CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0225.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Inert Gas Asphyxiation; Autopsy Case Report
Online: 13 March 2023 (09:44:40 CET)
Inert gas asphyxiation is a rarely observed form of suffocation in which the decedent breathes in an inert chemical, such as helium or nitrogen, in the absence of oxygen. The ultimate cause of death is not a result of the chemical itself, but rather from the oxygen starvation as the inert gas displaces vital oxygen. In this case report, a 66-year-old Caucasian female with a history of gastroparesis, degenerative disc disease, and chronic pain was found deceased with a plastic bag secured around her head. Plastic tubing terminated inside the bag and connected to a nearby canister of nitrogen gas. This case study discusses the challenges in determining inert gas asphyxiation as the cause of death in a postmortem setting and emphasizes the importance of understanding the decedent’s history and context of the environment in which they were found.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1615.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: Cysts; Bone Regeneration; Dental Implants; Case Reports [Publication Type]
Online: 22 June 2023 (12:06:35 CEST)
The odontogenic cysts can lead to a bone destruction that can hamper the dental implant place-ment in the ideal 3D position. Different biomaterials and techniques that allow bone regeneration are described in the literature, each with its advantages and disadvantages. This clinical case with 18 months of follow-up shows the enucleation of an odontogenic cyst fol-lowing the guide bone regeneration with fence technique. After 6 months 2, dental implants were placed at the region of tooth 11 and 21, being rehabilitated nine weeks after. The fence technique allowed the recovery of the bone morphology and the placement of the dental implants in the 3D ideal position.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0337.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: coronary artery disease, acute coronary syndrome, inflammation, case report
Online: 13 April 2021 (13:14:55 CEST)
Background: Although persistent systemic inflammation is considered to be predictive for future cardiovascular events, it remains unclear whether or not C-reactive protein (CrP) plays an active role in coronary-plaque instability. Here, we report a case of a patient with failed and super-infected renal allograft as a source for systemic inflammation presenting with repeat acute coronary syndromes. Case presentation: A 52-years-old male type-2 diabetic with a failed kidney transplant who was hospitalized for acute urinary-tract infection. In the presence of other, classic cardiovascular risk factors, peak values of CrP coincided with episodes of unstable angina treated by percutaneous coronary interventions. Besides pyelonephritis, the histological examination of the kidney transplant revealed signs of chronic rejection and the presence of a renal cell carcinoma in situ. Once the renal allograft has been removed, systemic inflammation was attenuated, the patient was not re-hospitalized for acute-coronary syndrome within the next 12 months. Conclusion: In this case, systemic inflammation was paralleled by instability of coronary plaques as documented by repeat percutaneous coronary interventions.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0669.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pulmonary And Respiratory Medicine Keywords: case report; COVID-19; mRNA; pulmonary hypertension; vaccine
Online: 8 August 2023 (11:53:56 CEST)
Background: To our knowledge, the sudden onset of symptomatic pulmonary hypertension after COVID-19 vaccination has not been described. Both cases presented here resulted in functional limitations and likely permanent organ damage. Case Summary: We report two cases of acute onset pulmonary hypertension in previously healthy adult males within three weeks of receiving the second dose of the Pfizer (BNT162b2) mRNA COVID-19 vaccine from different lots. Both patients experienced the sudden onset of severe fatigue and dyspnea on exertion with negative COVID-19 PCR testing. The diagnosis was made by serial transthoracic echocardiography in the first case and by both transthoracic echocardiography and right heart catheterization in the second. Discussion: Pulmonary hypertension is a serious disease characterized by damage to lung vasculature and restricted blood flow through narrowed arteries from the right to left heart. The onset of symptoms is typically insidious, progressive and incurable, leading to right heart failure and premature death. The World Health Organization (WHO) classifies pulmonary hypertension into 5 categories and recently re-defined as a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure greater than 20 mmHg. Sudden onset pulmonary hypertension would only be expected in the settings of surgical pneumonectomy or massive pulmonary emboli with compromise of at least 50% of the lung vasculature.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0179.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Turner Syndrome; Autopsy Case Report
Online: 9 March 2023 (13:02:39 CET)
It is important to be familiar with the presentation of Turner syndrome and to understand the common causes of death associated with the disease. Using the autopsy case as an example, this case report will outline the classic presentation of Turner syndrome, go over its physiology, epidemiology, pathogenesis and explain the cause of death in this particular case while also highlighting other common causes of death/risk factors within Turner syndrome. Differential diagnosis and mimicking disease processes will also be discussed. This report will also highlight the molecular tests used for the diagnosis of Turner syndrome, discuss developments using in situ hybridization, and discuss why this method is best for the determination of Turner syndrome over conventional karyotyping.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0250.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dentistry And Oral Surgery Keywords: case report; fracture; mandible; osteosynthesis; mini-plate; titanium nickelide; collagenic xenograft
Online: 18 January 2022 (10:33:00 CET)
The problem of filling the bone cavity-forming after tooth extraction remains relevant in maxillo-facial surgery. There is a large selection of osteotropic materials of various natures for filling bone defects. In this article, our experience in the treatment of patients with combined mandible angle fracture and radicular cyst and fractures is introduced. A feature of the treatment is to fill the bone defect with the osteotropic material. Using collagen osteotropic material, possessing osteoconductive property can improve the treatment of patients with mandibular fractures within the dentition. This is due to both the stabilization of the fracture line, a decrease in the likelihood of displacement of fragments along with fixation with devices, and a reduction in the time of bone tissue regeneration, which reduces the rehabilitation period and allows further orthopedic treatment of patients after 4-5 months without additional bone grafting operations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0290.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: vascular EDS; bowel perforation; case report; collagen; gene mutations
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:48:13 CEST)
Introduction: Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) constitute a rare entity of genetic disorders, affecting the collagen of all types all. Herein, we describe a case of vascular type of EDS, with coexisting segmental absence of intestinal musculature, while performing simultaneously a narrative review of the existing literature. Case Presentation: A 23-year-old male patient with a history of multiple abdominal operations due to recurrent bowel perforations and the presence of high-output enterocutaneous fistula was admitted to our surgical department for further evaluation and treatment. After detailed diagnostic testing, the diagnosis of vascular type of EDS (vEDS) was made and a conservative therapeutic approach was adopted. In addition, a comprehensive review of the international literature was carried out by applying the appropriate search terms. Results: The diagnosis of vEDS was molecularly confirmed by means of genetic testing. The patient was treated conservatively, with parenteral nutrition and supportive methods. Thirty-four cases of bowel perforation in vEDS have been reported so far. Interestingly, this case is the second one ever to report with co-existence of vEDS with Segmental Absence of Intestinal Musculature. Conclusions: Establishing the diagnosis of vEDS promptly is of vital significance in order to ensure that patients receive appropriate treatment. Due to initial non-specific clinical presentation, EDS should always be included in the differential diagnoses of young patients with unexplained perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0432.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: parasitological diseases; Oman; appendicitis; Enterobius vermicularis; case report; helminths; appendix; pinworms
Online: 6 June 2023 (09:50:22 CEST)
While the debate on the association between Enterobius vermicularis (E. vermicularis) and acute appendicitis has not been settled, a few case reports of this very rare encounter are beginning to come to light. While E. vermicularis is one of the most common parasitic infestations around the world, acute appendicitis, on the other hand, is also a commonly encountered condition in general surgery. However, the association between the two remains controversial. Here we present a case report of a young woman with appendicitis associated with (E. vermicularis).
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0642.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: NSCLC; metastasis; immunotherapy; complete response; case report; literature review
Online: 8 December 2023 (10:10:13 CET)
Background and introduction: Lung cancer is a prevalent and deadly disease globally. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common subtype, comprising 85% of cases; Case report: A 65-year-old ex-smoker man presented to our facility with nocturnal cough. Various investigations revealed that he had metastatic NSCLC, for which he underwent chemotherapy with cisplatin and gemcitabine, followed by immunotherapy with Nivolumab. He achieved a complete response to the therapy and has remained free from recurrence for over 7 years since the initial diagnosis; Discussion and Conclusion: The treatment of metastatic NSCLC remains a significant therapeutic challenge, but the implementation of new therapeutic techniques has expanded the possibilities of achieving complete and durable eradication of the disease.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0959.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation, T lymphoblastic lymphoma, myeloid neoplasms, case report
Online: 14 September 2023 (07:22:23 CEST)
To the best of the author’s knowledge, studies of mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation associated with T lymphoblastic lymphoma were extremely rare in the literature. Here, we report a patient who underwent both mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation and T lymphoblastic lymphoma. With the findings of lymph node biopsy taken from the right cervical and inguinal regions, we identified eye-catching mature plasmacytoid dendritic cells that were considered to be responsible for this lesion at the beginning, until the immunostaining of Ki67 and TDT showed a small group of positive cells hiding in these plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Bone marrow biopsy was also performed in this patient. Microscopically, the hematopoietic tissue was almost completely replaced by lymphoblastoid cells with condensed chromatin, inconspicuous nucleoli and scanty cytoplasm, which were basically the same as those seen in the lymph nodes in morphology. However, there was no sign of plasmacytoid dendritic cells or Langerhans cells in the bone marrow biopsy. With the help of bone marrow biopsy, our final diagnosis of the lymph node was T lymphoblastic lymphoma coexisting with mature plasmacytoid dendritic cell proliferation . Although accumulations of plasmacytoid dendritic cells may occur in some infections or reactive lymphadenopathy, the presence of extensive nodules or infiltration of plasmacytoid dendritic cells strongly reminds the pathologist to carefully evaluate the bone marrow or peripheral blood status of the patient to exclude a hidden myeloid or other neoplasm.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0971.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dermatology Keywords: atopic dermatitis; emollient plus cream; topical corticosteroids; topical calcineurin inhibitors; case report
Online: 14 July 2023 (09:18:55 CEST)
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic skin disease marked by inflammation, erythema, dryness and pruritic lesions. Due to the intermittent nature of the disease, management strategies for AD focus on flare prevention following remission. A 24-year-old patient with mild-to-moderate AD lesions, previously non-responsive to topical corticosteroids (TCS), was treated with pimecrolimus for 12 days and emollient plus cream (EC) every day. After the initial 12-day treatment course, the patient was advised to use pimecrolimus if his symptoms reoccured. AD symptoms improved substantially between Weeks 0 and 12 with daily use of EC. However, by Week 12, his symptoms had relapsed, necessitating retreatment with pimecrolimus. Overall, the patient experienced flare-free periods between Weeks 3 and 12 and between Weeks 13 and 16. No tolerability issues were reported. This case report demonstrates the use of a complementary approach of daily administration of maintenance EC and intermittent application of pimecrolimus for flare management, which was effective for treating a patient with mild-to-moderate AD resistant to TCS.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1427.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Cannabis use disorder, Virtual reality therapy, Psychotic disorder, Case report, Addiction intervention, Relational treatment.
Online: 20 July 2023 (11:23:33 CEST)
Considering the harmful effects of cannabis on individuals with a severe mental disorder and the limited effectiveness of current interventions, this case report showcases the beneficial results of a 10-session Avatar intervention for cannabis use disorder (CUD) on a polysubstance user with a comorbid schizoaffective disorder. Virtual reality allowed the creation of an Avatar representing a person significantly related to the patient’s drug use. Avatar intervention for CUD aims to combine exposure, relational, and cognitive behavioral therapies while practicing real-life situations and learning how to manage negative emotions and cravings. Throughout therapy and later on, Mr. C managed to maintain abstinence from all substances. Also, an improvement in the severity of CUD as well as a greater motivation to change consumption, were observed after therapy. As observed by his mother, his psychiatrist, and himself, the benefits of Avatar intervention for CUD extended to other spheres of his life. The drastic results observed in this patient could be promising as an alternative to the current treatment available for people with a dual diagnosis of cannabis use disorder and psychotic disorder, which generally lack effectiveness. A single-blind randomized control trial comparing the treatment with a classical intervention in a larger sample is currently underway to evaluate whether the results are reproducible on a larger sample.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: antiphospholipid syndrome; systemic lupus erythematosus; melanoma; pulmonary tuberculosis; herpes zoster; case report
Online: 12 January 2021 (17:05:16 CET)
Background. Neoplastic diseases and infections have become the leading causes of death in SLE in recent decades. Cancers and infections were also precipitating factors in the development of catastrophic APS. Case summary. We describe two patients: one of them had definite antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and melanoma and the other had definite systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with APS, melanoma, infiltrative tuberculosis and severe Herpes Zoster (HZ). Management of patients with SLE concurrent with APS is a rather difficult task in rheumatology practice. In addition to kidney damage and cardiovascular disease, infections and malignancies are a significant cause of death in this cohort. The risk of malignancy in SLE is of considerable interest, since the immune and genetic pathways underlying the pathogenesis of this disease, as well as the immunosuppressive therapy, can significantly alter the risk. Both patients still had reliable APS, confirmed by triple-positive aPL. Both were at high risk of thrombosis. Patients ' adherence to treatment with direct oral anticoagulants and relapse of thrombosis on the background of rivaroxaban were noted. Conclusion. The cases where cancer or tuberculosis develops in the presence of rheumatic diseases are not so common and complicate the possibilities of therapeutic approaches, limiting the use of drugs that are not regulated by clinical recommendations.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1168.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: colorectal cancer; recurrent rectal cancer; laparoscopic surgery; robotic surgery; openair surgery; controlled case report
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:37:03 CEST)
(1) Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic-therapeutic problem of pelvic recurrence of rectum cancer, highlighting current surgical standards and the possible role of the minimally invasive approach. This retrospective analysis of our surgical case study wishes to enter this debate while suggesting a possible line of action, based on the site of recurrence; (2) Methods: We examined, retrospectively, all the patients diagnosed, between 2008 and 2018, with cancer of the rectum at the "Pietro Valdoni" Department of Surgery and monitored their follow-up for 5 years. The sample consisted of 368 patients with rectal neoplasm, 136 females and 232 males, with an average age of 65.8 (ranging from 37 to 86); (3) Results: In 103 of the cases, the neoplasm was located in the upper rectum (28%), in 119 cases in the middle rectum (32.3%), in 102 cases in the lower rectum (27.7%), in 31 cases (8.4%) at the level of the right/sigma junction and in 13 cases it was not possible to define the site with certainty (3.5%); (4) Conclusions: The discussion re-mains open as to which approach is best at surgical level, whether laparoscopic, robotic or open-air. Our experience informs us that the most dangerous site remains on the anastomotic site.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0140.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: Krukenberg Tumor; Neoplasm Metastasis; Ovarian Neoplasms; Female Urogenital Diseases and Pregnancy Complications; Case Report.
