ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0021.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: TBI; brain; injury; microglia; caspase; apoptosis; retina; degeneration
Online: 3 January 2023 (08:38:56 CET)
A Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is among the main causes of sudden death after head trauma. These injuries can result in severe degeneration and neuronal cell death in the CNS, including the retina which is a crucial part of the brain responsible for perceiving and transmitting visual information. The long-term effects of mild-repetitive TBI (rmTBI) are far less studied thus far, even though damages induced by repetitive injuries occurring in the brain are more common, especially amongst athletes. rmTBI can also have a detrimental effect on the retina and the pathophysiology of these injuries are likely to differ from the severe TBI (sTBI) retinal injury.Here we showed how rmTBI and sTBI can dissimilarly affect the retina. Our results indicate an increase in the number of activated microglial cells and Caspase3-positive cells in the retina in both traumatic models, suggesting a rise in the level of inflammation and cell death after TBI. The pattern of microglial activation appears evenly distributed and widespread but differs amongst the various retinal layers. sTBI induced microgial activation in both the superficial and deep retinal layers. In contrast to sTBI, no significant change occurred following the repetitive mild injury in the superficial layer, only the deep layer (spanning from the inner nuclear layer to the outer plexiform layer) shows microglial activation. This difference suggests that alternate response mechanisms play a role in the case of the different TBI incidents. The Caspase3 activation pattern showed a uniform increase in both the superficial and deep layers of the retina. This suggests a different action in the course of the disease in sTBI and rmTBI models and points to the need for new diagnostic procedures.Our present results suggest that the retina might serve as such a model of head injuries since the retinal tissue reacts to both forms of TBI and is the most accessible part of the human brain.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0167.v1
Subject: Biology, Physiology Keywords: LED; light; retina; microglia; caspase; apoptosis; Bcl-2; BAX; degeneration
Online: 6 August 2021 (14:04:11 CEST)
Vision is our primary sense as the human eye is the gateway for more than 65% of information reaching the human brain. Today’s increased exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light from Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) sources could induce retinal degeneration and accompanying neuronal cell death. Damage induced by chronic phototoxic reactions occurring in the retina accumulates over years and it has been suggested to be responsible for the etiology of many debilitating ocular conditions. In this work, we examined how LED stimulation affects vision by monitoring changes in the expression of death and survival factors as well as microglial activation in LED-induced damage (LID) of the retinal tissue. We found an LED exposure-induced increase in the mRNA levels of major apoptosis-related markers -BAX, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 and an accompanying wide-spread microglial and Caspase-3 activation. Everyday LED light exposure was accounted for all the described changes in the retinal tissue of mice in this study, indicating that overuse of non-filtered direct LED light can have detrimental effects on the human retina as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0310.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Molecular Biology Keywords: astroglial injury; GFAP; calpain; caspase; biomarkers; traumatic brain injury
Online: 22 June 2022 (08:28:02 CEST)
Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament III protein of astroglia cells which is upregulated in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Here we reported that GFAP is truncated at both the C- and N-terminals by cytosolic protease calpain to GFAP breakdown products (GBDP) of 46-40K then 38K following pro-necrotic (A23187) and pro-apoptotic (staurosporine) challenges to primary cultured astroglia or neuron-glia mixed cells. In addition, with another pro-apoptotic challenge (EDTA) where caspases are activated but not calpain, GFAP was fragmented internally, generating a C-terminal GBDP of 20 kDa. Following controlled cortical impact in mice, GBDP of 46-40K and 38K were formed from day 3 to 28 post-injury. Purified GFAP protein treated with calpain-1 and -2 generates (i) major N-terminal cleavage sites between A-56 and A-75, and (ii) major C-terminal cleavage sites between T-383 and Q-388, producing a limit fragment of 38K. Caspase-6 treated GFAP was cleaved at D-78, R-79, D-266 and A-267, where GFAP was relatively resistant to caspase-3. We also derived a GBDP-38K N-terminal-specific antibody which only labels injured astroglia cell body in both cultured astroglia and mouse cortex and hippocampus after TBI. As a clinical translation, we observed that CSF samples collected from severe human TBI have elevated levels of GBDP-38K as well as two C-terminally released GFAP peptides (DGEVIKES and DGEVIKE). Thus, in addition to intact GFAP, both the GBDP-38K as well as unique GFAP released C-terminal proteolytic peptides species might have the potential in tracking brain injury progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0543.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Apoptosis; TUNEL; Caspase; image processing; thresholding; signal quantification; Drosophila
