Changes in the attachment of regional residents toward Fukushima-gata lagoon before and after the reclamation project was carried out by the government corresponded to “changes in the lifestyle of the local residents” before and after the project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0421.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Geophysics And Geology Keywords: gravelly beach deposits; relative sea-level changes; Metaponto Coastal Plain
Online: 4 August 2023 (11:41:49 CEST)
The hinterland of the Taranto Gulf in Basilicata (southern Italy) provides a great opportunity for the study of coarse-grained coastal systems belonging to a staircase of Quaternary terraced ma-rine-deposits. Among gravelly successions, beach deposits abound in the stratigraphic record, offering exceptional outcrops useful to allow detailed information on their facies features. In this paper, we describe sedimentary facies, textural variations and depositional architecture of these deposits in order to: - demonstrate that the area is an excellent training ground for the study of gravelly beaches in microtidal settings; - discuss about the use of beach deposits as proxy of even small relative sea level variation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0020.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: greenhouse gases; climate changes; Hyrcanian forests; global warming; NDVI; remote sensing
Online: 1 November 2022 (06:55:17 CET)
The increase in the production and entry of greenhouse gases into the earth's atmosphere has disturbed the balance of the environment. The signs of climate change (caused by global warming) are clearly visible and its effects are tangible. According to the United Nations, if the current trend continues, the global average temperature will increase by 3.2°C by the end of the century, which will have terrible consequences if it happens. This research aimed to investigate the effects of greenhouse gases and climate changes resulting from them on Hyrcanian forests. The Hyrcanian forests, as one of the oldest forest areas (remaining from the Paleogene era), were studied by telemetry from 2013 to 2021. The analysis of the images taken from the Landsat 8 satellite showed that during 9 years, the NDVI index decreased by 0.6 units and the average air temperature increased by 0.5°C. Although the average relative humidity has only increased by 2%, the average annual rainfall has recorded an increase of 25mm. The analysis of the statistics showed that the rains occur irregularly and are often torrential. Therefore, it is predicted that as the average temperature continues to increase, the NDVI index will further decrease, and as a result, the forest cover will become weaker and the soil will lose more water absorption power, and due to the increase in average rainfall. successive floods will occur. Therefore, soil erosion increases and the extinction and migration of plant and animal species increase significantly.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0192.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Everglades National Park; stakeholders’ perceptions; social and environmental changes; sustainable management
Online: 11 July 2018 (06:23:56 CEST)
Over the last few decades, urban expansion and population shifts have modified the existing landscape throughout the U.S. Protected areas and development are compatible lenses, yet stakeholders’ involvement in decision-making is often missing from environmental governance. We examine how stakeholders living and working in proximity to Everglades National Park (EVER) perceive environmental and social changes to the park and community park relations. EVER was selected as a study site for several reasons: proximity to urban areas, rich biological diversity, largest subtropical wilderness in the U.S., International Biosphere Reserve, World Heritage Site, and prominence as a tourist destination for the region. Forty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with neighborhood groups, representatives from gateway communities, and conservation organizations. An analysis of the interview data generated six research themes: loss of native species, urban development, a shortage and contamination of water, hurricanes, climate change, and increased recreation use. The results of this study add to the literature by providing a better understanding of the relationships stakeholders have with national parks. The results will provide useable knowledge that may help stakeholders and public land managers design strategies related for sustainable plans for the park and its surrounding communities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: machine learning; neural networks; temperature changes, geografical coordinates
Online: 4 September 2023 (07:09:01 CEST)
Tracking temperature changes in certain geographic regions is a current task in modern research on Earth's climate changes. One of the global problems in solving this task is related to the large volume of measured data and the search for appropriate methods for effective determination of changes. The purpose of this research is to track climate temperature changes using a machine learning-based automated change detection method. The presented method includes training of a two-level structure of neural networks, with measured temperatures for a ten-year period of time for a certain geographical region. In the testing phase, the neural structure classifies measured temperatures for two three-year periods, before and after the ten-year time period, respectively, for the same geographic region. An algorithm was developed to visualize the studied regions by creating a map with their geographic coordinates. The classification results in the neural structure outputs are presented and analyzed as possible temperature changes. Suggestions for continuing and expanding the research in the future are discussed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: diaper; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; skin cancer; neurobehavioral changes
Online: 12 October 2022 (09:55:13 CEST)
In September 2021, the European Chemicals Agency evaluated a dossier for restricting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in infant diapers and concluded that risks were not demonstrat-ed because of inconclusive exposure data. To fill this gap, we measured the 16 priority PAHs of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in the diaper core of four brands and in the sheets and fastening tapes of six brands of commercially available diapers. Health risks were conservatively assessed by assuming that dermally absorbed PAHs can cause both local (skin cancer) and sys-temic critical effects (neurobehavioral changes). Total concentrations of PAHs in diaper core and top sheet, the only significant contributors to skin exposure, averaged 34.5 μg/kg and 66.8 μg/kg, respectively. Excess skin cancer risks and hazard quotients for neurobehavioral effects calculated with the daily dose of total PAHs from combined diaper core and top sheet averaged 1.4 x 10-7 and 1.19 x 10-2, respectively. The median daily dose of total PAHs and of its ben-zo[a]pyrene-equivalent from breast milk estimated worldwide are 171 and 30 times greater than that from combined diaper core and top sheet, respectively. Altogether these findings indicate that trace levels of PAHs found in infant diapers are unlikely to pose health risks.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0047.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: children; adolescents; burns; dressing changes; virtual reality; pain.
Online: 2 October 2020 (15:29:05 CEST)
Children and adolescents with severe burns require dressing changes, associated with pain. As immersive virtual reality (VR) gained prominence as non-pharmacological adjuvant analgesia, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy of full immersive VR on pain experienced during dressing changes in hospitalized children and adolescents with severe burns. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. The systematic reviewsearch resulted in eight studies and 142 patients. This exercise included quality and risk of bias assessment. Due to missing data, four studies were excluded from the meta-analysis. Fixed effects meta-analysis of the four included studies (n = 104) revealed a large effect size (ES) (SMD=0.94; 95% CI=0.62, 1.27; Z=5.70; p<0.00001) for adjuvant full immersive VR compared to standard care. In conclusion, adjuvant full immersive VR significantly reduces pain experienced during dressing changes in children and adolescents with burns. We therefore recommend implementing full immersive VR as an adjuvant in this specific setting and population. However, this requires further research into the hygienic use of VR appliances in health institutions. Furthermore, due to the high cost of the hardware, a cost-benefit analysis is required. Finally, research should also verify the long term physical and psychological benefits of VR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1460.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: innovation; innovation changes; planning; indicators of planning; innovative behav-ior; innovation activity
Online: 21 July 2023 (13:56:09 CEST)
Abstract: The planning of innovative changes in socio-economic systems should focus on the effective utilization of the existing potential for innovative development. This research proposes a method for strategic planning of innovative changes, which enables the determination of development goals, approaches to problem-solving, and a system of indicators to optimize plans for innovative change. The stages of organizing innovative activities, aligned with the mechanism of project development and implementation, are identified. The technique is improved through a system of analytical indicators that assess the state of innovative activity and the scientific and technical level of innovations. The establishment of admissible sets of elementary processes and their combinations leading to innovative changes is also discussed. The planning algorithm is adapted to the type of innovative behavior and the state of the innovation potential within the socio-economic system. The potential for innovation in socio-economic systems is exemplified by the case of Ukraine, with the determination of the strategy for its innovative development in relation to the potentially optimal state.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1276.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Urban Surface Water; Spatiotemporal Changes; Satellite Imagery; Google Earth Engine (GEE)
Online: 17 August 2023 (08:46:15 CEST)
This research focuses on monitoring the spatiotemporal changes of urban surface water in Dhaka City from 1990 to 2021, utilizing satellite imagery and the Google Earth Engine (GEE) platform. Surface water is essential for urban, environmental, and agricultural ecosystems, and its dynamics have significant implications for water resource planning and environmental management. The main objectives of this study are to assess the extent of urban surface water coverage over the last three decades and identify trends of water loss or gain in the study area. The study employs Landsat 5 TM and Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS imagery, integrating GEE with machine learning coding and WRI techniques to extract and analyze surface water data efficiently. Traditional remote sensing methods for dynamic monitoring are time-consuming and cumbersome, but GEE offers a user-friendly and accurate approach, providing easy access to satellite data and cloud-based processing. The results reveal a concerning trend in urban surface water coverage, indicating a significant reduction from 36.23 km² in 1990 to 5.83 km² in 2021, representing a loss of approximately 20 square kilometers or 45 percent of surface water over the last three decades. The decline is attributed to factors such as unplanned urban expansion, rapid real estate development, and increased industrial and economic activities in the study area. The developed algorithms utilizing GEE offer valuable insights into the maximum and minimum extent of surface water, enabling effective surface water planning and management. These findings contribute to sustainable water resource management and environmental preservation in Dhaka City.
