REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: Malware; cyber security; cyber-attacks; two factor authentication; software; targeting; privacy; causes of cyber attacks
Online: 12 August 2022 (10:33:03 CEST)
Background: Cyber Security is to protect online data and software from cyber threats. These cyberattacks are typically intended to gain access to, change, or delete sensitive information; extort money from users; or disrupt regular corporate activities. It is difficult to keep up a regular follow up with new technologies so it is necessary to keep the important data safe from cyber threats. There are many types of cyber threats; malware, ransom-ware, social engineering, phishing etc. To prevent cyber-attacks one can use password manager tools like LastPass and others. People also use two factor authentication for double security on their accounts. Methods: Boards such as the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are developing frameworks to assist firms in understanding their security risks, improving cybersecurity procedures, and preventing cyber assaults. The fight against cybercrimes and attack, rganisations needed a strong base there are 5 types of cyber securities; Critical Infrastructure Security, application security, network security, cloud security and (IoT) Security. In the modern time US is highly based on computers and on different software so it is really important for US to be more conscious about the security as they get many threats almost everyday for hacking their data and accounts.Results and Conclusion: Nowadays, even small businesses rarely recover their loss from the cyber-attacks and many back-off from continuing their businesses after being target of hackers. The first cybercrime attack was recorded on 1988 by a graduate student. Now that large companies and even small businesses are aware of cyber-attacks so they try their best to take every precaution to prevent the hacking with double security and password manager tools.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0253.v1
Online: 9 June 2021 (10:48:10 CEST)
Indonesia is an archipelago with diverse ethnicities, races, languages, cultures, beliefs, and customs. As Indonesians, with these differences, they should respect each other, or what is commonly known as tolerance. However, in the 21st century, tolerance between people in Indonesia is starting to fade. This is due to the development of the times accompanied by technology development, which causes globalization to enter quickly. The culture of tolerance typical of Indonesian society is starting to fade due to the influence of globalization. Based on these problems, this study aims to determine what causes the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century and answer what solutions can be given to prevent the decline intolerance of Indonesian society in the 21st century. The research method used is descriptive-qualitative through literature review by analyzing data following the topic to be discussed. The data used are from 20 journal articles with a span of 2019-2021. The results of this study are in the form of a decline in intolerance that the Indonesian people own due to technological advances in the form of adverse use of social media. However, with the existence of moral education and the role of teachers and the government to overcome the decline intolerance, it is hoped that the Indonesian people will understand the meaning and importance of tolerance. This study also has limitations, namely only on the causes of the fading of tolerance in Indonesian society.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0694.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Causes, post traumatic stress disorder,refugees
Online: 26 April 2021 (20:51:27 CEST)
Abstract Objectives To assess the causes and risk factors of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adult asylum seekers and refugees. To explore whether the causes and risk factors of PTSD, between male and female adult refugees/ asylum seekers is different. Study design Systematic review of current literature. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar up until February 2019 Method A structured systematic search was conducted in the relevant databases. Papers were excluded, if they failed to meet the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Afterwards, a qualitative assessment was performed on the selected papers. Results 12 Studies were included for the final analysis. All papers were either case studies/report or cross sectional studies. The number of traumatic events experienced by refugees/asylum seekers, is the most frequently reported pre-migration causes for PTSD development. Whilst acculturative stress, is the most common post migration stressor. There were mixed reports, regarding the causes of PTSD between both genders of refugees/asylum seekers. Conclusion This reviews’ findings, have potential clinical application into helping clinicians, to risk stratify refugees/asylum seekers for PTSD development and thus aid in embarking on earlier intervention measures. However, more rigorous research similar to this one, is needed for it to be implemented into clinical practice.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, General Medical Research Keywords: articles; bibliometric; causes; death; diseases; journals; Russia