Online: 11 June 2020 (12:30:50 CEST)
BACKGROUND Krukenberg tumor is a rare metastatic tumor of the ovary with characteristic histopathological features known as signet-ring cells. It usually presents in women around 45 years of age, however, we present an uncommon case in a 38-year-old pregnant woman. We report this case because of the unusual findings, the uncommon presentation in this younger age bracket, its diagnostic challenge, and poor prognosis. CASE PRESENTATION We describe an unusual case of a young woman with a history of painful vaginal bleeding at 13 weeks of pregnancy and treated for abruptio placentae. In her routine prenatal visit at week 20 of pregnancy, she was found to have a uterine fundus greater than her gestational age and referred to the hospital to discard polyhydramnios. At her admission a pelvic ultrasound was performed with normal findings of a 25 weeks pregnancy, also showing bilateral enlarged ovaries with heterogeneous echogenicity. The MRI showed a left tumoral lesion with dimensions of 22.1 x 13.6 x 16.3 cm, with lobulated regular contours with displacement of peripheral structures and mild compression of the bladder, the left ureter, and the inferior vena cava. The lesion was heterogeneous with irregular borders. The patient was programmed for a cesarean section; during the operation, the abdominal cavity showed bilateral tumors compatible with MRI findings, the ovarian tumors were sent to pathology and the results showed poorly differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma (WHO III) with extensive signet-ring cells, an indicative of Krukenberg tumor. CONCLUSION: The case presented is rare due to its presentation in a pregnant woman without identifiable risk factors for gastric cancer. The incidental finding suggests the pregnancy masked the clinical presentation of gastric cancer, and the rapid deterioration of the patient is consistent with the aggressiveness described in the literature. The limited descriptions of this neoplasm in our country and the torpid evolution of this case highlight the importance of further studies of this cancer in Mexico.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1315.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Primary Health Care Keywords: ovarian torsion; large cyst; acute abdomen; case report; fertility; third presentation rule; ovarian serous cystadenoma; diagnostic process in primary care, case report
Online: 20 October 2023 (10:30:20 CEST)
Background. Ovarian cysts are common in premenopausal women but can present with vague, non-specific symptoms, making discovery more challenging. Most are benign and resolve spontaneously; however, they can present, as in this case, as ovarian torsions, which is a gynecological emergency. Case presentation. A twenty-year-old female had presented over 3–4 times per year for the last 6 years to her primary doctor citing intermittent abdominal pain, irregular menstruation, dyspnea, and an enlarging abdomen circumference. The doctor stated, she was “just fat” and could, benefit from a “special camp to lose weight”, so she stopped mentioning her concerns. Upon presenting to the emergency department with acute onset abdominal pain, a computed tomography scan showed a large cyst lesion filling the abdominal and pelvic cavity. Its origin appeared to be from the left adnexa. Surgery was performed, and an acute ovarian torsion caused by a 36 cm craniocaudal left ovarian cyst was found and removed along with the left fallopian tube and 16 L of fluid. Conclusions. The value of respecting the “third presentation” rule indicates to health care providers that any patient who presents with any /or other symptoms or complaint needs to be thoroughly investigated. In this case the patient presented recurring pelvic/abdominal concerns, irregular menstruation, which warranted further investigation to safeguard fertility and prevent errors of omission. It is important to consider the differentials and be aware of vague symptoms that may lead to early recognition and effective management to prevent adverse consequences, complications, or even death.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2240.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: retroareolar breast tumor; modified radical mastectomy; case report; triple negative breast cancer (TNBC); chemotherapy; superficial infiltrating breast carcinoma; taxol
Online: 7 August 2023 (02:30:15 CEST)
(1) Background: Retroareolar breast tumors are common, but they rarely progress to malignancy. This report presents a case of a 41-years-old woman with a superficial breast tumor, emphasizing the significance of considering a wide range of options when evaluating breast lumps. (2) Methods: The patient presented with a steadily growing, ulcerating superficial tumor in her left breast. To determine the nature of the tumor, a diagnostic assessment was conducted, which included a positron emission tomography (PET) scan and histological analysis. (3) Results: The diagnostic assessment confirmed the presence of a malignant Grade II superficial infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Following the diagnosis, the patient underwent a modified radical mastectomy under general anesthesia. Subsequently, she received four cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy, followed by taxol administrations. (5) Conclusions: This case report underscores the importance of conducting a thorough examination and maintaining a high index of suspicion for breast tumors. By documenting this case, the report contributes to the existing knowledge on various manifestations of breast cancer and highlights the necessity of early identification and aggressive treatment. This knowledge can be applied to identify and manage similar cases in the future, leading to improved patient outcomes.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0379.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: Combined Peripheral Nerve Stimulation; occipital nerve stimulation; secondary headache disor-ders; chronic post-intracranial disorder headache and case report
Online: 23 January 2023 (00:57:59 CET)
The introduction of ventricular shunts dramatically changed the outcome and quality of life of hydrocephalic patients. However, shunt surgery continues to be associated with numerous adverse events. Headache is one of the most common complications after shunt operation. It is often over a prolonged duration, the symptoms resemble migraine, and pain does not respond to medication. We propose invasive peripheral nerve stimulation as a possible solution in the treatment of patients suffering from chronic headache associated with shunted hydrocephalus. A young woman with daily holocephalic headache with diffuse pain exacerbated by lying down. Imaging revealed panventricular enlargement and possible stenosis of the aqueduct. When a ventriculoperitoneal shunt was placed, clinical symptoms resolved. Nevertheless, she gradually exacerbated after a second valve replacement due to wound infection. Imaging revealed decompressed ventricles and appropriate shunt placement. The diagnosis of chronic post-intracranial disorder headache was set. Therefore, occipital nerve stimulation was applied and considering that the patient had not a total response, bilateral parietal stimulation was added. Three months after the combined PNS she experienced total remission of headache. Combined PNS eases refractory headaches much more than occipital nerve stimulation alone and could be considered as a solution for shunted hydrocephalus associated headache.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1058.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Allogenic; Case study; Ligament; Mesenchymal stem cells; MSC-based therapies; Secretome; Sport horses; Synovial membrane mesenchymal stem cell; Umbilical cord conditioned medium
Online: 15 September 2023 (12:44:31 CEST)
Horses are high performance athletes prone to sportive injuries such as tendonitis and desmitis. Fibrous tissue formation with loss of mechanical properties occurs in tendon repair, becoming a therapeutic challenge to overcome. This impels regenerative medicine to develop innovative therapies that enhance tissue regeneration retrieving original tissue properties. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been successfully used to develop therapeutic products. They secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that play a pivotal role in tissue regeneration. These factors are released in culture media producing conditioned media (CM). The aforementioned assumptions impelled us to formulate equine synovial membrane stem cells (eSM-MSCs) – the cellular pool that naturally regenerates joint tissue, combined with medium enriched in immunomodulatory factors produced by umbilical cord stroma-derived MSCs (eUC-MSCs), that naturally contribute to suppress the immune rejection in the maternal-fetal frontier. A clinical case of an equine acute desmitis, treated with the abovementioned formulation is presented. Ligament regeneration occurred in a reduced time frame, reducing stoppage time, allowing return to unrestricted competition after completion of a physical rehabilitation program. This study focus was determination of the formulation therapeutic potential and the evaluation of its synergistic effect in an equine desmitis treatment, utilizing the cells themselves and its secretome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0506.v1
Online: 29 April 2020 (12:18:52 CEST)
This case study was conducted to disentangle the stories of unsuccessful LET examinees, their responses to failure, and their perspectives of the factors that contributed to their failure. The results demonstrate five themes related to the failure experience. Factors related to the physical environment, psychological well-being, and preparedness influenced the performance of the examinees. Contributory factors to failure provided several implications to teacher education practice. Educators have a responsibility to identify, inform, and intervene with students who are at high risk of failing the LET, and this responsibility could be executed capably. However, the role should be extended beyond graduation. The responsibility to help graduates transition from failure to licensure is the final step of successful undergraduate teacher education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0157.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Surgery Keywords: case on-time start; case on-time finish; perioperative services; team familiarity; OR efficiency
Online: 3 November 2020 (14:16:44 CET)
Efficient use of the operating room (OR) is crucial for any hospital. One of the major inefficiencies in the OR is surgical cases not starting or finishing on time as scheduled. When a case is delayed, it affects all subsequent cases in that OR. This study uses discrete choice analysis to determine the significant factors, including team familiarity, that influence OR case on-time start and finish. A case is considered on-time if the documented procedure start and finish times are no more than 10 minutes after the scheduled start and finish times. The analysis uses surgical case data from a large tertiary referral hospital and academic center in Greenville, South Carolina. The case data includes all surgical cases (15,091) performed during regular workdays in 2013. Two binary logit models are developed: one for case on-time start and one for case on-time finish. Results indicate that higher team familiarity between surgeon and anesthesiologist, surgeon and circulating nurse, surgeon and scrub nurse, and surgeon and CRNA improve the likelihood of an OR case on-time start and on-time finish. This finding indicates that the OR scheduling staff in the study hospital make a concerted effort to schedule the surgical teams with members who have worked well together in the past.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0053.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: adherence; case management; determinants; diarrhoea; paediatrics
Online: 3 February 2023 (03:04:05 CET)
Worldwide, diarrhoea in children under-five years of age is the second leading cause of death. Despite having high morbidity and mortality, diarrhoeal diseases can be averted by simple and cost-effective interventions. The Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) has proposed the use of Oral Rehydration Salt (ORS) and zinc together with adequate food and fluid intake for the management of acute non-dysenteric watery diarrhoea in children. In the past, few studies examined the determinants of adherence to diarrhoea case management. Therefore, this study measured the determinants of therapeutic and dietary adherence to diarrhoea case management using the third and fourth wave of Pakistan Demographics & Health Surveys (PDHS) datasets. Data from 4,068 children between 0 to 59.9 months with positive history of diarrhoea were included, while data on children with dysentery, severe dehydration, and co-morbid condition was excluded. This study reported therapeutic adherence in less than 10% of children in Pakistan, while dietary adherence was reported in 39.2% of children (37.7% in 2012-2013 ~ 40.7% in 2017-2018). A significant improvement in therapeutic (0.8% in 2012-2013 ~ 8.1% in 2017-2018) and dietary adherence (37.7% in 2012-2013 ~ 40.7% in 2017-2018) was reported in the 2017-2018 survey, compared to the 2012-2013 survey. In general, children over the age of one year (compared to children <1 year) and of the richer/richest socioeconomic class (compared to poorest/poorer socioeconomic class) have showed higher therapeutic and dietary adherence. Therapeutic and dietary adherence among diarrhoeal children can be improved by increasing the awareness and accessibility of ORS, zinc, and essential foods.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0693.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: acute myocardial infarction; case fatality; registry
Online: 27 November 2020 (14:12:24 CET)
Background: This study aimed to present the development process and characteristics of the Korean Registry of Acute Myocardial Infarction for Regional Cardiocerebrovascular Centers (KRAMI-RCC). Methods: We developed KRAMI-RCC, a web-based registry for patients with AMI. Patients from 14 RCCs were registered for more than 3 years from July 2016. It includes an automatic error-checking system, and user training and on-site monitoring are performed to manage data quality. Results: A total of 11,700 AMI patients were registered in KRAMI-RCC over 3 years (73.9% men). The proportions of patients with ST-elevation and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction at discharge were 43.4% and 56.6%, respectively. Of the total 3-year patients, 5.6% died in the hospital and 4.4% died 12 months after discharge. The case fatality within 12 months was 9.7%. Prehospital care data showed delayed arrival time after onset of symptoms (median 153 min) and low transportation rate by public ambulance (25.2%). Post-hospital care data showed lower participation rate in the second rehabilitation program (16.8%). Conclusions: The recently developed KRAMI-RCC registry has been more focused on pre-hospital and post-hospital data, which will be helpful in understanding the current state of AMI disease management and in making policy decisions to reduce case fatality in Korea.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0354.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: SARS-CoV-2; Covid-19; case
Online: 24 February 2020 (14:03:12 CET)
Covid-19 has now become a public health concern worldwide. The infection primarily involves the respiratory tract. Hitherto, some Covid-19 pneumonia patients carry the viral nucleic acids, and the active virus was detected in stool specimens. The virus discharged with feces is a potential contagious source. In the present study, three Covid-19 respiratory tract infection patients showed no gastrointestinal symptoms, and two were positive for viral nucleic acids in anal swab specimens remained positive 6 and at least 14 days after virus turned negative in the respiratory tract, respectively (details of the patients were listed in Fig 1). Thus, for Covid-19-infected patients with or without gastrointestinal symptoms, viral nucleic acids in stool specimens or anal swab specimens should be focused on for testing in order to decide the isolation duration of the patient.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0257.v2