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: double-stranded DNA; DNA dynamical models; correlated oscillations in macromolecules; epigenetic changes
Online: 4 January 2021 (16:35:40 CET)
A fully analytical treatment of the base-pair and codon dynamics in double-stranded DNA molecules is introduced, by means of a realistic treatment which considers different mass values for G, A, T, and C nucleotides and takes into account the intrinsic three-dimensional, helicoidal geometry of DNA in terms of a Hamitonian in cylindrical coordinates. Within the framework of the Peyrard-Dauxois-Bishop model we consider the coupling between stretching and stacking radial oscillations as well as the twisting motion of each base pair around the helix axis. By comparing the linearized dynamical equations for the angular and radial variables when going from the bp local scale to the longer triplet codon scale, we report an underlying hierarchical symmetry. The existence of synchronized collective oscillations of the base-pairs and their related codon triplet units are disclosed from the study of their coupled dynamical equations. The possible biological role of these correlated, long-range oscillation effects in double standed DNA molecules containing mirror-symmetric codons of the form XXX, XX’X, X’XX’, YXY, and XYX is discussed in terms of the dynamical equations solutions and their related dispersion relations.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2031.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: Euphrates River; NDWI index; Satellite monitoring; Hydrological changes; Water level dynamics
Online: 30 August 2023 (08:25:31 CEST)
The construction of 22 dams on the Euphrates has reduced the flow of this river, changed the hydrology and destroyed the ecosystem. In order to understand the effect of extreme management on water, 4 coastal points from the Euphrates catchment area were selected to investigate the dynamics of the water level. Using the Cadmium method, the radius of each point was calculated to be 140 meters to study the NDWI index and satellite monitoring. 546 Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS satellite images from 2013 to 2022 were used. The analysis showed that the water level of the Euphrates in the fourth coordinate is directly related to the data of the first and third coordinates and the dynamics of the water level in the fourth coordinate is 3.6 to 4.2 percent of the first coordinate and another 5.2 to 5.9 percent is affected by the third coordinate. Is. Also, the data from August 2013 to 2022 were analyzed. The results showed that the correlation coefficients of the data related to the first coordinates are related to the third and fourth coordinates. It was proved that fluctuations in the first coordinate led to 27% change in the third coordinate in the months of August. Also, the changes in the first point caused 18-19.8% change in the dynamic level of water in the fourth point, and 22.5% of the changes in the water level in the fourth coordinate were affected by the third point.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0032.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: aging; skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; frailty; chromatin; epigenetic changes; histone modifications; Nothobranchius furzeri
Online: 2 August 2019 (12:17:03 CEST)
Aging associates with progressive loss of skeletal muscle function leading up to sarcopenia, a process characterized by impaired mobility and weakening of muscle strength. Molecular mechanisms underpinning sarcopenia are still poorly characterized. Since aging associates with profound epigenetic changes, epigenetic landscape alteration analysis in the skeletal muscle promises to highlight molecular mechanisms of age-associated sarcopenia. The study was conducted exploiting the short-lived turquoise killifish Nothobranchius furzeri (Nfu), a relatively new model for aging studies. The epigenetic analysis suggested for a less accessible and more condensed chromatin in old Nfu skeletal muscle. Specifically, an accumulation of heterochromatin regions was observed as consequence of increased levels of H3K27me3, HP1alpha, polycomb complex subunits and senescence associated heterochromatic foci (SAHFs). Consistently, euchromatin histone marks, including H3K9ac, decreased. The integrative bioinformatics analysis of RNASeq and ChIPSeq, related to skeletal muscle of Nfu at different ages, revealed a down-modulation of genes involved in cell cycle, differentiation and DNA repair and an up-regulation of inflammation and senescence genes. Undoubtedly, more studies are needed to disclose the detailed mechanisms, but this approach revealed an unprecedented specific features of Nfu skeletal muscle aging, potentially associated with sarcopenia onset and consequent impairment of swimming and mobility typical of old Nfu.
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: archaea; bacteria; 16SrRNA high-throughput sequencing; water transfer; seasonal changes; river sediments
Online: 18 August 2020 (04:36:46 CEST)
Bacteria and archaea participate in and are influenced by processes of substance circulation and energy exchanges in natural environment. Generally, the community changes of bacteria and archaea in sediment are mainly driven by seasonality in mid-latitude regions. But in our study, water diversion to Fen river played a more important role on OTU number, diversity and community structure of bacteria and archaea in sediment than seasonal variation, which was found by 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing technology. This phenomenon might be caused by external transferred water on the physicochemical water environment and accelerated release of positive nitrogen from sediment caused by rise of water level. Changes of carbon-nitrogen cycle and increase of electrical conductivity (EC) value induced more diversion-responders than season-responders both for bacteria and archaea. Seasonal changes have been influencing bacteria and archaea mildly throughout the whole study reach. After water diversion, the environment indicators relating to bacteria community obviously changed from nutrients to salinity while that for archaea almost disappeared. Our research showed the effects of human activities on the communities of bacteria and archaea outweigh the forcing from natural seasonal changes in mid-latitude regions and revealed the mechanism, highlighting different responses of bacteria and archaea to environmental changes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0226.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Congo Basin; Precipitation Changes; Dynamic and Thermodynamic contributions; RCM’s Formulation; RCA4; RCP8.5
Online: 4 December 2023 (17:30:13 CET)
Addressing the impacts of climate change requires, first of all, understanding the mechanisms driving changes, especially at regional scale. In particular, policymakers and other stakeholders need physically robust climate change information to drive societal responses to a changing climate. In this study, we analyse the late 21st century precipitation projections (2071-2100) over the Congo Basin under Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5, from the Rossby Centre Regional Climate Model (RCM) RCA4. In particular, we examine the impact of the RCM formulation (reduction of turbulent mixing) on future projections, by comparing the results of the modified version (RCA4-v4) with those of the standard version (RCA4-v1) used in CORDEX (Coordinated Regional climate Downscaling EXperiment). The two RCM versions are driven by two global climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). Results show that seasonal precipitation is largely affected by modifications in the atmospheric column moisture convergence or divergence, in turn, associated with dynamic and thermodynamic effects. Projected decreased precipitation in the dry seasons is associated with an increased moisture divergence, driven by dynamic effects (changes in circulation). Precipitation is projected to overall increase in the wet seasons, related to both dynamic and thermodynamic effects, but with larger thermodynamic contribution (changes in specific humidity). By comparing the two model versions, we found that the formulation strongly influences precipitation projections as well as the boundary conditions (driving GCM). This result could be very informative in view to ensure models fitness for the purpose of future projections for decision-makers.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0520.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: Multilevel Functional Principal Components Analysis (mFPCA); Dynamical Shape Changes
Online: 28 February 2023 (11:29:22 CET)
Multilevel functional principal components analysis (mFPCA) is used to treat dynamical changes in shape in this article. Results of standard (single-level) FPCA are presented here also as a comparison. Monte Carlo (MC) simulation is used to create univariate data (i.e., a single “outcome” variable) that contains two distinct classes of trajectory with time. MC simulation is also used to create multivariate data of sixteen 2D points that represent (broadly) an eye; this data also has two distinct classes of trajectory (an eye blinking and an eye widening in surprise). This is followed-up by an application of mFPCA and single-level FPCA to “real” data consisting of twelve 3D landmark outlining the mouth that are tracked over all phases of a smile. By consideration of eigenvalues, results for the MC datasets find correctly that variation due to differences in groups between the two classes of trajectories variation are larger than variation within each group. In both cases, differences in standardized component scores between the two groups are observed, as expected. Modes of variation are shown to model the univariate MC data correctly, and good model fits are found for both the “blinking” and “surprised” trajectories for the MC “eye” data. Results for the “smile” data show that the smile trajectory is modelled correctly, namely: the corners of the mouth are drawn backwards and wider during a smile. Furthermore, the first mode of variation at level 1 of the mFPCA model show only subtle and minor changes in mouth shape due to sex, whereas the first mode of variation at level 2 of the mFPCA model govern whether the mouth is upturned or downturned. These results are all an excellent test of mFPCA, which show that mFPCA presents a viable method of modelling dynamical changes in shape.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: malondialdehyde; duck meat; myofibrillar proteins; physicochemical changes; gel properties
Online: 16 September 2022 (03:50:02 CEST)
This paper focuses on the effect of malondialdehyde-induced oxidative modification (MiOM) on the gel properties of duck myofibrillar proteins (DMPs). DMPs were first prepared and treated with oxidative modification at different concentrations of malondialdehyde (0, 0.5, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 mmol/L). The physicochemical changes (carbonyl and free thiol group content) and gel properties (gel whiteness, gel strength, water holding capacity, rheological properties and mi-cro-structural properties) were then investigated. The results showed that the content of protein carbonyl groups increased with increasing MDA oxidation (P<0.05), while the content of free thiol groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). Meanwhile, there was a significant trend of decrease in gel whiteness; the hardness and water-holding capacity of protein gels increased significantly under the oxidation of low concentration of MDA (0-5 mmol/L), while the hardness of gels decreased under the oxidation of high concentration (10 mM). The storage modulus and loss modulus of oxidized DMPs also increased with increasing concentration; moreover, microstructural analysis confirmed that the gels oxidized at low concentrations were more compact and homogeneous in terms of pore size compared to the high concentration or blank group. In conclusion, moderate oxidation of malondialdehyde was beneficial to improve the gel properties of duck; however, excessive oxidation was detrimental to the formation of dense structured gels.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0291.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Optics And Photonics Keywords: 2D materials; integrated optics; photo-thermal changes; graphene oxide