Online: 23 September 2020 (04:48:32 CEST)
Societal changes have had effects on deaths from all causes in Russia. Up until now, deaths from all causes have been well researched, although several inconsistencies persist on the contributions of researchers. This study assessed research output, trends and topics that shaped deaths from all causes studies in Russia. Using bibliometric and topic modelling approaches, deaths from all causes in Russia published from 1914 to date was analysed using data on publications, citations, journals, keywords co-occurrence, year of publication, institutional affiliations, and country of origin from Scopus. Overall results indicate a steady growth of publications in Russia was documented after 1985. The h-index of some top 10 authors did not surpass single digits. A network visualisation map showed that ‘Russia’, ‘male’, ‘mortality’ and ‘human’ were the most commonly encountered vital terms. Of the ten most prolific authors, McKee M, Shkolnikov VM, Bobak M, Samorodskaya IV and Andreev E were the first five. Although the top 10 journals researching on death causes in Russia were Russian, these journals were not included in the most cited journals. The most prolific institutions studying deaths in Russia included; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, University College London, Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research and National Research University-Higher School of Economics. Findings suggest that deaths from all causes research attention in Russia increased in recent years, but the number of publications and research related engagements (e.g., networking and/ collaboration) does not match-up to other countries (e.g., UK, US, Germany). This research lag calls for more collaborative research between public health disciplines and networking among researchers (i.e., both national and international).
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: accident; construction project; causes; Bangladesh; RII based rank
Online: 9 November 2018 (03:29:17 CET)
Bangladeshi construction industry suffers a lot of safety and accidental issues than other developing countries in the world. Among many of these, accident of construction project goes far beyond and shape a horrific figure of death for every year. The aims of this study is that analysis and discussion of causes of accident at construction project in Bangladesh. A widespread statistical data collection and data analysis take place to identify the causes and design the questionnaire. The questionnaire-based survey was used to elicit the attitude of four stakeholders as workers, owners, consultants, and contractors towards passive causes of fatal accident at construction site. These study also identify 77 passive causes under 14 major groups and ranked them based on Relative Importance Index (RII). The top 5 major group of causes are (1) Management related, (2) Consultant related, (3) Technology related, (4) Labour related and (5) Contractor related. The top 5 passive causes are: (1) Unaware of safety-related issue, (2) Lack of personal protective equipment, (3) Lack of safety eliminating/ avoiding design, (4) Unfit equipment, (5) Lack of knowledge and training on equipment.
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Nursing & Health Studies Keywords: 2019-nCoV; epidemiology; causes; prevention and control; review
Online: 6 February 2020 (08:54:11 CET)
The 2019-nCoV has been identified as the cause of an outbreak of respiratory illness in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China beginning in December 2019. This epidemic had spread to 19 countries with 11,791 confirmed cases, including 213 deaths, as of January 31, 2020. The World Health Organization declared it as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. This study analyzed and discussed 70 research articles published until January 31, 2020 for a better understanding of the epidemiology, causes, clinical diagnosis, prevention and control of this virus. Studies thus far have shown origination in connection to a seafood market in Wuhan, but specific animal association has not been confirmed. The reported symptoms include fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia, headache, diarrhea, hemoptysis, and dyspnea. Preventive measures such as masks, hand hygiene practices, avoidance of public contact, case detection, contact tracing, and quarantines are effective for reducing the transmission. To date, no specific antiviral treatment is proven effective, hence, infected people primarily rely on symptomatic treatment and supportive care. Although these studies had relevance to control a public emergency, more research need to be conducted to provide valid and reliable ways to manage this kind of public health emergency in both short- and long- term.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0210.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Behavioral Neuroscience Keywords: neuropsychiatric disorder; cognition; social behavior; dimensionality, reward; heterogeneity; autoencoder; components; genetic causes
