COMMENT | doi:10.20944/preprints201608.0166.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: Regional inequality; Multilevel regression; Markov chain; Guizhou Province
Online: 17 August 2016 (12:58:58 CEST)
This study analyses regional development in one of the poorest provinces in China, Guizhou Province, between 2000 and 2012 using a multiscale and multi-mechanism framework. In general, regional inequality has been declining since 2000. In addition, economic development in Guizhou Province presented spatial agglomeration and club convergence, which shows how the development pattern of one core area, two-wing areas and a contiguous area at the edge of the province have been developed between 2006 and 2012. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that industrialization and investment level were the primary driving forces of regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province. The influences of marketization and decentralization on regional economic disparity were relatively weak. Investment level reinforced regional economic disparity and the development of core-periphery structure in the province. However, investment level actually weakened the regional economic disparity in Guizhou Province when the variable of time was considered. In addition, both the topography and urban–rural differentiation were the two main reasons for forming a core-periphery structure in Guizhou Province.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0037.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: collection-distribution center; closed loop supply chain; fuzzy random variable; particle swarm optimization
Online: 11 October 2016 (11:02:47 CEST)
Recycling waste products is an environmental-friendly activity that can bring benefits to accompany, saving manufacturing costs and improving economic efficiency. For the beer industry, recycling bottles can reduce manufacturing costs and reduce the industry's carbon footprint. This paper presents a model for a multi-objective collection-distribution center location and allocation problem in a closed loop supply chain for the beer industry, in which the objective is to minimize total costs and transportation pollution. Uncertainties in the form of randomness and fuzziness are jointly handled in this paper to ensure a more practical problem solution, for which returned bottle sand unusable bottles are considered fuzzy random variables. A heuristic algorithm based on priority-based global-local-neighbor particle swarm optimization (pb-glnPSO) is applied to ensure reliable solutions for this NP-hard problem. A case study on a beer operation company is conducted to illustrate the application of the proposed model and demonstrate the priority-based global-local-neighbor particle swarm optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201609.0030.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Decision Sciences Keywords: carbon emissions reduction; technology spillover; game theory; supply chain coordination
Online: 8 September 2016 (11:39:40 CEST)
We study a two-echelon supply chain made up of a supplier and a manufacturer, both of which can reduce their component/product carbon emissions. With the vertical technology spillovers, we explore the optimal decisions of centralized and decentralized supply chains with price dependent demand and propose coordination strategy for the decentralized supply chain. Considering the cost contraction effectiveness of the technology spillovers, the centralized and decentralized game theoretic models of a two-echelon supply chain are developed to investigate optimal decisions of pricing and carbon emissions reduction. Through a systematic comparison and numerical analysis, we show that the profits of both players and the entire supply chain improve with the effect of technology spillovers increasing. Carbon emissions reduction will be taken by various protective measures so that the supplier and the manufacturer who do not innovate can hardly share the results of innovating via the “free-riding” methods when the technology spillover is relatively small. We also propose a revenue-cost sharing contract through bargaining to enhance the performance of the decentralized supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0056.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Land use change; urban sprawl; Logistic regression; Markov chain; Cellular automata; Gilan Province
Online: 18 July 2016 (11:53:16 CEST)
Although, promotion of urbanization culture in recent decades has made inevitable development of cities in the world, however, the development can be guided in a direction that leave, to the extent possible, minimum socioeconomic and environmental impacts. For this, it is required to first forecast auto-spreading orientation of cities and suburbs in rural areas over time and then avoid shapeless growth of cities. This paper is an attempt to develop a dynamic hybrid model based on logistic regression (LR), Markov chain (MC), and cellular automata (CA) for prediction of future urban sprawl in fast-growing cities. The model was developed using 12 widely-used urban development criteria, whose significant coefficient was determined by logistic regression, and validated by relative operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The validated model was run in Guilan, a tourist province in northern Iran with a very high rate of urban development. For this, changes in the area of urban land use were detected over the period of 1989 to 2013 and then, future sprawl of the province was forecasted by the years 2025 and 2037. The analysis results revealed that the area of urban land use was increased by more than 1.7 % from 36012.5 ha in 1989 to 59754.8 ha in 2013, and the area of Caspian Hyrcanian forestland was reduced by 31628 ha. The results also predicted an alarming increase in the rate of urban development in the province by the years 2025 and 2037, during which urban land use is predicted to develop 0.9 % and 1.38 %, respectively. The development pattern is expected to be uneven and scattered, without following any particular direction. The development will occur close to the existing or newly-formed urban basements as well as around major roads and commercial areas. This development, if not controlled, will lead to the loss of 13863 ha of Hyrcanian forests and if the trend continues, 21013 ha of Hyrcanian forests and 20208 ha of Barren/open lands are expected to be destroyed by the year 2037. In general, the proposed model is an efficient tool for the support of urban planning decisions and facilitates the process of sustainable development of cities by providing decision-makers with an overview on future development of cities where the growth rate is very fast.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0395.v1
Subject: Engineering, Safety, Risk, Reliability And Quality Keywords: Dynamic Probabilistic Risk Assessment; Discrete Dynamic Event Tree; Dual-Graph Error Propagation Model; Continuous-Time Markov Chain; Error Propagation; OpenPRA; OpenEPL
Online: 6 July 2023 (10:48:21 CEST)
This paper presents a limited scope dynamic probabilistic risk assessment (D-PRA) on the survivability of commercial of the shelf (COTS) drones tasked with surveilling areas with varying radiation levels after a nuclear accident. The D-PRA is based on a discrete-dynamic event tree (D-DET) approach, which couples with the OpenEPL error propagation framework to model sequences leading to Loss of Mission (LOM) scenarios due to component failures in the drone’s navigation system. Radiation effects are simulated by calculating the total ionizing dose (TID) against the permissible limit per component, and errors are propagated within the electronic hardware and software blocks to quantify navigation system availability per radiation zone. The proposed methods are integrated into the traditional event tree/fault tree approach and the most vulnerable components are radiation-hardened (RAD-HARD) to the extent specified by a predefined mission success criterion. The results demonstrate the usefulness of the proposed approach in performing trade studies for incorporating COTS components into RAD-HARD drone designs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201701.0079.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: accessibility; offshore; operation and maintenance; weather condition; Markov chain; data visualization
Online: 17 January 2017 (11:17:32 CET)
For offshore wind power generation, accessibility is one of the main factors that has great impact on operation and maintenance due to constraints on weather conditions for marine transportation. This paper presents a framework to explore the accessibility of an offshore site. At first, several maintenance types are defined and taken into account. Next, a data visualization procedure is introduced to provide an insight into the distribution of access periods over time. Then, a rigorous mathematical method based on finite state Markov chain is proposed to assess the accessibility of an offshore site from the maintenance perspective. A five-year weather data of a marine site is used to demonstrate the applicability and the outcomes of the proposed method. The main findings show that the proposed framework is effective in investigating the accessibility for different time scales and is able to catch the patterns of the distribution of the access periods. Moreover, based on the developed Markov chain, the average waiting time for a certain access period can be estimated. With more information on the maintenance of an offshore wind farm, the expected production loss due to time delay can be calculated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0317.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: EBPR; polyphosphate chain length; NMR; polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; single-cell Raman spectroscopy
Online: 17 September 2021 (12:50:48 CEST)
Polyphosphate (polyP) accumulating organisms (PAOs) are the key agent to perform enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) activity, and intracellular polyP plays a key role in this process. Potential associations between EBPR performance and the polyP structure have been suggested, but are yet to be extensively investigated, mainly due to the lack of established methods for polyP characterization in the EBPR system. In this study, we explored and demonstrated that single-cell Raman spectroscopy (SCRS) can be employed for characterizing intracellular polyPs of PAOs in complex environmental samples such as EBPR systems. The results, for the first time, revealed distinct distribution patterns of polyP length (as Raman peak position) in PAOs in lab-scale EBPR reactors that were dominated with different PAO types, as well as among different full-scale EBPR systems with varying configurations. Furthermore, SCRS revealed distinctive polyP composition/features among PAO phenotypic sub-groups, which are likely associated with phylogenetic and/or phenotypic diversity in EBPR communities, highlighting the possible resolving power of SCRS at the microdiversity level. To validate the observed polyP length variations via SCRS, we also performed and compared bulk polyP length characteristics in EBPR biomass using conventional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and solution 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P-NMR) methods. The results are consistent with the SCRS findings and confirmed the variations in the polyP lengths among different EBPR systems. Compared to conventional methods, SCRS exhibited advantages as compared to conventional methods, including the ability to characterize in situ the intracellular polyPs at subcellular resolution in a label-free and non-destructive way, and the capability to capture subtle and detailed biochemical fingerprints of cells for phenotypic classification. SCRS also has recognized limitations in comparison with 31P-NMR and PAGE, such as the inability to quantitatively detect the average polyP chain length and its distribution. The results provided initial evidence for the potential of SCRS-enabled polyP characterization as an alternative and complementary microbial community phenotyping method to facilitate the phenotype-function (performance) relationship deduction in EBPR systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201702.0029.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Inorganic And Nuclear Chemistry Keywords: cyanide-bridged heterometallic assemblies; octacyanotungstate(V); Mn(III) Schiff base complexes; single-chain magnet; 1D coordination polymers; metamagnet; ferromagnetic coupling
Online: 9 February 2017 (15:09:31 CET)
Abstract: Two novel low-dimensional molecular magnetic materials were prepared by a self-assembling of 3d- and 5d-metal complexes. These are the first neutral heterobimetallic cyanobridged compounds involving one anisotropic Mn(III) Schiff base complex and one octacyanotungstate(V) per molecular unit. A slow diffusion of the constituents’ solutions leads to a formation of the 0D crystalline complex 1 due to coordination of a water molecule to the Mn center prevents a polymer formation. A rapid mixing of reagents results in a precipitation of the microcrystalline powder of the complex 2, which on a totality of experimental data possess 1D polymeric structure. The magnetic studies have shown that antiferromagnetic exchange interactions are dominating in 1 J/kB= -13.1(7) K, D=-3.0(1.3) K, zJ'= -0.16(20) K and gav=2.00(1); while the presence of the significant intramolecular Mn(III)–W(V) ferromagnetic couplings through cyanide bridges is characteristic for 2 (J/kB = 46.1(5) K gMn = 2.11(3), fixed gW = 2.0). Due to the weak interchain interactions, zJ'/kB = –0.8(2) K, compound 2 is a metamagnet with the Néel temperature of 9.5 K undergoing a spin-flip transition at 2 kOe. The slow magnetization dynamics of 2 was investigated at DС field of 0 and 2 kOe, giving the values of τ0 32(15) and 36(15) ps respectively, well within the range typical for SCMs. The respective ∆τ/kB values were 48.4(1.2) and 44.9(1.0) K.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0750.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainability; SMEs; Supply Chain Collaboration; Supply Chain Visibility; Supply Chain Agility
Online: 30 September 2020 (14:26:12 CEST)
Today’s export-based manufacturers face the need to implement green supply chains more efficiently in order to overcome environmental barriers in increasingly competitive export markets and to improve export performance. This study examines the structural relationship between environmental collaboration, green innovation capacity, and performance based on the findings of previous studies in order to identify the factors affecting the green supply chain management (GSCM) performance of Korean export-based manufacturers. The study finds that environmental collaboration in the green supply chain environment is an important driver of green innovation capacity for export-based Korean manufacturers. It also finds that green innovation capacity has a positive effect on export performance through environmental performance. This study establishes a theoretical basis for the systematic study of the structural mechanisms of green supply chains and suggests strategic directions for export-based manufacturing firms’ successful GSCM implementation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0116.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain strategy; supply chain formulation; supply chain architecture; supply chain design
Online: 10 April 2019 (06:05:59 CEST)
The focus of this paper is on supply chain strategy formulation. A conceptual theory approach is used for investigating and identifying the relationship between multiple elements, dimensions, forces and factors that influence and affect the supply chain strategy formulation in Greenfield context, specific to the slate mining industry. The research study involved secondary data review and series of 20 qualitative interviews, followed by 2 group discussions, one with mining and transportation experts external to the supply chain and one group discussion with supply chain internal experts. Through critical analysis, a number of problems emerge and the process of addressing these problems, results in a new framework for evaluating the relationship between business and supply chain strategy, specific to Greenfield project and integration design context.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0538.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: governance; agricultural value chain; links; captive chain; hierarchy chain
Online: 31 August 2018 (04:35:41 CEST)
The objective of this study is to determine the type of governance of the four main agricultural value chains in Tamaulipas, northeast of Mexico. For the preparation of this research used a qualitative design, using a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews to a sample of representatives of the four selected chains. The results showed that in all the studied networks, control and coordination capacity is limited by the influence that has a link on the rest of the chain. In all cases, was that the industrial link is who leads the chains and exert control over the rest of the links. The results showed that, when the industrial link is located close geographically to the rest of the links (chains of rice and sugar cane), the chains showed a hierarchical type, where the industrial exercised dominion over the rest of the links and captures most of the income. On the other hand, in chains where control is exercised by links that are outside the territory (chains of soybeans and sorghum), they function as captive chains, putting the rest of the chain to its influence and control.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0924.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: green supply chain management; dynamic capabilities; supply chain dynamic capabilities; supply chain performance; supply chain agility; supply chain costs; supply chain reliability
Online: 13 June 2023 (10:18:27 CEST)
Green supply chain management (GSCM) is fundamentally growing as a key component of sustainability, owing to its ability to improve supply chain competitiveness and performance within firms. The body of literature on GSCM within the manufacturing sector in developing countries such as South Africa is still limited. The study examined the relationships between GSCM practices, dynamic capabilities, and supply chain performance in the South African manufacturing sector. The study was quantitative, involving a sample of 402 supply chain professionals drawn from the manufacturing sector across the four provinces of the country. Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modelling based on the SMART PLS technique. Eco-design Green distribution and green training impacted positively on dynamic capabilities, the latter of which in turn is linked to improved agility, reliability, and reduced supply chain costs. The study validates the importance of GSCM as a driver of dynamic capabilities and performance in manufacturing environments within developing countries such as South Africa.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201906.0005.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: wastes, closed loop of supply chain, mining, sustainable supply chain, CSR
Online: 3 June 2019 (08:41:29 CEST)