Online: 21 June 2022 (08:06:34 CEST)
We experimentally investigate power-sensitive photo-thermal tuning (PTT) of two-dimensional (2D) graphene oxide (GO) films coated on integrated optical waveguides. We measure the light power thresholds for reversible and permanent GO reduction in silicon nitride (SiN) waveguides integrated with 1 and 2 layers of GO. Raman spectra at different positions of a hybrid waveguide with permanently reduced GO are characterized, verifying the inhomogeneous GO reduction along the direction of light propagation through the waveguide. The differences between the PTT induced by a continuous-wave laser and a pulsed laser are also compared, confirming that the PTT mainly depend on the average input power. These results reveal interesting features for 2D GO films coated on integrated optical waveguides, which are of fundamental importance for the control and engineering of GO’s properties in hybrid integrated photonic devices.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0169.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Plant Sciences Keywords: photosynthesis; carbohydrate metabolism; hexokinase; heat acclimation; environmental changes; natural variation; high light; combined stress
Online: 14 June 2020 (12:37:30 CEST)
Diurnal and seasonal changes of abiotic environmental factors shape plant performance and distribution. Changes of growth temperature and light intensity may vary significantly on a diurnal, but also on a weekly or seasonal scale. Hence, acclimation to a changing temperature and light regime is essential for plant survival and propagation. In the present study, we analyzed photosynthetic CO2 assimilation and metabolic regulation of the central carbohydrate metabolism in two natural accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana originating from Russia and south Italy during exposure to heat and a combination of heat and high light. Our findings indicate that it is hardly possible to predict photosynthetic capacities to fix CO2 under combined stress from single stress experiments. Further, capacities of hexose phosphorylation were found to be significantly lower in the Italian than in the Russian accession which could explain an inverted sucrose-to-hexose ratio. Together with the finding of significantly stronger accumulation of anthocyanins under heat/high light these observations indicate a central role of hexokinase activity in stabilization of photosynthetic capacities within a changing environment.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0086.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biology And Biotechnology Keywords: Cameroon; sudano-sahelian zone; sorghum; long-time fermentation; turbid beers; physicochemical changes; clustering
Online: 5 July 2020 (15:38:36 CEST)
In Cameroon, alcoholic beverages remain the main consumed drink. In the Northern regions, indigenous sorghum beers are popular and widely consumed in an actively fermenting state by the people. In this study, some physicochemical parameters of the alcoholic sorghum beverages and correlations between them were evaluated during fermentation for 10 days. The indigenous white and red beers were produced at the laboratory scale assisted by experimented producers and some parameters (pH, total acidity, alcohol, sugars, density, total solids, temperature, and conductivity) were measured on the wort and fermented beverages. The pH decreases from 3.2 to 2.4 and 3.11 to 2.41; total acidity increases from 1.07 to 5.1 g/l and 0.5 to 4.6 g/l; alcohol enhances from 0 to 9.5% and 0 to 6.8% (v/v); total solids drop from 13.6 to 5°P and 12.2 to 3.3°P were observed respectively in the white and red sorghum beers. The multivariate analysis showed a good correlation between consumption of sugar, the decrease of total solids and density with the decrease in pH. It was also shown that, a perfect link exist between the production of alcohol and organic acids. The hierarchical analysis showed that indigenous red beer samples fermented for 1 and 2 days and those fermented for 4 to 10 days are related and could be separate in two distinct groups, whereas white turbid beer samples are separated in three different groups, those fermented for 1 to 4 days, those 5 to 6 days and those 7 to 10 days. The results obtained could serve as a guide to better understand the fermentation process of the indigenous alcoholic sorghum-based beverages.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1504.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: bicuspid aortic valve; children; NFATC1 gene expression; myocardial changes; posterior wall thickness; aorta
Online: 21 July 2023 (10:45:22 CEST)
Background: The role of NFATC genes expression in BAV progression is not fully understood. Aim of study is to determine the significance of NFATC1 and NFATC4 gene expression for myocardial changes in children with BAV. Methods: In 47 children with BAV the standard Doppler echocar-digraphic characteristics were detected and the expression of the NFATC1 and NFATC4 genes was studied. Results: PWTd, AoPPG, in BAV patients were significantly higher compared to healthy controls (PWTd median(min-max) 9 (7-10) mm vs 7 (6-8) mm), AoPPG median (min-max) 7,79 (2,98-15,09) mm Hg vs 2,94 (2,42-3,72) mm Hg. Expression of NFATC1 gene in BAV children was significantly higher compared to NFATC4 (NFATC1 median (min-max) 70,88 (8,79-106,51) e.u. vs 7,72 (1,74-22,67) e.u., respectively p<0,05). Significant correlation of NFATC1 expression with Ao found (R=+0,53, p<0,05). In BAV patients with PWTd > 8 mm and Ao> 21 mm the NFATC1 expression was significantly higher compare to those with PWTd< =8 mm and Ao<=21 mm NFATC1 median (min-max) 45,49 (5,01-101,52) e.u. vs 15,53 (2,36-44,40) e.u., p<0.05 and 81.11 (20.27-101.10) e.u. mm vs 12.16 (2,40-45.49) e.u., p<0.05, respectively) Conclusion: in children with BAV the high expression of the NFATC1 calcineurin signalling pathway gene is associated with elevated PWTd and Ao.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0392.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Remote Sensing Keywords: time series; lake changes; remote sensing; inland lake; lake disturbance
Online: 30 December 2019 (04:45:43 CET)
Inland lake variations are considered sensitive indicators of global climate change. However, human activity is playing as a more and more important role in inland lake area variations. Therefore, it is critical to identify whether anthropogenic activity or natural event is playing as the dominant factor in inland lake surface area change. In this study, we proposed a Douglas-Peucker simplification algorithm and bend simplification algorithm combined method to locate major lake surface area disturbances; these disturbances were then characterized to extract the time series change features according to documented records; and the disturbances were finally classified into anthropogenic or natural. We took the nine lakes in Yunnan Province as test sites, a 31 years long (from 1987 to 2017) time series Landsat TM/OLI images and HJ-1A/1B used as data sources, the official records was used as references to aid the feature extraction and disturbance identification accuracy. Results of our method for both disturbance location and the disturbance identification could be concluded as follows: 1) The method can accurately locate the main lake changing events based on the time series lake surface area curve. The accuracy of this model for segmenting the lake area time series curves in our study area was 95.24%. 2) Our proposed method achieved an overall accuracy of 91.67%, with F-score of 94.67 for anthropogenic disturbances and F-score of 85.71 for natural disturbances. 3) According to our results, lakes in Yunnan Provence, China, have undergone extensive disturbances, and the human-induced disturbances occurred almost twice as often as natural disturbances, indicating intensified disturbances caused by human activities. This inland lake area disturbance identification method is expected to uncover whether a disturbance to inland lake area is human activity-induced or natural event.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: social system, sustainable transformation, institutions, technologies, demographic and climate changes
Online: 22 March 2019 (15:59:16 CET)
The paper is devoted to fundamental issues concerning to the ideology of the future sustainable development. Its implementation has available in the first place basing on the recognized framework concept of sustainable development (SD). At the same time, this concept requires serious improvement. As follows from the argumentation, a realistic design of institutional changes in connection with resource and organizational/behavioral changes needed for SD is called for to realize in the line of overall social system transformation. Its adequate understanding presupposes an exhaustive study of interconnected transformations in the main social fields as system processes taking into account the influence of relatively exogenous factors (technological, demographic and climate changes).According to the author, the transition to global sustainable social transformation is achievable. Main attention focuses on a number of possible fundamental shifts, the synergetic implementation of which will make such a transition possible.Proceeding from the arguments, the sustainable reproduction of the economy of a mature post-industrial type, including the green sectors, implies its stable and quiet growth, although the rapid growth of individual markets, especially innovative ones, may take place. The main findings also include the substantiation in favor of the choice of the national middle way model as the most appropriate for the corresponding sustainable system transformation of society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0229.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Paleontology Keywords: Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO); nannoplankton; temperature changes; Cibulakan Formation
Online: 24 January 2018 (18:50:42 CET)
Global climatic event on Middle Miocene triggered by geology activity is called by Mid- Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO). This event was widely distributed and associated with increasing temperature and CO2 content in the atmosphere. The effect of MMCO was widely known the mid-latitude region, but still limited information in low latitude sediments. This study try to perform the effect of MMCO at Cibulakan Formation in which deposited in the low latitude basin, Bogor Basin. Fifty eights samples from Cileungsi River were taken at Cibulakan Formation and quantitative nannoplankton analysis was carried out for this study. Nannoplankton shows the sensitive response with sea surface temperature changes. Increasing of total population nannoplankton indicates the rising of temperature and dropping temperature is marked by decreasing population. The effect of sea surface temperature changes relates with salinity changes as the effect of evaporation. Helicosphaera carteri and Umbilicosphaera jafari were counted to know the salinity trend at Cibulakan Formation. Sea surfaces temperature changes was observed on Early Miocene which was influenced by small scale Early Miocene glaciation and active tectonic during this period. Warming temperature taken place on Middle Miocene as the effect of warm and open sea during Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum. Afterwards, hot temperature continued on Late Miocene triggered by global increasing temperature at Pacific Ocean and widely distribution of clean water at North West Java Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0501.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Dental implants; Thermal stress; Modeling of heat transfer; Temperature changes; Heat equation; Analytical solution.