Online: 23 July 2021 (11:55:04 CEST)
Apoptosis is associated with numerous phenotypical characteristics, and is thus studied with many tools. In this study, we compared two broadly used apoptotic assays: TUNEL and staining with an antibody targeting the activated form of an effector caspase. To compare them, we developed a protocol based on commonly used tools such as filters, zprojection and thresholding. Even though it is commonly used in imageprocessing protocols, thresholding remains a recurring problem. Here we analyzed the impact of processing parameters and readout choice on the accuracy of apoptotic signal quantification. Our results show that TUNEL is quite robust, even if image processing parameters can allow or not to detect subtle differences of the apoptotic rate. On the contrary, images from anticleaved caspase staining are more sensitive to handle and proved to necessitate to be processed more carefully. We then developed an open source Fiji macro automatizing most steps of the image processing and quantification protocol. It is noteworthy that the field of application of this macro is wider than apoptosis as it can perfectly be used to treat and quantify other kind of images.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Allergology Keywords: Apoptosis; PARP; Caspase 3; Neurodegeneration; GPR4 receptor; MPTP; Parkinson’s disease
Online: 8 April 2021 (09:12:06 CEST)
GPR4, a member of proton activated GPCRs group. Previously we have reported that GPR4 is constitutively active at physiological pH and knockout of GPR4 has shown to protect dopaminergic neuronal cells from caspase-dependent mitochondrial apoptotic cell death. In this study we have investigated the role of GPR4 in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) treated mice model of Parkinson’s disease. Subchronic administration of MPTP in mice produces oxidative stress induced apoptotic cell death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and motor deficits. Treatment with NE52-QQ57, a selective antagonist of GPR4 reduced dopaminergic neuronal loss MPTP-intoxicated C57BL6/J mice and improved motor deficit and memory impairment. Co-treatment with NE52-QQ57 significantly decreases the protein level of proapoptotic marker (Bax), and increases the antiapoptotic marker (Bcl-2) in the SNpc and striatum tissue collected from the brain of MPTP inflicted mice. Further, MPTP induced activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was significantly decreased in the SNpc and striatum tissue of NE52-QQ57 cotreated mice. Further mice receiving both MPTP and NE52-QQ57 mice showed significantly higher TH positive cells in the SNpc and striatum than MPTP treated mice alone. Moreover, NE52-QQ57 cotreatment improved the motor activity in the rotarod test and pole test and also improved spatial memory in Y maze test. Our findings suggest GPR4 as a potential therapeutic target for PD whereas the activation GPR4 is involved in the caspase mediated apoptotic cell death in SNpc and striatum of MPTP-intoxicated mice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202209.0121.v1
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Psychiatry & Mental Health Studies Keywords: Cathinones; Designer drugs; Bath salts; Neuronal injury; astroglial injury; Calpain; Caspase
Online: 8 September 2022 (09:14:34 CEST)
This study aims to examine the cytotoxicity mechanisms of synthetic cathinone (bath salts) on rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells, and to assess their neurobehavioral effects on mice. We administered methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) to both rat primary cultured neurons and primary astroglial cells to assess cell injury. We also analyzed the effects of MDPV on these cell cultures using immunocytochemistry. We utilized western blotting to assess the breakdown of αII-spectrin and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) induced by MDPV. The western blotting experiment also included calpain and caspase inhibitors (SNJ1945 and Z-D-DCB, respectively) and pro-apoptotic and pro-necrotic agents (Staurosporine and calcium ionophore A23187, respectively). Lastly, we assessed MDPV’s effects on behavioral effects using rotarod, locomotor activity, elevated plus maze, Morris water maze, forced swimming, and open field tests. MDPV caused a dose-dependent release of LDH in both cerebrocortical neuron-astroglia mixed cultures and primary astroglial cultures. MDPV also caused neurite breakages and astroglial process retraction on immunocytochemistry. Lastly, MDPV induced αII-spectrin breakdown in western blotting experiments. Co-administration of calpain and caspase inhibitors reduced the degradation of αII-spectrin and GFAP. MDPV administration also increased anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity in the mice. Synthetic cathinones, which share structural similarities with methamphetamine, also induce significant neurotoxic effects and neurobehavioral effects on rodent models. These neurotoxic effects are likely mediated by calpain and caspase-induced apoptosis and necrosis, while astroglial death is likely only due to calpain activation. Therefore, further research may focus on pharmacological interventions targeting these pathways to mitigate the cytotoxic impact of cathinones in humans.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0592.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: caspase-3; cell death; apoptosis; cell proliferation; neurons; glia; cerebellum; development