(1) Background: Presentation of the method of increasing the competitiveness of the mining industry through the demonstration of the possibility and potential in closing the loop of supply chains through waste management; (2) Methods: The source literature analysis and an arithmetic analysis of the data of statistical materials and data obtained from business in static and dynamic perspectives; (3) Results: According to the latest data available, in Poland, mining wastes account for over a half of industrial wastes, while the annual growth of mining wastes is on the level of 4%. The recorded recovery of mining wastes is on the level of ca. 19%. The exemplary company that deals with the recovery of carbon wastes recovers ca. 80% of material, which is handed over for utilization (4) Conclusions: It has been found that the structure of the level of mining wastes and the level of their recovery rates demonstrate a large potential of closing the loop of chains in this industry and, at the same time, a potential to extend the chains through directing the material from recovery to various sectors. This constitutes an example of the direction of activities that are in line with the EU strategies for the economies of other states which possess this type wastes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0103.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Data Analytics; Analytics; Supply Chain Input; Supply Chain; Data Science; Data
Online: 6 October 2021 (10:38:42 CEST)
One of the most remarkable features in the 20th century was the digitalization of technical progress, which changed the output of companies worldwide and became a defining feature of the century. The growth of information technology systems and the implementation of new technical advances, which enhance the integrity, agility and long-term organizational performance of the supply chain, can distinguish a digital supply chain from other supply chains. For example, the Internet of Things (IoT)-enabled information exchange and Big Data analysis might be used to regulate the mismatch between supply and demand. In order to assess contemporary ideas and concepts in the field of data analysis in the context of supply chain management, this literary investigation has been decided. The research was conducted in the form of a comprehensive literature review. In the SLR investigation, a total of 71 papers from leading journals were used. SLR has found that data analytics integrate into supply chain management can have long-term benefits on supply chain management from the input side, i.e., improved strategic development, management and other areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0099.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: Humanitarian Supply Chain; Supply Chain Resilience Evaluation; Flood Disaster; MCDM; ANP-PFs-VIKOR
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:19:38 CEST)
The sudden onset of natural hazards such as a flash flood events can be devastating to a country or region, often affecting numerous communities, and humanitarian supply chains play a major role in enabling the timely recovery of economic and social activities. However, the uncertainty and suddenness of natural disasters such as flash floods, as well as the potential for aftershocks, require humanitarian supply chains to be resilient during the relief process. This research first adopts the Delphi and literature review methods to identify the key indicators in the humanitarian supply chain to form an evaluation index system. Then, taking the 2021 mega-flash flood event which affected four cities in the mountainous region under the jurisdiction of the Zhengzhou municipal government, the ANP method is used to calculate the weights of each indicator and combines the weighted results with the Multi-styling and stereotyping method under Pythagorean fuzzy (PFs-VIKOR) to make an evaluation of the resilience of the humanitarian supply chain in the relief process. The findings suggest that policy makers and decision makers should pay close attention to the coordination of the parties involved in the humanitarian supply chain and improve the level of resilience of the entire supply chain by enhancing the resource scheduling capacity and responsiveness. At the same time, the VIKOR evaluation of the 4 cities highlighted the humanitarian supply chain in Dengfeng City to be most effective in this event due to the close cooperation and positive response of all parties involved in the humanitarian supply chain. The findings of this research provide some useful suggestions and guidance to the various practitioners involved in the humanitarian supply chain. Furthermore, the evaluation of the performance of the four cities in this mega-flash flood event provides some helpful indication of the importance of the various emergency measures which can help to inform policy recommendations for the Zhengzhou municipal government.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0144.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: supply chain integration
Online: 12 April 2019 (10:33:23 CEST)
This paper applied case study research to design architectures for green-field supply chain integration. The integration design is based on a case study of a supply chain integration of 5 companies, operating in different, but supply chain complimenting industry sectors. The case study research is applied to design and validate the architectures in a real world scenario. The supply chain integration architectures enable the conversion of individual into integrated strategies. The architectures are categorised and the process develops into a conceptual system for identifying the correlations between individual participants’ strategic areas of interest and the integrated supply chain areas of interest. The novelty of this paper is a conceptual system for green-field supply chain integration architectures, which can be applied in real world by supply chain practitioners.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0101.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Strategic alliance; Supply chain resilience; Resilient supply chain; Bibliometric analysis
Online: 4 November 2021 (10:28:29 CET)
Resilience is a particularly important quality for supply chains in this turbulent environment. Resilience in supply chain is the ability to retain, resume, and recover operations after an intense destructive incident. One of the strategic solutions for managing supply chain disruptions is to establish collaboration and strategic alliances in order to achieve competitive advantage. Therefore, given the increasing publication of articles in areas of strategic alliances and supply chain resilience, it is a good opportunity to review these articles, identify gaps in the current literature, demonstrate links between the two areas, and provide suggestions for future research. For these purposes, a bibliometric analysis has been performed on literature available on the Web of Science database. The distribution of articles based on year and country, influential journals, research areas, authors, affiliations, keywords, citations, and reference co-citation analysis are discussed. Results indicate that studies about strategic alliances, meant to increase resilience, are growing in areas such as “Management”, “Operations research”, “Management science”, and “Business”. Furthermore, the sources could be categorized in five clusters; namely “From knowledge concept to value creation”, “Internal and external relationships”, “Logistics and supply chain performance”, “Intellectual capital and strategic management”, and “Critical success factors and alliances”. This article can be useful for both practitioners and academics who explore the topic of strategic alliances and resilience in supply chain and also offers managers the opportunity to overcome supply chain disruptions and negative consequences of risks by becoming familiar with the key concepts of resilience. The persistence of businesses and supply chains is guaranteed through communicating with partners and even competitors in the light of alliance according to the findings of this research. Managers can pay attention to the integration of the supply chain to improve resilience and increase collaboration between suppliers and customers. Given the research results, strategic alliances can be noted in expanding organizational entrepreneurship, and shaping strategic collaboration networks in light of strategic alliances.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0369.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Safety Research Keywords: Cold supply chain; Meat Supply Chain; Food Safety; COVID-19; Blockchain; Hyperledger Fabric
Online: 14 April 2021 (12:18:24 CEST)
The world is facing an unprecedented socio-economic crisis caused by the novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). It is also spreading through the import and export food supply chains. The Chinese authorities have discovered the COVID-19 virus in various imported frozen meat packages. Traceability plays a vital role in food quality and food safety. The Internet of Things (IoT) provides solutions to keep an eye on environmental conditions, product quality, and product traceability. These solutions are traditionally based on the centralized architecture, which does not guarantee tamper-proof data sharing. The blockchain is an emerging technology that provides tamper-proof data sharing in real-time. This article presents Hyperledger Fabric-based blockchain use case and a quick reference guide to develop the blockchain network for tracking and tracing the supply chain to minimize the risk of COVID-19 in the frozen meat supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0652.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: supply chain management; logistics; collaboration; cooperation; supply chain design; customer satisfaction; distribution; regression; noodles
Online: 29 October 2018 (04:45:36 CET)
The degree of collaboration among supply chain partners and the structure of the network are important determinants of the level of satisfaction customers derive from the products or services. However, the effects of these dimensions on customer satisfaction at the downstream section of the supply chain remain under-researched in Nigeria. This study precisely examined the effects of collaboration and supply chain design on customers’ satisfaction at the downstream end of the chain using Ekiti State as study area. The study employed descriptive survey design with the use of structured Likert scale questionnaire administered to 381 retailers of noodles in Ekiti State. The research hypotheses were analysed using simple linear regression as statistical technique with the aid of SPSS version 22.0. At the end of the study, it was observed that both collaboration and supply chain design were significant predictors of customers’ satisfaction of instant noodles in Ekiti State. However, collaboration among supply chain partners emerged as stronger determinant of customers’ satisfaction than supply chain design. The study concludes that these two practices of supply chain management are highly important criteria any manufacturing firm especially in the noodles industry must pay close attention to in order to satisfy her consumers.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201910.0351.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: photochemistry; photofolding; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 October 2019 (09:03:24 CET)
Clean use of photons from light to activate chemical reactions offer many possibilities in different fields, from chemistry and biology to materials science and medicine. This review article describes the advances carried out in last decades toward the phototriggered synthesis of single-chain polymer nanoparticles (SCNPs) as soft nanomaterials with promising applications in enzyme-mimicking catalysis and nanomedicine, among other different uses. First, we summarize different strategies developed to synthesize SCNPs based on photoactivated intrachain homocoupling, phototriggered intrachain heterocoupling and photogenerated collapse induced by external cross-linker. Next, we comprehensively review the emergent topic of photoactivated multifolding applied to SCNP construction. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent strategies towards phototriggered disassembly of SCNPs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0741.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; interactions; single-chain nanoparticles
Online: 30 November 2020 (16:20:43 CET)
The folding of certain proteins (e.g., enzymes) into perfectly defined 3D conformations via multi-orthogonal interactions is critical to their function. Concerning synthetic polymers chains, the “folding” of individual polymer chains at high dilution via intra-chain interactions leads to so-called single-chain nanoparticles (SCNPs). This review article describes the advances carried out in recent years in the folding of single polymer chains into discrete SCNPs via multi-orthogonal interactions using different reactive chemical species where intra-chain bonding only occurs between groups of the same species. First, we summarize results from computer simulations of multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs. Next, we comprehensively review multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs synthesized via either non-covalent bonds or covalent interactions. Finally, we conclude by summarizing recent research about multi-orthogonally folded SCNPs prepared through both reversible (dynamic) and permanent bonds.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0265.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: photovoltaics systems in Colombia; supply chain; non-nterconnected areas (ZNI); supply chain orientation (SCO); Petri Nets
Online: 21 May 2018 (10:50:03 CEST)
This article makes a general analysis of the supply chain of photovoltaic systems in Colombia, taking as a starting point a conceptual base and the current situation of the country in this sector. This article especially will contemplate the non-interconnected areas (ZNI) to the electricity grid in the national, due to its complexity in the logistics issues. Likewise, the work performs a graphical representation of the stages and processes of the supply chain using a powerful-modeled tool such as the Petri Nets (PNs). Finally, it identifies some of the flaws in the operation and the joint of all the links of the logistic part and from there it is based the importance of the strategy of orientation to the supply chain (SCO) as a possible alternative to improve and to enhance the logistic processes of this type of systems.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0085.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Coffee varieties; Value chain; Grown regions
Online: 3 June 2021 (13:36:26 CEST)
Kenyan coffee is ranked among the best in the world and 99% is exported mainly to Germany, Sweden and Belgium, the USA and Saudi Arabia. Kenya produces quality Arabica beans which are generally recognized and upgraded with other relatively lower brands. In 1937, the Kenya Planters Cooperative Union (KPCU) was formed to represent small farmers' interests. In 1944, in the Coffee Board of Kenya (CBA) the law required smallholders to join local growing cooperatives run by government to reduce the power of large estates to control the board. Many reforms in the coffee industry have been initiated. This review explores evolution and existing coffee varieties in Kenya, the coffee value chain and the regions that grow coffee in Kenya. Additionally, the variety agronomics and appearance that encompass; quality potential at different altitudes, yield potential and nematodes susceptibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0441.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Life Cycle Assessment; Blockchain; Supply Chain
Online: 28 October 2021 (14:56:20 CEST)
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a widely recognized tool used to evaluate environmental impacts of a product or process, based on the environmental inventory database and bills of material. Data quality is one of the most significant factors affecting the analysis results. However, currently most datasets in inventory databases are generic i.e., they may represent material and energy flow of a process at market average, instead of a specific process used by a manufacturer. As a result, stockholders are unable to track their supply chain to find out the actual environmental impact from each supplier and to compare the environmental performance of alternative options. In this paper, we developed a new framework i.e., blockchain based LCA (BC-LCA), where block-chain technology is adapted to secure and transmit inventory data from upstream suppliers to downstream manufacturers. With BC-LCA, more specific data can be acquired along the supply chain in a real-time manner. Moreover, the availability, accuracy, privacy, and automatic update of inventory data can be improved. A case study is provided based on an industrial supply chain, to demonstrate the utilization of BC-LCA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1167.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Developing countries; Sustainable Supply chain; Sustainability; Oil and gas industry; Supply Chain Management
Online: 28 April 2023 (10:51:19 CEST)
‘‘Sustainable Supply Chain Management’’ (SSCM) has become a hot topic on which eminent researchers are working on every day. However, it is clear that we still observe in this field of research, an artistic vagueness on the fundamental differences between Sustainable Supply Chain Management and Green Supply Chain Management (GSCM) Moreover, it is regrettable to note that previous researchers haven't yet thought about having a specific theory which can be applied to SSCM, the use of macro theories still being observed. In addition, we observe a lack of research in the oil and gas industry especially in Developing Countries when we know that this industry is the most lucrative and polluting. Therefore, this paper’s purpose consists to make a Systematic Literature Review (SLR) of 38 papers published from 2005 to 2023 especially in oil and gas industry and in Developing Countries, in order to make a clear distinction between SSCM and GSCM while highlighting the practices related to them and at the same time, generating a united theory which will bring together the triple bottom line of the SSCM. As findings, the authors built a Conceptual Framework that applies the triple bottom line of the SSCM in oil and gas industry by demonstrating that GSCM which is more related to environmental issues and is a part of the SSCM. Therefore, in order to be more efficient and to have a great impact on their performances, Oil and gas companies should apply SSCM practices rather than GSCM practices which are very different from what is applied in Developed Countries because of certain barriers and pressures.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1566.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Determinants; Heckman; Milk; Value; Value chain
Online: 26 May 2023 (02:26:00 CEST)
Recently dairying becomes an important farming activity in the districts. Even if these districts are potential in milk production and marketing activities, little was known about determinates of participation and level of participation in milk value addition. This study was analyzing determinates of participation and level of participation in milk value addition in the study areas. Both primary and secondary data were used. Primary data were collected from 244 producers, 50 traders and 20 consumers by using semi-structured questionnaires. Data were analyzed by using descriptive statistics and econometrics model. Results from Heckman selection model first step revealed that milk producers’ participation decision on milk value addition was significantly affected by religion, distance the market, cooperative membership, volume of milk produced per day and market access. Whereas milk producers’ participation decision on the volume of milk value addition was significantly affected by religion, level of education, number of children less than six years, membership for milk cooperatives, volume of milk produced per day, access to market information, access to credit and access to livestock extension. Therefore, dairy sector development programs should take in to account determinants of participation decision on milk value addition as well as on volume of milk production.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0055.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Markov Chain; herd simulation; bull valuation
Online: 1 June 2023 (07:48:01 CEST)