Online: 19 January 2020 (04:53:42 CET)
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous neuropsychiatric problem with a few core symptoms: weaknesses in social behavior, verbal impairments, repetitive behavior and restricted interests. Beyond the core symptoms, autism has strong association with other disorders such as intellectual disability, epilepsy, schizophrenia among many others. This paper outlines a theory of ASD with capacity to connect heterogeneous ‘core’ symptoms, medical and psychiatric comorbidities as well as other etiological theories of autism in a unifying cognitive framework rooted in neuroscience and genetics. Cognition is embedded into an ever-developing structure modified by experiences, including the outcomes of environment influencing behaviors. We introduce the hypothesis that autism is caused by deficits in component-based cognition and the internal learning reinforcing machinery. Specifically, we outline our Cartesian Factor forming autoencoder like model that supports cognition by breaking combinatorial explosion and discuss the cognitive and neural processes behind our model. The high dimensionality of sensory information poses serious problems, since the brain can handle only 7±2 relevant variables at a time making processes, such as the extraction and encoding of the relevant variables and their efficient manipulation critical. These processes are influenced by previous experiences and the internal reward system. In addition, large delays of distributed information processing should be counteracted by learned predictive models to synchronize sensory, proprioceptive, and cognitive signals and have timely and accurate model-based actions. Impairments in any of these aspects may disrupt learning and execution. Combinations of small impairments may allow the solving of low complexity tasks but may become visible if learned variables and the related metric are improper and imprecise, respectively, especially if their number is large. We claim that social interactions are amongst the most challenging cognitive tasks in terms of the number of variables involved. In turn, they are highly susceptible to combinations of small impairments. We consider impairments as the basic colors of autism, whereas the combinations of diverse impairments make the palette of autism. In turn, social processes can be spoiled in many ways and can lead to diverse comorbidities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0019.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Environmental Sciences Keywords: Wink sink; sinkhole; oil and gas developments; anthropogenic activities; environmental causes; Texas
Online: 2 March 2020 (00:45:13 CET)
The formation of sinkholes in Winkler County, Texas is concerning due to the amount of oil and gas infrastructure and the potential for catastrophic losses. Evidences of new and potential sinkholes have been documented, and determining the cause of these sinkholes is paramount to mitigate the devastating consequences thereof. Studies shown that the Wink sinkholes result from both natural and anthropogenic influences. Data depicting land-cover changes, alterations in the hydrologic systems, climate changes, and oil and gas activity were analyzed in an effort to better understand the link between these processes and sinkhole formation. Results indicate that the combination of these processes lead to the current state; Land cover changes were highest in shrub versus grasses, undeveloped to developed and croplands. Rises in temperature and a decrease in precipitation indicate a shift towards a more arid climate. Changes to the hydraulic system are a direct result of these land cover changes while the groundwater quality depict an environment prone to dissolution. Historical oil and gas activities have created pathways of meteoric water infiltration to the underlying limestone and evaporite formation. The combination of these processes create an environment that accelerates sinkhole formations. Understanding these processes allows for the development and implementation of better land practices, better groundwater protections, and the need for monitoring and maintaining aging oil and gas infrastructure.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201710.0142.v1
Subject: Mathematics & Computer Science, Probability And Statistics Keywords: competing risks; masked causes of failure; Markov Chain Monte Carlo; Bayesian analysis; partly interval censored
Online: 21 October 2017 (02:16:43 CEST)