Online: 24 July 2019 (11:53:34 CEST)
Through history, particular attention has been paid of the study of the relationship between the energy use and the city structure. Improving energy efficiency in modern agglomerations is the most promising means to mitigate climate change and its impacts. In this current context of globalisation, European Union proposes initiatives and policy targets to rethink the urban development strategies towards the ‘zero energy objectives’. Providing a methodological approach with a simulation district analysis, the present article summarizes how the ‘zero energy’ challenge is analyzed in an existing district (Epinlieu) to articulate the users’ requirements in energy. This study contributes to the scientific discussion of the districts’ urban structure and energy planning by establishing a linkage among the beneficial influence of the KPIs of the districts’ form to increase their energy efficiency and its application in a real case study in Belgium.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0004.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Tuberculosis; TB case notification; Spatiotemporal; Oromia; Ethiopia
Online: 1 August 2023 (03:45:40 CEST)
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health concern in low and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. This study aimed to assess the spatiotemporal distribution and identify TB risk factors in Ethiopia's Oromia region. Descriptive and spatiotemporal analyses were conducted. Bayesian spatiotemporal modeling was employed to identify covariates that accounted for variability and spatiotemporal distribution of TB. A total of 206,278 new pulmonary TB cases were reported in the Oromia region between 2018 and 2022, with the lowest annual TB case notification (96.93 per 100,000 population) reported in 2020 (i.e., during the COVID-19 pandemic) and the highest TB case notification (106.19 per 100,000 population) reported in 2019. Substantial spatiotemporal variations in the distribution of notified TB case notifications were observed at zonal and district levels with most of the hotspot areas detected in the northern and southern parts of the region. The spatiotemporal distribution of notified TB incidence was positively associated with different ecological variables. The findings of this study indicated that preventive measures considering socio-demographic and health system factors can be targeted to high-risk areas for effective control of TB in the Oromia region. Further studies are needed to develop effective strategies for reducing the burden of TB in hotspot areas.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0374.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Business Model Innovation; Exponential Organizations; Case Study
Online: 27 May 2022 (09:06:31 CEST)
As a representative of Exponential Organizations, MI went from obscurity to the Fortune 500 in just ten years. Mi's success is inextricably linked to its outstanding business model. This paper summarizes the elements of MI's business model from four perspectives: value proposition, value creation, value delivery, and value capture, as well as its measures for developing into an exponential organization. Expecting to provide theoretical references for the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing organizations.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0536.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: case management; navigation; integrated care; coordinated care, case managers; social ecology maps; interprofessional practice; whānau ora, New Zealand, complexity
Online: 29 November 2022 (06:24:50 CET)
Community-based case managers in health have been compared to glue which holds the dynamic needs of clients to a disjointed range of health and social services. However, case manager roles are difficult to understand due to poorly defined roles, confusing terminology, and low visibility in New Zealand. This review aims to map the landscape of case management work to advance workforce planning by clarifying the jobs, roles, and relationships of case managers in Aotearoa New Zealand (NZ). Our scoping and mapping review includes peer-reviewed articles, grey literature sources, and interview data from 15 case managers. Data was charted iteratively until convergent patterns emerged and distinctive roles identified. A rich and diverse body of literature describing and evaluating case management work in NZ (n=148) is uncovered with at least 38 different job titles recorded. 18 distinctive roles are further analysed with sufficient data to explore the research question. Social ecology maps highlight diverse interprofessional and intersectoral relationships. Significant innovation and adaptations are evident in this field, particularly in the last five years. Case managers also known as health navigators, play a pivotal but often undervalued role in NZ health care, through their interprofessional and intersectoral relationships. Their work is often unrecognised which impedes workforce development and the promotion of person-centred and integrated health care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1804.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: tuberculosis; active-case finding; mobile chest X-ray
Online: 28 November 2023 (10:25:24 CET)
Active-case finding (ACF) using chest X-ray is an essential method of finding and diagnosing TB cases that may be missed in Indonesia's routine TB case finding. This study compares active and passive TB case-finding strategies. A retrospective study of TB case notification was conducted. Data between January 1 and December 31, 2021, was used. The population in this study were TB cases notified from Kulon Progo District health facilities, including those found through routine activities or active-case finding. A total of 255 TB cases were diagnosed in Kulon Progo in 2021, and 106 (41.6%) were bacteriologically confirmed. The TB patients' mean age was 46.3 (SD 21.4, range 0-85 years). The majority of cases were male (58.8%) and mostly among people aged 16-60 years old (63.5%). ACF diagnosed 91 TB cases (35.7% total cases, 91/255). The proportion of clinical TB cases (n=68, 74.7%) among those found through ACF was higher than found through passive-case finding. Use of chest X-ray in ACF likely contributed to the detection of a higher proportion of clinical TB than bacteriologically confirmed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0061.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: COVID-19; Vaccination; Adverse event; Case report; Iran
Online: 3 March 2023 (08:30:15 CET)
Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 has significantly contributed to the recent pandemic control. COVID-19 vaccines are available with different platforms and the primary clinical trials results presented acceptable safety profile of the approved vaccines. Nevertheless, the long-term assessment of the adverse events or rare conditions need to be investigated. The present systematic review, aimed at classification of Iranian case reports following COVID-19 immunization. To achieve this goal, the related published case reports were explored via PubMed, Web of Science and Google scholar according to PRISMA guideline and available up to 14th Dec, 2022. Out of 437 explored studies, the relevant data were fully investigated which totally led to 40 studies including 64 case reports with a new onset of a problem. The cases were then classified according to the various items such as the type of adverse event manifestations and COVID-19 vaccine. The reported COVID-19 vaccines in the studied cases included Sinopharm, AstraZeneca, and COVAXIN. The results showed that the adverse events presented in 8 different categories from which cutaneous problems accounted as the most prevalent manifestations (43.7%) in which rare diseases were also screened such as Steven-Johnson syndrome, Morphea and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Notably, almost 60% of the cases had no comorbidities. Moreover, the obtained data revealed nearly half of the incidences occurred after the first dose of injection and the mean duration of improvement after the symptom onset was 18.72±24.69 days. 73% of all the cases were either significantly improved or fully recovered. Although the advantages of COVID-19 vaccination is undoubtedly significant, the high risk individuals including those with a history of serious disease or comorbidities immunodeficiency conditions should be vaccinated with the utmost caution.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0127.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Case study; Collaborative ecosystem; Governance; Smart city; Sustainability
Online: 6 October 2020 (12:55:13 CEST)
Despite the increasing interest in ‘smart city’ initiatives worldwide, current literature still lacks the approaches and models that address challenges in organization and collaboration, which boost sustainability and ‘smartness’ in modern cities. This paper provides an overview of ‘smart city’ ecosystems as a mechanism to promote the expected outcomes of their sustainable development, and highlights the importance of conceptualizing cities from organizational and managerial perspectives. Representative exploratory models of ‘city organization’, which emphasize on the role of ‘governance’ and synergies, are presented to ‘decode’ complex city mechanisms and to determine key components that lead to ‘smart’ initiatives. Interesting case studies and applications are then analysed to examine the practical dimension of these approaches. As a review paper, this article lays out a general framework on the importance of ‘collaboration’, ‘governance’, ‘management’, and ‘ecosystem’. However, 'planning smartly’ and achieving ‘sustainability’ at the level of city ‘organization’ remain as challenges in this pioneering study of smart cities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0367.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Confirmed cases, case fatality rate, province, age, gender.
Online: 17 July 2020 (06:24:55 CEST)
The initial outbreak of COVID-19 was first reported in Wuhan (China) during the latter part of December 2019. Indonesia has the fourth-largest population globally and reported the country’s first case of the virus on 2nd March 2020. The World Health Organisation (WHO) in addition to several neighbouring provinces and educational institutions within the region began questioning the Indonesian government upon the initial case reported. The objective of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of the COVID-19 outbreak in Indonesia during March 2020. The data were collected from Indonesian government databases and non-government organisations (NGOs). The data were analysed using Microsoft Office 2019 (Excel) and Adobe Illustrator 2017 software, was used in drawing the map depicting the distribution of COVID-19 in Indonesia. As at 31st March 2020, a total of 1,528 people in Indonesia have been infected by COVID-19, in addition to 136 mortalities (CFR of 8.9%). Jakarta, as the principal capital of Indonesia, quickly has become the epicentre of the virus since this period. Most patient cases were attributed to those aged between 31 and 70 years (72.64%), with male patients (64.93%) representing the highest incidence of cases compared to female patients (35.07%). The number of ventilating machines was 3,326, with hospital numbers at 859. The distribution of cases depicting COVID-19 was mainly seen in urban areas compared to rural areas. Males compared to females, are at a higher risk of contracting COVID-19, including those aged below 30, between 30 and 60 or above. Indonesia also has the highest case fatality rate (CFR) with respect to mortalities in Southeast Asia and has the second-highest CFR globally. Similarly, while the number of ventilator machines as at 31st March 2020 were sufficient in meeting the growing number of COVID-19 cases in the country, it is possible that the government may need to increase the number of ventilators if the cases continue to escalate.
DATASET | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0226.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: candidate-gene association; estimation; bias; confounding; case study
Online: 18 June 2020 (07:50:33 CEST)
Estimation of the reality can easily be flawed, hence, in order to result in accurate and useful estimates the process has to be protected from bias and confounding and should follow other methodological milestones inherent to different types of empirical observations. Candidate-gene association studies are a specific form of observations that have been rather extensively applied in psychiatry yielding valuable information on various aspects – when methodologically adequate and used in appropriate settings. However, certain flaws that may occur in such studies might not be bluntly obvious, at least not at first glance, and may pass unnoticed by researchers and reviewers. This case study uses two recent published candidate-gene association reports suggesting involvement of cannabinoid receptor type 1 and of heat shock protein single nucleotide polymorphisms in development of neurocognitive performance and psychopathology in a cohort of adult first episode psychosis patients to point-out the types of flaws inevitably resulting in inaccurate and useless estimates.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0171.v2
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Algebra And Number Theory Keywords: COVID-19; coronavirus; case-based reasoning; ontology; natural language processing
Online: 15 June 2020 (11:16:23 CEST)
Coronavirus, also known as COVID-19, has been declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO). At the time of conducting this study, it had recorded over 1.6 million cases while more than 105,000 have died due to it, with these figures rising on a daily basis across the globe. The burden of this highly contagious respiratory disease is that it presents itself in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patterns in those already infected, thereby leading to an exponential rise in the number of contractions of the disease and fatalities. It is therefore crucial to expedite the process of early detection and diagnosis of the disease across the world. The case-based reasoning (CBR) model is an effective paradigm that allows for the utilization of cases’ specific knowledge previously experienced, concrete problem situations or specific patient cases for solving new cases. This study therefore aims to leverage the very rich database of cases of COVID-19 to solve new cases. The approach adopted in this study employs the use of an improved CBR model for state-of-the-art reasoning task in classification of suspected cases of Covid19. The CBR model leverages on a novel feature selection and semantic-based mathematical model proposed in this study for case similarity computation. An initial population of the archive was achieved with 68 cases obtained from the Italian Society of Medical and Interventional Radiology (SIRM) repository. Results obtained revealed that the proposed approach in this study successfully classified suspected cases into their categories at an accuracy of 97.10%. The study found that the proposed model can support physicians to easily diagnose suspected cases of Covid19 base on their medical records without subjecting the specimen to laboratory test. As a result, there will be a global minimization of contagion rate occasioned by slow testing and as well reduce false positive rates of diagnosed cases as observed in some parts of the globe.