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:37:53 CEST)
Introduction: Heat is a kinetic process whereby energy flows from between two systems; hot-to-cold objects. In oro-dental implantology, conductive heat transfer/(or thermal stress) is a complex physical phenomenon to analyze and consider in treatment planning. Hence, ample research has attempted to measure heat-production to avoid over-heating during bone-cutting and -drilling for titanium (Ti) implant-site preparation and insertion, thereby preventing/minimizing early (as well as delayed) implant-related complications and failure. Objective: Given the low bone-thermal conductivity whereby heat generated by osteotomies is not effectively dissipated and tends to remain within the surrounding tissue (peri-implant), increasing the possibility of thermal-injury; this work attempts to obtain an exact analytical solution of the heat equation under exponential thermal-stress, modeling transient heat transfer and temperature changes in Ti implants upon hot-liquid intake. Materials and Methods: We investigate the impact of the material, the location point along implant length, and the exposure time of the thermal load on temperature changes. Results: Despite its simplicity, the presented solution contains all the physics and reproduces the key features obtained in previous numerical analyses studies. To the best of knowledge, this is the first introduction of the intrinsic time, a “proper” time that characterizes the geometry of the dental implant, where we show, mathematically and graphically, how the interplay between “proper” time and exposure time influences temperature changes in Ti implants, under the suitable initial and boundary conditions. Conclusions: This work aspires to accurately complement the overall clinical diagnostic and treatment plan for enhanced bone-implant interface, implant stability and success rates, whether for immediate or delayed loading strategies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0891.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: hearing loss; pure tone audiometry; structural changes in the optic nerve; RNFL; C/D ratio
Online: 12 May 2023 (05:18:02 CEST)
Background. In the last decade, it was concluded that glaucomatous optic neuropathy is part of the neurodegenerative diseases in which destructive neuronal lesions are located not only in the structure of the retina, but they are also present at the level of the central visual and nervous pathways. Patients with Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma may have experienced changes such as sensorineural hearing loss as well as balance changes. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the degree of involvement of the auditory system in patients with glaucoma, the structural changes in the optic nerve and, to establish correlation between the hearing loss and structural changes in the optic nerve. The subjects included in the study are grouped as follows: a group of patients with glaucoma that will be compared to a group of patients without glaucoma only as well as identi-fy-ing the evolution of structural changes in optic nerve to patients with glaucoma and to normal patients. Material and methods. It is a prospective, cross-sectional study on 32 eyes of 16 subjects with Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma in a study group and 24 eyes of 12 healthy subjects in con-trol group with a mean age of 62 years in both groups. Both groups underwent ophthalmo-logical, audiological and radio imaging evaluation: Pure-tone audiometry (PTA) were recorded, oph-thalmologic evaluations according to a standardized protocol and MRI cerebral examination was performed. Results: In the Study group patients, compared to the Control group, the average lev-els of the left PTA, the cup/disc (C/D) area in both eyes, the C/D ratio in both eyes are in-creased. The mean level of Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) mean thickness was slightly lower in patients with glaucoma. Multivariate analysis demonstrates that gender can be a good predictor of C/D area, gender and age can be good predictors of PTA both eyes and C/D ratio in the right eye, and gender, age and background can be good predictors of disc area in the left eye. Conclu-sions: Pa-tients with Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma show changes in audiometry test in correla-tion with ophthalmological parameters demonstrating that the auditory system can be affected in Primitive Open Angle Glaucoma. This study emphasizes the problem of interdisciplinarity in medicine with the aim of ensuring the quality of life of patients with glaucoma. A good collabora-tion between ophthalmologist and otolaryngologist will be very useful for these patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0845.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Internal Medicine Keywords: migraine; chronic non-communicable diseases; gut microbiota; nutritional approaches; lifestyle changes
Online: 13 September 2023 (10:02:42 CEST)
In the world, migraine is one of the most common cause of disability in adults. To date, there is no a single cause for this disorder, but rather a set of physio-pathogenic triggers, in combination with a genetic predisposition. Among factors related to the migraine onset, a crucial role seems to be played by gut dysbiosis. In fact, it has been demonstrated how the intestine is able to modulate the central nervous system activities, through the gut-brain axis, and how gut dysbiosis can influence neurological pathologies, including migraine attacks. In this contest, in addition to migraine conventional pharmacological treatments, attention has been paid to an adjuvant therapeutic strategy based on different nutritional approaches and lifestyle changes able to positively modulate the gut microbiota composition. In fact, the restoration of the balance between the different gut bacterial species, the reconstruction of the gut barrier integrity and the control of the release of gut-derived inflammatory neuropeptides, obtained through specific nutritional patterns and lifestyle changes, represent a possible beneficial additive therapy for many migraine subtypes. Herein, this review explores the bi-directional correlation between migraine and the main chronic non-communicable diseases, like diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension, obesity, cancer and chronic kidney diseases, whose link is represented by gut dysbiosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0261.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: sea ice; atmospheric circulation; Rossby waves; climate changes; Arctic; numerical modeling
Online: 11 August 2021 (13:17:14 CEST)
The amplified Arctic warming is one of several factors influencing atmospheric dynamics. In this work, we consider a series of numerical experiments to identify the direct role of the Arctic sea ice reduction process in forming climatic trends in the northern hemisphere. Aimed at this, we used two more or less independent mechanisms of ice reduction. The first is traditionally associated with increasing the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere from the historic level of 360 ppm to 450 ppm and 600 ppm. This growth increases air temperature and decreases the ice volume. The second mechanism is associated with a reduction in the reflectivity of ice and snow. We assume that comparing the results of these two experiments allows us to judge the direct role of ice reduction. The most prominent consequences of ice reduction, as a result, were the weakening of temperature gradient at the tropopause level in mid-latitudes, the slower zonal wind at 50-60∘N, intensification of wave activity in Europe, Western America, and Chukotka, and its weakening in the south of Siberia and Kazakhstan. We also consider how climate change may alter regimes such as blocking and stationary Rossby waves. The study used the INM-CM48 climate system model .
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0305.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: GSI-3DEnVar; GSI-4DEnVar; HWRF; Hurricane intensity changes; Background error covariance
Online: 13 August 2020 (11:55:30 CEST)
The feasibility of a hurricane initialization framework based on the GSI-4DEnVar data assimilation system for the HWRF model is evaluated in this study. The system considers the temporal evolution of error covariances via the use of four-dimensional ensemble perturbations that are provided by high-resolution, self-consistent HWRF ensemble forecasts. It is different from the configuration of the GSI-3DEnVar data assimilation system, similar to that used in the operational HWRF, which employs background error covariances provided by coarser-resolution global ensembles from the NCEP GFS ensemble Kalman filtering data assimilation system. Data assimilation and numerical simulation experiments for Hurricanes Joaquin (2015), Patricia (2015), and Matthew (2016) are conducted during their intensity changes. The impacts of two initialization frameworks on the HWRF analyses and forecasts are compared. It is found that GSI-4DEnVar leads to a reduction in track, MSLP, and MSW forecast errors in all of the HWRF simulations, compared with the GSI-3DEnVar initialization framework. Further diagnoses with Hurricane Joaquin indicate that GSI-4DEnVar can significantly alleviate the imbalances in the initial conditions and enhance the performance of the data assimilation and subsequent hurricane intensity and precipitation forecasts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0055.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: IDF curves; urban drainage; regional climate model; bias correction; climate changes
Online: 4 April 2018 (08:26:21 CEST)
Drainage systems are usually dimensioned for design storms based on intensity-duration-frequency (IDF) curves of extreme precipitation. For each location, different IDF curves are established based on local hydrological conditions. Recent research shows that these curves also vary with time, and should be updated with recent data. The purpose of this study is to evaluate IDF curves obtained from precipitation simulations from the Eta RCM, comparing them with IDF curves obtained from data of a rainfall station. Climate models can be a useful tool for assessing the impacts of climate changes on drainage systems, referring precipitation forecasts. In this study, the Eta RCM was forced by two global climate models: HadGEM2-ES and MIROC5. The bias of the precipitation data, generated by RCM models, was corrected using a Gamma distribution. The Juqueriquerê River Basin, in the cities of Caraguatatuba and São Sebastião, São Paulo State, Brazil, was chosen as a case study. The results show a good correlation between the IDF curves of simulated and observed rainfall for the control period (1960-2005), indicating the strong possibility of using the Eta RCM precipitation forecasts for 2007 - 2099 to establish future IDFs thereby, taking into account climate changes in urban drainage design.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0033.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Staphylococcus aureus; clinical mastitis; antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence; AR phenotype; AR genotype; changes in time