Bayesian analysis for masked data under competing risk frameworks is studied for the purpose of assessing the impact of covariates on the hazard functions when the failure time is exactly observed for some subjects but only known to lie in an interval of time for the remaining subjects. Such data, known as partly interval-censored data, usually result from periodic inspection. Dirichlet and Gamma processes are assumed as priors for masking probabilities and baseline hazards. The Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique is employed for the implementation of the Bayesian approach. The effectiveness of the proposed model is tested through numerical studies, including simulated and real data sets.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0231.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: etiology; leukemia; acute lymphoblastic leukemia; acute myeloblastic leukemia; genetics; causes; occupations; hobbies; genetic; infections; mycovirus; aspergillus
Online: 9 February 2021 (10:09:21 CET)
Acute leukemias constitute some of the most common malignant disorders. Despite significant progress made in the treatment of these disorders, their etiology remains unknown. A large and diverse group of genetic and environmental variables have been proposed. The role of a variety of factors, including pre-existing and acquired genetic mutations, exposure to radiation and various chemicals during pre-conception, pregnancy and throughout life have been explored. The effects of inherited genetic variations and disorders, pre-existing diseases, infectious agents, hobbies, occupations, prior treatments and a host of other factors have been proposed, but none is universally applicable to all cases. Variation in the incidence and prognosis based on the age, sex, race, type of the disease, geographic area of residence and other factors are intriguing, but remains unexplained. Advances in genomic profiling, including genome‐wide gene expression, DNA copy number, and single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] genotype may shed some light on the role of genetics in these disparities. Separate two-hit hypothesis for the development of acute myeloblastic and lymphoblastic leukemia have been proposed. The latter combines genetics and infection factors resulting in leukemogenesis. A number of pre- and post-natal environmental conditions and exposure to infections, including a mycovirus infected Aspergillus flavus, have been suggested. The exact nature, timing, sequence of the events and mechanisms resulting in occurrence of leukemia requires further investigations. This review summarizes some of the above factors and the direction for future research on the etiology of acute leukemias.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0568.v1
Subject: Behavioral Sciences, Applied Psychology Keywords: Voice and sexual orientation; Human sex pheromones; Evolution of sexual orientation; Development of sexual orientation; Puberty; Causes of sexual orientation; Biology of sexual orientation
Online: 23 March 2021 (12:47:18 CET)
The biology of sexual orientations has intrigued people for generations. Many models have been providing insights to that topic, but there are still unanswered questions. In humans, sexual orientation has a learned component. Humans have to learn cues by which they identify the sex of their mates, and cues of the emotional messages that those mates broadcast. Many of those cues depend on arbitrary societal conventions. The cues are learned automatically and subconsciously during childhood, based on non-sexual experiences. When sexual orientation emerges at puberty, the youngsters cannot tell how and when they have acquired it. A model that deals with those phenomena is presented. A basic tenet of the model is that a sexual orientation is determined by the innate wirings of the brain. The model describes how the brain learns cues for identifying the sex of the mate, and cues for identifying emotional messages that the mate broadcasts. The learning mechanism is conditioning. The unconditioned stimulus is human voice. The unconditioned responses are the triggers of the physical and emotional manifestations of sexual activity. The model suggests that innate connections from auditory detectors of men’s and women’s voice onto brain centers that trigger sexual activities, such as the hypothalamus, determine the sexual orientation that emerges at puberty. Innate connections from those auditory centers to emotional centers, such as the amygdala, determine the learned emotional cues. It is also proposed that during evolution, the roles of the chemosensory system in identifying mates were taken over by the auditory system.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0391.v1
Subject: Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science Keywords: bushfires; forest fires; climate change; natural hazard characterisation; hazard magnitude; intensity; impact; history of fires and droughts; fire magnitude and intensity vs global temperatures; causes of bushfires
Online: 19 October 2020 (15:17:34 CEST)