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: COVID-19; recovery rate; case load rate; India
Online: 4 May 2020 (02:17:29 CEST)
Background: World Health Organization (WHO) declared that COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020. There is sudden need of statistical modeling due to onset of COVID-19 pandemic across the world. But health planning and policy requirements the estimates of disease problem form clinical data. Objective: To predict recovery rate, cases load rate on the basis of cumulative confirmed Novel Corona virus (NCV) cases, recovered cases and deaths form COVID-19 in India. Methods: The reported COVID-19 cases in the country were obtained from website (https://datahub.io/core/covid-19#resource-covid-19_zip/). The cumulative NCV confirmed cases; recovery cases and deaths were used for estimating recovery rate, cases load rate and death rate till date 24 April 2020. Results: A total of 24530 NCV confirmed cases were reported nationwide in India on 24 April 2020. It is found that the recovery rate increased 22% and case load rate decreased 74%. Death rate is found to be very low 3%. The difference of cases load rate and recovery rate (delta) coincide at 50 % then NCV cases expected would be declined. Conclusion: The epidemic in the country was mainly caused by the importation of India. Lockdown as restricting the migration of population and decided to quarantine of population may greatly reduce the risk of continued spread of the epidemic in India. This study predicts that by 20 May 2020, the cases load rate lesser than recovery rate there after COVID-19 patients would be started to reducing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0547.v2
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Atmospheric Science And Meteorology Keywords: Tornadoes; CAPE; Overview; Case Study; Klerksdorp; South Africa
Online: 26 November 2018 (10:02:42 CET)
This paper contributes to the understating of tornadoes in South Africa using case study analysis. In South Africa tornadoes are the recurring phenomenon (the climatology) but so far they have received less attention. Damages from storms itself (tornadoes inclusive) are significant in South Africa relative to other weather-related disasters for example floods, heat waves, and droughts. For their understanding, a case study approach was adopted in the current study. Data were in courtesy of the following, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), National Centers for Environmental Predictions (NCEP), Eumetsat Germany, and South African Weather Service (SAWS). The aim of the study was to provide an overview of the occurrence of tornadoes in South Africa using a Klerksdorp tornado, which occurred on March 4, 2007, Northwest Province in South Africa. From the case study analysis, the tornado was associated with the cold front and cut-off low (both are extratropical circulation) which were the dominant weather systems of the day. Therefore we conclude that, a case study approach may be the best way to study events of these nature for a more informed decision, for example, issuing an early warning system. In future, case studies, for example, involving interaction between extratropical and tropical circulation will also be an interesting study.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Iodine; processed foods; universal salt iodization; case studies
Online: 19 July 2017 (23:41:44 CEST)
The current performance indicator for universal salt iodization (USI) is the percent of households using adequately iodized salt. However, the proportion of dietary salt from household salt is decreasing with the increase in consumption of processed foods and condiments globally. This paper reports on case studies supported by the GAIN-UNICEF USI Partnership Project to investigate processed food industry use of adequately iodized salt in contrasting national contexts. Studies were conducted in Egypt, Indonesia, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, and Ukraine. In all cases, the potential iodine intake from iodized salt in selected food products was modelled according to the formula: Quantity of salt per unit of food product x minimum regulated iodine level of salt at production x average daily per capita consumption of the product. The percent of adult recommended nutrient intake for iodine potentially provided by the average daily intake of bread and frequently consumed foods and condiments was from 10% to 80% at the individual product level. The potential contribution to iodine intake from the use of iodized salt in the processed food industry is of growing significance. National USI strategies should encourage co-operative industry engagement and include regulatory monitoring of iodized salt use in the food industry in order to achieve optimal population iodine status.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: visceral leishmaniasis; risk factors; sandfly; Kenya; case-control study
Online: 1 November 2023 (05:23:53 CET)
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. VL is endemic in West Pokot County, Kenya, where effective strategies to interrupt transmission are impeded by the limited understanding of VL risk factors. Therefore, this case-control study aimed to explore environmental, behavioral and household determinants of VL in West Pokot. From November 2022 to January 2023, a structured questionnaire was administered to 36 symptomatic primary VL cases attending the Kacheliba Sub-County Hospital and to 50 controls from local villages. The VL status of all participants was confirmed using an rK39 rapid diagnostic test. In an age-corrected univariate logistic regression analysis, significant associations were found between VL and housing characteristics, such as window presence and floor type. Furthermore, outdoor activities, including traveling outside the residence for more than 2 weeks, activities near termite mounds, and forest activities during the rainy season increased the risk of VL. VL cases more frequently reported the presence of cattle, dogs and sheep in their house yards at night. VL was also associated with cutting down trees in the house yard and house proximity to several Acacia tree species. To conclude, this work reports a number of previously undescribed risk factors for VL in the understudied West Pokot focus. Our findings warrant further research into sandfly ecology and potential zoonotic parasite reservoirs in West Pokot.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1218.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: quay wall; piles; port; finite element analysis; case study
Online: 19 September 2023 (15:33:05 CEST)
In recent years, with the increase in maritime trade, the necessity of increasing the capacities of the ports has emerged. However, while it is planned to increase the capacities of the ports, it is important that the port continues to operate at the same time. In this respect, the old port structures should not be damaged during the capacity increase. In this study, the strengthening of a port in Guinea is discussed as a case study. In the study, the existing quay wall was evaluated, and geotechnical and structural alternatives of the new structure to be built for capacity increase were evaluated. A combined system was designed as a pile foundation and a reinforced foundation with plastic piles so as not to damage the existing quay wall. The pile capacities obtained as a result of the analyses were verified by loading tests.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0275.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: day-case angioplasty; critical limb ischaemia; peripheral artery disease
Online: 5 June 2023 (08:37:51 CEST)
We evaluated the impact of COVID-19 restriction on the angioplasty service and outcome of critical limb ischaemia (CLI) patients undergoing lower limb angioplasty in a UK secondary care setting. Consecutive patients were analysed retrospectively. Pre-COVID-19 (08/2018-02/2020), 106 CLI-patients (91% Fontaine 4; 60% diabetes mellitus) and during COVID-19 (03/2020-07/2021) 94 patients were treated (86% Fontaine 4; 66% diabetes mellitus). While the average monthly number of patients treated did not change, the proportion of day cases significantly increased (53% to 80%) and hospitalised patients decreased. Patients treated in <=14/5 days after referral significantly increased to 64/63%. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis (30-day/1-year) showed that neither wound healing nor mortality were significantly changed during COVID-19. In day cases, 1-year but not 30-day major amputations significantly increased, and clinically driven target lesion revascularisation decreased during COVID-19. 1-year mortality was significantly worse in hospitalised as compared to day cases (14% vs 43%) at similar wound healing rates (83% vs 84%). The most frequent known-causes-of-death were infectious disease (64%) and cardiovascular (21%) was less frequent. Despite COVID-19 restriction a safe and effective angioplasty service was maintained while shortening waiting times. Very high mortality rates in hospitalised patients may indicate that CLI should be treated more aggressively and earlier.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202202.0248.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: lactobacilli infections; update; case reports; virulence traits; safety implications
Online: 21 February 2022 (08:54:37 CET)
probiotics. However, these bacteria caused rare infections mostly in diabetic and immunocompromised subjects in presence of risk factors such as prosthetic hearth valves and dental procedures or caries. The scope of this survey was re-assessing the pathogenic potential of lactobacilli based on the infection case reports published in the last three years. In 2019, 2020 and 2021 17, 15 and 16 cases, respective-ly,.including endocarditis, bacteremia and other infections, were reported. These annual numbers are higher than observed previously. Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus (13 cases), comprising strain GG (ATCC 53103) with established applications in healthcare, L. paracasei (7 cases), Lactobacillus acidophilus (5 cas-es), L. jensenii (5 cases), Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (3 cases), L. paraplantarum, L. delbrueckii subsp. del-brueckii, L. gasseri, L. paragasseri, Limosilactobacillus fermentum and L. reuteri (1 case each) were involved. Virulence characterization of two strains that caused infections, a derivative of L. rhamnosus GG and L.paracasei LP10266, indicated that increased biofilm forming capacity favors pathogenicity and it is determined by variable genetic traits. This survey highlighted that strains of lactobacilli able to cause infections were little characterized genet-ically. Instead, to avoid that these bacteria become a hazard, genetic stability should be periodically re-evaluated by whole genome sequencing (WGS) to ensure that only non-pathogenic variants are ad-ministered to vulnerable individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0615.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Economics Keywords: Industry 4.0; Enabling technologies; Eyewear Sector; Case Study; Innovation
Online: 24 November 2020 (13:22:26 CET)
This paper aims to provide the reader with an organic view of the eyewear sector considering both market and quality aspects and evaluating the role of Industry 4.0 in process and product innovation for managing consumer health, analyzing a case study of a leading multinational company in the eyewear and ophthalmic lenses sector. The research has been developed with a qualitative approach. The study is a conceptual development and it uses an exploratory interview to create a single case study. The case study was developed with the realization by the researcher of a semi-structured interview. The selected interlocutor was the Innovation Manager of Alpha Optics. it has been decided to focus the attention on this figure, as it was responsible for the realization and introduction into the company of Industry 4.0 enabling technologies for developing health innovations. From this case study it was possible to observe how the connection with the trends that influence the demand for eyeglasses is a driving factor for product innovation. Products increasingly adapted to the needs of young people and the use of digital devices seem to be the ones on which the greatest number of innovations are concentrated.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0248.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Case report; Covid-19; Critically ill; Pregnant; Invasive care
Online: 12 October 2020 (15:11:13 CEST)
In this retrospective report we present five cases of critically ill pregnant or newly delivered women positive for Covid-19 admitted to our obstetrical departments at Karolinska University Hospital. They compose 6% of eighty-three pregnant women that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the period March 25 to May 4, 2020. Three patients were at the time of admission in gestational week between 21+4 to 22+5 and treated during their antenatal period, meanwhile the other two were admitted within 1 week postpartum. All of them were in a need of intensive care, one was treated with high flow oxygen therapy, the other four with invasive mechanical ventilation (three with endotracheal intubation and one with extra corporeal membrane oxygenation). Age above thirty, overweight and gestational diabetes are notable factors in the cases presented. At the time of admission, they all presented with symptoms as fever, cough and dyspnea. Chest imaging with computer tomography scan was performed in each case and demonstrated multifocal pneumonic infiltrates in all of them but no pulmonary embolism was confirmed in any. Neither did the echocardiogram indicates any cardiomyopathy. Four of the patients have been discharged from the hospital, with an average of 20 hospital days. One antenatal pregnant woman needed prolonged ECMO therapy, in gestational week 27+3 she went into cardiac arrest, resulting in an urgent c-section on maternal indication. At the time of writing she is still hospitalized. In coherence with other published reports our cases indicate that critically ill pregnant women infected by SARS-Cov-2 may develop severe respiratory distress syndrome requiring prolonged intensive care. The material is limited for conclusions to be taken, more detailed information on symptoms, treatment, and outcomes for pregnant and postpartum women managed in intensive care is therefore needed.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202006.0012.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: psoriasis; osteoporosis; cohort studies; Case-Control Studies; risk factors
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:50:13 CEST)
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between psoriasis and osteoporosis using two different studies. Methods: Data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service-Health Screening Cohort of participants who were ≥ 40 years old were collected from 2002 to 2013. Psoriasis and osteoporosis were included using ICD-10 codes. In study I (a follow-up study), a total of 25,306 psoriasis participants were matched to 101,224 controls with respect to age group, sex, income group, and region of residence, and the occurrence of osteoporosis was analyzed. Crude (simple) and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) were analyzed using a stratified Cox proportional hazard model. In study II (a nested case–control study), a total of 79,212 osteoporosis patients were matched to 79,212 controls, and a previous history of psoriasis was analyzed. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were analyzed using a conditional logistic regression analysis. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to age group and sex. Results: The adjusted HR of osteoporosis was 1.11 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.07-1.15, P < 0.001) in study I. In the subgroup analysis according to age and sex, the results were consistent except for the ≥ 60-year-old women. The adjusted OR of psoriasis was 1.22 (95% CI = 1.16-1.28, P < 0.001) in study II. All subgroups demonstrated high adjusted ORs of osteoporosis for psoriasis. Conclusions: Psoriasis increased the risk of osteoporosis in the population of participants aged ≥ 40 years in Korea.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0269.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Tropical Medicine Keywords: case fatality; Lassa virus; pattern; positivity rate; outcome; ribavirin
Online: 16 May 2020 (16:41:27 CEST)
The prevalence and case fatality rates of Pediatric Lassa fever disease (LFD) are not well documented. This study was aimed at determining the prevalence, pattern and outcome of Pediatric LFD. It was a prospective observational study. A total of 183 subjects that met the criteria for LFD suspects were recruited consecutively and subjected to Lassa virus PCR test. Structured questionnaire was used to collect information. Of the 183 children recruited, 24 tested positive to Lassa virus PCR, giving a positivity rate of 13.1%. Mean duration of illness at presentation was 8.54 ± 3.83 days. Fever, abdominal pain and vomiting were the three highest presenting complaints. Seven out of 24 children died giving a case fatality rate (CFR) of 29.2%. Subjects with bleeding, poor urine output, convulsions and unconsciousness were more likely to die of LFD. Positivity and CFR of LFD are high. Improved case finding and prompt treatment is advocated.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0128.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Ophthalmology Keywords: air pollution; conjunctivitis; exposure; linear; model; case-crossover; poisson
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:58:14 CEST)
The purpose of this study is to assess the concentration-response relations between conjunctivitis and exposure to ambient ozone. This retrospective study includes emergency department (ED) visits for conjunctivitis in Edmonton, Canada, for the period April 1992–March 2002. Daily average levels of ozone (range: 1.2–50.9, ppb), of temperature, and of relative humidity were estimated and used for the period of the study. For each of the considered exposure lags, (from 0 to 9 days), six different models were fitted to estimate the concentration-response function. The goodness of fit was assessed using the Akaike information criterion. During the period of the study, 17,211 ED visits for conjunctivitis were recorded and used. For all subjects together, a positive statistically significant association was obtained for the exposure lagged by 5 days. For female subjects, lags 1, 3, and 9 had positive statistically significant associations (lag 2 had negative associations). For male subjects, only lag 5 had a positive statistically significant association. The estimated non-linear concentration-response functions for the considered groups (all, males, females) and lags, revealed the associations along the exposure levels. The fitted shapes are described by algebraic functions and may have various forms. The estimated functions are useful to determine the risk associated with exposure to ground-level ozone.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201901.0300.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: infant; newborn; Cambodia; child mortality; perinatal mortality; case reports