Online: 4 January 2023 (01:27:09 CET)
This study was aimed to highlight the trends of antibiotic resistance (AR) prevalence in two annualities, 2021 and 2022, for a major bacterial pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, that causes mastitis infections necessitating antibiotic therapy in milk producing animals. Fiftyfour isolates, 27 for each year, were obtained from routine tests for the identification of clinical mastitis agents carried out in the author institution for four provinces of Abruzzo and Molise regions, Italy. These were analyzed for phenotypic resistance to eight antibiotics used in human therapy suggested for testing by the European guidelines and for the presence of 14 transferable AR genes by qPCR tests developed in this study. The prevalence of AR genes was lower than reported in studies carried out in other countries, except for blaZ detected in 59.2% 2021 isolates and in 48.1 % 2022 isolates. However, some iso-lates with blaZ were not resistant to cefoxitin. One methicillin resistant (MRSA) strain, carrying the mecA gene, was isolated in 2022 and two multidrug resistant (MDR) isolates were identified in 2021. Other AR genes occurring were aph3’-III (two 2021 isolates), ant6-Ia (one 2021 isolate), ermB (one 2022 isolate), ermC/T (two 2021 isolates) and mph (one 2022 isolate). An interview to the veterinarians who conferred the samples indicated a good management of antibiotic therapies in farms that could explain why AR prevalence was stable in the time inter-val considered, thus underlining the effectiveness of controlled antibiotic usage in containing the AR threat.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0511.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: secular changes; sunspot cycles; Indian summer monsoon rainfall; droughts in India; medieval solar maximum; Maunder minima; El Nino
Online: 24 August 2020 (08:04:03 CEST)
We have defined M cycles as modified form of Gleissberg cycles to study the quasi-periodic secular changes in sunspot activity. Using direct and proxy observations for more than 1200 years we have provided evidence for the influence of the above M cyles on the monsoon rainfall variability and occurrences of major droughts in India. The solar cycle averages of All Indian summer monsoon rainfall (AISMR) and probability of observation of below or above normal AISMR is found to show correlated variations with changes in amplitude of sunspot cycles during the years 1901-2018 AD. Major droughts in India show a preference to occur during minima and declining phases of the M cycles during the years 650-2018 AD . We could generally find low probability of occurrence of droughts in India during the medieval solar maximum epoch ( 1100-1250 AD) and during most of the prolonged sunspot minima periods including the Maunder minima. The evolution of mean Indian summer monsoon rainfall during 650-1900 AD is studied using proxy data from multiple sources with maxima during the 12th century and minima during 14th and 19th centuries. The association of Indian droughts with El-Nino and the possibilities of long term prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall variability will be also discussed
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1035.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI); spatial and temporal changes; driving forces; geographic detector
Online: 15 August 2023 (02:38:59 CEST)
The vegetation types on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are complex and diverse, and the ecological environment is fragile and sensitive. It is very important to study the dynamic changes in vegetation and the main factors related to these changes to grasp the present state of the regional ecosystem, maintain the balance of the ecosystem and promote the sustainable development of the ecosystem. Therefore, this paper is based on SPOT/VEG NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data, land use data, topographic data and meteorological data from 1999 to 2019. The spatiotemporal variation in the NDVI over the Tibetan Plateau in the last 21 years and its response to different driving factors were investigated by using the Sen slope method, Mann–Kendall mutation test, partial correlation analysis and geographical detector method. The results showed that (1) the vegetation coverage on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau showed an increasing trend from 1999 to 2019, with increases in approximately 67.00% of the plateau area. (2) The spatial differences in vegetation coverage were large; notably, low-density vegetation areas decreased obviously, moderate-density vegetation areas accounted for approximately 50% of the total area, high-density vegetation areas were the least common, and the overall growth rate was significant. (3) The NDVI was positively correlated with temperature and precipitation, and a positive correlation was observed in more than 66% of the region. (4) The order of the influence of single driving factors on the NDVI was as follows: precipitation > soil type > altitude > temperature > gradient > slope > population density > GDP. (5) The effect of multiple factors was significantly higher than that of single driving factors, with a notable nonlinear influence. The interactions between meteorological factors, such as precipitation, and topographic factors, such as altitude, were important, with a q value over 0.79.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1892.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Pearl River delta; Holocene sedimentary sequences; deltaic evolution; coastline changes; human impact
Online: 28 September 2023 (02:19:02 CEST)
The Pearl River Delta (PRD) has undergone complex geological development within a multi-island faulted basin, shaped by the interplay of regional tectonic movements, Quaternary sea-level fluctuations, and fluvial-marine interactions. Despite a great number of studies on the Holocene sedimentary sequences and spatial difference of lithofacies and environments, scant attention has been paid to the overarching human influence on deltaic evolution and coastline modifications since the Neolithic epoch. To further elucidate the spatial variation in Holocene sedimentation and its underlying basement topography shaped during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), we compiled a comprehensive dataset incorporating borehole data from over 2,800 cores within the PRD. Subsequently, high-resolution isobath maps of Quaternary deltaic deposits were generated, offering unprecedented insights into sediment distribution. This dataset facilitated a nuanced reconstruction of pre-Holocene topography, revealing a zone characterized by elongated, deep-incised valleys governed by NW-SE fault orientations. Further, we delineated coastline shifts since the period of maximum marine transgression (~7000 years BP), contributing to an enhanced understanding of the formation and evolutionary patterns of the delta and the river network oscillations. Our findings illuminate increasing anthropogenic impact on the rate of fluvial sedimentation and land growth, particularly accentuated over the last two millennia, favoring deltaic accretion. The current study has considerable implications for understanding the dynamic interplay between land-sea interactions and anthropogenic activities in shaping the delta, and stands to significantly inform land and resource management strategies, as well as future urban planning within the delta's bay areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0245.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: COVID-19; glycated hemoglobin; glycemic changes; physical inactivity; chronic diseases; public health
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:18:55 CET)
The covid-19 pandemic has generated substantial changes in the lives of the population, such as increased physical inactivity, which can lead to overweight and, consequently, repercussions on glucose homeostasis. A population-based household epidemiological survey was conducted by stratified, multistage probability cluster sampling (October and December 2020) in Brazil. Participants were classified as physically active or inactive during leisure time according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization. HbA1c levels were categorized as normal (≤6.4%) or with glycemic changes (≥ 6.5%). The mediating variable was excess weight (overweight and obese). Multivariate logistic regression analyzes were performed to examine the association between physical inactivity and glycemic changes. Mediation was analyzed using the Karlson–Holm–Breen method to verify the influence of excess weight on the association. We interviewed 1,685 individuals, mostly women (52.4%), 35–59 years old (45.8%), race/ethnicity brown (48.1%), and excess weight (56.5%). The mean HbA1c was 5.68% (95% CI: 5.58-5.77). Individuals physically inactive were 2.62 times more likely to have glycemic alterations (OR:2.62.95% CI:1.29-5.33), and 26.87% of this association was mediated by excess weight (OR:1.30:95% CI:1.06-1.57). Physical inactivity in leisure time increases the chances of glycemic alterations, and part of this association can be explained by excess weight.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0143.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: 210Pb dating; sedimentary conditions; model errors; initial activity concentrations; tracking environmental changes
Online: 11 January 2022 (13:07:38 CET)
Lead-210 from natural atmospheric fallout is widely used in multidisciplinary studies to date recent sediments. Some of the 210Pb-based dating models can produce historical records of sediment accumulation rates (SAR) and initial activity concentrations ( ). The former have been profusely used to track past changes in the sedimentary conditions. Both physical magnitudes are differently affected by model errors (those arising for the partial or null accomplishment of some model assumptions). This work is aimed at assessing the effects on SAR and of model errors in the CRS, CS, PLUM and TERESA dating models, due to random variability in 210Pb fluxes, which is a usual sedimentary condition. Synthetic cores are used as virtual laboratories for this goal. Independently of the model choice, SARs are largely affected by model errors, resulting in some large and spurious deviations from the true values. This questions their general use for tracking past environmental changes. are less sensitive to model errors and their trends of change with time may reflect real changes in sedimentary conditions, as it is shown with some real cores from varved sediments.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0104.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: Environmental impact; atmospheric pollution; lifestyle changes; health effects; SARS-CoV-2 pandemic.