Online: 26 November 2018 (11:48:00 CET)
Caspase-3, onto which there is a convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways, is the main executioner of apoptosis. We here review the current literature on the intervention of the protease in the execution of naturally occurring neuronal death (NOND) during cerebellar development. We will consider data on the most common altricial species (rat, mouse and rabbit), as well as humans. Among the different types of neurons and glia in cerebellum, there is ample evidence for an intervention of caspase-3 in the regulation of NOND of the post-mitotic cerebellar granule cells (CGCs) and Purkinje neurons as a consequence of failure to establish proper synaptic contacts with target (secondary cell death). It seems possible that also the GABAergic interneurons undergo a similar type of secondary cell death, but the intervention of caspase-3 in this case still remains to be clarified in full. Remarkably, CGCs also undergo primary cell death at the precursor/pre-migratory stage of differentiation, in this case without the intervention of caspase-3. Glial cells as well undergo a process of regulated cell death, but it seems possible that expression of caspase-3, at least in the Bergmann glia, is related to differentiation rather than death.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0247.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: statin; natural compounds; Bcl2 family proteins; intrinsic apoptosis pathway; caspase dependent apoptosis
Online: 13 January 2023 (09:29:40 CET)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest cancers. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the most common chemotherapy used for GBM patients. Recently, combination chemotherapy strategies have more effective antitumor effects and focus on slowing down the development of chemotherapy resistance. A combination of TMZ and cholesterol lowering medications (statins) is currently under investigation in in vivo and clinical trials. In our current investigation, we have used a triple combination therapy of TMZ, Simvastatin (Simva), and Acetylshikonin (ASH) and investigated its apoptotic mechanism in GBM cell lines (U87 and U251). We used viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), caspase-3/-7, acridine orange (AO) and immunoblotting autophagy assays. Our results showed that TMZ/Simva/ASH combination therapy significantly induced more apoptosis compared to TMZ, Simva, ASH, and TMZ/Simva treatments in GBM cells. Apoptosis via TMZ/Simva/ASH treatment induced mitochondrial damage (increase of ROS, decrease of MMP) and induced caspase-3/7 activation in both GBM cell lines. Compared to all single treatments and the TMZ/Simva treatment, TMZ/Simva/ASH significantly increased positive acidic vacuole organelles. We further confirmed that the increase of AVOs during the TMZ/Simva/ASH treatment was due to partial inhibition of autophagy flux (accumulation of LC3β-II and decrease in p62 degradation) in GBM cells. Our investigation also showed that TMZ/Simva/ASH-induced cell death was depended on autophagy flux as further inhibition of autophagy flux increased TMZ/Simva/ASH-induced cell death in GBM cells. Finally, our results showed that TMZ/Simva/ASH treatment potentially depends on an increase of Bax expression in GBM cells. Our current investigation might open new avenues for more effective treatment of GBM but further investigations are required for better identification of the mechanisms.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0318.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Other Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; amyloid β; β-secretase; bax; caspase; lamiaceae; mint; oxidative stress
Online: 19 April 2020 (03:57:56 CEST)
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that develops as a consequence of different factors such as oxidative stress and accumulation of the protein amyloid β (Aβ) in the brain, resulting in apoptosis of neuronal cells. The search for a treatment for this disorder is essential as current medications are limited to alleviating symptoms and palliative effects. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of mint extracts on selected mechanisms implicated in the development of AD. To enable a thorough investigation of mechanisms, including effects on -secretase (the enzyme the leads to the formation of A), on Aβ aggregation, and on oxidative stress and apoptosis pathways, a neuronal cell model, SH-SY5Y cells was selected. Six Mentha taxa were investigated for their in vitro β-secretase (BACE) and Aβ-aggregation inhibition activities. Also, their neuroprotective effects on H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells were evaluated through caspase activity. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were carried out for the two most promising extracts to determine their effects on signalling pathways in SH-SY5Y cells. All mint extracts had strong BACE inhibition activity. M. requienii extracts showed excellent inhibition of Aβ-aggregation, while other extracts showed moderate inhibition. M. diemenica and M. requienii extracts lowered caspase activity. Exposure of SH-SY5Y cells to M. diemenica extracts resulted in a decrease in the expression of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, and an elevation in the anti-apoptotic protein, Bcl-xL, potentially mediated by down-regulation of ASK1-JNK pathway. These results indicate that mint extracts could prevent the formation of Aβ and also could prevent their aggregation if they had already formed. M. diemenica and M. requienii extracts have potential to suppress apoptosis at the cellular level. Hence, mint extracts could provide a source of efficacious compounds for a therapeutic approach for AD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0390.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Oroxylum indicum; Oroxyquinone; Traditional medicine; Bioassay Guided Fractionation; caspase-independent apoptosis; anti-metastatic
Online: 17 February 2021 (12:55:57 CET)
Leaf crude extract (aqueous) of Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz induces genomic DNA fragmentation, comet formation, and inhibition of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cell line, PC3 as assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis, comet assay, and MTT assay respectively. The bioactive compound was purified through bioassay-guided fractionation using preparative HPLC and MTT as-say. The brown and water-soluble compound was characterized using 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry, and the compound was iden-tified as a glycosylated hydroquinone derivative, 2-[p-(2-Carboxyhydrazino)phenoxy]-6-(hydroxymethyl) tetrahy-dro-2H-pyran-3,4,5-triol (molecular formula, C13H18N2O8; molecular mass = 330). The identified phytocompound has not been reported earlier elsewhere. Therefore, the common name of the novel anticancer phytocompound isolated from oroxylum indicum in this current study is named as oroxyquinone. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of oroxyquinone on PC3 cells was 19.44 µg/ml (95% CI = 17.97 to 21.04). Oroxyquinone induced cell cycle arrest at S phases and inhibition of cell migration on PC3 as assessed by flow cytome-try and wound healing assay respectively. On investigating the molecular mechanism of inducing apoptosis, the results indicated that the oroxyquinone induced apoptosis through the p38 pathway and cell cycle arrest, however, not through caspase-3 and PARP pathways. The present study identifies a novel an-ticancer molecule and provides scientific evidence supporting the therapeutic potency of OI for ethnomedicinal uses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0611.v2
Subject: Medicine & Pharmacology, Oncology & Oncogenics Keywords: Acute leukemia; CASPASE-3; chemoresistant; DJ-1; TP53; PUMA; reactive oxygen species; signaling; TPEN
Online: 6 October 2021 (15:07:27 CEST)
B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) is a hematologic disorder characterized by the abnormal proliferation and accumulation of immature B-lymphoblasts arrested at various stages of differentiation. Despite advances in treatment, a significant percentage of pediatric patients with precursor B-ALL still relapse. Therefore, alternative therapies are needed to improve the cure rates for pediatric patients. TPEN (N, N, N’, N’-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)-ethylenediamine).is a pro-oxidant agent capable of selectively inducing apoptosis in leukemia cells. Consequently, it has been suggested that TPEN could be a potential agent for oxidative therapy. However, it is not yet known whether TPEN can selectively destroy leukemia cells in a more disease-like model, for example, the bloodstream and bone marrow (BM), in vitro. This investigation is an extension of a previous study that dealt with the effect of TPEN on ex vivo isolated/purified refractory B-ALL cells. Here, we evaluated the effect of TPEN on whole BM from nonleukemic patients (control) or pediatric patients diagnosed with de novo B-ALL or refractory B-ALL cells by analyzing the hematopoietic cell lineage marker CD34/CD19. Although TPEN was innocuous to nonleukemic BM (n=3), we found that TPEN significantly induced apoptosis in de novo (n = 5) and refractory B-ALL (n = 6) leukemic cell populations. Moreover, TPEN significantly increased the counts of cells positive for the oxidation of the stress sensor protein DJ-1, a sign of the formation of H2O2, and significantly increased the counts of cells positive for the pro-apoptotic proteins TP53, PUMA, and CASPASE-3 (CASP-3), indicative of apoptosis, in B-ALL cells. We demonstrate that TPEN selectively eliminates B-ALL cells independent of age, diagnosis status (de novo or refractory), sex, karyotype, or immunophenotype. Understanding TPEN-induced cell death in leukemia cells provides insight into more effective therapeutic oxidation-inducing anticancer agents.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0482.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: Inflammasome; NF-κB; IRF; NLRP3; caspase-1; epigenetic modification; transcription factor; chromatin; promoter; enhancer
Online: 23 October 2020 (10:41:25 CEST)