Online: 30 January 2019 (05:15:16 CET)
Introduction: Neonatal mortality has declined in Cambodia but remains a key contributor to under-five deaths. The aim of this study was to further understanding of potential factors contributing to high neonatal mortality rates in Cambodia through assessment of verbal autopsies collected following newborn deaths. The study team analyzed verbal autopsies of perinatal deaths in order to describe timing and causes of neonatal deaths, demographic data, and factors potentially related to mortality. Methods: The case series data derive from 13 verbal autopsy reports collected in rural southern Cambodia. The mortality review was nested within a trial of a behavioral intervention to improve newborn survival, and was conducted after the close of the trial. The study examined all neonatal deaths occurring to infants born at 16 health centers between in the study site of Takeo province. The World Health Organization standardized definition of neonatal mortality was employed, and two pediatricians independently reviewed data collected from each event to assign a cause of death. Results: Thirteen newborn deaths of infants born at a health facility were reported during the time period February 2015–November 2016. Ten out of the 13 deaths (76.92%) were early neonatal deaths, two (15.38%) were late neonatal deaths, and one was a stillbirth. Five out of 13 deaths (38.46%) occurred within the first day of life, indicating death was likely due to an intrapartum event. The largest single contributor to mortality was neonatal sepsis; six of 13 deaths (46.15%) were attributed to some form of sepsis. Twenty-three percent of the deaths were attributed to asphyxia. Other causes of death included stillbirth and prematurity. Eight deaths (61.54%) occurred within the control group of the larger intervention study. Conclusion: The study highlights the continuing need to improve both intrapartum and postnatal quality of care and infection prevention and control, and to fully address causes of sepsis, in order to effectively reduce mortality in the newborn period.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0146.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: Circular Economy; sustainability; family business; model; case study; Mercadona
Online: 22 February 2018 (10:33:56 CET)
Sustainability addresses environmental and social issues affecting this and future generations. When family businesses perceive that the community is disrupted, recognize an environmental problem and respond by implementing new environmental policies or regulations, the family business’s socio-emotional values press to transition to a more sustainable production system, such as the ‘Circular Economy.’ Drawing on the Dubin (1978) methodology—a paradigm for building models through deduction—we design a sustainable model, which shows family businesses’ responses to changes in the environment. It explains the reasons why family firms transition to the Circular Economy, based on the theory of Socio-Emotional Wealth (SEW). We check the model through the case study of the food retail leader in the Spanish market—Mercadona—which applies policies about energy, resources and waste to become a Circular Economy business model. Because of the strong family character of Mercadona, this case can be useful for the decision-making of other family businesses.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0149.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: pancreatic cancer; alcohol intake; folate intake; case-control study
Online: 20 March 2017 (08:29:00 CET)
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most fatal common cancers affecting both men and women, representing about 3 percent of all new cancer cases in the United States. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of pancreatic cancer risk with alcohol consumption as well as folate intake. We performed a case-control study of 384 patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer from May 2004 to December 2009 and 983 primary care healthy controls. Our findings showed no significant association between risk of pancreatic cancer and either overall alcohol consumption or type of alcohol consumed (drinks/day). Our study showed dietary folate intake was modestly but significantly inversely associated with pancreatic cancer (OR=0.99, P <.0001). The current study supports the hypothesis that pancreatic cancer risk is reduced with higher food-based folate intake.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0287.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Metals, Alloys And Metallurgy Keywords: case hardening; surface treatment; diffusion; cassava; steel microstructure; microhardness
Online: 5 December 2023 (17:04:45 CET)
As part of a comprehensive research on eco-friendly processing techniques, the influence of heat treatment environment on the case-hardening of AISI 1018 steel using pulverized cassava leaf was studied. The process was carried out at two different temperatures (850˚C and 950˚C) and under three environmental conditions: (Process 1) the control experiment, was carried out in air only, (Process 2) the medium comprised of pulverized cassava leaves, and (Process 3) the combination of pulverized cassava leaves plus barium carbonate (BaCO3) as an energizer (CBC mixture). Vickers microhardness testing and scanning electron microscopy were used to evaluate the effect of processing environment on case hardening of the steel. As expected, regardless of the processing temperature, Process 1 resulted in little or no hardening of the steel surface. However, notable case hardening occurred when steel specimens were subjected to either Process 2 or Process 3. Furthermore, the inclusion of barium carbonate in Process 3 significantly enhanced the case hardening effectiveness of the cassava leaf as it pertains to rate and maximum hardness achieved. Maximum enhancement was observed at 950oC. After 1 hour, the increase in hardness were 160% and 280%, for Process 2 and Process 3, respectively. Upon increasing the processing time to 5 hours, the increase in hardness due to Process 2 was raised to 254%, while that of Process 3 remained at approximately 280%. Diffusivity of AISI 1018 was calculated using the microhardness data. Diffusivity was highest in Process 2 samples with values of 1.568 x 10-9 m2/s at 850°C and 1.893 x 10-9 m2/s at 950 °C.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0927.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: mixed-method; modelling; peers; single-case design; self-efficacy; stroke
Online: 14 November 2023 (15:21:18 CET)
We used a mixed-method single-case experimental research design to examine the effect of modelling (peer versus non-peer) on exercise self-efficacy in stroke survivors who participated in a community-based exercise program. Quantitative data were obtained using a ABCA design: (A1) no model/baseline 1 (3 weeks); (B) peer model (6 weeks); (C) non-peer model (6 weeks); and (A2) no model/baseline 2 (3 weeks). Four participants completed self-efficacy questionnaires after each weekly session. Qualitative data were obtained using researcher diaries and two semi-structured interviews: after B and A2. Based on quantitative and qualitative results, participants reported higher exercise self-efficacy in the model conditions, with ratings appearing highest for the non-peer model. This finding could be due to a lack of full integration of the peer model and low feelings of similarity. Modelling in general could help people recovering from a stroke increase their exercise self-efficacy, but non-peer models may not be most advantageous.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0158.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Political Science Keywords: China; Covid-19; Health Silk Road; Case Study; Global Heath
Online: 3 May 2023 (13:08:37 CEST)
This study examines the Health Silk Road (HSR) as a critical component of China's Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) and its implications for global health and international relations. The HSR aims to enhance public health and foster international cooperation in the healthcare sector, with objectives including strengthening healthcare infrastructure, expanding China's global health leadership, and enhancing international health cooperation. Through an in-depth analysis of the China-Pakistan collaboration on healthcare under the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) as a case study, this research explores the motives, implications, and potential concerns associated with the HSR. This research posits that the HSR has a mix of positive and negative implications, making it challenging to categorize the initiative as simply good or bad. While the HSR contributes to improved healthcare services, infrastructure, and capacity-building in participating countries, it also raises concerns about debt sustainability, transparency, and China's geopolitical influence. This research contributes to a nuanced understanding of the HSR's multifaceted impacts and underscores the importance of open dialogue, cooperation, and the sharing of best practices among stakeholders in order to maximize the initiative's benefits and minimize potential negative consequences. By assessing the motives, implications, and concerns of the HSR, this study offers valuable insights for policymakers, global health practitioners, and scholars, highlighting the significance of international collaboration in addressing shared health challenges and promoting sustainable development.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0443.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Rabies; dogs; Tunisia; risk factors; odds ratio; case-control study
Online: 27 March 2023 (04:06:12 CEST)
Since 2012, the northeast of Tunisia has been experiencing an emergence of dog rabies. Published data revealed that the disease is widespread in the north of Tunisia. Even with studies on rabies, lacking knowledge on the associated risk factors was highlighted. Therefore, we conducted a case-control study on dog rabies in northeast Tunisia to identify potential risk factors for dog rabies occurrence. The cases group (n=77) included positive dog rabies confirmed at the referral laboratory using Fluorescent Antibody Test (FAT) in 2014 and 2018. The controls group (n=77) involved all negative cases received at the laboratory and 15-days quarantine dogs that received a certificate of absence of rabies after the observation period. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was conducted to explore the risk factors (age, sex, breed, confinement, vaccination status, presence of bites, owned or not and origin of dogs, sector, presence of rabies cases, and slaughterhouses, etc.…) related to the occurrence of rabies. The final logistic regression model revealed that unconfined dogs were almost twice as likely to be affected as confined dogs (OR=1.9; 95% CI: 1.17 to 3.27). The odds of rabies occurrence were 25 times higher in areas where rabies cases have been reported between 3 months and 1 year compared to the uninfected areas (25.7; 95% CI: 3.02-219.14). Similarly, the risk of rabies is significantly higher in dogs born in the home to the owner bitch (OR=2.41; 95% CI: 1.14-5.13). Living in areas with rabies cases in the last three months increases by 2.8 times the risk of getting rabies (2.8; 95% CI: 1.16-6.77). However, vaccination reduces by 1.6 times the risk of contracting rabies (0.6; 95% CI: 0.38-0.97). Our findings provide reliable data on dog rabies that will be very useful for decision-makers and could contribute to improving the ongoing national control program of rabies.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0185.v3
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Health Policy And Services Keywords: case fatality rate; co-infection; control; COVID-19; pandemic; policy; risk; vaccination
Online: 6 May 2022 (03:38:30 CEST)
There are two contrary opinions regarding the risk if mainland China (MC) moves away from its zero-COVID policy. Some experts think the risk shall be much lower than influenza as per MC’s own COVID-19 case fatality rate (CFR), while some other experts think the risk shall be much higher than influenza as per the COVID-19 CFRs of other regions. We elucidate here that this and multiple other striking differences in the CFR between various scenarios all support and substantially resulted from the view that good IDM is highly powerful to mitigate COVID-19, where IDM (isolation-disinfection-maintenance) means isolation of COVID-19 cases from other people, disinfection of their living environments, and health maintenance (e.g., rest, nutrition, breathing). The high effect of good IDM is also supported by the theoretic functions of IDM in minimizing co-infections and maintaining body functions, and the fact that all the 505 COVID-19 deaths reported in MC in 2022 before May 5 died directly of severe underlying diseases with COVID-19. Although it is tough for people in poverty to obtain good IDM, good IDM can be feasible at home for the most mild cases and in hospitals for the most severe cases. Therefore, good IDM can be crucial to mitigating COVID-19 worldwide. It also suggests that the risk for China to end its zero-COVID policy depends on China’s control policies or measures. Based on the effect of IDM, the cautious co-existence policy was proposed for COVID-19 control. This policy could reduce the whole death toll in MC because good IDM is non-specific and can reduce deaths of various other diseases. The cautious co-existence policy (non-specific) and the vaccination policy (specific) aid each other to mitigate COVID-19, and they cannot replace each other. Those who are qualified in health for vaccination should be vaccinated against COVID-19 timely.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0388.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Emergency Medicine Keywords: ambient air pollution; case-crossover; cluster; concentration; counts; strata; urban
Online: 25 January 2022 (17:16:48 CET)
This study examines the relation between ambient air pollution and emergency department (ED) visits due to certain infectious diseases in Toronto, Canada. The National Ambulatory Care Reporting System database was used to draw the corresponding health cases. Daily data on ED visits, ambient air pollution concentration levels, and weather conditions during the period from April 2004 to December 2015 (4,292 days in total) were linked together and used in statistical models. Six air pollutants (fine particulate matter PM2.5, CO, NO2, SO2, ozone O3 as a daily average, and ozone O3-8 hour ozone, as a maximum eight hour average) were investigated. In addition, the Air Quality Health Index (combining NO2, O3, and PM2.5) was also considered. The time-stratified case-crossover technique was applied in the study design. Conditional Poisson models were created using the daily counts of ED visit data. The considered factors, air pollutants and weather, were lagged by the same number of days, from 0 to 14. In the period of the study 339,644 ED visits were identified; 177,619 for females and 162,025 for males. For each air pollutant 270 models were realized (15 lags x 18 strata). Ambient air pollution concentrations lagged by 2, 3, and 5 days have the highest impact on ED visits, with 34, 32, and 35 positive associations, respectively. For all patients and an increase in a one interquartile range (IQR=1.2 ppb) of sulphur dioxide, the following values of the relative risks (RR) were estimated: RR=1.005 (95% confidence interval: 0.998, 1.013), 1.008 (1.001, 1.016), 1.009 (1.001, 1.016), 1.011 (1.004, 1.019), 1.007 (0.987, 1.028), and 1.009 (1.002, 1.016) for lags from 0 to 5, respectively. The results suggest that exposures for certain air pollutants (mainly CO, O3, and SO2) in urban environment affect the number of ED visits related to infectious diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0267.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: Gestalt therapy; dementia; depression; single-case experimental design; psychosocial interventions
Online: 19 January 2022 (09:32:12 CET)
Psychotherapy is one of the evidence-based clinical interventions for the treatment of depression in older adults with dementia. Randomized Controlled Trials are often the first methodological choice to gain evidence, yet they are not applicable to a wide range of humanistic psychotherapies. Amongst all, the efficacy of the Gestalt therapy (GT) is under-investigated. The purpose of this paper is to present a research protocol aiming to assess the effects of a GT-based intervention on people with dementia (PWD) and the indirect influence on their family carers. The study implements the Single-Case Experimental Design with Time-Series Analysis that will be carried out in Italy and Mexico. Ten people in each country, who received a diagnosis of dementia and present depressive symptoms, will be recruited. Eight or more GT sessions will be provided whose fidelity will be assessed by the GT Fidelity Scale. Quantitative outcome measures are foreseen for monitoring participants’ depression, anxiety, quality of life, carers’ burden, and the caregiving dyad mutuality, at baseline and follow-up. The advantages and limitations of the research design are considered. If GT will result effective in the treatment of depression in PWD, it could enrich the range of evidence-based interventions provided by healthcare services.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0546.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: chemical graph theory; computational chemistry; CASE; computer-assisted structure elucidation
Online: 29 November 2021 (15:35:43 CET)
The chemical graph theory is a subfield of mathematical chemistry which applies classic graph theory to chemical entities and phenomena. Chemical graphs are main data structures to represent chemical structures in cheminformatics. Computable properties of graphs lay the foundation for (quantitative) structure activity and structure property predictions - a core discipline of cheminformatics. It has a historic relevance for natural sciences, such as chemistry, biochemistry and biology, and is in the heart of modern disciplines, such as cheminformatics and bioinformatics. This review first covers the history of chemical graph theory, then provides an overview of its various techniques and applications for CASE, and finally summarises modern tools using chemical graph theory for CASE.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0027.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: science; policy making; systems models; communication; case studies; water management
Online: 1 March 2021 (14:07:43 CET)