Online: 6 May 2021 (15:16:12 CEST)
This article analyses the environmental impact of the measures imposed during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. We compare the evolution of atmospheric pollution levels in recent years and during lockdown, and assess the effects of the decrease in mobility and changes in patterns and lifestyles during the latter period. Thus, the reduction in the risk to human health brought about by the improvement of air quality during the months of confinement through the use of dose-response functions is estimated. The focus of the case study is the island of Tenerife. The island of Tenerife has been selected because it can serve as an example for other sites in Europe. We distinguish between the three areas with the highest population concentrations: the Metropolitan, Southern, and Northern areas. The impacts of air pollution and its relationship with changes in consumption and activity patterns are clearly distinguishable. Therefore, the lessons learned can be easily extrapolated to other areas, in both island and mainland contexts.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0349.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sea level changes; Luminescence dating; coastal archaeology; landscape reconstruction; Bronze age; Crete
Online: 13 April 2021 (11:42:17 CEST)
Understanding the processes that govern the transformation of the landscape through time is essential for exploring the evolution of a coastal area. Coastal landscapes are dynamic sites, with their evolution strongly linked with waves and sea-level variations. Geomorphological features in the coastal area, such as beachrock formations and dune fields, can function as indicators of the coastal landscape evolution through time. However, our knowledge of the chronological framework of coastal deposits on the Aegean coasts is limited. Optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques are deemed to be very promising indirect dating of the coastal sediments, especially when they are linked with archaeological evidence. The dating of the sediments from different sediment core depths, as they are determined by the method of luminosity, allows us to calculate the rate of sediment deposition over time. Additionally, the coastal evolution and stability were studied from 1945 until today, with the use of aerial photographs and satellite images. This paper presents the 6000 ka years evolution of a coastal landscape based on geomorphological, archaeological, and radio-chronological data. Based on the results, the early stages of the Ammoudara beach dune field appear to be formed ~9.0 – 9.6 ka BP, while the OSL ages from 6 m depth represented the timing of its stabilization (OSL ages ~5–6 ka). This indicates that the dune field appears to already have been formed long before the Bronze Age (5-10 ka BP) and became stabilized with only localized episodes of dune reactivation occurring, while high coastal erosion rates are found in modern times.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0610.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: land price map; land use development; GIS; spatio-temporal changes; sustainability; Olomouc
Online: 25 October 2018 (14:23:11 CEST)
Land price sustainability issues have been addressed by many authors in the past. Most of these researchers used land prices (from land price maps) as the primary data source in their studies. Only a few papers analysed official land price maps, which are available very rarely. For this reason, we studied the spatial and temporal changes of land prices in the city of Olomouc based on an analysis of official land price maps from 1993 to 2017. We proposed several research hypotheses to confirm some general statements about land price development. We concluded that some macroeconomic indicators had a significant impact on changes in land prices. In the residential and commercial areas and historical centre, land prices are significantly higher than in other monitored aspects (land-use types). We also concluded that no link existed between land-use stability and land price stability. Surprisingly, no long-term stable areas were found in the area of interest. The analysis also confirmed that land price and its change over time varied in different spatial aspects. Surprisingly, the smallest influence was reflected in the economic aspect. Regarding natural events in recent decades, we observed a significant drop in land prices in the vicinity of watercourses threatened by flooding. These findings can assist in better understanding local development and changes in land price.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0313.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: engineering procurement and construction project (EPC); project management; design changes; infrastructure development projects; construction management; New Zealand
Online: 21 July 2022 (08:06:44 CEST)
Design changes seem inevitable in engineering, procurement and construction EPC projects. Such changes create a need for a proactive approach to adjusting project scope, cost and time (the triple constraints) for efficiency and effectiveness in overall delivery. This study investigates the causes and implications of design changes in order to improve design change management practices. Data for the study was obtained through online interviews with New Zealand industry practitioners. Thematic analysis was used to collate the results into meaningful data. The study found that design changes were predominantly caused by clients' inadequate strategic planning, insufficient attention to design, EPC contractors' inadequate design ability, and on-site variations. There were three categories of such design changes: direct impact on the project, the reciprocal and complementary effect on stakeholders, and the far-reaching impact on the community. The study concludes by suggesting improvements, such as strengthening the integration of project teams to enhance design quality, strategic alignment of stakeholders at the planning stage, early contractor involvement (ECI) between the planning and design phases, and improving collaboration between design and construction teams. Further, a combination of high technical skills (e.g. design ability) and soft skills (can-do attitude, interpersonal skills, problem-solving skills, documentation skills, etc.) are needed to effect the desired improvement in design change management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0530.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Water Science And Technology Keywords: land use/cover; ecosystem; dynamic changes; upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River; NDVI; spatial-temporal evolution
Online: 8 September 2023 (05:14:02 CEST)
The composition and pattern of ecosystems are important factors determining the overall status and spatial differences of ecosystem service functions. However, under the background of differential land policies and ecological protection policies, research on the trend of ecological system pattern changes in the Fenhe River Basin is insufficient. Taking the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin as the study area, based on long-term NDVI index and multi-period LUCC remote sensing images, this study used spatial statistics and time trend analysis methods to analyze the spatio-temporal dynamic changes of vegetation, land use, landscape pattern, and explored the impact of major driving factors on ecosystem changes. The results show that: (1) From 2010 to 2020, the vegetation cover in the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin increased, with an annual NDVI increment of 0.003 (P<0.001). NDVI showed an increasing trend spatially, with significant statistics (P<0.001) and significant changes (P<0.05) in vegetation in high-altitude mountain areas, and the vegetation cover was mostly forests or grasslands. There was no significant change in vegetation cover in the low-lying urban agglomeration area. (2) From 2010 to 2020, the area of water bodies or wetlands in the study area significantly decreased, with 51.3% converted to arable land and 33.9% transferred to construction land, while only 2.2% remained as water bodies or wetlands. From 2015 to 2020, the trend of water body changes slowed down, with the proportions of conversion to arable land and construction land being 44.0% and 18.4% respectively, while the area of wetlands or water bodies remained at 16.3%. During the period of 2015-2020, the area of water bodies or wetlands converted to other land types increased by more than 14% compared to 2010-2015. This proportion reached more than 30% compared to the 13th Five-year Plan Period. (3) From 2010 to 2020, the spatial changes of landscape diversity (SHDI) and evenness (SHEI) of LUCC showed heterogeneous characteristics. In the high-altitude areas near the river basin boundary, the values of SHDI and SHEI were below 1.0. While in the low-altitude plain areas and urban areas with relatively frequent human activities, the values of SHDI and SHEI were above 1.0, and the values in urban areas could reach above 1.5. The evolution of ecosystem patterns in the upper and middle reaches of the Fenhe River Basin in the past decade has been clarified, providing a scientific basis for the construction and management of ecological environment governance and restoration projects in the Fenhe River Basin, and providing practical references for ecological protection and high-quality development practice in the Yellow River Basin.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0100.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Assessing efficacy of skin care products; PhabrOmeter; Artificial skin; Changes of skin attributes
Online: 10 January 2019 (14:02:58 CET)
Current instrumental technology in evaluating performance of skin care creams is still rather limited and there are no industrial standard testing equipment, method and performance specifications for it. In this paper, we report our attempt in using an instrument called PhabrOmeter for this purpose. PhabrOmeter is a commercialized instrument for sensory performance evaluation of textiles, leather, paper and nonwoven and has been designated by American Association of Textile Chemists and Colorists (AATCC) as a standard test method for textiles, AATCC TM 202 in 2013. By adopting artificial skin samples treated with skin care creams, we have developed a procedure to apply this instrument for evaluation of skin care creams from sample preparation, measurement to data analysis and interpretation. The results using commercial skin care creams to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of this instrument are provided.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1376.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: automotive industry; changes in supply chains; counteracting the effects of COVID-19; operational and strategic decisions to abandon Asian suppliers
Online: 22 November 2023 (14:45:19 CET)
The purpose of this article is to present the COVID-19 pandemic disruptions occurring in the supply chain of automotive companies, taking into account the type of business. The specific objectives are: to identify and characterise the types of enterprises operating in automotive supply chains, to identify changes during the pandemic in automotive enterprises, depending on the type of activity, to show disruptions in automotive supply chains and ways to counteract these disadvantages depending on the type of activity. Automotive enterprises operating in Poland were selected for the study purposefully. A random selection method was used to select 500 automotive companies for the study. The data sources were surveys conducted in June 2023 among 500 enterprises in the form of a face-to-face telephone interview. Automotive companies experienced supply chain disruptions, regardless of the type of business. Most often, these were caused by lockdowns and official closures, low stocks of materials and products, and problems with employees. There was no difference by type of business. Disruptions were most often short-lived, up to 1 year. Companies countered disruptions by using mostly operational measures, which were short-lived. Only a small percentage of operators made strategic decisions and countered disruptions over a longer period. The scale of these actions was greater among manufacturers than among dealers and car service companies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1744.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Chilean jack mackerel; high hydrostatic pressure; rigor mortis; biochemical changes; cold storage; physicochemical properties.
Online: 28 November 2023 (09:23:58 CET)
Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) is recognized as one of the most valuable pelagic resources across the southeast Pacific Ocean. Despite its nutritious properties it is an underused resource due to its rapid spoilage. The use of high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) for the processing of aquatic products could be an efficient alternative to cold storage since HHP might inactivate microbial pathogens and slow down spoilage microorganisms, therefore extending the product’s shelf life. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of HHP at 450 and 550 MPa for 3 min on the physicochemical properties of jack mackerel muscle undergoing pre- and post-rigor mortis stage and further storage for 26 days at 4°C. pH, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, color, water-holding capacity, and texture were assessed. The proximate composition, pH, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, color, water holding capacity, and texture, showed significant changes between untreated and treated samples, while the water holding capacity was virtually unaffected. Overall results showed an acceptable and long-lasting edible quality of Trachurus murphyi stored at 4°C when preserved through HHP. These findings suggest that the HHP might be able to industrially scale the production of highly physicochemical superior and minimally processed fish products.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0595.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Hydrological responses; global environmental changes; Dhidhessa Subbasin; Land cover change; Climate change; Combined impacts.