Deciding when to replace dairy bulls presents a complex challenge for artificial insemination (AI) companies. These decisions encompass multiple factors, including a bull's age, predicted semen production, and estimated genetic merit. This study's purpose was to provide a practical, objective tool to assist in these decisions. We utilized a Markov Chain model to calculate the economic valuation of dairy bulls, incorporating key factors such as housing costs, collection and marketing expenses, and the bull's probable tenure in the herd. Data from a leading AI company were used to establish baseline values. The model further compared a bull's net present value to that of a potential young replacement, establishing a relative valuation (BullVal$). The range of BullVal$ observed spanned from -$316,748 to $497,710. Interestingly, the model recommended culling for 49% of the bulls based on negative BullVal$. It was found that a bull's net present value was primarily influenced by market allocation and pricing, coupled with the interaction of semen production and genetic merit. This study offers a robust, data-driven model to guide bull replacement decisions in AI companies. Key determinants of a bull's valuation included market dynamics, semen production rates, and genetic merit.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0613.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: folding; single-chain nanoparticles; catalysis; click chemistry
Online: 29 January 2021 (11:51:41 CET)
“Clickase” single-chain nanoparticles (Ck-SCNPs) are folded, enzyme-mimetic unimolecular polymeric nano-objects containing copper (Cu) ions able to catalyze the azide-alkyne Huisgen cycloaddition reaction in water and/or selected organic solvents, often in the presence of a reductant. Herein, we investigate the effect of morphology on catalytic activity of Ck-SCNPs synthesized by means of two different routes. An amphiphilic random copolymer composed of oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methyl methacrylate (OEGMA) and 2-acetoacetoxy ethyl methacrylate (AEMA) units was used as precursor of these Ck-SCNPs. Folding was promoted through metal complexation between Cu(II) ions and beta-ketoester-containing AEMA moieties. The first route resulted in Ck-SCNPs1 containing Cu ions homogeneously distributed within each nanoparticle, whereas the second one promoted intra-chain clustering of Cu ions inside Ck-SCNPs2. A model fluorogenic “click” reaction between 9-(azidomethyl)anthracene and phenylacetylene, which was catalyzed either by Ck-SCNPs1 or Ck-SCNPs2, was used to unravel the effect of morphology on catalytic activity. This work paves the way to improve the catalytic activity of metallo-folded SCNPs through control of the intra-chain distribution of catalytic sites.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0356.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Sanger Sequencing; DNA Sequencing; Chain Termination Sequencing
Online: 12 November 2020 (17:20:07 CET)
The world has now entered into a replacement era of genomics due to the continued advancements within the next generation high throughput sequencing technologies, which incorporates sequencing by synthesis-fluorescent in place sequencing (FISSEQ), pyrosequencing, sequencing by ligation using polony amplification, supported oligonucleotide detection (SOLiD), sequencing by hybridization alongside sequencing by ligation, and nanopore technology. Great impacts of those methods are often seen for solving the genome related problems of plant and Animalia which will open the door of a replacement era of genomics. This might ultimately overcome the Sanger sequencing that ruled for 30 years. NGS is predicted to advance and make the drug discovery process more rapid.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0; Supply Chain Design; Transformational Design Roadmap; IIoT Supply Chain Model; Decision Support for Information Management
Online: 24 December 2020 (13:37:35 CET)
Digital technologies have changed the way supply chain operations are structured. In this article, we conduct systematic syntheses of literature on the impact of new technologies on supply chains and the related cyber risks. A taxonomic/cladistic approach is used for the evaluations of progress in the area of supply chain integration in the Industrial Internet of Things and Industry 4.0, with a specific focus on the mitigation of cyber risks. An analytical framework is presented, based on a critical assessment with respect to issues related to new types of cyber risk and the integration of supply chains with new technologies. This paper identifies a dynamic and self-adapting supply chain system supported with Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning (AI/ML) and real-time intelligence for predictive cyber risk analytics. The system is integrated into a cognition engine that enables predictive cyber risk analytics with real-time intelligence from IoT networks at the edge. This enhances capacities and assist in the creation of a comprehensive understanding of the opportunities and threats that arise when edge computing nodes are deployed, and when AI/ML technologies are migrated to the periphery of IoT networks.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1316.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Geography, Planning And Development Keywords: chicken; value; chain; imports; employment
Online: 20 September 2023 (04:44:42 CEST)
The development of the chicken value chain in The Gambia has immense potentials to lead to the modernisation of agriculture and creating employment for young people and women. Chicken can be raised throughout the year in most parts of The Gambia. With increasing populations, environmental degradation and loss of rangelands, chicken is easier to producer than other livestock, such as cattle and small ruminants. The development of the chicken value chain in The Gambia is also mainly constrained at commercialisation. Commercial farmers in The Gambia are not able to compete with cheap import. Critical inputs such as day-old chicks and feed are imported. Most farms are operating below 40% capacity and only less than 4% utilisation of the available processing capacity. At full capacity and with some needed investments along the value chain, The Gambia has the capacity to meet the demand for chicken and eggs. 88% of the value chain actors believe that the imposition of tariffs on chicken imports will lead to the upward transformation of the chicken value chain being able to employ at least 10% of the Gambian population.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0291.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: swine; backyard; value chain; Chile
Online: 13 April 2023 (03:32:46 CEST)
Backyard production systems (BPS) are highly distributed in central Chile. Poultry BPS have been previously characterized; however, swine BPS have not yet been deeply characterized in central Chile. In addition, there is evidence that zoonotic pathogens, such as influenza A virus and Salmonella spp., are circulating in both poultry and pigs kept these production systems. A total of 358 BPS located in central Chile were evaluated between 2013 and 2015 by interviewing farm owners. Severe deficiencies in biosecurity measures were observed. The value chain of swine backyard production identified feeding, products and veterinary visits, and replacement or breeding animals as the main inputs to the backyard. The most common origin of swine replacements was from outside the BPS (63%). Meat and live animals (piglets and breeding animals) were identified as the main outputs of the system. In 16% of BPS, breeding animals were lent to other BPS, indicating the existence of animal and animal products movement in and out of backyard farms. Results from this study suggest that swine BPS in central Chile represent an animal-human interphase that need special attention to direct preventive measures aimed at avoiding the introduction and dissemination of animal pathogens and the emergence of zoonotic pathogens.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0204.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: sustainable; global; supply chain; management
Online: 9 August 2021 (15:17:15 CEST)
This study aims to summarize the literature on sustainable global supply chain management so that researchers and practitioners can see the trends in the area in a single place. Systematic literature review (SLR) or Content analysis is used as a methodology of this literature review, studies that are published within the time frame of 2010 to 2020 are included in this literature. Dimensions to analyze each article includes; year of publications, methodology of research, data collection type, unit of analysis, industry, a country in which data is being collected, respondents’ types, the theory that is used in the study, dimensions of the sustainability and finally the purpose of study either it is to test the already existing theory or building up a new theory. I found that sustainable global supply chain management is an emerging field and there is potential in the area for researchers to explore the area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0320.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Residuated lattices; Idempotent semigroup; Chain; Construction; Amalgamation
Online: 6 September 2023 (05:27:17 CEST)
In this paper, we study semiconic idempotent commutative residuated lattices. After giving some properties of such residuated lattices, we obtain a structure theorem for semiconic idempotent com- mutative residuated lattices. As an application, we make use of the structure theorem to prove that the variety of strongly semiconic idempotent commutative residuated lattices has the amalgamation property.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0009.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Networks And Communications Keywords: Cache Coding, Source Coding, Absorbing Markov Chain
Online: 1 February 2018 (16:45:19 CET)
Network coding approaches typically consider an unrestricted recoding of coded packets in the relay nodes for increased performance. However, this can expose the system to pollution attacks that cannot be detected during transmission, until the receivers attempt to recover the data. To prevent these attacks while allowing for the benefits of coding in mesh networks, the Cache Coding was proposed. This protocol only allows recoding at the relays when the relay has received enough packets to decode an entire generation of packets. At that point, the relay node recodes and signs the recoded packets with its own private key allowing for the system to detect and minimize the effect of pollution attacks and make relays accountable for changes on the data. This paper analyzes the delay performance of Cache Coding to understand the security-performance trade-off of this scheme. We introduce an analytical model for the case of two relays in an erasure channel relying on an Absorbing Markov Chain and a approximate model to estimate the performance in terms of the number of transmissions before successfully decoding at the receiver. We confirm our analysis using simulation results. We show that Cache Coding can overcome security issues of unrestricted recoding with only a moderate decrease in system performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0163.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: Sanger Sequencing; DNA Sequencing; Chain Termination Sequencing
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:41:11 CET)
DNA sequencing methods were first developed more than 20 years ago with the publication of two approaches to sequencing methodology that became known as Sanger sequencing (1), based on enzymatic synthesis from a single-stranded DNA template with chain termination using dideoxynucleotides (ddNTPs) and Maxim-Gilbert sequencing (2),which involved chemical degradation ofend-radio-labeled DNA fragments. Both methods relied on four-lane,high resolution polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to separate the labeled fragment and allow the base sequence to be read in a staggered ladder-like fashion. Sanger sequencing was technically easier and faster, and thus became the main DNA sequencing method for the vast majority of applications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1894.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: COVID-19 pandemic; just-in-time; supply chain risk mitigation; supply chain visibility; GSCM
Online: 8 September 2023 (04:28:19 CEST)
There are two purposes for this article. The first purpose is to perform a reiew of previous research on global supply chain management (GSCM) principles that can adapt and survive adversity, such as the COVID-19 pandemic. The second purpose is to put forth a conceptual framework for the GSCM that is sustainable in the event of future turbulence similar to that experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic. With regard to the issues raised, the article posits the following questions. Is there, perhaps, a sustainable post-COVID-19 pandemic GSCM? Can the COVID-19 pandemic-related international logistics system (GSC) turbulences be predicted with certainty using these sustainable post-COVID-19 pandemic GSCM concepts? Putting it all together, the paper concludes that, while debatable, sustainable GSCM is feasible and can be accomplished utilizing JIT, supply chain mitigation, and supply chain visibility, as demonstrated by the manufacturing firms referenced in the article.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Other Keywords: sustainability balanced scorecard; supply chain; sport tourism
Online: 1 June 2023 (11:54:10 CEST)
An integration between the principles in supply change management in sport tourism and sustainability balanced scorecard leads to development of guidance and assessment criteria for a city to be a sustainable sport tourist destination. This paper aims to present a sport tourism sustainability management model (STSM), consisting of 5 perspectives, namely financial perspective, customer perspective, internal process perspective, learning and growth perspective and sustainability perspective. By using Delphi technique to obtain a consensus from experts, university lecturers, independent organization/association and business entities in relation to sport tourism management, the researcher defines elements to assess complex perspective for sustainable development of sport tourism. The result shows that there are 5 perspectives and 18 elements in relation to sustainable development of sport tourism. All perspectives and elements have high consensus as measured by Kendall’s Coefficient of Concordance (W) of .488. To validate the model, the researcher examines correlation among the five perspectives with structural equation model and finds that the absolute fit is satisfactory, with the value of CMIN/DF at 1.830, RMSEA at .046, GFI at .951, AGFI at .919 and RMR at .038. In addition, the incremental fit also demonstrates positive result with the value of NFI at .962, CFI at .982, TLI at .973 and IFI at .982. As the model aligns and explains empirical data, it can support decision making for management team, effective and efficient strategy drafting for sustainable development in sport tourism and improving livelihoods of residents.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0027.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Blockchain; Agriculture; Traceability; Food Supply chain; Crops.
Online: 1 November 2021 (16:04:00 CET)
In recent years, Blockchain has been favorably adopted in the Supply Chain industry as it provides guaranteed transparency and traceability. The flexibility of Blockchain allows different applications to enable to exchange information; a significant middleweight layer is responsible for information transfer in the Agricultural Sector. The products that are manufactured at a global level in the agriculture industry are improved in safety, validation of some criteria, and quality. In the agriculture industry, the increasing number of complications associated with food safety and impurity risks needs high-level effective traceability solutions that act as necessary quality management tools to make sure satisfactory safety of crops. The agricultural supply chain today has complex ecosystems, consisting of several stockholders to authenticate criteria which are important like crop development stages, monitoring and validation, and compliance with the quality standard. In this proposed research, a systematic literature review will be done that includes smart contracts, Blockchain, and business transactions exclusively for crop production traceability across the agricultural and food supply chain. By using Blockchain in the agriculture sector, productivity, consistency, safety, reliability, and advanced security are increased. All transactions are kept and recorded on the immutable record of Blockchain associates with a decentralized system. Thus, it provides more traceability and clarity in the agriculture system in asafe, trustworthy, and effective way. A systematic literature review is thus enforced to classify the papers which are selected by the following classification: crop traceability, contribution type, research type, and their approach. For this systematic review, the papers which extracted are classified according to defined criteria. The purpose of this study is to fill the gap by collecting and analyzing studies available within the literature aiming to firstly, gain complete insight on the integration of Blockchain in the agriculture sector. Secondly, provide a summary of the present state of research on this area and identify gaps in existing studies. To achieve this aim an SLR was conducted. The findings of this SLR are discussed and researchers were provided with suggestions on possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0295.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: Tamarind value chain; scaling-up; production; commercialization
Online: 26 April 2019 (10:15:30 CEST)
There is limited information on Tamarind production, trade and value added products in Kenya. Of late, there is growing interest in the domestic and export markets due to its multiple uses. The objective of this paper is to review existing literature to identify the missing value chain links which may help catalyse the scaling up of production and commercialization of Tamarind. Selected literature and interviews with traders and extension staff in the Coastal Counties were used to collect information for this study. Tamarind fruits are mainly collected in the wild in semi-arid areas of the country and marketed through informal channels. Mombasa is the terminal market for tamarind from Kenya and Uganda, from where domestic consumers and exporters obtain their supplies. Globally, virtually every part of tamarind tree (pulp, seed, leaves, flowers, bark and roots) has either nutritional, industrial or medicinal value. Tamarind fruit contains substantial levels of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and essential amino acids making it potentially useful in addressing wide spread malnutrition. Its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-fungal and anti-diabetic properties gives tamarind wider application in conventional and traditional medicine. The findings suggest that scaling up the production and commercialization of tamarind in the country requires both public and private sector investment. The structure of this partnership should consist of the following value chain links: An efficient Seed / seedling system as a source of planting materials; production hubs by farmer associations, government institutions and private farms; aggregation centres for assurance of volumes and quality; processing, value addition and product diversification; an efficient distribution systems of wholesalers and retailers, particularly supermarkets; exporters and consumers. The agenda for further research should include breeding and availing early maturing cultivars demanded by the export market, quality management andvalue addition technologies.