Inflammasomes are multimolecular complexes with potent inflammatory activity. As such, their activity is tightly regulated at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In this review, we present the transcriptional regulation of inflammasome genes from sensors (e.g NLRP3) to substrates (e.g. IL-1β). Lineage-determining transcription factors shape inflammasome responses in different cell types with profound consequences on the responsiveness to inflammasome-activating stimuli. Pro-inflammatory signals (sterile or microbial) have a key transcriptional impact on inflammasome genes, which is largely mediated by NF-κB and, that translates into higher antimicrobial immune responses. Furthermore, diverse intrinsic (e.g. circadian clock, metabolites) or extrinsic (e.g. xenobiotics) signals are integrated by signal-dependent transcription factors and chromatin structure changes to modulate transcriptionally inflammasome responses. Finally, anti-inflammatory signals (e.g. IL-10) counterbalance inflammasome genes induction to limit deleterious inflammation. Transcriptional regulations thus appear as the first line of inflammasome regulation to raise the defense level in front of stress and infections but also to limit excessive or chronic inflammation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0169.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Biochemistry Keywords: melanoma initiating cells; CD133; drug resistance; apoptosis; caspase activation; CRISPR-Cas9 knockout; AKT; BAD; BCL-2 family
Online: 7 June 2021 (12:11:10 CEST)
Malignant melanoma is a lethal skin cancer containing melanoma-initiating cells (MIC), implicated in tumorigenesis, invasion, and drug resistance, and characterized by elevated expression of stem cell markers, such as CD133. We previously showed that siRNA knockdown of CD133 enhances apoptosis induced by the MEK inhibitor trametinib in melanoma cells. The current study investigates underlying mechanisms of CD133’s anti-apoptotic activity in patient-derived BAKP and POT cells, harboring difficult-to-treat NRASQ61K and NRASQ61R drivers, after CRISPR-Cas9 CD133 knockdown or Dox-inducible expression of CD133. To maintain stable expression of CD133, MACS-sorted CD133(+) positive cells were expanded by ROCK-mediated conditional reprogramming of BAKP melanoma cells (BAKR). BAKR showed increased survival via reduced apoptosis after exposure to trametinib or DTIC, compared to BAKP. CRISPR-Cas9- mediated CD133 knockdown in BAKR cells (BAKR-T3) re-sensitized the cells, while CRISPR-Cas9 knockdown of CD133 in parental BAKP and POT cells even further increased trametinib-induced apoptosis (cleaved PARP) by reducing levels of anti-apoptotic BCL-xL, p-AKT, and p-BAD, and increasing pro-apoptotic BAD and active BAX. Dox-induced CD133 overexpression had the opposite effect, and blocked trametinib-induced apoptosis in both cell lines, coincident with elevated p-AKT, p-BAD, BCL-2 and BCL-xL and decreased levels of the active form of BAX and caspases-3 and -9. The roles of CD133 in AKT and BAD phosphorylation, or in the upregulation of anti-apoptotic BCL-2 family members, was further investigated by AKT knockout with siRNA, or inhibition of BCL-2 family members with navitoclax (ABT-263). Similar to CD133 knockdown, AKT1/2 siRNA knockdown in BAKP cells also reduced p-BAD. CD133 knockdown (T3)-mediated reduction of pBAD levels was equivalent in AKT-knockdown or AKT control cells indicating that CD133 may be upstream of AKT signaling. In BAKP cells treated with trametinib and/or ABT-263, effects of ABT-263 mirrored CD133 knockdown, since levels of active BAX and cleaved-PARP in BAKP-SC (CD133-) cells increased to the same level as that exhibited by BAKP-T3 cells (CD133+). CD133 may therefore activate a survival pathway where 1) increased phosphorylation of AKT induces 2) phosphorylation and inactivation of BAD, 3) decrease in the active form of BAX, and 4) reduction in caspase-mediated PARP cleavage, indicating apoptosis suppression leading to drug resistance in melanomas. Targeting survival pathways by which CD133 may confer chemoresistance in MICs can contribute to development of more effective treatments for patients with high-risk melanoma.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0281.v1
Subject: Life Sciences, Cell & Developmental Biology Keywords: axon guidance; growth cone; cytoskeleton; caspases; apoptosis; signal integration; basal level of caspase activity; death associated inhibitor of apoptosis; axon branching; Netrin; DCC; frazzled; slit; robo; Drosophila
Online: 16 September 2018 (09:43:52 CEST)
Navigating growth cones are exposed to multiple signals simultaneously and have to integrate competing cues into a coherent navigational response. Integration of guidance cues is traditionally thought to occur at the level of cytoskeletal dynamics. Drosophila studies indicate that cells exhibit a low level of continuous caspase protease activation, and that axon guidance cues can activate or suppress caspase activity. We base a model for axon guidance on these observations. By analogy with other systems in which caspase signaling has non-apoptotic functions, we propose that caspase signaling can either reinforce repulsion or negate attraction in response to external guidance cues by cleaving cytoskeletal proteins. Over the course of an entire trajectory, incorrectly navigating axons may pass the threshold for apoptosis and be eliminated, whereas axons making correct decisions will survive. These observations would also explain why neurotrophic factors can act as axon guidance cues and why axon guidance systems such as Slit/Robo signaling may act as tumor suppressors in cancer.