Historical analysis of Australian bushfire data spanning 170 years addresses whether the strength of recent fire events has been exacerbated by human-induced climate change. The question of “cause” looks at the characteristics of a wider range of natural hazards. Fire characteristics are compared with earthquake hazard characteristics: (1) energy – termed “magnitude”; (2) severity – termed “intensity”; and (3) resultant damage to people and structures – termed “impact”.Published global, Northern and Southern hemisphere temperature data are shown to vary consistently in phase over 170 years, but vary in amplitude with statistical significance. CO2 levels north and south of the Equator have tracked quite consistently. Thus, Southern Hemisphere bushfire magnitude and intensity is compared with the Southern Hemisphere climate record, rather than a global data set.28 major bushfires and associated droughts since 1850 show neither apparent drought extent, nor area burned, nor bushfire intensity, correlates with changes in Southern Hemisphere climate. Average rainfall from 1900 shows a wetter, rather than drier trend. Cyclone energy shows no significant trend with climate. Planet-wide “greening”, through CO2 fertilisation, is an insignificant contributor to bushfire magnitude. Combustion theory shows recorded “global warming” could have had no significant influence on bushfire magnitude or intensity. Any increase in Australian bushfire impact, as judged by lives lost, similarly, shows no correlation with bushfire magnitude, nor indeed, any observed Southern Hemisphere global warming.Thus, bushfire magnitude seems much more likely driven by fuel load and any anomalous bushfire intensity is likely driven by anomalous ground level fuel load. The evidence suggests that any CO2 emissions reduction will have no impact on future bushfire “severity.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0134.v1
Subject: Keywords: nature and nurture of sexual orientation; development of sexual orientation; Puberty; Voice and sexual orientation; causes of sexual orientation; MGN and sexual orientation; biology of sexual orientation
Online: 8 March 2020 (05:11:50 CET)
A testable theoretical model is presented, proposing which brain parts and mechanisms are responsible for the nature and the nurture components of all human sexual orientations. The model integrates observations from humans and a wide range of animals. If validated, the model would provide a proximate explanation of the biological substrates of all sexual orientations. The basic assumptions of the model are: (1) Children learn automatically and subconsciously in non-sexual conditioning experiences cues for recognizing sexual mates. That skill emerges at puberty. (2) Adults in the child’s surroundings act as innocuous, unaware role-models that provide the learned cues for recognizing mates. (3) Voices of men and women serve as the innate, primary unconditioned stimuli (US) in that learning process. (4) The hypothalamus is the main area that elicits the signals of the unconditioned responses (UR). Those signals trigger the learning of the associated conditioned stimuli (CS) broadcasted by the role-models. (5) The amygdala, base nuclei of the Stria Terminalis (bnST) and hypothalamus play in humans similar roles to those they play in the other species. (6) The human medial geniculate nucleus (MGN) plays the roles played by the olfactory bulbs in rodents. (7) Detectors of innate primary US and activators of the unconditioned sexual responses (UR) are located in the MGN, Amygdala, bnST and Hypothalamus Axis (MASHA). The learned conditioned stimuli (CS) are recorded in the MASHA and in cortical areas. (8) The innate US-UR connections vary across three groups of children. In the first group, only men’s voices trigger the UR. In the second group, only women’s voices trigger the UR, and in a third group each voice can trigger the UR. That determines the learned cues. The first group will be attracted at puberty only to men, the second only to women, and the third group to both.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0628.v1
Subject: Arts & Humanities, Philosophy Keywords: natural philosophy; philosophy of science; Jungian psychology; depth psychology; analytical psychology; phenomenological psychology; evolutionary psychology; active imagination; Aristotle’s four causes; aesthetics in science; philosophy as a way of life
Online: 26 October 2018 (11:30:46 CEST)
A revitalized practice of natural philosophy can help people to live a better life and promote a flourishing ecosystem. Such a philosophy is natural in two senses. First, it is natural by seeking to understand the whole of nature, including mental phenomena, In particular, a comprehensive natural philosophy should address the phenomena of sentience by embracing first- and second-person methods of investigation. Moreover, to expand our understanding of the world, natural philosophy should embrace a full panoply of explanations, similar to Aristotle’s four causes. Second, such a philosophy is natural by being grounded in human nature, taking full account of human capacities and limitations. Future natural philosophers should also make use of all human capacities, including emotion and intuition as well as reason and perception, to investigate nature. Finally, since the majority of our brain's activities are unconscious, natural philosophy should explore the unconscious mind with the aim of deepening our relation to the rest of nature and enhancing well-being.