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: construction engineering; lean supply chain; target cost management
Online: 13 November 2019 (08:57:42 CET)
The lean supply chain of construction engineering projects is to achieve the maximum satisfaction of the owners' needs in order to effectively achieve the goal of supply chain management. This paper explores an effective method of lean supply chain cost management for construction engineering projects with target cost management, so that each participating unit on the supply chain node can fully utilizes its core competencies to minimize internal consumption and waste, and achieve the optimal overall efficiency of the supply chain. According to the requirements of the goal planning theory of the construction project company, establish a lean supply chain cost planning system for the construction project, realize the basic model of the lean supply chain cost management of the construction project, and set the target cost from the lean project of the construction project. The technical decomposition is established by the process of cost decomposition and cost pressure transmission and sub-target cost planning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1793.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: Biocides; One Health; Food chain; Antimicrobial resistance
Online: 27 July 2023 (02:20:07 CEST)
Acid stress poses a common challenge for bacteria in diverse environments by the presence of inorganic (e.g., mammals’ stomach) or organic acids (e.g., feed additives; acid-based disinfectants). Limited knowledge exists regarding acid-tolerant strains of specific serotypes, clonal lineages, or sources in human/animal pathogens, namely non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica (NTS) and Enterococcus faecium (Efm). This study evaluated acidic pH and peracetic acid (PAA) susceptibility of Efm (n=72) and NTS (n=60) from diverse epidemiological/genetic backgrounds, and with multiple antibiotic resistance profiles. Efm minimum growth/survival-pH was 4,5-5/3-4 and for NTS 4,0-4,5/3,5-4,0. Among Efm, only those of clade-non-A1 (non-hospital associated) or food chain demonstrated greater tolerance to acidic pH compared to clade-A1 (hospital-associated clones) or clinical isolates (P<0.05). MDR (multidrug-resistant) NTS survived better to acidic pH (P<0.05). The MICPAA/MBCPAA was 70-120/80-150mg/L for Efm and 50-70/60-100mg/L for NTS. Efm-clade-A1 or MDR strains exhibited higher PAA tolerance than clade-non-A1 or non-MDR ones (P<0.05). Higher tolerance was found in non-MDR and clinical NTS than in food chain isolates (P<0.05), but not between different serogroups. This unique study identifies specific NTS or Efm populations more tolerant to acidic pH or PAA, emphasizing the need for further research to tailor control measures of public health and food safety within a One Health framework.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0221.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Zika virus; nucleic acid detection; micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction; real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction
Online: 24 January 2018 (04:21:18 CET)
Establishment of diagnostic methods with low detection limits plays a critical role in the maintenance of early diagnosis, prevention of serious neurological complications, and control of the spread of ZIKA. In this study, we established the micro-droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and real-time fluorescent quantification PCR (qPCR) protocols for the detection of Zika virus based on the NS5 gene. For the Zika standard plasmid, the standard curve of R2 was 0.999, and the amplification efficiency was 92.203%, as determined by qPCR. Both ddPCR and qPCR were positive for cell culture of Zika nucleic acid.The minimum detection limit of ddPCR is 1–2 times lower than qPCR. Moreover, all tests of Dengue virus (1–4 serotypes) were negative in cell culture. Overall, these results suggested than ddPCR may have a lower limit of detection than qPCR.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0068.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: prebiotics; polyols; short chain fatty acids, Headspace Analysis
Online: 9 January 2020 (04:44:49 CET)
This pilot study of Streptococcus mutans ATCC 35668 grown in media with and without polyols (erythritol) measured the resultant metabolites, including the short chain fatty acids by using head space analysis. Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing no polyols or either erythritol or xylitol and Streptococcus mutans (ATCC 35668) was grown aerobically. After 48 hours of growth the supernatant were harvested and centrifuged to pellet bacteria. Supernatants were removed from bacterial pellets then submitted for Short Chain Fatty Acid (SCFA) analysis with an Agilent Technologies (Santa Clara, CA 95051) system configured from three components, a 5973 mass selective detector, a 6890N gas chromatographer, and a 7697A headspace sampler. Streptococcus mutans growing in Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose but containing no polyols produced the following short chain fatty acids: methyl isovalerate, acetic acid, propionic acid, butanoic acid, pentanoic acid, ethyl butaric acid, 4-methylvaleric acid, hexanoic acid. When the Brain Heart Infusion Broth (BHI2 or BHI10) supplemented with 2% or 10% sucrose containing erythritol was used as media for this Streptococcus mutans strain, the following were produced: ethanol, acetoin, and acetic acid. Our results would suggest that constituents of the media may affect the bacterial metabolite production.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: conformation of protein; albumin protein; non-gaussian chain
Online: 7 August 2019 (09:59:10 CEST)
We study a conformation of an albumin protein in the temperature range of 300K-315K, i.e. in the physiological range of temperature. Using simulations we calculate values of two backbone angles, that carry most of information about positioning of the protein chain in a conformational space. Given these, we calculate energy components of such protein. Further, using the Flory theory we determine the temperature in which investigated albumin chain model is closest to the free joined chain model. Near the Flory temperature, we study energy components and the conformational entropy, both derived from two angles that reflect most of the chain dynamics in a conformational space. We show that the conformational entropy is an oscillating function of time in considered range of temperature. Our finding is that, the only regular oscillation pattern appears near the Flory temperature.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1699.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: microbiome; spaceflight; lymphatic; short chain fatty acid; trascriptome
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:46:09 CEST)
The microbiome is critical to the function of higher organisms and the gastrointestinal microbiome in chief among them. We do not know what impact the spaceflight GI microbiome has on organismal health in the absence of other confounding factors. We used a fecal transplant model to address this question and we found that we can recapitulate some of the functional aspects of the spaceflight microbiome on the ground but the impact on organismal health was ambiguous showing neither a defined improvement nor a impairment to lymph transport, growth, or immune populations. Histidine treatment was able to alter some of the functional aspects of the microbiome. Overall it we can conclude that the spaceflight microbiome is not pathological but has distinct impacts on organismal health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0091.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: battery; commercialization; markov chain; new technology; techno-economic
Online: 4 May 2018 (10:16:46 CEST)
LiFePO4 (LFP) or Lithium-ion battery with its advantages compared to common current motorcycle battery is an appropriate alternative in substituting wet and dry cell battery. Huge amount of demand of motorcycle along with the battery in Indonesia also make it an interesting product for business. In order to assess the commercial potential for such a new technology, market share needs to be estimated as well as the techno-economic feasibility. Hence, market share prediction using the residents of Surakarta Region and techno-economic analysis using NPV, IRR and PBP indicators have been conducted in this study. Calculation using markov chain method shows that LFP battery tends to dominate the market after certain period. Techno-economic analysis also figures out that the commercialization is feasible in three conditions - first mover, even with market leader and equilibrium point. Therefore, there is a great commercial potential for LFP battery especially in Indonesia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0350.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: anterior cruciate ligament; open kinetic chain; laxity; isokinetic
Online: 16 September 2020 (05:55:45 CEST)
Rehabilitation following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft allows the patient to regain his functional capacities and to support him in the resumption of sports activities. Rehabilitation also aims to minimize the risk of recurrence, which is why it ensures that the patient's muscular capacities develop properly until they return to sport. Isokinetics helps strengthen and assess the strength of muscle groups in the thigh, but controversy exists as to its use by resistance to the open kinetic chain knee extension that would cause the transplant to distend. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of isokinetic muscle strengthening on the possible laxity of the anterior cruciate ligament and to be able to determine risk factors. The study relates to a population having benefited from anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring graft from 3 to 6 months after surgery. Two groups are differentiated, one group exposed to isokinetism during rehabilitation, the other group, named unexposed, undergoes rehabilitation without the use of isokinetism. An anterior knee laxity test is performed 6 months postoperatively using the GNRB® machine for all subjects according to the same protocol. The test results were statistically analyzed to determine a relative risk of transplant distension for each group in the study. Comparison of the results of each group by univariate analysis did not reveal any significant result. Multivariate analysis showed interactions in the two strata of the study. It was argued that the use of isokinetics seems to have no effect on the risk of developing distension for the majority of subjects in the exposed group. A tendency towards transplant protection was perceived for each variable except the age under 25 years (RRa = 1.07). The use of isokinetics does not appear to be a cause of transplant distension in patients undergoing an anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction when this method is introduced 3 months postoperatively.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0969.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Mitochondrion; respiratory chain; mitochondrial translation; chaperone
Online: 26 April 2023 (07:40:36 CEST)
Insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is a highly conserved metalloprotease mainly localized in the cytosol. Although IDE can degrade insulin and some other low molecular weight substrates efficiently, its ubiquitous expression suggests additional functions supported by experimental findings, such as a role in stress responses, cellular protein homeostasis. Translation of full-length (Met1) IDE transcripts has reported to result in targeting to mitochondria but the role of IDE in this compartment is unknown. To obtain initial leads on the function of IDE in mitochondria, here we used a proximity biotinylation approach to identify proteins interacting with wild-type and protease-dead IDE targeted to the mitochondrial matrix. We find that mitochondrial IDE interacts strongly with mitochondrial ribosomes as well as with proteins of the respiratory chain. The mitochondrial interactomes of wild type and mutant IDE are highly similar and do not reveal any proteolytic IDE substrates. We speculate that IDE could adopt similar functions in mitochondria as in the cytosol, acting as a chaperone and contributing to protein homeostasis and stress responses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0226.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Analysis Keywords: Supply Chain Management (SCM); Supply Chain Risk Management (SCRM); risk modelling; time-series analysis; machine learning
Online: 20 January 2020 (10:21:00 CET)
Risk modelling along with multi-objective optimization problems have been at theepicenter of attention for supply chain managers. In this paper, we introduce a datasetfor risk modelling in sophisticated supply chain networks based on formal mathematical models. We have discussed the methodology and simulation tools used to synthesize the dataset. Additionally, the underlying mathematical models are discussed in granular details along with providing directions to conducting statistical analyses or neural machine learning models. The simulation is performed using MATLAB ™Simulink and the models are illustrated as well.
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: COVID-19; Food Supply Chain; Epidemic; Pandemic, Disruptions
Online: 9 July 2021 (09:37:29 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected the food supply chain, including producers, retailers, wholesalers, and customers. To minimize the impacts caused by pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains, it is fundamental to implement effective policies that ensure continuity in the provision, affordability, and distribution of basic food items. This research aims to identify the main impacts of pandemics and epidemics on food supply chains and policies that can minimize these impacts. Based on a systematic literature review (SLR), 174 documents are analysed to propose a taxonomy of impacts on four supply chain links: demand-side, supply-side, logistics and infrastructure, and management and operation. The taxonomy presents the main impacts, as well as the respective mitigation policies simultaneously. In addition, the literature review leads to the development of a comprehensive causal loop diagram (CLD) with the identification of main variables and their relationship with food supply chains. Finally, a specific research agenda is proposed by identifying main research gaps. These findings provide a structured method for evaluating policies that ensure the functioning of food supply chains, particularly in disruptions such epidemics and pandemics.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0238.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: raw materials; supply chain; logistics planning; logistics strategies
Online: 12 October 2020 (12:21:56 CEST)
Raw material logistics reflects an important aspect of global trade. Raw materials form an essential basis for society, for daily life, and range from apples to zinc. This paper addresses the analysis and optimization of supply chains of raw materials in terms of their economic viability and their sustainability. Type representatives are chosen according to annual transported quantities. Hard coal represents bulk goods, aluminum primary raw materials with medium quantities, and rare earths primary raw materials with small quantities. Their respective supply chains are analyzed and subsequently possible strategies and methods and their application are discussed. The paper shows for the first time that the selection and application of optimization priorities (e.g. profitability or sustainability) depends on the primary raw material and its integration into global production chains.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0040.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Digitalization; sensor technology; block chain technology; data models; livestock
Online: 3 July 2020 (12:29:39 CEST)
As the global human population increases, animal agriculture must adapt to provide more animal products while also addressing concerns about animal welfare, environmental sustainability, and public health. The purpose of this review is to discuss the digitalization of animal farming with Precision Livestock Farming (PLF) technologies, specifically biosensors, big data, and block chain technology. Biosensors are noninvasive or invasive sensors that monitor an animal’s health and behavior in real time, allowing farmers to monitor individual animals and integrate this data for population-level analyses. The data from the sensors is processed using big data-processing techniques such as data modelling. These technologies use algorithms to sort through large, complex data sets to provide farmers with biologically relevant and usable data. Blockchain technology allows for traceability of animal products from farm to table, a key advantage in monitoring disease outbreaks and preventing related economic losses and food-related health pandemics. With these PLF technologies, animal agriculture can become more transparent and regain consumer trust. While the digitalization of animal farming has the potential to address a number of pressing concerns, these technologies are relatively new. The implementation of PLF technologies on farms will require increased collaboration between farmers, animal scientists, and engineers to ensure that technologies can be used in realistic, on-farm conditions. These technologies will call for data models that can sort through large amounts of data while accounting for specific variables and ensuring automation, accessibility, and accuracy of data. Issues with data privacy, security, and integration will need to be addressed before there can be multi-farm databases. Lastly, the usage of blockchain technology in animal agriculture is still in its infancy; blockchain technology has the potential to improve the traceability and transparency of animal products, but more research is needed to realize its full potential. The digitalization of animal farming can supply the necessary tools to provide sustainable animal products on a global scale.
