REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Pharmacology & Toxicology Keywords: cancer; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; pleiotropic effect; statin
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:36:31 CET)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are administered as first-line therapy for hypercholesterolemia, both as primary and secondary prevention. Besides the lipid-lowering effect, statins have been suggested to inhibit the development of cardiovascular disease through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vascular endothelial function-improving, plaque-stabilizing, and platelet aggregation-inhibiting effects. The preventive effect of statins on atherothrombotic stroke has been well established, but statins can influence other cerebrovascular diseases. This suggests that statins have many neuroprotective effects in addition to lowering cholesterol. Furthermore, research suggests that statins cause pro-apoptotic, growth-inhibitory, and pro-differentiation effects in various malignancies. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that statins inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in specific cancer cell types. The pleiotropic effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have been well established; however, the effects of statins on cancer patients have not been fully elucidated and are still controversial. This review discusses the recent evidence on the effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. Additionally, this study describes the pharmacological action of statins, focusing on the aspect of ‘beyond lipid-lowering.’
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0237.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Colorectal cancer; Cerebrovascular-specific mortality; Cerebrovascular-specific diseases; Incidence; Risk factors
Online: 12 November 2021 (16:47:45 CET)
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent diseases and the second leading cause of death worldwide. However, the relationship between CRC and cerebrovascular-specific mortality (CVSM) remains elusive and less is known about the influencing factors associated with CVSM in CRC. Here, we aimed to analyze the incidence as well as the risk factors of CVSM in CRC. Methods: Patients with a primary CRC diagnosed between 1973 and 2015 were identified from Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results database with follow-up data available until 31 December 2016. Conditional standardized mortality ratios were calculated to compare the incidence of CVSM between CRC patients and the general US population. Univariate and multivariate survival analyses with a competing risk model were used to interrogate the risk factors for CVSM. Results: A total of 563298 CRC individuals were included. The CVSM in CRC patients was significantly higher than the general population in all age subgroups. Among competing causes of death in patients, the cumulative mortality caused by cerebrovascular-specific diseases steadily increased during study period. While age and surgery positively influenced CVSM on both univariate and multivariate analyses, male patients and those who had radiotherapy, chemotherapy, more recent year (2001-2015) of diagnosis as well as multiple primary or distant tumors experienced a lower risk of CVSM. Interpretation: Our data suggest a potential role for CRC in the incidence of CVSM and also identify several significant predictors of CVSM, which may be helpful for risk stratification and therapeutic optimization of cerebrovascular-specific diseases in CRC patients.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0302.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Clinical Neurology Keywords: stroke; liposome; cerebrovascular disease; oxidative stress; dementia
Online: 13 August 2021 (15:37:59 CEST)
Neuroprotective strategies for stroke remain inadequate. Nanoliposomes comprised of phos-phatidylcholine, cholesterol and monosialogangliosides (NL) induced an antioxidant protective response in endothelial cells exposed to amyloid insults. We tested the hypotheses that NL will preserve SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell viability following hypoxic injury and will reduce injury in mice following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Neuroblastoma were exposed to 20-hour physoxic (5% oxygen) or hypoxic (1% oxygen) condition without or with NL (100 or 300 µg/mL). Viability was measured using calcein-AM fluorescence and SH-SY5Y gene expression of antioxidant proteins heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 (NQO1) and superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) were measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. C57BL/6J mice were treated with saline (N=8) or NL (10000 ug/mL, N=7) while undergoing 60-minute MCAO followed by reperfusion. Day 2 post-injury neurologic impairment score and infarction size were compared. Neuroblastoma showed reduced viability following hypoxia that was reversed by NL. NL increased gene expression of HO-1, NQO1 and SOD1 versus controls. NL-treated mice showed reduced neurologic impairment and brain infarct size (18.8±2% versus 27.3±2.3%, p=0.017) versus controls. NL reduced stroke injury in mice subjected to MCAO likely through induction of an antioxidant stress response. NL is a candidate novel agent for stroke.