Online: 23 December 2020 (15:48:06 CET)
Land cover and climate changes greatly influence hydrologic responses of a basin. However, the response vary from basin to basin depending on the nature and severity of the changes and basin characteristics. Moreover, the combined impacts of the changes affect hydrologic responses of a basin in an offsetting or synergistic manner. This study quantified the separate and combined impacts, and the relative contributions of land cover and climate changes on multiple hydrological regimes (i.e., surface runoff, streamflow, groundwater recharge evapotranspiration) for the Dhidhessa Subbasin. Land cover and climate change data were obtained from a recent study completed for the basin. Calibrated Soil and Water Analysis Tool (SWAT) was used to quantify the impacts. The result showed that SWAT model performed well for the Dhidhessa Subbasin in predicting the water balance components. Substantial land cover change as well as an increasing temperature and rainfall trends were reported in the river basin during the past three decades. In response to these changes, surface runoff, streamflow and actual evapotranspiration (AET) increased while groundwater recharge declined. Surface runoff was more sensitive to land cover than to climate changes whereas streamflow and AET were more sensitive to climate change than to land cover change. The combined impacts played offsetting effect on groundwater recharge and AET while inconsistent effects within study periods for other hydrologic responses. Overall, the predicted hydrologic responses will have negative impacts on agricultural production and water resources availability. Therefore, the implementation of integrated watershed management strategies such as soil and water conservation and afforestation could reverse the negative impacts.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201807.0004.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: influenza; neutralising antibodies; vestigial esterase; antibody dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity; pH-induced conformational changes
Online: 2 July 2018 (08:33:45 CEST)
Initial attempts to develop monoclonal antibodies as therapeutics to resolve influenza infections focused mainly on searching for antibodies with the potential to neutralise the virus in vitro with classical haemagglutination inhibition and micro-neutralisation assays. This led to the identification of many antibodies that bind to the head domain of haemagglutinin (HA) which generally have potent neutralisation capabilities that block viral entry or viral membrane fusion. However, this class of antibodies has a narrow breadth of protection in that they are usually strain specific. This led to the emphasis on stalk targeting antibodies which are able to bind a broad range of viral targets that span across different influenza subtypes. Recently, a third class of antibodies targeting the vestigial esterase (VE) domain have been characterised. In this review, we describe the key features of neutralising VE targeting antibodies and compare them with head and stalk class antibodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0176.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Nursing Keywords: COVID-19; nurses; posttraumatic stress disorder; perceived social support; changes in outlook; sense of security; meaning in life
Online: 7 August 2020 (08:10:28 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic affects not only physical health but also deteriorates mental health resulting in sleep problems, depression, and traumatic stress. Our research investigates the level of posttraumatic stress, perceived social support, opinions on positive and negative consequences of the pandemic, sense of security, and sense of meaning among nurses in the face of new and not fully understood global epidemiological phenomena. For this purpose, computer-assisted web interviewing methods were conducted between May 1 and May 15, 2020. Participating nurses completed the following research tools: The Impact Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support (MSPSS), The Changes in Outlook Questionnaire (CIOQ), The Safety Experience Questionnaire (SEQ) and The Meaning in Life Questionnaire (MLQ). Three hundred and twenty-five nurses working throughout Poland joined the study of an average age of 39.18 ± 11.16 years. The average overall IES-R score in the study group was 1.78 ± 0.65. Among the dimensions of traumatic stress, the highest score was obtained in the dimension Avoidance 1.86 ± 0.73, then in the dimensions Hyperarousal 1.8 ± 0.78 and Intrusion 1.74 ± 0.83. Amongst studied nurses, the highest support rates were provided by significant others (22.58 ± 5.22), then from friends (21.91 ± 5) and family (21.45 ± 4.4). Among the surveyed nurses, higher average scores were noted in the subscale measuring positive psychological changes (18.56 ± 4.04). In contrast, a higher average level of assessment was noted on the Reflection on the safety dimension (4.21 ± 0.49). The mean MLQ score was 5.33 ± 0.87. A slightly higher result was observed in the subscale Presence (5.35 ± 1.14). The results of the research implemented during the period of severe psychological pressure associated with the COVID-19 pandemic provided information on symptoms of traumatic stress in the examined group of nurses. Their sense of security has been lowered and accompanied by an intensified reflection on issues concerning security. However, the sense of meaning (currently felt) in life remains higher than the tendency to searching for it. The surveyed nurses perceive individual support from the so-called significant others (apart from family and friends). They see positive changes resulting from painful experiences related to the COVID-19 pandemic, which can be characterized by adaptation in the form of posttraumatic growth.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0043.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: ethnobotany; traditional ecological knowledge; Waorani; indigenous communities; Ecuadorian Amazon; medicinal plants; loss of knowledge; globalization; global change; acculturation; socio-cultural changes
Online: 6 May 2019 (08:59:53 CEST)
This paper explores how the medicinal plant knowledge of the Waorani indigenous society in Ecuador varies in accordance with both socio-economic and demographic factors. Medicinal plant knowledge was compared at both individual and community levels. Fifty-nine semi-structured interviews (men n = 30, women n = 29) were performed with people between fifteen and seventy years old in five Waorani communities located within the Yasuní Biosphere Reserve. Results show a positive correlation between an individual’s medicinal plant knowledge and age, a negative correlation between medicinal plant knowledge and the years of schooling, and differences among isolated and easily accessible communities. Reasons behind these findings are seen in the rapid socio-cultural changes of the Waorani society due to globalization processes. Increased accessibility to health centers, improved transportation infrastructure and changes in how knowledge is transmitted to young people all result in a loss of ethnobotanical knowledge. Policymakers need to take action in order to ensure the maintenance of ethnoecological knowledge among the Waorani.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.2081.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aquatic Science Keywords: fish; canning; cold storage; lipid oxidation; lipid hydrolysis; fatty acid profile; colour changes; trimethylamine; degradation
Online: 31 October 2023 (12:36:19 CET)
The combined effects of the thermal processing (i.e., sterilisation treatment) and the prior frozen storage time (3 or 6 months at –18 ºC) on the quality loss in canned Atlantic horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) were determined. Thus, the sterilisation step led to a remarkable (p<0.05) formation in canned fish muscle of fluorescent compounds, free fatty acids (FFAs) and trimethylamine and to an increase of the L* and b* colour parameters; meantime, a decrease (p<0.05) of the total ω3 FA/total ω6 FA ratio and the a* colour value were detected. The prior frozen storage period led to an increased (p<0.05) lipid oxidation (peroxide, thiobarbituric acid reactive substance and fluorescent compound formation) and hydrolysis (FFA formation) development and to increased L* and b* colour values in the corresponding canned samples; additionally, a lower (p<0.05) polyene index and phospholipid content were observed in canned fish previously subjected to frozen storage. In most indices, physico-chemical changes related to quality loss were found higher if the previous storage period was increased. According to the marked effects of the sterilisation step and the prior frozen storage period, optimisation of such processing conditions is recommended to maximise the quality of canned horse mackerel.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0110.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: hydrodechlorination; CHClF2; Pd-Pt/C; thermally modified carbon; effect of catalyst oxidation; pore structure changes
Online: 5 April 2021 (12:12:38 CEST)
Pd-Pt catalysts supported on carbon preheated to 1600°C have been reinvestigated in CHFCl2 hydrodechlorination. An additionally adopted catalyst oxidation at 350-400°C produced an order of magnitude increase in the catalytic activity of Pd/C. This increase is not caused by changes in metal dispersion or possible decontamination of the Pd surface from superficial carbon, but rather by unlocking the active surface, originally inaccessible in metal particles tightly packed in the pores of carbon. Burning carbon from the pore walls attached to the metal changes the pore structure, providing easier access for the reactants to the entire palladium surface. As upon calcination the performance of the rest of the Pd-Pt/C catalysts changes less than for Pd/C, the relation between the turnover frequency and alloy composition does not confirm the Pd-Pt synergy invoked in our previous work. The use of even higher-preheated carbon (1800°C), completely free of micropores, results in a Pd/C catalyst that does not need to be oxidized to achieve high activity and excellent selectivity up to CH2F2 (>90%).
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0314.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Very mild Traumatic Brain Injury; Animal models (rodents); Post-concussion syndrome; neuro-behavioral changes; “inflammaging”; brain apoptosis
Online: 14 December 2020 (09:33:51 CET)
Post-concussion syndrome, recently recognized as a complication of mild traumatic brain injury, is considered a consequence of the summative effect of multiple concussions received over lifetime. In elderlies, the main mild brain trauma mechanism is fall (low impact force). Many falls are often not reported or noticed but may generate serious medical and medico-legal consequences. Our research question was to find if a single, very mild brain trauma can induce neuro-behavioral consequences in elderlies. One database was queried (PubMed – MeSH terminology) looking for histopathological, neuro-cognitive and behavioral changes that can be generated by sub-concussional trauma in senescent rodents, in comparison with young animals. 41 published research articles were selected. 17 of them used very mild brain trauma in young and senescent animals, in the same experiment (6 rats and 11 mice). 24 articles evaluated the effect of sub-threshold brain trauma in adult animals (no control group). Five trauma models were used (blast models were excluded). Neuro-inflammatory changes were detected immediate after very mild primary impact. In young animals, observed pathology disappeared fast (after 3 to 7 days). Increased apoptosis, mild axonal injury in white matter tracts plus maladaptive astrogliosis and microglial activation was stronger in aged animals, persisted over time (8 months) and significantly altered animals’ cognition and behavior. Associated preexisting pathology (hypertension, tau protein deposits, microbleeds, reactive inflammation) was often responsible for amplification of the primary impact results. As translation of observation is the weak spot of pathology and behavior animal research, further investigation is needed before to conclude that even a single, very mild brain trauma may have medical consequences on human senescent brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1347.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Yijing; 64 hexagram changes; number in the great expansion method of divination; yin‐yang asymmetry; big data analysis
Online: 18 August 2023 (11:29:41 CEST)
The divination function of China's Yijing has led to its circulation for thousands of years. In our exploration of Yijing's characteristics using big data, we have discovered variations in results between the coin toss method and the ancient yarrow-stalk method of divination, known as "the number for the great expansion method of divination(大衍之数)". The yarrow-stalk method serves as the fundamental method of divination in Yijing and continues to hold significance in studying the essential characteristics of Yijing. Despite the complexity of yarrow calculations, advancements in computer technology and big data have simplified its application. By employing the yarrow-stalk method, we simulated changes in the 64 hexagrams, calculated probabilities and proportions of hexagram alterations, and derived fundamental characteristics and patterns of hexagrams. Additionally, we constructed the spatial representation of lines and hexagrams. Through a binary system rearrangement, we created a 64x64 matrix illustrating hexagram transformations. Subsequently, we generated 100 million random hexagrams and analyzed line and hexagram changes accordingly. Our findings indicate the following:(1) Big data analysis reveals evident asymmetry in the hexagrams obtained through the yarrow-stalk method, with a triangular fractal characteristic forming the background.(2) Each of the 64 hexagrams exhibits a distinct probability distribution when transforming into other hexagrams, which can be categorized into five types.(3)The occurrence probabilities of Laoyang, Laoyin, Shaoyang, and Shaoyin are 18.61%, 6.387%, 31.38%, and 43.62% respectively. The probabilities of Yin and Yang occurrences are nearly equal, each close to 50%. However, the probability of Laoyang is approximately three times higher than that of Laoyin.(4) Visualized and analyzed the characteristics of hexagram changes greater than 100000 times using 3D statistical maps and Sankey diagram.These results demonstrate that the yarrow-stalk method effectively unveils the characteristics and underlying patterns of the 64 hexagrams. This study provides a novel approach for scientifically exploring the internal laws governing the 64 hexagrams in Yijing.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0628.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: climate change; climate equity; energy equity; energy reductions; fossil fuels; global sustainability; policy changes; renewable energy; technological optimism.