Subject: Physical Sciences, Acoustics Keywords: clams; physiological status; stress; cold chain; free amino acid
Online: 30 June 2021 (11:58:19 CEST)
With the extension of the post-catch circulation time, a series of changes had taken place in the soft tissue of the live clams, resulting in the decline of its quality. This study investigated the quality changes of clams (Ruditapes philippinarum) in cold chain and was mainly focused on the rehydration process, which included gradient heating rehydration (GR) and sudden heating rehydration (SR). It was found that the GR had a better effect on the quality of clams than the SR. The GR stage clams showed a higher survival rate, glycogen content and adenylate energy charge (A.E.C) value than the SR stage clams. Conversely, the GR stage clams showed lower lactic acid content and K-value than the SR stage clams. The results indicated that the gradient heating rehydration was beneficial to the quality of clams. The transportation and rehydration strategies benefited both producers and shellfish merchants to save total cost.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0500.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Clinching; binding mechanism; process chain; torsion test; electrical test
Online: 21 July 2021 (15:33:17 CEST)
The multi-material design and the adaptability of a modern process chain require joining connections with specifically adjustable mechanical, thermal, chemical or electrical properties, whereby previous considerations have focused primarily on the mechanical properties. With clinching, the multitude of possible combinations of requirements, materials and component or joint geometry makes it impossible to determine these joint properties empirically. As a result of the established and empirically based procedure, no model exists to date that considers all questions of joinability, i.e. the materials (suitability for joining), the design (joining safety) and the production (joining possibility) and allows a calculation of the achievable properties. It is therefore necessary to describe the physical properties of the joint as a function of the three bonding mechanisms force closure, form closure and material closure in relation to the application. This approach enables the illustration of the relationships along the causal chain "joint requirement - binding mechanism - joining parameters". In this way the adaptability of the mechanical joining technology can be improved. A geometric comparison is made using metallographic cross sections, of clinched joints of the combination of aluminum and steel. The torsional testing of the rotationally symmetric clinching points for detection of the mechanical stress state are qualified as examination method and technological test. By measuring the electrical resistance in the base material, in the clinch joint and during the production cycle (after clinching, before precipitation hardening and after precipitation hardening), this change in the stress state can also be detected.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1023.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: biomass gasification; lignocellulosic material; biofuels; ethanol; short chain alcohols
Online: 15 September 2023 (02:43:16 CEST)
The fermentation of syngas is an attractive technology that can be integrated with gasification of lignocellulosic biomass. The coupling of these two technologies allows for treating a great variety of raw materials. Lignin usually hinders microbial fermentations; thus, the thermal decomposition of the whole material into small molecules allows for the production of fuels and other types of molecules using syngas as substrate, a process performed at mild conditions. Syngas contains mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in varying proportions. These gases have a low volumetric energy density, resulting more interesting its conversion into higher energy density molecules. Syngas can be transformed by microorganisms, thus avoiding the use of expensive catalysts, which may be subject to poisoning. However, the fermentation is not free of suffering from inhibitory problems. The presence of trace components in syngas may cause a decrease in fermentation yields or cause a complete cessation of bacteria growth. The presence of tar and hydrogen cyanide are just examples of this fermentation's challenges. Syngas cleaning impairs significant restrictions in technology deployment. The technology may seem promising, but it is still far from large-scale application due to several aspects that still need to find a practical solution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0210.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: fructose; intestinal microbiota; short-chain fatty acids; metabolic profiling
Online: 23 January 2018 (05:31:27 CET)
Increased sugar intake is implicated in Type-2 diabetes and fatty liver disease. Mechanisms by which glucose and fructose components promote these conditions are unclear. We hypothesize that alterations in intestinal metabolite and microbiota profiles specific to each monosaccharide are involved. Two groups of six adult C57BL/6 mice were fed for 10-weeks with a diet where either glucose or fructose was the sole carbohydrate component (G and F, respectively). A third group was fed with normal chow (N). Fecal metabolites were profiled every 2-weeks by 1H NMR and microbial composition was analysed by real-time PCR (qPCR). Glucose tolerance was also periodically assessed. N, G and F mice had similar weight gains and glucose tolerance. Multivariate analysis of NMR profiles indicated that F mice were separated from both N and G, with decreased butyrate and glutamate and increased fructose, succinate, taurine, tyrosine and xylose. Compared to N and G, F mice showed a shift in microbe populations from gram-positive Lactobacillus spp. to gram-negative Enterobacteria species. Substitution of normal chow carbohydrate mixture by either pure glucose or fructose for 10 weeks did not alter adiposity or glucose tolerance. However, F G and N mice generated distinctive fecal metabolite signatures with incomplete fructose absorption as a dominant feature of F mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1267.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: rehoming; adoption; laboratory animals; ethics; chain responsibility
Online: 19 June 2023 (03:09:44 CEST)
This paper explores the ethical imperative of rehoming all healthy animals of sentient species after experiments have finished or when they have become otherwise redundant. We take into account disparate perspectives in animal ethics and see how they point in the same direction. We illustrate our case with our own rehoming experience from the joint Animal Welfare Body of Utrecht University and the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands. The primary pilot proved successful, after which the principle of rehoming became standing policy and common practice. We discuss several challenges and our responses to those through continuous evaluation of the adoption program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0223.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: Blockchain; Rice; Supply chain traceability; Quality control
Online: 8 June 2021 (12:34:45 CEST)
Rice is the grain feeds more than half of the world population. It is an important staple food provides twenty percent of the calories consumed worldwide. Food safety affects the health of consumers. Establishing an effective traceability system is one of the primary measures to protect rice quality and food safety. Blockchain-based traceability system has the characteristics of data tamper-proofing, decentralization, and co-governance. This paper proposed a rice traceability scheme based on blockchain technology that selects the critical nodes in the rice industry chain to construct a blockchain network to achieve transparent data sharing. It is meaningful for both enterprises and consumers. It can let enterprises get the real quality information of rice and related raw materials. Consumers can get the true information of rice and rice products to buy safe and healthy food. The scheme is proved feasible by simulating the traceability of the rice supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0342.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: supply chain management; transport; sustainability; quality; innovation
Online: 14 December 2020 (14:03:54 CET)
The present article proposes a complete framework for Supply Chain Strategy (SCS) analysis that is adapted to the specific characteristics of the agrifood chain, thereby facilitating management of the former. As a specific case of analysis, the horticultural supply chain, originating in Spain and ending with the European consumer, is analyzed, taking as a reference the marketing companies at origin (mainly social economy companies, i.e.; cooperatives). In addition, a survey of marketing companies is conducted to possibly determine which explicit cooperative growth strategies may include horizontal and vertical collaboration relationships with other members of the chain. The aim is to analyze with whom the cooperative collaborates within the supply chain and the key points of such collaboration. A model analyzing the influence of collaboration on company performance is also considered. The results reveal that, in recent years, aspects related to quality and health have been surpassed and replaced by the concept of sustainability within a framework of collaboration with customers. In any case, it becomes evident that there is a need to expand collaboration within the chain by incorporating the supplier of the supplier, with the aim of making the chain more profitable.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0032.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: global value chain; global economic integration; nestedness; evolutionarily stable equilibrium
Online: 1 July 2021 (14:20:58 CEST)
Nested structure is a structural feature that is conducive to system stability formed by the co-evolution of species in mutualistic ecosystems, and reflects the ability of ecosystem stability to be restored to a stable state again after being destroyed. The co-opetition relationship and value flow between industrial sectors in the global value chain are similar to the mutualistic ecosystem, and the pattern of the global economic system is always changing in dynamic equilibrium. Nestedness theory is used in this article to define the generalist and specialist sectors in the global value chain to analyze the changes in the global supply pattern. Then we study the mechanism of the global economic system to reach a stable equilibrium and the role of different sectors in the steady of the economic system, so as to provide countermeasures for enhancing the stability of the global economic system. At the end of the article, the domestic trade network, export trade network and import trade network of each country are extracted, and an econometric model is designed to analyze how the microstructure of the production system affects a country’s macroeconomic performance, thereby deriving the conclusion that the stability of the international trade network is crucial to a country's economic development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0172.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: blockchain; healthcare supply chain management; logistics cooperation; big data
Online: 19 January 2022 (12:09:00 CET)
This study emphasizes the necessity of introducing a blockchain-based joint logistics system to strengthen the competency of medical supply chain management (SCM) and tries to develop a healthcare supply chain management (HSCM) competency measurement item through an analytic hierarchy process. The variables needed for using blockchain-based joint logistics are the performance expectations, effort expectations, promotion conditions, and social impact of the UTAUT model, and the HSCM competency results in increased reliability and transparency, enhanced SCM, and enhanced scalability. Word cloud results, analyzing the most important considerations to realize work efficiency among medical industry-related agencies, mentioned numerous words, including sudden situations, delivery, technology trust, information sharing, effectiveness, urgency, etc. This might imply the need to establish a system that can respond immediately to emergency situations during holidays. It could also suggest the importance of real-time information sharing to increase the efficiency of inventory management. Therefore, there is a need of a business model that can increase the visibility of real-time medical SCM through big data analysis. By analyzing the importance of securing reliability based on the blockchain technology in the establishment of a supply chain network for HSCM competency, we reveal that joint logistics can be achieved and synergistic effects can be created by implementing the integrated database to secure HSCM competency. Strengthening partnerships, such as joint logistics, will eventually lead to HSCM competency. In particular, HSCM should seek ways to upgrade its competitive capabilities through big data analysis based on the establishment of a joint logistics system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0234.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Transportation Keywords: land locked countries; Africa; supply chain management; sea ports
Online: 18 December 2019 (03:41:18 CET)
Abstract: Many countries around the world suffer from the lack of a sea port directly linked to the rest of the world. Such countries are called "landlocked countries". This leads to Weak competitiveness of their products in the global market, as well as to the high cost of the imports. Africa has the largest share of these countries, with 16 of the 43 landlocked countries around the world. The aim of this paper is to propose a general framework for criteria that can be used to choose between ports in transit countries that can be used for import or export. These criteria are related to the assessment of the sea ports in terms of infrastructure and tariffs. It is also related to transport infrastructure from the transit country to the landlocked country and the level of safety. The study identified nine criteria that could be used to compare between ports in transit countries. Using Full Consistency Method (FUCOM) to evaluate those criteria showed that the number of navigation lines is the most important criteria followed by the port service level.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0299.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: supply chain; partial equilibrium; biofuel; soft-linking; dynamic prices
Online: 14 July 2020 (11:20:30 CEST)
Biofuels and biochemicals play significant roles in the transition towards a fossil-free society. However, large-scale biorefineries are not yet cost-competitive with their fossil-fuel counterparts, and it is important to identify biorefinery concepts with high economic performance. For evaluating early-stage biorefinery concepts, one needs to consider not only the technical performance and process costs but also the economic performance of the full supply chain and the impacts on feedstock and product markets. This article presents and demonstrates a conceptual interdisciplinary framework that can constitute the basis for evaluations of the full supply-chain performance of biorefinery concepts. This framework considers the competition for biomass across sectors, assumes exogenous end-use product demand, and incorporates various geographical and technical constraints. The framework is demonstrated empirically through a case study of a sawmill-integrated biorefinery producing liquefied biomethane from forestry and forest industry residues. The case study results illustrate that acknowledging biomass market effects in the supply chain evaluation implies changes in both biomass prices and the allocation of biomass across sectors. The proposed framework should facilitate the identification of biorefinery concepts with a high economic performance which are robust to feedstock price changes caused by the increase in biomass demand.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0143.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: autonomous electrical vehicles; the Internet of Things; supply chain strategy
Online: 11 April 2019 (12:59:18 CEST)
This paper outlines a new methodology for developing strategy for supply chain integration of Autonomous Electrical Vehicles (AEV) to the Internet of Things (IoT). The methodology consists of external architecture and internal design that anticipates the business strategy in the development process. The methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of developments in new road transport technologies, such as Tesla Truck or Tesla Pickup. Since the methodology is designed to anticipate the impact of non-existing technologies, it represents green-field analysis. Green-field is defined as a new and non-existent operation. Green-field strategy architecture in this paper is presented as a process of accepting the world and acting upon that version of the world. The results of the analysis are presented as pathways and outcomes, emerging from the interrelated relationship between AEV and IoT. The emerging methodology is applied through two case studies to evaluate the impact to environment, performance and operationalisation. The methodology proposes architecture and design for integrating AEV and IoT in the supply chain strategy, and a set of new evaluation criteria that promote acceptance of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in the design process. The main contribution to knowledge is a new methodology for integrating AEV and the IoT to the supply chains. The paper applies interplay between inductive and deductive case study and grounded theory approach to build upon the concept of supply chain architecture and contribute to knowledge to the topic of formulating green-field integrated AEV- IoT supply chain strategy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0148.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Covid-19; Indian economy; supply chain; manufacturing industries; barriers
Online: 9 May 2020 (10:01:56 CEST)