Clearly policy makers should consider the impacts of any decisions they might make before making them. Science can provide estimates of various economic, ecologic, environmental, and even social impacts of alternative policies, impacts that determine how effective any particular policy will be. These impact estimates can be used to compare and evaluate alternative policies in the search for identifying the best one to implement. Among all scientists providing inputs to policy making processes are analysts who develop and apply models that provide these estimated impacts and, possibly, their probabilities of occurrence. But just producing them is not a guarantee that they will be considered by policy makers. This paper discusses ways scientists, including systems analysts, can effectively contribute to and inform those involved in making water management decisions. Brief descriptions of a variety of past and on-going water management policy making processes illustrate both some successes and failures of science informing policy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201903.0111.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Industry 4.0., Internet of Things, case study, cyber security framework
Online: 8 March 2019 (15:27:11 CET)
This research article reports the results of a qualitative case study that correlates academic literature with five Industry 4.0 cyber trends, seven cyber risk frameworks and two cyber risk models. While there is a strong interest in industry and academia to standardise existing cyber risk frameworks, models and methodologies, an attempt to combine these approaches has not been done until present. We apply the grounded theory approach to derive with integration criteria for the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. Then, we propose a new architecture for the integration of the reviewed frameworks, models and methodologies. We therefore advance the efforts of integrating standards and governance into Industry 4.0 and offer a better understanding of a holistic economic impact assessment model for IoT cyber risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201801.0262.v1
Subject: Engineering, Civil Engineering Keywords: Building Information Modeling; Case Based Reasoning; cost estimating; information management
Online: 28 January 2018 (16:43:50 CET)
Information regarding the cost of a construction project is available to the investor and project participants in order to determine the subsequent success of a project, given that the information they collect has an impact on the decisions they make. Cost calculations, especially in the initial phase of a project, often generate large errors. This paper presents the new approach based on a combination of the Case Based Reasoning method (CBR) with the originally selected criteria for the description of a construction project (as a result of Pearson correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient) and Building Information Modeling (BIM) technology. The CBR method fulfils expectations for a simple and fast system supporting the cost estimation process. It does not require any specialist knowledge, so it will be comprehensible to cost estimation practitioners. The BIM-based model gives the opportunity for the calculation of quantity take-offs and enables the use of the information contained in the BIM model in the cost estimation process. In order to prepare the model an appropriate relational database had to be developed. With extensive research, a database of 173 construction projects, including the construction of a sports field, was obtained. There were 14 variables defined originally by authors; however, only 10 (as a result of the correlation analysis) were used for the calculation. Data related to the project were collected in the BIM model. Results estimating the project’s unit price, using the CBR method, were presented and discussed. The Mean Absolute Estimate Error was used to evaluate the model.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201703.0142.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: Air pollution, PM2.5, emergency room, Asian dust storms, case-crossover
Online: 17 March 2017 (18:13:31 CET)
A case-crossover study examined how PM2.5 from Asian Dust Storms (ADS) affects the number of emergency room (ER) admissions for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and respiratory diseases (RDs). Our data indicated that PM2.5 concentration from ADS was highly correlated with ER visits for CVDs and RDs. The odds ratios (OR) increased by 2.92 (95% CI: 1.22-5.08) and 1.86 (95% CI: 1.30-2.91) per increase 10 µg/m3 in PM2.5 levels, for CVDs and RDs, respectively. A 10 µg/m3 increase in PM2.5 from ADSs was significantly associated with increase in ER visits for CVDs among those 65 years of age and older (an increase of 2.77 in OR) and for females (an increase of 3.09 in OR). In contrast, PM2.5 levels had a significant impact on RD ER visits among those under 65 years of age (OR=1.77). The risk of ER visits for CVDs increased on the day when the ADS occurred in Taiwan and the day after (lag 0 and lag 1); the corresponding risk increase for RDs only increased on the fifth day after the ADS (lag 5). In Taiwan’s late winter and spring, the severity of ER visits for CVDs and RDs increases. Environmental protection agencies should employ an early warning system for ADS to reduce high-risk groups’ exposure to PM2.5.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201607.0033.v1
Subject: Environmental And Earth Sciences, Environmental Science Keywords: industrial pollutant emissions; urbanization; the spatial panel model; Chinese case
Online: 14 July 2016 (12:12:25 CEST)
Urbanization is considered as a main indicator of regional economic development due to its positive effect on promoting industrial development; however, many regions, especially developing countries, are troubled by its negative effect — the aggravating environmental pollution. Many researchers have indicated that rapid urbanization stimulated the expansion of industrial production scale and increased industrial pollutant emissions. However, this judgement contains a grave deficiency in that urbanization not only expands industrial production scales but can also increase industrial labour productivity and change the industrial structure. To modify this deficiency, we first decompose the influence which urbanization impacts on industrial pollutant emissions into the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect by using the Kaya Identity and the LMDI Method; second, we perform an empirical study of the three effects’ impacts by applying the spatial panel model with data from 282 Chinese cities between 2003 and 2013. Our results indicate that (1) there are significant reverse U-shapes between Chinese urbanization rate and its industrial pollutant emissions; (2) the scale effect and the structure effect have aggravated Chinese industrial waste water discharge, sulphur dioxide emissions and soot (dust) emissions, while the intensive effect has generated a decreasing and ameliorative impact on that aggravated trend. The definite relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions depends on the combined influence of the scale effect, the intensive effect and the structure effect; (3) there are significant spatial autocorrelations of industrial pollutant emissions between Chinese cities, but the spatial spillover effect from other cities does not aggravate local urban industrial pollutant emissions, we offer an explanation to this contradiction that the vast rural areas surrounding Chinese cities have served as sponge belts and have absorbed the spatial spillover of cities’ industrial pollutant emissions. According to the results, we argue that this type of decomposition of the influence into three effects is necessary and meaningful, it establishes a solid foundation for understanding the relationship between urbanization and industrial pollutant emissions, and effectively helps to meet relative policy making.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0023.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: Neonatal diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis; KIT gene; case report; systemic mastocytosis; review
Online: 1 October 2023 (08:44:46 CEST)
Neonatal diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis (NDCM) is defined as the infiltration of the epidermis by a clonal proliferation of mast cells, observed at birth, without initial signs of systemic involvement. The typical driver mutation is located in the KIT gene. We report a rare case of a boy, born at term, presenting already at birth with generalized subcutaneous nodules, on the face, scalp, trunk, back, hands, and feet. The spleen, liver and inflammatory markers were normal at birth. Tryptase was significantly elevated. Bone marrow biopsy showed no mast cell involvement at age 2 months. A punch biopsy at age 2 months revealed CD117-positive cells diffusely infiltrating the skin, with subsequent DNA NGS sequencing for the formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue (FFPE) identifying the pathogenic NM_000222.3:c.1504_1509dup; p.(Ala502_Tyr503dup) variant in the KIT gene previously associated with cutaneous mastocytosis. At 2 years follow-up, he had splenomegaly and multiple cervical, and inguinal adenopathy while the skin nodules persisted especially on the scalp with accompanying pruritus. He received oral and local sodium cromoglycate, oral antihistamines, antibiotic cream for skin infection, and iron supplementation, however compliance to treatment was relatively low. The prognosis is difficult to predict, as he developed systemic involvement, failure to thrive and mild psychomotor delay. A case aggregation of NDCM reported in the literature was performed to provide a comprehensive overview of this rare pathology, to better understand the prognosis. NDCM is a life-threatening disease with severe complications. Almost half had severe complications, such as mast hepatosplenomegaly, adenopathy, bacterial infections, mast cell leukaemia, and systemic involvement.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1847.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Other Keywords: Data Science; Literate Programming; Teaching, Emacs; Org-mode; IDE; Case Study
Online: 27 July 2023 (10:31:08 CEST)
This paper presents a case study on using Emacs and Org-mode for literate programming in undergraduate data science courses. Over three academic terms, the author mandated these tools across courses in R, Python, C++, SQL, and more. Onboarding relied on simplified Emacs tutorials and starter configurations. Students gained proficiency after initial practice. Live coding sessions demonstrated the flexible instruction enabled by literate notebooks. Assignments and projects required documentation alongside functional code. Student feedback showed enthusiasm for learning a versatile IDE, despite some frustration with the learning curve. Skilled students highlighted efficiency gains in a unified environment. However, uneven adoption of documentation practices pointed to a need for better incorporation into grading. Additionally, some students found Emacs unintuitive, desiring more accessible options. This highlights a need to match tools to skills levels, potentially starting novices with graphical IDEs before introducing Emacs. Key takeaways include literate programming aids comprehension but requires rigorous onboarding and reinforcement; Emacs excels for advanced workflows but has a steep initial curve. With proper support, these tools show promise for data science education.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.2162.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Government Keywords: oil industry; corporate social responsibility; emerging market; social impact; case study
Online: 31 May 2023 (03:13:24 CEST)
This paper analyzes the relationship between corporate social responsibility (CSR) and social impact within the oil industry in an emerging market (Peru). Following the emerging literature on the social impact field, and using the case study methodology, the findings show that the expected positive relationship is diverse depending on several factors. Specifically, the results reveal that companies must focus on community and environmental responsibility, together with stakeholders' involvement to achieve social impact. However, when companies are weak in any of the previous factors, then the social impact is only partially accepted or even withdrawn.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0084.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Urban Studies And Planning Keywords: Dark Store; Micro-Fulfillment Center; Case Study; Online Shopping, COVID-19
Online: 2 May 2023 (10:58:28 CEST)
This study examines the negative impacts of dark stores on the urban environment from three perspectives: land use, transportation, and streetscape. It is conducted on B-Mart, a representative dark store in South Korea. First, in terms of land use, we find that dark stores that function as logistics facilities conflict with the surrounding land use. Second, by analyzing the location of dark stores and the hourly traffic volume of delivery vehicles, we find that the impact on the surrounding transportation infrastructure and pedestrian traffic is not as significant as previously claimed. However, during the transportation and loading process of the dark store, several problems such as traffic violations, illegal parking, and illegal loading were observed, posing a risk to nearby vehicles and pedestrians. Third, in terms of streetscapes, the location of dark stores on the ground floor of buildings can harm streetscapes. The current urban planning system in South Korea does not clearly define the status and function of dark stores, making it unclear how to manage them. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify their legal definition and introduce urban planning and design guidelines that are consistent with their appropriate location and appearance.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0329.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Apple Watch; wearable sensor; pulse rate; arrhythmia; atrial fibrillation; case report
Online: 24 May 2022 (09:49:08 CEST)
Consumer rhythm-monitoring devices, such as the Apple Watch, are becoming more readily available. Irregular pulses can be detected using an optical sensor built into the wearable device. The Apple Watch (Apple Inc., Cupertino, CA, USA) is a class II medical device with pulse rate and electrocardiography (ECG) monitoring capabilities. Here we report a case in which an arrhythmia that was conventionally perceived but undiagnosed was identified as atrial fibrillation by self-acquisition of ECG data using an Apple Watch.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: asymmetric； blasts；acute leukemia； allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation； case report
Online: 7 May 2020 (10:53:42 CEST)
Background: After allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), acute leukemia relapse is common, and asymmetric bone marrow recurrence hasn’t been reported. Because the anatomical distribution of acute leukemia clones in the bone marrow after allo-HSCT is presumed to be diffuse, bone marrow aspirations are performed in single site. Case presentation: We identified two acute leukemia patients, whose leukemic burden in bilateral bone marrow specimens differed significantly. The first case was a 20-year-old man who was diagnosed with acute myelomonocytic leukemia and received haploidentical allo-HSCT. He had been in complete remission for two years and off immunosuppressive medications for a year, with normal peripheral blood count. Routine bone marrow biopsy of his left posterior iliac bone marrow showed 52% leukemia blasts, while the right side had 0% blasts ten days later. Due to the discordant results, the patient refused further intervention and died of high leukocyte syndrome four months later. The second case was a 23-year-old woman who was diagnosed with acute B lymphoblastic leukemia and received HLA-identical sibling allo-HSCT. Although 62% of blasts were found in her left iliac marrow on day +122, 0 % of blasts were found on a sample obtained from the right iliac crest on day +128. Whole-body 18F-FDG PET/CT scans confirmed that the leukemic infiltration in her bone marrow was asymmetric. Considering the higher leukemic burden on the left, we chose the left posterior iliac crest aspiration for further response evaluation. After chemotherapy combined with donor lymphocyte infusion, she achieved transient hematologic complete remission. She died of septic shock with heart failure at +258 days after allo-HSCT before infusion of anti-CD19 donor chimeric antigen receptor T cells. Conclusions: To our knowledge, these are the first case reports of asymmetric bone marrow infiltration of blasts in acute leukemia patients after allo-HSCT. Bilateral posterior iliac crest aspirations or 18F-FDG-PET/CT scans may help distinguish such distribution. If discordant bone marrow specimens are observed, physicians should restrict future bone marrow studies to the more involved side.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0121.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles; smart farming; precision agriculture; technological frames; case study
Online: 12 January 2020 (14:48:29 CET)
Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are one of the most promising innovative technologies invented in recent years to promote precision agriculture and smart farming. UAVs can not only reduce labor requirements but also increase production output, reduce the use of pesticides, and protect the environment. However, previous studies on agricultural UAVs have mostly focused on technical problems such as software and hardware design. Few studies have examined users’ behaviors in the implementation process. On the basis of Orlikowski and Gash’s technological frames, this study explored the participants’ cognition and expectation of farmers, pesticide, sprayers, and agriculture officials, who are three key groups of stakeholders involved in the application of UAVs to pesticide spraying, regarding agricultural UAVs and examined how the conflicts between their cognition and expectation influenced the choice of using pesticide spraying UAVs. The conclusions of this study contributed to supplement the content and broaden the scope of application of technological frame theory and provided a crucial reference for the promotion of agricultural UAVs in practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0094.v1
Subject: Arts And Humanities, Architecture Keywords: maker spaces; circular cities; urban manufacturing; circular economy; case study; Leuven; Maakleerplek
Online: 1 December 2023 (16:33:15 CET)