Online: 10 July 2023 (11:50:49 CEST)
Conventional methods of climate change (CC) mitigation have not ‘bent the curve’ of steadily rising annual anthropic CO2 emissions or atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. This study reviews the present position and likely future of such methods, using recently published literature with a global context. It particularly looks at how fast they could be implemented, given that the limited time available for avoiding catastrophic CC (CCC). The study then examines solar geoengineering, an approach often viewed as complementary to conventional mitigation. The review next introduces equity considerations, and shows how this will shorten even further the time available for effective action for CC mitigation. The main findings are as follows. Conventional mitigation approaches will be implemented too slowly to be of much help in avoiding CCC, partly because some suggested technologies are infeasible, while others are either of limited technical potential, or, like wind and solar energy, cannot be introduced fast enough. Because of these problems, solar geoengineering is increasingly advocated as a quick-acting and effective solution. However, it could have serious side effects, and given that there will be winners and losers at the international as well as the more regional level, political opposition may make it difficult to implement. The conclusion is that global energy consumption itself must be rapidly reduced to avoid catastrophic climate change.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201803.0047.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: organizational changes; ICT; management tools; work experience; employee outcomes; comparison of public and private sectors; linked employer-employee survey
Online: 6 March 2018 (16:30:15 CET)
We investigate the human sustainability of ICT and management changes using a French linked employer-employee survey on organizational changes and computerization (COI). We approach the human sustainability of changes through the evolutions of work intensity, skill utilization and the subjective relationship to work. We compare in the private sector and the State civil service the impacts of ICT and management changes on the evolution of these three dimensions of work experience. We find that when ICT and management changes are intense, they are positively associated in the public sector with work intensification and new knowledge. In the private sector ICT and management changes increase the use of skills, but at a rate decreasing with their intensity and without favoring the accumulation of new knowledge. However, their impacts on the subjective relationship to work are much stronger, with public sector employees expressing discouragement as well as the feeling of an increased effort-reward imbalance when private sector employees become more committed. We tested that the self-selection of employees, the specific sources and paths of changes and the implementation of performance pay did not explain this divergence. We identify two partial explanations: one is related with employee turnover in the private sector, the other one with the role of trade unions. These results suggest that the human sustainability of ICT and management changes depends on their intensity and on how their implementation takes into account the institutional context of the organization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0637.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Myalgic Encephalomyelitis; chronic fatigue syndrome; therapeutic strategies; personalized treatment; pathophysiology; pharmacological treatments; nutritional supplements; dietary changes; physical therapies; lifestyle modifications
Online: 10 October 2023 (11:23:01 CEST)
Background: This study aimed to compile and analyze an assortment of research findings concerning potential therapeutic strategies for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS). The understanding of the multifaceted nature of ME/CFS and the need for varied and personalized therapeutic approaches were central to this investigation.Methods: A comprehensive review and analysis of various studies conducted on ME/CFS was undertaken. These studies covered a wide array of interventions, including pharmacological treatments, nutritional supplements, dietary changes, physical therapies, and lifestyle modifications. The analysis pertained to the effectiveness of these interventions, potential physiological and biochemical markers, and the response of ME/CFS patients to different treatment strategies.Results: The 22 selected papers investigated demonstrated varied responses to the multitude of interventions. While some interventions showed significant improvement in fatigue and biochemical parameters, others found no significant differences between the treated and control groups. Potential physiological and biochemical markers for ME/CFS, such as impaired T cell metabolism, reduced flow-mediated dilation, and decreased work rate at the ventilatory threshold, were highlighted.Conclusion: The findings underscored the complexity of ME/CFS and the need for personalized treatment strategies. Despite mixed results and several limitations, these studies collectively contributed to understanding ME/CFS's complex pathophysiology and treatment, laying the groundwork for future research towards more effective therapeutic strategies for this debilitating disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: alcohol use disorders (AUD); cancer, ethanol oxidative and nonoxidative metabolism, acetaldehyde, reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA adducts, protein damage, cancer stem cells (CSC), epigenetic changes.
Online: 14 June 2021 (09:03:43 CEST)
The World Health Organization identifies alcohol as a cause in several neoplasias of the oro-pharynx cavity, esophagus, gastrointestinal tract, larynx, liver, or female breast. This study re-views ethanol's nonoxidative and oxidative metabolism and one-carbon metabolism that en-compasses both redox and transfer reactions that influence crucial cell proliferation machinery. Ethanol favors the uncontrolled production and action of free radicals that interfere with the maintenance of essential cellular functions. We focus on the generation of protein, DNA, and lipid adducts that interfere with the cellular processes related to growth and differentiation. Ethanol's effects on stem cells responsible for building and repairing tissues are reviewed. Cancer stem cells suffer disturbances related to the expression of cell surface markers, enzymes, and transcription factors after ethanol exposure with consequent dysregulation of mechanisms related to cancer metastasis or resistance to treatments. Our analysis aims to underlie and discuss potential targets that show more sensitivity to ethanol's action and identify specific metabolic routes and metabolic realms that may be corrected to recover metabolic homeostasis after pharmacological interven-tion. Specifically, research should pay attention to reestablish metabolic fluxes by fine-tuning the functioning of specific pathways related to one-carbon metabolism and antioxidant processes.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0500.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: Oxidative stress and cell death; Reactive oxygen species; ROS; ROS cell death; autophagy; role of antioxidants; eye disease; cornea; lens; epithelium; retinal ganglion cells; retinal pigment epithelium; macular degeneration; antioxidants in the macula; oxidative stress prevention with antioxidants; lifestyle changes; digital eye strain; glaucoma; cataracts; dry eye disease; computer vision syndrome; digital eye strain; diabetic retinopathy; Vitamin A; Vitamin C; copper; glutathione; zinc; selenium; magnesium; blue light damage; UV light damage; blue light reactive oxygen species; autophagy; ferroptosis; ROS cell death; superoxide dismutase; optic nerve gliomas; food deserts; myopia; free radicals
Online: 29 March 2023 (03:33:55 CEST)
Increased screen time during the COVID-19 pandemic and the accelerated incorporation of technology into daily practices have directly contributed to the increased prevalence of eye disease. The human eye is not built for continual technological use and must adjust to exposure to digital screens. Overexposure to technology can result in eye strain and an increased risk of eye diseases such as myopia with complications later in life, including retinal tears, cataracts, and macular degeneration. As vision and ocular diseases become more prevalent, the study of eye diseases, including their causes and treatments, is especially relevant. There is a need to prevent ocular diseases before they become a burden to individuals, their families, and their communities by better understanding the pathophysiology of ocular diseases. Several ocular diseases are thought to be caused by imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and autophagy. ROS refers to a class of highly reactive oxygen-containing molecules that can undergo damaging reactions with other molecules in the cell. Autophagy is a cellular process of self-eating whereby damaged, harmful, or dead material in cells is broken down to maintain cellular homeostasis. This paper discusses the role of ROS and autophagy in the pathogenesis of computer vision syndrome (CVS), digital eye strain (DES), myopia, cataracts, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy (DR), age-related macular degeneration (AMD), optic nerve crush injury (OCN), optic nerve gliomas, and retinoblastoma. Lifestyle changes such as limiting screen time, ensuring adequate exposure to evening sunlight, and using blue light protection measures or protective eyewear are important in the prevention of eye disease. Nutrition also contributes significantly to eye health. A balanced diet rich in vitamins and antioxidants may help to prevent ROS and autophagy imbalance-induced eye disease. Medical and surgical treatments become necessary when preventative measures fail. This paper also addresses how government measures to decrease the onset of eye disease, including targeted programs to increase access to fresh vegetables and fruits in food deserts, are a critical macro-level avenue to reduce eye disease prevalence in the US, which according to the National Eye Institute, costs $139 billion yearly.