At present time world is facing from the coronavirus disease known as Covid-19. The first case of the coronavirus was reported in the December, 2019 in the Wuhan city of China which is known as the major transportation hub of China. After the spread of Covid-19 many countries have shut down their sea ports and airports. They have banned the import and export activities. Also, China is the major distributor of the raw materials which affect the manufacturing activities across the globe due to lockdowns. India is the developing country due to the Covid-19 spread the cases reported in the India government has lockdown the country for 41 days which affected the manufacturing activities and majorly it affects the supply chains and economy of the country. In the present paper we have discussed the effect of Covid-19 on Indian economy and on supply chains in India. There are total of 18 critical barriers are found out which affected the supply chains in the India. It is expected that this study will helpful the researchers to develop the conceptual models to overcome from this issue.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0282.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Supply chain; Network design; Two-Stage; Fixed cost; Sensitivity analysis
Online: 3 August 2023 (09:57:29 CEST)
Most of the literature on the optimization problem of transportation in supply chain networks (SCN) considered fixed costs (FC). However, in the practical applications of this problem it is important to study the effect of FC. This paper examines the impact of fixed cost increase as well as the variable cost on the optimization of a Two-Stage SCN. To do so, two mathematical models for mixed-integer nonlinear programming are developed. The first model optimizes fixed and variable costs in addition to the opening cost, whereas the second model only optimizes variable and opening costs. To evaluate the effect of considering FC on the optimization supply chain problem, four groups of instances are randomly generated, and solved using Lingo. The results of the two models are compared utilizing the average percentage deviation. In addition, sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of changes in opening and variable costs on the considered optimization problem. The computational results and the sensitivity analysis show that the first model with minimized FC outperforms the second model, which does not consider the FC in minimization and FC affect the optimization.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0561.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: polyethylene; blend; long-chain branch; thermorheological complexity; activation energy spectrum
Online: 22 January 2021 (13:06:37 CET)
Long-chain branched metallocene-catalyzed high-density polyethylenes (LCB-mHDPE) were solution blended to obtain blends with varying degrees of branching. A high molecular LCB-mHDPE was mixed with low molecular LCB-mHDPE are varying concentrations, whose rheological behavior is similar but whose molar mass and molar mass distribution is significantly different. Those blends were characterized rheologically to study the effects of concentration, molar mass distribution, and long-chain branching level of the low molecular LCB-mHDPE. Owing to the ultra-long relaxation times of the high molecular LCB-mHDPE, the blends started behaving clearly more long-chain branched than the base materials. The thermorheological complexity showed an apparent increase in the activation energies Ea determined from G’, G”, and especially δ. Ea(δ), which for LCB-mHDPE is a peak function, turned out to produce even more pronounced peaks than observed for regular LCB-mPE and also LCB-mPE with broader molar mass distribution. Thus, it is possible to estimate the molar mass distribution from the details of the thermorheological complexity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0411.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Fresh Agricultural Produce Supply Chain; Coordination; Discount Contract; Quantity Loss
Online: 24 December 2021 (15:56:11 CET)
This paper explores the coordination of the agricultural cooperative to supermarket or E-commerce sup-ply chain, under the condition of quantity loss with a mixed decay function of exponential and logistical distribution. The nature of this process is analyzed, and the corresponding demand and supply functions with single- and multi-stage discount strategies are constructed respectively to create a working model. The optimal discount ratios for supermarkets and agricultural cooperatives in decentralized and central-ized decision-making modes coupled with single- and multi-stage discounts are calculated respectively. Finally, a universal optimal strategy is designed, which can be applied to various quantity decay scenarios and makes the discount strategy more generalized. The results show that discounts can coordinate supply chains more effectively; not only is fresh agricultural produce sold before it starts to rot, but the benefit conflicts arising from both supermarkets vs. cooperatives and traditional vs. E-commerce channels are equilibrated. Further, multi-stage discounts are more effective than single-stage ones, but optimal discount ratios rely on the initial quantity of fresh agricultural produce in the supply chain; its market share in the traditional distribution channel; the potential market size; retail price; the price sensitivity coefficient of the channel; the cross-elasticity coefficient of prices between different channels; and the properties of the quantity loss.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1810.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: general contracting engineering supply chain; collaboration; profit distribution; Cobb-Douglas function
Online: 26 June 2023 (12:05:35 CEST)
To solve the benefit allocation problem between the subjects of the supply chain of general contracting projects. The Cobb-Douglas function is applied to establish the benefit distribution model when the two cooperate in the supply chain system, analyze the optimal benefit situation of one-time cooperation between the two parties under two modes of egoistic decision and collectivistic decision as well as the benefit distribution problem of multiple cooperation, and conduct numerical simulation to calculate the functional relationship between each decision variable and the contribution degree of the general contractor under different effort cost coefficients. The results show that：In the case of one-time cooperation between general contractors and subcontractors, regardless of the decision mode, the degree of effort of both parties is positively related to their own contributions and negatively related to each other's contributions; the overall benefit of the supply chain system is positively proportional to the degree of contribution of the general contractor and inversely proportional to the share of benefit distribution of the subcontractor; in multiple cooperation, the equilibrium result of both parties achieving Pareto optimality at each stage is that both parties choose to cooperate.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0039.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: Mixed-chain lipids; Neutron scattering; X-ray scattering; MD simulations
Online: 1 July 2021 (22:26:58 CEST)
We addressed the frequent occurrence of mixed-chain lipids in biological membranes and their impact on membrane structure by studying several chain-asymmetric phosphatidylcholines and the highly asymmetric milk sphingomyelin. Specifically, we report trans-membrane structures of the corresponding fluid lamellar phases using small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering, which were jointly analyzed in terms of a membrane composition-specific model, including a headgroup hydration shell. Focusing on terminal methyl groups at the bilayer center we found a linear relation between hydrocarbon chain length mismatch and the methyl-overlap for phosphatidylcholines, and a non-negligible impact of the glycerol backbone-tilting, letting the sn1-chain penetrate deeper into the opposing leaflet by half a CH2 group. That is, penetration-depth differences due to the ester-linked hydrocarbons at the glycerol backbone, reported previously for gel phase structures also extend to the physiological more relevant fluid phase, but are significantly reduced. Moreover, milk sphingomyelin was found to follow the same linear relationship suggesting a similar tilt of the sphingosine backbone. Complementary performed molecular dynamics simulations revealed that there is always a part of the lipid tails bending back, even if there is a high interdigitation with the opposing chains. This suggests that hydrocarbon chain interdigitation plays only a minor role in transbilayer coupling. For both cases of adaption to chain length mismatch, chain-asymmetry has a large impact on hydrocarbon chain ordering, inducing disorder in the longer of the two hydrocarbons.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202009.0181.v2
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: Service Quality; E-Supply Chain Management; Customer Satisfaction; online shopping
Online: 20 December 2021 (11:33:13 CET)
The purposes of this study are to introduce the concept of Service Quality (SQ) in E-Supply Chain Management (E-SCM) and its impact on increasing Customer Satisfaction (CS) and provide insightful enhancements to the literature. In addition, the paper also examines the influence of SQ of E-SCM on CS in online shopping. After a comprehensive literature review, four key factors for measuring the E-Supply Chain (Process Control, Interaction with Supplier, Management Support, and Focus on Customers), four key factors for measuring CS (Informing Customers, Attention to Customers’ Needs, Staff Performance Accuracy, and Easy Access to Services), and four factors for measuring the quality of identification services (Assurance, Accountability, Tangibility and Reliability) were selected. The proposed conceptual model was then presented. This model was validated by data collected through a survey of 150 respondents in order to identify customer satisfaction, including that of customers of online websites in Iran. The sample data was analyzed using SPSS21, after which the interrelationships between the model and factors were examined based on the Partial Least Square-Structural (PLS). Model fit indices were then calculated for the dataset. The proposed model was validated using factor analysis and structural equation modeling techniques. The results indicated that E-SCM has a direct impact on CS. The effect of SQ was also confirmed. A positive and significant relationship was identified between E-SCM and CS, E-SCM and SQ, as well as SQ and CS (P> 0.05). The first limitation was to convince respondents to cooperate with the researchers. The second one was the lack of research-related background due to the subject being relatively new. This study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, is the first empirical analysis on the CS assessment of SQ of E-Supply Chain in online shopping. This important link to online shopping has rarely been explored. It is expected that by filling this gap, this study will help in strengthening online shopping, which needs a change in the marketing area.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201704.0002.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Smart service systems, Service systems, Service Science, Port Supply Chain Management
Online: 3 April 2017 (16:17:51 CEST)
This paper proposes a re-conceptualization of the port supply chain as a smart service system, according to the theory of the Service science. Starting from a short literature review about the port supply chain approach and the Service science, a new comprehensive framework is provided to better understand the seaport dynamics and the creation of competitive port supply chains. The methodology used is the case study approach. The authors examined the port of Salerno (Italy), and re-conceptualized it as a smart port service systems. Both theoretical and practical implications are provided to enrich the literature about the port supply chain and to support the port operators.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0419.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Trichuris trichiura; polymerase chain reaction; bead-beating; DNA extraction; Systematic review
Online: 19 April 2021 (11:54:06 CEST)
Objectives: This meta-analysis was designed to assess the effect of addition of a bead-beating step during DNA extraction to effectively isolate Trichuris trichura DNA for quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR)-based diagnosis. Abstract was reported according to PRISMA-DTA abstract checklist. Methods: Eligibility criteria: qPCR-based molecular studies comparing the inclusion of bead-beating step during the DNA extraction from stool samples with extraction without the step were included in the analysis. Information sources: Studies using real patient samples in community settings were included. PubMed and Google search engine were searched in December 2019. Risk of bias and applicability: Risk of bias and applicability were assessed using QUADAS-2 checklist. Synthesis of results: Odds ratio for individual studies were combined to estimate Random Effects Model odds ratio. Additional literature were searched to discuss biochemical nature of helminth eggs. Results:Included studies: A total of six independent sub-studies were gathered from two published original articles. Division of the two major studies into six sub-studies was indispensable due to natures of the study carried. 128 of total 192 samples (in all studies) were positive for Trichiuris trichiura when bead-beating was used during DNA extraction compared to 108/192 when bead-beating was excluded. Combined odds ratio was 1.66 (95% CI: 1.059 to 2.602). Biochemical nature of helminth eggs was discussed. Discussions: Strengths and limitations: Though only two article were included in the study, six exclusive individual sub-studies were analyzed. Inherent differences in the background prevalence of helminth in study population could impact sensitivity of qPCR. Interpretation: It was found that the inclusion of the bead-beating step during DNA extraction significantly increased the sensitivity of the test.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1705.v1
Subject: Engineering, Electrical And Electronic Engineering Keywords: Convolution; Multiplier; Look-up table; Carry chain; FPGA.
Online: 26 July 2023 (11:22:49 CEST)
Convolution forms one of the most essential operations for the FPGA-based hardware accelerator. However, the existing designs often neglect the inherent architecture of FPGA, which puts forward an austere challenge on hardware resource requirements. Even though some previous works have proposed approximate multipliers or convolution acceleration algorithms to deal with this issue, the inevitable accuracy loss and resource occupation easily lead to performance degradation. Toward this, we first propose two kinds of resource-efficient optimized accurate multipliers based on LUTs or carry chains. Then targeting FPGA-based platforms, a generic multiply-accumulate structure is constructed by directly accumulating the partial products produced by our proposed optimized radix-4 Booth multipliers without intermediate multiplication and addition results. Experimental results demonstrate that our proposed multiplier achieves a maximum 51% look-up-table (LUT) reduction compared to the Vivado area optimized multiplier IP. Furthermore, the convolutional process unit using the proposed structure achieves a 36% LUT reduction compared to existing methods. As case studies, the proposed method is applied to DCT transformer and LeNet to achieves hardware resource saving without loss of accuracy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1222.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Palm Oil; Performance; Sustainability Supply Chain; Systematic Literature
Online: 17 May 2023 (10:12:03 CEST)
Indonesia has emerged as one of the leading producers and exporters of palm oil, as supported by data from the Central Bureau of Statistics in 2021, which indicate that Indonesian palm oil exports reached an impressive value of US$ 18.44 billion, or IDR 258 trillion, in 2020, marking an 18.43 percent growth compared to the previous year. Furthermore, the domestic market for palm oil and palm kernel oil remains substantial, despite improvements in export quantities. Various industries, including cooking oil refineries, specialty fats, shortening, margarine, bath soaps, and oleochemicals, present potential markets for palm oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO). The palm oil industry encompasses four related sub-sectors, namely growers, millers, refiners, and oleochemicals, forming an integrated value chain from upstream to downstream. The current focus on environmental, economic, and social sustainability is driving companies to adopt internal green activities and expand their efforts into sustainability supply chain management (SSCM). Implementing SSCM practices is often seen as economically beneficial, as research has demonstrated their positive impact on firm performance from a resource perspective. Within the palm oil industry, a wide range of green management applications are being utilized. This study aims to examine and highlight the existing sustainable management practices across the entire palm oil supply chain, with a particular emphasis on producing high-quality palm oil. To achieve this objective, the paper utilizes a systematic review methodology, The number of papers analyzed were 62 articles published which involves an extensive review of relevant literature to identify research trends, gaps, and issues. The study seeks to contribute to the body of knowledge by expanding the theory of organizational readiness in preparing globally competitive palm oil products. The research findings hold practical significance for practitioners and academics, providing a comprehensive roadmap for implementing green management applications at the organizational level in the palm oil industry's upstream-to-downstream chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0056.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: resource efficiency; productive chain trade-offs; decision making
Online: 7 April 2022 (04:25:38 CEST)
Petrochemicals, which convert oil and gas into products such as plastics, are fundamental to modern societies. Chemists recognize their role in the design of materials and the adverse effects that these may have on the environment, preventing sustainable development. Several methodological frameworks and sustainability assessment approaches have been developed to evaluate the resources used in the petrochemical sector in terms of environmental costs. A combination of Life Cycle Assessment and Emergy Accounting - to assess the environmental support for resource use - is applied in this study of the PET production chain in Europe. The Unit Emergy Values of several intermediates are calculated or updated to facilitate discernment of the quality of energy used and the processes' efficiency. Several routes for synthesizing renewable para-xylene and ethylene glycol from biomass are discussed and confronted with the efforts focused on recycling and recovering the final product providing concurrently a procedure and a valuable data set for future CP actions. The results show that understanding the efficiencies changing across the production chain may help stakeholders make wise choices as to where and when interventions to promote a circular economy are most effective along a petrochemical production chain.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0776.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Sustainability; Climate; Trade; Models; Emissions; Value Chain; Justice