The coordination of policy, makers and materials is critical to the success of circular city development. The network of maker activities in the city of Leuven is a flagship initiative that illustrates the mechanisms that support integrated circular urban production. This paper draws on the Pop-Machina project, funded by EC Horizon 2020, which identifies the links between the maker movement and the circular economy in seven European cities. The case study project in Leuven, confirmed as the most impactful amongst those studied in the Pop-Machina project, is examined to assess how local knowledge and policy measures, can provide a means of activating a circular maker ecology. Through desk research, spatial urban analysis and interviews with key stakeholders, this paper provides a critical narrative of the development, success factors and hurdles related to circular making processes in the city. It demonstrates how hybrid makers are supported by local, national, and international policy on the one hand, and by integration with the city’s community, educational and business groups on the other. It is this constellation of social, political, and spatial conditions that lies at the success of the project.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1995.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: digital transformation; Higher Education Institutions; students; alumni; Providers; employer companies; case method
Online: 18 September 2023 (02:33:33 CEST)
Purpose: The rapid development of technological innovations is causing major transformations in organisations. These changes are facilitating the transition of organisations from traditional to digital cultures and are influencing the positioning and even the survival of many of them. Higher Education Institutions are no exception. This article aims to understand the main factors that facilitate and drive this transformation from the point of view of their external stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach - Due to the complexity of the study, the case study method has been used as an appropriate methodology. Findings - As the results of the study show, the use of new agile methodologies, the development of continuous improvement processes, the automation of tasks with the use of new technologies, data-driven decision making, and the management of new digital talent are enablers. Research limitations/implications - Further research could conduct similar analyses with other stakeholders, to achieve a complete management model. Practical implications - The case study allows researchers to learn from practitioners and business leaders, while providing a theoretical model that can help other managers in the process of transforming their organisations. Originality/value - The main contribution of this study has been to apply the study to a specific Higher Education Institution.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0180.v1
Subject: Engineering, Energy And Fuel Technology Keywords: Renewable energy; Photovoltaic arrays; Wind turbines; Particle swarm optimization; real-case problems
Online: 5 July 2023 (04:19:53 CEST)
In recent years, unquestionable warnings like the negative impacts of CO2 emissions, the necessity of utilizing sustainable energy sources, and the rising demand for municipal electrification have been issued. In this study, by incorporating two significant assumptions, such as electricity production in close proximity to the business location and only renewable energy resource usage, a modest off-grid hybrid energy system is designed. To construct the system, a number of elements such as wind generators (WG), photovoltaic arrays (PV), battery banks, and bi-directional converters are taken into account. Moreover, a real case in Malmö, Sweden, is considered. To optimize the system, a bi-objective problem is developed, and it is solved by proposing a particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach to provide the load requirements (with a maximum allowance of 0.1% unmet) for a nearby supermarket (approximately 1000 m2). Moreover, to verify the obtained results, the developed system is simulated using HOMER Pro software, and the results are compared and discussed. The contribution of this study is to provide off-grid or local clients around the world with a dependable and affordable option by minimizing both the baseline cost of energy and the net current expenditure in the desired system. The best-obtained results by the proposed PSO offered 160 PVs, 5 WGs, and 350 batteries, respectively, while the best solution found by the simulation method was using 384 PVs, 5 WGs, and 189 batteries for the considered off-grid system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0185.v4
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; Phases of the pandemic; Mortality rate; Case fatality ratio; Infection fatality ratio
Online: 25 January 2022 (10:03:09 CET)
Background: Since the previous study dealing with the case fatality ratio and infection fatality ratio caused by COVID-19, the author has received many comments that prompted the question: "Why did an optimistic prognosis fail?" To answer this question, a more detailed and expanded analysis was carried out in a new study. Objective: To evaluate the dynamics of monthly numbers of cases, deaths, tests and CFR worldwide during three phases of the COVID-19 pandemic. Material and Methods: Twenty three sets of databases, dated the 22nd of each month from January 2020 to November 2021, for 213 countries were collected from the Worldometer website. The number of cases, deaths, tests, CFR, IFR, etc. were counted for various periods of time for each of the 213 countries, then results related to different periods of time were compared. Results: The analysis of the main epidemiological parameters led to the division of three phases of the global pandemic evolution. The first phase (23.01.20-22.07.20), the second phase (23.07.20-22.01.21) and the third phase (23.01.21-22.07.21) were different in terms of the number of tests performed, new cases, and mortality due to COVID-19. By the end of the second phase, the worldwide statistics indicated the imminent end of the pandemic, but the third phase was characterized by a sudden rise in the number of new cases and deaths that could not be explained rationally. The most dramatic evolution of the epidemic curve occurred in the countries where doctors had successfully battled COVID-19 during the first two phases of the pandemic. Conclusions: Despite the decrease in overall death numbers during the latest months analyzed, additional study is necessary to identify the cause for the increase in the number of new cases and deaths during the third phase of the pandemic. Only complete information regarding the positive and negative impact of medical and non-medical methods of diagnostics and prophylaxis of COVID-19 can help to organize effective measures to end the current pandemic and prevent a similar one from occurring in the future. Presumably, there are several causes of the negative evolution of the current pandemic, including the overreliance on PCR tests, application of non-specialized premises for quarantine and treatment, decrease in herd and individual immunity, inadequate change of therapeutic protocols, and ignoring prophylactic treatment. It can be suggested that the use of immunemodulatory drugs, for example, thymus extract or thymic peptides, in groups of people with compromised immunity is necessary, and prophylactic and therapeutic protocols should be changed from the 'standard' types to 'personalized' ones.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0148.v2
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Accounting And Taxation Keywords: Sustainable Teaching; multidisciplinary; multicultural; teams; Case-based Learning; Problem-based Learning; teamwork
Online: 26 April 2021 (15:38:20 CEST)
This article investigates the prospect of implementing multidisciplinary and multicultural student teamwork (MMT) involving Case-based Learning (CBL) and Problem-based Learning (PBL) as a sustainable teaching practice. Based on a mixed methods approach, which includes direct observation (both physical and virtual), questionnaire distribution and focus-group interviews the study reveals that MMT through CBL and PBL can both facilitate and hinder sustainable learning. Our findings show that while MMT enhances knowledge sharing, it also poses a wide range of challenges, raising questions about its social significance as a sustainable teaching practice. The study suggests the implementation of certain mechanisms, such as ‘Teamwork Training’ and ‘Pedagogical Mentors’, aiming to strengthen the sustainable orientation of MMT through CBL and PBL.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202101.0316.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Valproic acid; Drug-induced liver injury; Adverse drug reaction; Case-control study
Online: 18 January 2021 (11:11:04 CET)
Introduction: Valproic acid (VPA) is an antiepileptic drug extensively used for treating partial and generalised seizures, acute mania and as prophylaxis for bipolar disorder. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) persists as a significant issue related to fatal outcomes by VPA. The aim of this study was to increase our knowledge about this condition and to better identify patients affected. Methods: We conducted an observational retrospective case-control study that identified cases of DILI by VPA from the Pharmacovigilance Programme from our Laboratory Signals at La Paz University Hospital from January 2007 to December 2019. From the Therapeutic VPA Monitoring Programme, two control groups were assigned, VPA-tolerant patients and the other with patients who developed mild VPA-related hepatitis but who did not meet the DILI criteria, matched for date, age and sex. Results: A total of 60 patients were included in the study: 15 cases of DILI, 30 VPA-tolerant controls and 15 controls with mild hepatitis. Mean age for the cases was 45.7 years, 4(26.7%) were women and 5(33.34%) were children under 18 years, of them 3(20%) were fatal. Polytherapy with other antiepileptic drugs (p=0.047) and alcohol consumption (p<0.001) were associated with a greater risk of developing DILI by VPA. A diagnosis of epileptic seizure was more frequently related to DILI when compared with the VPA-tolerant controls (p<0.001). The cases developed hepatocellular hepatitis (p<0.001), while the mild hepatitis controls had a higher rate of cholestatic hepatitis (p<0.001). The laboratory lactate dehydrogenase values were statistically higher (even at baseline) in patients with DILI than in both control groups (p= 0.033 and p=0.039). Conclusions: VPA hepatotoxicity remains a considerable problem. This study offers interesting findings for characterising VPA-induced liver injury and at-risk patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0285.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2; emergency department; early diagnosis; case-control studies
Online: 17 May 2020 (08:27:12 CEST)
(1) Background: It is unclear whether the reported presenting clinical features of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are useful in identifying high-risk patients for early testing and isolation in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to compare the exposure history, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic features of ED patients who tested positive and negative for COVID-19; (2) Methods: We conducted a case-control study in seven EDs during the first five weeks of the COVID-19 outbreak in Hong Kong. Thirty-seven laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 patients were compared with 111 age- and gender-matched controls; (3) Results: There were no significant differences in patient characteristics and reported symptoms between the groups, except patient-reported fever. A positive travel history or contact history was the most significant predictor for COVID-19 infection. After adjustment for age and presumed location of acquiring the infection in Wuhan/Hubei, patient-reported fever (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1 to 6.3), delayed presentation (OR 5.0, 95% CI 2.0 to 12.5), having medical consultation before ED presentation (OR 7.4, 95% 2.9 to19.1), thrombocytopenia (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.7), raised lactate dehydrogenase (OR 5.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 18.5), haziness, consolidation or ground-glass opacity on chest radiography (OR 5.6, 95% CI 2.0 to 16.0), and bilateral changes on chest radiography (OR 13.2, 95% CI 4.7 to 37.4) were associated with a higher odds of COVID-19 separately while neutrophilia was associated with a lower odds (OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.8); and (4) Conclusions: This study highlights several features that may be useful in identifying high-risk patients for early testing and isolation while waiting for test result. Further studies are warranted to verify the findings.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; SARS-CoV2; extreme epidemiology response; population at risk; case fatality
Online: 12 April 2020 (14:08:15 CEST)
Objectives: COVID-19, a respiratory disease caused by SARS-COV2 and transmitted from person-to-person through viral droplets remains a global pandemic. There is a need to understand the transmission modes, populations at risk, and how to mitigate the spread and case fatality in the United States (US) and globally. The current study aimed to assess the global COVID-19 transmission and case fatality, examine similar parameters by countries and determine evidence-based practice in extreme epidemiology response in epidemic curve flattening and case fatality reduction. Methods: A cross-sectional ecologic design was used to assess the preexisting data on confirmed COVID-19 cases and mortality in March 2020 from the CDC, WHO, Worldodomter, and STATISTA. A rapid assessment between March 23rd and 31st, 2020, was utilized for the extreme epidemiology response. The case fatality, termed fatality proportion, was examined using mortality in relation to confirmed cases involving the world, United States of America (USA), United Kingdom (UK), Italy, France, Spain, China, Germany, India and South Korea. Results: The COVID-19 is a global pandemic, with the US as the epicenter for transmission, representing 20.9% of all confirmed cases worldwide, while Italy is the epicenter for case fatality, 30.6% of mortality as at 03/31/ 2020. The fatality proportion (FP) in Italy was 11.4%, Spain (8.8%), France (6.8%) and UK (6.4%). Despite the increased number of confirmed cases, the lowest FP was observed in Germany (0.96%) and South Korea (1.66%). There is increasing linear tends in transmission in the US, R2=0.97 as well as positive daily percentage change, ranging from 1.27% to 20.5%. Conclusions: The USA remains the epicenter for COVID-19 transmission, while Italy is the epicenter for case fatality. The observed relatively low case fatality in Germany and South Korea is due to an “extreme epidemiology” response through the application of Wuhan, China’s early data on COVID-19 transmission control measures and optimized patient care. These data are suggestive of relaxing the clinical guidelines in the United States in COVID-19 testing, application of contact tracing and testing, case isolation and most importantly enhancing resources for case management and social and physical distancing globally, hence epidemic curve flattening and case fatality reduction.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201912.0054.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Media Studies Keywords: Social Media; PMBOK knowledge areas; Delphi Study; Structured Case Study; Team effectiveness
Online: 4 December 2019 (12:37:54 CET)
Social media has become part and parcel of the world of today. These days, it’s still the most talked about thing. It cannot be overlooked because it plays a key role in our business functions such as marketing and advertising. Social Media is all about collaboration on files, ideas and projects that help users and stakeholders to successfully complete the project. It influences how people communicate, develop relationship, build trust, increase transparency and provide cultural context. The fundamental aim of this research is to investigate the capacity for project management in social media. This paper explains how social media is used for project management knowledge areas and process groups. Also this research aims to identify SM tools that can be suitable for project management processes. Two studies Delphi Study of three rounds and structured case study interview are used to investigate the impact on the performance of the project team and process robustness. These studies support social media use by accessing the contribution to relationship building, trusts, coordination and cohesion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0426.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: automated driving virtual simulation; subjective empowerment; objective empowerment; combined testing; test case generation
Online: 7 November 2023 (09:30:32 CET)
In this paper, we propose a method for the generation of simulation test scenarios for autonomous driving. Based on the requirements of standard regulatory test scenarios, we can generate virtual simulation scenarios and functional scenario libraries for autonomous driving, which can be used for simulation verification of different ADAS functions. Firstly, the design operation domain (ODD) of the functional scenario is selected and the weight values of the ODD elements taken are calculated; then a combination test algorithm based on parameter weights is improved to generate autonomous driving virtual simulation test cases for the ODD elements, which can effectively reduce the number of generated test cases compared with the traditional combination test algorithm; then the traffic participant elements under each test case are Then, the values of the subelements under the traffic participant element in each test case are sampled and clustered to obtain hazard specific scenarios. Finally, the specific scenarios are applied to the automatic emergency braking (AEB) system on the model-in-the-loop (MIL) testbed to verify the effectiveness of this scenario generation method.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1345.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Marketing Keywords: quality of experience; brand trust; brand attachment; user retention intention; case study; fsQCA
Online: 20 July 2023 (02:36:47 CEST)
To achieve user retention through multifactor synergy, Internet enterprises must reduce costs and increase efficiency and sustainable development. In response to the dilemma that Internet compa-nies are experiencing increasingly high user acquisition costs and serious user churn, this paper uses a sample of 46,695 user reviews of nine product series from Xiaomi Ecological Chain. Case studies and qualitative comparative analysis are used to explore the influence mechanisms of quality of experience, brand trust, and brand attachment on users' retention intentions. Our find-ings are as follows. (1) Brand attachment alone is not necessary for high user retention intention, but user perception, cognition, and brand trust are necessary. (2) Quality of experience positively impacts brand trust, attachment, and user retention intention. Therefore, improving user perception and cognition is critical in generating high user retention intention. (3) Five configuration paths can achieve high user retention intention, three configuration paths lead to low user retention intention, and there is an asymmetric relationship between these paths. Among them, the role of quality of experience-driven configuration paths in generating user retention intention is the most prominent. (4) In the substitution relationship between configuration paths, user perception, and cognition can substitute with brand trust and attachment. Our findings have important theoretical and practical implications for revealing the realization paths of high user retention intention in Internet companies and provide a new perspective for future research.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Hematology Keywords: myeloid sarcoma; acute myeloid leukemia; chronic myeloid leukemia; chloroma; granulocytic sarcoma; case report