Online: 25 February 2021 (10:24:29 CET)
With the Paris Agreement, countries are obliged to report greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduc-tions, which will ensure that the global temperature increase is maintained well below 2C. The Parties will report their Nationally Determined Contributions in terms of plans and progress to-wards these targets during the postponed COP26 in Glasgow in November 2021. These commit-ments however do not take significant portions of the consumption related emissions related to countries imports in to account. Similarly, the majority of companies that report their emissions to CDP also do not account for their embodied value-chain related emissions. Municipalities, on the path towards carbon neutrality in accordance with the methods outlined by C40, also do not in-clude imported and embodied CO2e in their total emission tallies. So, who is responsible for these emissions - the producer or the consumer? How can we ensure that the NDC's, municipalities and companies reduction targets share the responsibility of the emissions in the value-chain thus en-suring that targets and plans become, sustainable, climate fair, and just in global value chains? Today the responsibility lays with the producer, which is not sustainable. We have the outline for the tools needed to quantify and transparently share the responsibility between producers and consumers at corporate, municipal and national level based on an improved understanding of the attendant sources, causes, flows and risks og GHG emissions globally. Hybrid LCA/EEIO models can for example be further developed. This will, in the end, enable everyday consumption to support a more sustainable, green and low carbon transition of our economy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0088.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Agricultural Science And Agronomy Keywords: avgricultural value chain; agricultural marketing; economic development; productivity
Online: 5 January 2021 (12:08:16 CET)
Over time, the agricultural sector's contribution to the nation's Gross Domestic Product and revenue is declining exponentially; the decline may be attributed to varying problems affecting the agricultural value chain resulting in low productivity. The agricultural value chain comprises a series of activities and value addition processes required to transform raw materials into useable products to maximize the final consumers' utility.1 The agricultural value chain's marketing activities have been skewed with challenges, thus affecting agricultural productivity and agricultural sector contribution to the economy. The paper critically examines and discuss the impact of agricultural marketing to economic development, a historical review of agricultural marketing in Nigeria, challenges undermining the impact of agricultural marketing, measures to reposition agricultural marketing potential to build back better, policy recommendations to reposition the future of Nigeria's agricultural productivity. The paper aims to promote concerted efforts through knowledge dissemination to build back better through market research and facilitation and boost economic prosperity.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0522.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: malaria model; transition matrix; Markov chain; malaria statistics
Online: 26 October 2020 (12:22:20 CET)
The purpose of this study is to estimate the mean transitioning probabilities from a Healthy state to malaria positive uncomplicated state or to malaria positive severe state. It also classifies the various transitioning probabilities of moving through the various states based on some baseline characteristics. Malaria test results for 2019 over a 12-month period were collected from the University of Ghana school clinic. An H-U model for the study was developed and the transition rates from the cross-sectional data are indicated. With two states Healthy (H) and Uncomplicated (U) forming a state space, there were four possible transitions. The results show that the probability of transitioning from a Healthy state to a malaria positive state is 0.03% while the probability that an individual will remain at Healthy state (H) after the test is 99.73%. It was found that if an individual is already positive and has taken medication the probability that its second test came out negative is 6.45% while the chances that it will remain positive but uncomplicated is 93.55%. The study also showed that in the long run, about 95.98% of persons who visited the student clinic with malaria symptoms recorded negative tests for malaria parasite while about 4% recorded positive for malaria. In terms of disaggregation by gender, it was realized that the number of reported negative test results were higher for females (97.08%) than for males (96.13%). However, the infection rate is higher for males (3.87%) than females (2.92%). It is recommended that in as much as the University of Ghana has two health centers (a clinic and hospital), there should be a centralized system to track students’ health so research done would not be biased.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0122.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: supply chain architecture; green-field strategic engi-neering
Online: 10 April 2019 (08:49:58 CEST)
This paper developed a new theory for supply chain architecture, and engineering design that enables integration of the business and supply chain strategies. The architecture starts with individual supply chain participants and derives insights into the complex and abstract concept of green-field integration design. The paper presented a conceptual system for depicting the interactions between business and supply chain strategy engineering. The system examines the decisions made when engineering the business strategy, with regards to the supply chain design. The system derived with a new understanding of how strategies are integrated, and what are the implications for engineering successful strategies. The study revealed that supply chain design is not considered in great detail before architecting the business strategies. Thus, companies consequentially experience supply chain problems that are likely to be detrimental to the growth potentials. The paper also derived with the findings that proactive and pre-emptive involvement of supply chain participants in the strategy engineering process, would lead to a more robust strategic design.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Computer Science Keywords: runtime verification; probabilistic monitor; markov chain; ω-automata
Online: 10 April 2019 (06:30:12 CEST)
Runtime verification (RV) is a lightweight approach to detecting temporal errors of system at runtime. It confines the verification on observed trajectory which avoids state explosion problem.To predict the future violation, some work proposed the predictive RV which uses the information from models or static analysis. But for software whose models and codes cannot be obtained, or systems running under uncertain environment, these predictive methods cannot take effect. Meanwhile, RV in general takes multi-valued logic as the specification languages, for example the " true, false and inconclusive" in three-valued semantics. They cannot give accurate quantitative description of correctness when "inconclusive" is encountered. We in this paper present a RV method which learns probabilistic model of system and environment from history traces and then generates probabilistic runtime monitor to quantitatively predict the satisfaction of temporal property at each runtime state. In this approach, Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is firstly learned and then transformed to Discrete Time Markov Chain (DTMC). To construct incremental monitor, the monitored LTL property is translated into Deterministic Rabin Automaton (DRA). The final probabilistic monitor is obtained by generating the product of DTMC and DRA, and computing the probabilities for each state. With such method, one can give early warning once the probability of correctness is lower than pre-defined threshold, and have the chance to do adjustment in advance. The method has been implemented and experimented on real UAS (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) simulation platform.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0654.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematics Keywords: graph coloring; Kempe chain; Kempe-locking; Birkhoff diamond
Online: 29 October 2018 (05:08:46 CET)
Existing proofs of the 4-color theorem succeeded by establishing an unavoidable set of reducible configurations. By this device, their authors showed that a minimum counterexample cannot exist. G.D. Birkhoff proved that a minimum counterexample must satisfy a connectivity property that is referred to in modern parlance as internal 6-connectivity. We show that a minimum counterexample must also satisfy a coloring property, one that we call Kempe-locking. We define the terms Kempe-locking configuration and fundamental Kempe-locking configuration. We provide a heuristic argument that a fundamental Kempe-locking configuration must be of low order and then perform a systematic search through isomorphism classes for such configurations. We describe a methodology for analyzing whether an arbitrary planar triangulation is Kempe-locked; it involves deconstructing the triangulation into a stack of configurations with common endpoints and then creating a bipartite graph of coloring possibilities for each configuration in the stack to assess whether certain 2-color paths can be transmitted from the configuration's top boundary to its bottom boundary. All Kempe-locked triangulations we discovered have two features in common: (1) they are Kempe-locked with respect to only a single edge, say $xy$, and (2) they have a Birkhoff diamond with endpoints $x$ and $y$ as a proper subgraph. On the strength of our various investigations, we are led to a plausible conjecture that the Birkhoff diamond is the only fundamental Kempe-locking configuration. If true, this would establish that the connectivity and coloring properties of a minimum counterexample to the 4-color theorem are incompatible. It would also point to the singular importance of a particularly elegant 4-connected triangulation of order 9 that consists of a triangle enclosing a pentagon enclosing a single vertex.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1138.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Other Keywords: burial; entombment; ossicular chain; postmortem imaging; postmortem interval; preservation; submersion
Online: 18 September 2023 (09:33:58 CEST)
Three tiny bones compose the human ossicular chain: malleus, incus and stapes. Also known as auditory ossicles, they are united by joints in the middle ear cavity of the petrous part of the temporal bone. Completely developed 2 years after birth, the ossicular chain is involved in the physiological process of hearing, by which sound waves from the environment are converted into electrochemical impulses. In the last 500 years, most studies have focussed on the morphogenesis, morphological variability and clinical pathology of the ossicular chain, whilst only a few studies have added relevant knowledge to anthropology and forensic science. The auditory ossicles and the enclosing petrous bone are some of the hardest in the human skeleton. This reflects in a relative resistance to fire. In the post mortem period and in favourable circumstances, the auditory ossicles can fossilize and survive for millions of years. Post mortem loss in skeletal or decomposed remains can be ascribed to their destruction or physical displacement, by either macro-micro-faunal action and/or any other natural or artificial disturbance. Physical displacement is closely connected to the depositional environment of the skeletal remains, such as burial, entombment (sarcophagus, coffin, vault…), submersion or exposure to natural elements. Auditory ossicles can be recovered in situ, or very close to their anatomical location, when the skeletal material has been involved in an archaeological excavation. In the case of accessible or disturbed remains, scavengers may remove the tiny ossicles, and/or they can slip out of the middle ear cavity following skull movements. Entombment offers an effective protection against the displacement of the auditory ossicles, whereas aquatic submersion and aquatic movement almost invariably displace them. The preservation of the human auditory ossicles should be critically considered in the comprehensive context of any forensic investigation on human remains, since it can assist the reconstruction of their taphonomic history. Taphonomic histories of remains can add crucial information to forensic investigations (e.g., the Post Mortem Interval, PMI). The aim of this study, limited by scarce relevant literature, is to discuss the potential role of the ossicular chain, detected by post mortem imaging techniques, as a taphonomical indicator in decomposing and/or skeletonized bodies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0026.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: agavins; prebiotics; microbiota; overweight; body weight loss; short chain fatty acids
Online: 25 July 2017 (04:52:34 CEST)
Agavins consumption has lead to accelerate body weight loss in mice. We investigated the changes on cecal microbiota and short chain fatty acids (SCFA) associated to body weight loss in overweight mice. Firstly, mice were fed with standard (ST5) or high fat (HF5) diet for 5 weeks. Secondly, overweight mice were shifted to standard diet alone (HF-ST10) or supplemented with agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10), five more weeks. Cecal contents were collected before and after supplementation to determine microbiota and SCFA concentrations. At the end of first phase, HF5 mice showed a significant increase of body weight, which was associated with reduction of cecal microbiota diversity (PD whole tree; non-parametric t-test, P < 0.05), increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio and reduced SCFA concentrations (t-test, P < 0.05). After diet shifted, HF-ST10 normalized its microbiota, increase its diversity and SCFA levels, whereas agavins (HF-ST+A10) or oligofructose (HF-ST+O10) led to partial microbiota restoration, with normalization of the Firmicutes/Bacteroides ratio as well as higher SCFA levels (P < 0.1). Moreover, agavins noticeably enriched Klebsiella and Citrobacter (LDA > 3.0); this enrichment has not been reported previously under a prebiotic treatment. In conclusion, agavins or oligofructose modulated cecal microbiota composition, reduced extent of diversity and increased SCFA. Furthermore, identification of bacteria enriched by agavins, opens opportunities to explore new probiotics.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0170.v1
Subject: Engineering, Chemical Engineering Keywords: forest biomass; timber harvest residue; supply chain; trucking; delivery; logging residue
Online: 12 June 2018 (07:53:15 CEST)
Secondary transportation of raw and comminuted forest products is a major component in forest harvesting operations in terms of economics, public perception, and safety. Consequently, there is a substantial amount of literature on this topic. The existing literature has dealt with many of the technical aspects of transportation with a majority of them focusing on improving supply chain issues; However, there are only few specific to secondary transportation issues in general. This annotated bibliography will help practitioners, researchers, and stakeholders gain a better understanding of the existing literature from 2000 to 2015. To this end, we began by classifying the selected literature into six themes: cost, roads and routes, trucking, efficiency & safety, other modes of transportation, and supply chain & optimization. Woody biomass for bioenergy production was the most researched forest product with respect to transportation. About one-third of the articles were presented in the context of supply chain modeling and optimization. More than half of the studies originated from Europe while the United States had the most publications for any given country. The most articles (16) were published in 2013. Biomass and Bioenergy published the highest number of articles (29) during the timeframe.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0503.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: HMB; Branched-chain amino acid; Strength training; Sports nutrition; Inflammation.
Online: 29 August 2018 (14:12:18 CEST)
β-hydroxy β-methylbutyrate (HMB) is a bioactive metabolite formed from breakdown of the branched-chain amino acid leucine. Given the popularity of HMB supplements among different athletes, specifically, those who engage in regular resistance training, this review was performed to summarize current literature on some aspects of HMB supplementation that have received less attention. Because of the small number of published studies, it has not been possible to conclude the exact effects of HMB on cardiovascular parameters, oxidative stress and inflammatory markers. Thus, the interpretation of outcomes should be taken cautiously. However, the data presented here suggest that acute HMB supplementation may attenuate pro-inflammatory response following an intense resistance exercise in athletes. Also, the available findings collectively indicate that chronic HMB consumption in conjunction with resistance training has no more adaptive advantages associated with decreasing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress markers. Taken together, there is clearly a need for further well-designed, longer duration studies to support these findings and determine whether HMB supplementation affects the adaptations induced by resistance training associated with body’s inflammatory condition, antioxidative defense system, and cardiovascular risk factors in humans.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0213.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Econometrics And Statistics Keywords: FDI, M&Q, energy, supply chain, inbound investment, outbound investment, BRI.
Online: 12 August 2018 (19:19:40 CEST)
Global financial investments in energy production and consumption are significant since all aspects of a country's economic activity, and development require energy resources. In this paper, we assess the investment trends in the global energy sector during, before and after financial crises of 2008 using two data sources: (1) Dealogic database providing cross‐border mergers and acquisitions (M&As), and (2) fDi Intelligence fDi Markets database providing greenfield (GF) foreign direct investments (FDIs). We highlight the changing role of China and compare its M&A and GF FDI activities to those of the United States, Germany, UK, Japan and others during this period. We analyze the investments along each segment of the energy supply chain of these countries to highlight the geographical origin and destination, sectoral distribution, and cross‐border M&As and GF FDI activities. Our paper shows that while energy accounts for nearly 25% of all GF FDI, it only accounts for 4.82% of total M&A FDI activity in the period 1996-2016. China's outbound FDI in the energy sector started its ascent around the time of the global recession and had accelerated in the post-recession phase. In the energy sector, the development of China's outbound cross‐border M&As is similar to USA or UK, located mostly in the developed countries in the west, while their outbound GF investments are spread across many countries around the world. Also, China's outbound energy M&As are concentrated in certain segments (extraction, and electricity generation) while their GF covers all segments of the energy supply chain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1955.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Egg shortage; Poultry supply chain; Influenza; Economic crisis; One Health surveillance
Online: 29 May 2023 (03:59:14 CEST)
Poultry eggs are a critical source of protein, vitamins, and minerals for people worldwide; facing the current global egg shortage is a significant concern. The shortage results from various factors, including avian flu outbreaks, changes in consumer demand, and supply chain disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. The economic crisis caused by the pandemic has also impacted the availability and affordability of eggs, particularly in low-income countries. The global egg shortage has implications for public health, particularly for vulnerable populations who rely on eggs for essential nutrients. One Health, an approach that recognizes the interconnectedness of human, animal, and environmental health, provides a useful framework for understanding and addressing the egg shortage. One Health approaches to the egg shortage involve collaboration between agriculture and environmental sectors to address the root causes of the lack and ensure the sustainable production and distribution of eggs. Addressing the global egg shortage requires a multifaceted approach considering the complex social, economic, and environmental factors. One Health perspectives offer a way to understand and address the interconnected factors contributing to the shortage to ensure access to affordable, nutritious eggs for all in a healthy way
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0381.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Veterinary Medicine Keywords: Rift Valley Fever; drones; Rwanda; livestock vaccine supply chain; zoonotic disease
Online: 22 February 2023 (09:01:39 CET)
Given the recent emergence of Rift Valley Fever (RVF) in Rwanda and its profound impact on livelihoods and health, improving RVF prevention and control strategies is crucial. Vaccinating livestock is one of the most sustainable strategies to mitigate the impact of RVF on health and livelihoods, yet vaccine supply chain constraints severely limit the effectiveness of vaccination programs. In the human health sector, unmanned aerial vehicles, i.e., drones, are increasingly being used to improve supply chains and last-mile vaccine delivery. We investigated perceptions on whether delivering RVF vaccines by drone in Rwanda might help to overcome logistical constraints in the vaccine supply chain. We conducted semi-structured interviews with stakeholders in the animal health sector and Zipline employees in Nyagatare District in the Eastern Province of Rwanda and used content analysis to identify key themes. We found that stakeholders in the animal health sector and Zipline employees believe that drones could improve RVF vaccination in Nyagatare. The main benefits study participants identified included decreased transportation time, improved cold chain maintenance, and cost savings.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0558.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Polymers And Plastics Keywords: Ionic chain extender; Non-covalent bonds; Ductility; Polyglycolic acid; Blending plastics
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:16:49 CEST)
Polyglycolic acid (PGA) is a promising polymer in the packaging field owing to excellent hydrolysis, heat resistance and gas barrier properties, but there are limited in application due to poor toughness. For this reason, a covalently bonded chain extender is introduced to increase compatibility with flexible polymers. However, covalent bonds are unfavorable for application to degradable plastics because of require a lot of energy for reverse reactions. Therefore, it is intended to effectively control the ductility of blending plastics by using a novel ionic chain extender having a relatively weaker non-covalent bond than the existing covalent bond. Polycaprolactone (PCL), which has biodegradability and flexibility, was selected as a blending polymer. For comparison, a covalently reactive chain extender (G-CE) and a non-covalently ionic chain extender (D-CE) were synthesized and compounded to blending plastics. Each chain extenders were improved the compatibility between PGA and PCL, and the ductility of the PGA/PCL blending plastics were greatly enhanced with non-covalently bonding D-CE than with covalently bonding G-CE. At this time, the ductility of PGA/PCL blending plastic without CE is 7.2%, the ductility of 10D with D-CE is 26.6%, and the ductility of 10G with G-CE is 18.45%. Therefore, it was confirmed that the novel ionic chain extender inducing non-covalent bonds improves the compatibility between PGA and PCL and is more advantageous in enhancing ductility through a reversible reaction.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1047.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: Independent; Chain; Community pharmacy; Market dynamics; trends; access; population health; Minnesota
Online: 14 June 2023 (12:12:24 CEST)
Background: Understanding the factors that influence the market entry, exit, and stability of community pharmacies (i.e., market dynamics) is important for stakeholders ranging from patients to health policymakers and small business owners to large corporate institutions. The purpose of this article is to provide an update to a 15-year ecological comparison for the market dynamics of Minnesota community pharmacies from 2002 to 2017 . Objectives: The first objective was to update the 15-year study  by describing the market dynamics of community pharmacies for each county in the state of Minnesota every five years over a 20-year period (i.e., 2002-2022). The second objective was to update the 15-year study by describing the number and proportion of community pharmacies for each county in the state of Minnesota every five years over a 20-year period (i.e., 2002-2022) by (1) ‘Business Organization Structure’ and (2) ‘Pharmacy Type.’ The third and fourth objectives were new for the 2022 study. In response to evolutionary trends in the pharmacy market, objective three described the number of Minnesota licensed pharmacies located in-state and out-of-state between 2002 and 2022. Objective four described the primary type of service provided by licensed pharmacies categorized as out-of-state in 2002 and in 2022. Methods: Data were obtained from the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy, US Census Bureau, and Minnesota State Demographic Center for 2002, 2007, 2012, 2017, and 2022. Descriptive statistics were used to tabulate and summarize the findings and test associations between study variables. Results: Over the 20-year study period, the total number of community pharmacies in Minnesota remained steady. Findings for 2022 were similar to those for 2017 regarding the effects of population density and metropolitan designation on the market dynamics of community pharmacies and regarding the organizational structures and types of pharmacies. The findings revealed significant growth in the number of proportion of pharmacies licensed in Minnesota that were located out-of-state. In 2002, there were 283 of these pharmacies (19% of the total). By 2022, this grew to 960 (46% of the total). Over that 20-year period, the number of mail order and medical supply service pharmacies rose from 196 to 413. The number of specialty pharmacy distributors rose from 37 to 230 and the number of compounding pharmacies rose from 33 to 202. Discussion: The findings confirmed the shift over the past 20 years from traditional retail convenience models to healthcare access models based on population health metrics. National scalability was another detected shift in order to have profitable margins for some services and was feasible due to advances in technologies. Conclusion: The findings showed that community pharmacy distribution in Minnesota’s 87 counties shifted between 2002 and 2022 from traditional retail convenience models to healthcare access models based on population health metrics and to nationally scalable models based on economic pressures. This signals the need for not only new approaches for tracking community pharmacy market dynamics but also adjustments by community pharmacies to remain relevant in a new environment of patient care services.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0397.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: Sustainable Infrastructure; Governance; Design; Protocols; Implementation; Value Chain; Digitalization
Online: 19 July 2021 (09:11:56 CEST)
Twenty-first century infrastructure needs to respond to changing demographics, becoming climate neutral, resilient, and economically affordable, while remaining a driver for development and shared prosperity. However, the infrastructure sector remains one of the least innovative and digitalized, plagued by delays, cost overruns, and benefit shortfalls [1-4]. The root cause is the prevailing fragmentation of the infrastructure value chain . To support overcoming the shortcomings, an integration of the value chain is needed. This could be achieved through a use-cased-based creation of federated digital platforms applied to infrastructure projects. Such digital platforms enable full-lifecycle participation and responsible governance guided by a shared infrastructure vision.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0756.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Intelligent Procurement; Supply Chain; Procurement Ecosystem; Energy Business Procurement
Online: 28 April 2021 (15:36:26 CEST)
With the development of big data analysis, blockchain and other technologies, the supply chain of enterprises is transforming to lean and intelligent. As an important link in the enterprise supply chain, the intelligent transformation of procurement plays an important role in the improvement of the supply chain efficiency, therefore, the construction of a common method supporting the intelligent upgrade of the enterprise procurement business has become a key concern for enterprise managers. Based on the balanced scorecard theory and the supply chain maturity model, this study combines the actual situation of procurement management in Chinese energy enterprises and constructs a procurement benchmarking system that balances the development direction of the industry and the actual needs of enterprises. Meanwhile, based on the grounded theory, three major themes of the intelligent procurement system (digital business module, procurement synergy mechanism and procurement ecosystem) are extracted to provide a methodological reference for the construction of intelligent procurement systems of energy enterprises. The study concludes with a case study of China National Energy Group Materials Company to demonstrate the application of the intelligent procurement system built in this paper, with a view to providing methodological reference for the intelligent procurement management in energy enterprises.
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: risk assessment; BIM; supply chain management; prefabricated construction products
Online: 19 March 2019 (13:07:57 CET)
Improving the efficiency of the supply process in prefabricated components is challenging and requires accounting for a variety of risks involved in the management of the suppliers. The purpose of this study is to present a method to account for the systematic trade-offs between several supplier alternatives. A novel framework is presented for the whole assessment of supplier alternatives by taking advantage of the information extracted from customized building information modeling (BIM) and a database required for assessment of impacts. A data library related to assessment criteria for supply alternatives is built to facilitate the storage and sharing of information. Analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is used to select the optimal supplier that is able to provide the most satisfaction for the determined criteria. The proposed framework was also illustrated by the implementation in a mega project. The study implication is that BIM-enabled supplier selection can indeed lead to more benefits and higher values for all stakeholders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1372.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: weaned pig; gut microbiota; red beetroot; short chain fatty acids; bile acids
Online: 19 May 2023 (04:11:50 CEST)
Red beetroot, is a well-recognized and established source of bioactives (e.g., betalains and polyphenols) with anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. It is proposed as a potential alternative to zinc oxide, with a focus on gut microbiota modulation and metabolite production. In this study, weaned pigs aged 28-days were fed either a control diet, diet supplemented with zinc oxide (3,000 mg/kg), or 2% and 4% pulverized whole red beetroot (CON, ZNO, RB2 and RB4; respectively) for 14 days. After the pigs were euthanized, blood and digesta samples were collected for microbial composition and metabolite analyses. Results showed, red beetroot supplemented diet at 2% improved the gut microbial richness relative to other diets, but marginally influenced the caecal microbial diversity compared to zinc oxide supplemented diet. Further increase in red beetroot levels (4% -RB4) lead to loss of caecal diversity, decreased short chain fatty acids and secondary bile acid concentrations. An increased Proteobacteria abundance, presumably due to increased lactate/lactic acid producing bacteria was also observed. Summarily, red beetroot contains several components conceived to improve the gut microbiota and metabolite output of weaned pigs. Future studies investigating individual components in red beetroot will better elucidate their contributions to gut microbiota modulation and pig health.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0169.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: European sardine; draft genome; teleosts; comparative genomics; long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids
Online: 10 September 2018 (12:37:23 CEST)
Clupeiformes, such as sardines and herrings, represent an important share of worldwide fisheries. Among those, the European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) exhibits significant commercial relevance. While the last decade showed a steady and sharp decline in capture levels, recent advances in culture husbandry represent promising research avenues. Yet, the complete absence of genomic resources from sardine imposes a severe bottleneck to understand its physiological and ecological requirements. We generated 69 Gbp of paired-end reads using Illumina HiSeq X Ten and assembled a draft genome assembly with an N50 scaffold length of 25579 bp and BUSCO completeness of 82.1% (Actinopterygii). The estimated size of the genome ranges between 655 and 850 Mb. Additionally, we generated a relatively high-level liver transcriptome. To deliver a proof of principle of the value of this dataset, we established the presence and function of enzymes (elovl2, elovl5 and fads2) that have pivotal roles in the biosynthesis of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, essential nutrients particularly abundant in oily fish such as sardines. Our study provides the first omics dataset from a valuable economic marine teleost species, the European sardine, an essential resource for their effective conservation, management and sustainable exploitation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0947.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Ecology, Evolution, Behavior And Systematics Keywords: food grinding； Brandt’s voles； food restriction； short-chain fatty acids； fecal microbiota
Online: 14 September 2023 (09:05:05 CEST)
Food-grinding occurs in rodents and is influenced by multiple-factors. However, the factors affecting this behavior remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of food restriction on food grinding by Brandt’s voles (Lasiopodomys brandtii), as well as the potential role of the gut microbiota in this process, through a comparison of the variations between voles with different food supplies. Food restriction reduced the relative amount of ground food to a greater extent than it lowered the relative food consumption, and altered the abundance of Staphylococcus, Aerococcus, Jeotgalicoccus, and Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1. Strong correlations between the ground-to-consumed food ratio and the abundance of fecal microbiota were found for Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1 and Aerococcus. The content of fecal acetate and propionate for the 7.5 g-food supply group was lower than that for the 15 g-food supply group. Further, the relative amount of ground food and ground-to-consumed food ratio were both positively correlated with the acetate content. Our study indicated that food restriction can effectively inhibit food grinding. Further, Un--s-Clostridiaceae bacterium GM1 abundance, Aerococcus abundance, and acetate content were strongly related to food grinding. Variations in gut microbial abundance and metabolite short-chain fatty acid content induced by food restriction likely promote the inhibition of food grinding. These results could potentially provide guidance for reducing food waste during laboratory rodent maintenance.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0088.v1
Subject: Engineering, Mechanical Engineering Keywords: Refrigerated transport; Photovoltaic panels; Electrical batteries; Thermal model; Cold chain; Carbon emissions
Online: 6 June 2022 (13:14:34 CEST)
The path towards decarbonization requires a progressive adaptation of all refrigeration systems, but only stationary ones have been intensely studied to improve their environmental performance. However, refrigerated transport is a vital piece of the cold chain, and it must be considered in the green transition. In this paper, we propose a model for a hybrid refrigerated van that includes photovoltaic panels and electric batteries to decrease total greenhouse gas emissions from the engine. Thermal, electrical, and battery sub-models are considered and integrated into the comprehensive hybrid solar-powered refrigerated van model. Different technologies are compared in economic terms, including Lithium and Lead-acid batteries and three different types of photovoltaic panels. The model was validated regarding van fuel consumption, showing a 4% deviation. Single and multiple delivery scenarios are considered to assess the energetic, economic, and environmental benefits. Monthly CO2,e emissions could be reduced to 20% compared to a standard refrigerated van. Despite the environmental benefits provided by this sustainable solution, the payback period is still too long (above 20 years) because of the necessary investment to adapt the vehicle and considering fuel and electricity prices currently.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0712.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: dietary fibers; short chain fatty acid; gut microbiota; colorectal cancer prevention; epigenetics
Online: 29 March 2021 (22:22:00 CEST)
Dietary factors play an important role in shaping the gut microbiome which, in turn, regulates the molecular events in colonic mucosa. The composition and resulting metabolism of the gut microbiome have been implicated in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Diets low in dietary fibers and phytomolecules as well as other lifestyle-related factors may predispose to CRC. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the predominance of microbes, such as Fusobacterium nucleatum, can predispose the colonic mucosa to malignant transformation. Dietary and lifestyle modifications have been demonstrated to restrict the growth of potentially harmful opportunistic organisms. In this study, we aim to present evidence regarding the relationship of dietary factors to the gut microbiome and development of CRC.