Online: 16 June 2023 (07:15:03 CEST)
Background: Myeloid sarcoma (MS), also known as granulocytic sarcoma or chloroma, is a rare disease entity characterized by the emergence of an extramedullary tumour which may be antecedent, coexisting or manifest secondarily to an ongoing malignancy of lymphoid origin. Owing to its low prevalence, scientific reports addressing this matter comprise mainly retrospective studies with a limited number of participants, rather low-quality research and only few case reports. Despite MS’s rarity, the need for enhancing diagnostic tools and refinement of therapeutic regimens is broadly recognised among physicians. Case summary: In this case series, we present the clinical histories of two patients diagnosed with MS. The former (Case 1) exhibited MS of the sternum alongside chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), while in case of the latter (Case 2) MS was the initial manifestation of a current acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Regardless of treatment institution comprising chemotherapy (CHTH) and radiotherapy (RT), the patient afflicted by CML did eventually pass due to cardiorespiratory insufficiency secondary to an infection, whereas the second one is in clinical remission up to this date, that is 16 months since MS had been diagnosed. Furthermore, a comprehensive analysis of previously reported cases was conducted which involves MS in patients with AML and CML. Conclusion: The objective of this report is to emphasize the heterogeneity among the clinical manifestations of MS, to underline the relevance of histopathological and molecular diagnostic tools in opting for the appropriate therapy and that, in spite of it occurring rather uncommonly, physicians should think of MS in presence of pathological masses in patients under risk of hematological malignancies.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0547.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Other Keywords: Covid-19; Infection Rate; Case Mortality Rate; Extreme Bounds Analysis; Cumulative Density Function
Online: 31 March 2023 (09:42:23 CEST)
By using the Sala-i-Martin version of extreme bounds analysis, which is based on the cumulative density function, cross-sectional evidence is presented on the robust determinants of the infection and case mortality rates of Covid-19. The results show that, for most part, different factors determine the infection and mortality rates in developed and developing countries. However, common factors are also apparent, including the risk environment, the number of tests per million and the percentage of population over 65. Notwithstanding the possibility that the official data represent a partial reflection of the truth, it is concluded that the results presented in this study provide useful information that may aid decision-making in the fight against the pandemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0032.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: Social network; Twitter; Structural analysis; Echo chamber; Detection; Case study; German language; Disinformation
Online: 2 February 2023 (06:54:35 CET)
Background: This study presents a graph-based and purely structural analysis to detect echo chambers on Twitter. Echo chambers are a concern as they can spread misinformation and reinforce harmful stereotypes and biases in social networks. Methods: The study recorded the German-language Twitter stream over two months, recording about 180.000 accounts and their interactions. The study focuses on retweet interaction patterns in the German-speaking Twitter stream and found that the greedy modularity maximization and HITS metric are the most effective methods for identifying echo chambers. Results: The purely structural detection approach was able to identify an echo chamber (red community) that was focused on a few topics with a triad of Anti-Covid, right-wing populism, and pro-Russian positions (very likely reinforced by Kremlin-orchestrated troll accounts). In contrast, a blue community was much more heterogeneous and showed "normal" communication interaction patterns. Conclusions: The study highlights the effects of echo chambers as they can make political discourse dysfunctional and foster polarization in open societies. The presented results contribute to identifying problematic interaction patterns in social networks often involved in the spread of disinformation by problematic actors. It is important to note that not the content but only the interaction patterns would be used as a decision criterion, thus avoiding problematic content censorship.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: CSHCN; CMC; care coordination; case series; collaboration; medical complexity; medication management; methodology; pediatrics
Online: 10 November 2022 (10:04:10 CET)
Care coordination (CC) for children with special healthcare needs and medical complexity (CSHCN-CMC) is challenging, and medication management is especially difficult for providers, parents/caregivers, and patients alike. While numerous strategies for CC have been suggested and implemented, barriers to medication optimization remain. The report describes the creation of a pediatric clinical pharmacotherapy practice, related standard operating procedures to assure consistent application of screening tools and care provision through comprehensive medication management (CMM), and establishment of a collaborative practice agreement (CPA) to guide drug therapy delegation, monitoring, and modification. The methodology of a prospective case series is also presented to highlight drug therapy problems and their resolution in CSHCN-CMC. Future opportunities to expand the practice for engagement in population health management as well as prior authorization activities on behalf of physicians will be discussed.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0167.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: single coronary artery; aortic valve surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting surgery; case report
Online: 8 February 2021 (15:42:53 CET)
A single coronary artery is a very rare condition, commonly associated with other congenital anomalies. It could be generally classified as neither benign nor malignant form of congenital coronary artery anomalies since its pathophysiological and clinical implications grossly depend on different anatomical patterns defined by the site of origin and distribution of the branches. By presenting the patient with an isolated single coronary artery, who underwent successful combined aortic valve replacement and coronary artery bypass grafting surgery, we intend to distinguish casual from causal in this extremely rare clinical and surgical scenario. This is the first-ever case published, combining such underlying pathology, clinical presentation, and surgical treatment.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0648.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Virology Keywords: Covid-19; case fatality rate; infection fatality rate; evolution of virulence; evolutionary medicine
Online: 30 August 2020 (10:26:58 CEST)
In the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic, in the global data on the case fatality ratio and other indices reflecting death rate, there is a consistent downward trend from mid-April to mid-August. The downward trend can be an illusion caused by biases and limitations of data or it could faithfully reflect a declining death rate. A variety of explanations for this trend are possible, but a systematic analysis of the testable predictions of the alternative hypotheses has not yet been attempted. We state six testable alternative hypotheses, analyse their testable predictions using public domain data and evaluate their relative contributions to the downward trend. We show that a decline in the death rate is real; changing age structure of the infected population and evolution of the virus towards reduced virulence are the most supported hypotheses and together contribute to major part of the trend. The testable predictions from other explanations including altered testing efficiency, time lag, improved treatment protocols and herd immunity are not consistently supported, or do not appear to make a major contribution to this trend although they may influence some other patterns of the epidemic.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202005.0101.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: chronic dialysis; administrative data; hospital discharge records; ambulatory specialty visits; case definition; algorithm
Online: 6 May 2020 (15:26:06 CEST)
Background: Administrative healthcare databases are widespread and are often standardized with regard to their content and data coding, thus they can be used also as data sources for surveillance and epidemiological research. Chronic dialysis requires patients to frequently access hospital and clinic services, causing a heavy burden to healthcare providers. This also means that these patients are routinely tracked on administrative databases, yet very few case definitions for their identification are currently available. The aim of this study was to develop two algorithms derived from administrative data for identifying incident chronic dialysis patients and test their validity compared to the reference standard of the regional dialysis registry. Methods: The algorithms are based on data retrieved from hospital discharge records (HDR) and ambulatory specialty visits (ASV) to identify incident chronic dialysis patients in an Italian region. Subjects are included if they have at least one event in the HDR or ASV databases based on the ICD9-CM dialysis-related diagnosis or procedure codes in the study period. Exclusion criteria comprise non-residents, prevalent cases, or patients undergoing temporary dialysis, and are evaluated only on ASV data by the first algorithm, on both ASV and HDR data by the second algorithm. We validated the algorithms against the Emilia-Romagna regional dialysis registry by searching for incident patients in 2014. Results: Algorithm 1 identified 680 patients and algorithm 2 identified 676 initiating dialysis in 2014, compared to 625 patients included in the regional dialysis registry. Sensitivity for the two algorithms was respectively 90.8% and 88.4%, positive predictive value 84.0% and 82.0%, and percentage agreement was 77.4% and 74.1%. Conclusions: These results suggest that administrative data have high sensitivity and positive predictive value for the identification of incident chronic dialysis patients. Algorithm 1, which showed the higher accuracy and has a simpler case definition, can be used in place of regional dialysis registries when they are not present or sufficiently developed in a region, or to improve the accuracy and timeliness of existing registries.
BRIEF REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202003.0260.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Law Keywords: illegal hunting; waterfowl; a case survey; poisoned; price chain; the west of China
Online: 16 March 2020 (09:43:35 CET)
China is one of the world’s most important countries for waterfowl because of the large amount of potential habitat and its position along major migratory routes. Waterfowl poaching in China is a serious threat, and for over twenty years colleagues and I have tracked waterfowl poaching in China including hunting methods, trade routes and prices involved. According to the latest survey of a NGO, 11.8% of Chinese people have participated in wildlife consumption, and about 32.0% of people have seen wildlife consumption (Not necessarily involved in killing and eating the wildlife). The survey results come from 100 000 internet questionnaires. The current report provides an update focusing on waterfowl poaching in Xinjiang Province of the northwest China, where is highly pathogenic area on the avian influenza, SARS and the Wuhan coronavirus pneumonia (such as COVID-19). The cases in 2011, 2012, and 2014 involved about 1816 to 2760 birds of more than 20 species, with an estimated total of 200 000 wild birds being hunted by a group per year in Xinjiang. Strangely, the poacher was not punished by any law. We know a few waterfowl species are protected as a list of Key Protected Species in China, and hopefully this report will draw attention to the scope of waterfowl poaching in China. China has made great progress with protecting other wildlife, and hopefully more can be done to protect migrating waterfowl.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201905.0323.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: black carbon; emergency department visits; allergic rhinitis; allergic asthma; case-crossover design; Serbia
Online: 28 May 2019 (09:50:24 CEST)
Background and Objectives: Many epidemiological studies have shown a positive association between black carbon (BC) and the exacerbation of allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma. However, none of the studies in Serbia examined this relationship so far. The aim of this study was to examine the associations between BC and emergency department (ED) visits for allergic rhinitis and allergic asthma in the Užice region of Serbia. Materials and Methods: A time-stratified case-crossover design was applied to 523 ED visits for allergic rhinitis and asthma exacerbation that occurred in the Užice region of Serbia between 2012−2014. Data regarding ED visits were routinely collected in the Health Center of Užice. The daily average concentrations of BC were measured by automatic ambient air quality monitoring stations. Odds ratios and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals were estimated using conditional logistic regression adjusted for the potential confounding influence of weather variables (temperature, humidity, and air pressure). Results: Statistically significant associations were observed between ED visits for allergic rhinitis and 2-day lagged exposure to BC (OR = 3.20; CI = 1.00−10.18; p < 0.05) and allergic asthma and 3-day lagged exposure to BC (OR = 3.23; CI = 1.05−9.95; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Exposure to BC in the Užice region increases the risk of ED visits for allergic rhinitis and asthma, particularly during the heating season.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0323.v2
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public, Environmental And Occupational Health Keywords: cyanoHAB exposure; pediatric case series; menstruation; macular rash; fever; vomiting; diarrhea; respiratory distress; leukocytosis
Online: 16 November 2023 (14:30:35 CET)
Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (CyanoHABs) are increasing in prevalence and severity globally and locally in the Great Lakes region. CyanoHABs have the potential to produce serious adverse human health effects due to the production of cyanotoxins from cyanobacteria. Common routes of exposure include recreational exposure (swimming, skiing, and boating), ingestion, and aerosolization of contaminated water sources. Cyanotoxins have been shown to adversely affect several major organ systems contributing to hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal distress, and pulmonary inflammation. We present three pediatric case-reports that coincided with CyanoHABs exposure with a focus on presentation of illness, diagnostic work-up, and treatment of CyanoHAB-related illnesses. Potential cyanotoxin exposure occurred while swimming in the Maumee River and Maumee State Park in Northwest OH during the Summer months which coincide with peak CyanoHAB activity. Primary symptoms included generalized macular rash, fever, vomiting, diarrhea, and severe respiratory distress. Significant labs included leukocytosis and elevated C-reactive protein. All patients ultimately recovered with supportive care. Symptoms following potential cyanotoxin exposure coincide with multiple disease states representing an urgent need to develop specific diagnostic tests of exposure.
INTERESTING IMAGES | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0004.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: simple cyst of the testis; mesothelium; ectopic rete testis; prostatic cancer; castration; case report
Online: 1 October 2023 (10:16:18 CEST)
Simple cysts (SCs) within the testes are rare in adults. The testicular SC lining comprises mesothelial cells. This report presents a case involving the accidental discovery of a castration-worthy SC in the right testis of a Japanese man in his 90s who was diagnosed with prostatic adenocarcinoma. Microscopic analysis revealed that the cystic wall was covered with flat to cuboidal mesothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated mesothelial cell positivity for calretinin, Wilms tumor 1 (WT-1), Hector Battifora mesothelial epitope-1 (HBME-1), and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p16 (p16INK4a). Notably, no human papillomavirus (HPV) in situ hybridization was detected. This report outlines an exceptionally rare instance of a simple cyst within the testis, suggesting the possibility of its origin from ectopic rete testis epithelium. This marks the inaugural documentation in the English literature of an SC within the testis found incidentally during castration for prostatic cancer.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0763.v1
Subject: Engineering, Architecture, Building And Construction Keywords: Social Life-Cycle Assessment; S-LCA; social impacts; construction industry; literature review; case studies
Online: 12 July 2023 (08:57:13 CEST)
Purpose – The paper aims to view how researchers have operationalized social impact assessment for construction projects over the last ten years. Design/methodology/approach – A systematic review was used to investigate case studies in the Social Life-Cycle Assessment (S-LCA) to analyze the application of the methodology. A qualitative study of 19 articles published between 2012 and 2022 was used to collect content on multiple categories impeding S-LCA through case studies in the construction industry. Findings – Our results showed the existence of limitations on the qualitative and quantitative aspects in measuring the social indicators. They were associated with the scoring method and the lack of data in some articles. Social implications – From this review, we understood that S-LCA has flaws in terms of the quality of the measurement, scoring method, and the lack of social data. Lack of social data means social impacts are being neglected and not assessed properly since there are several challenges pointed out throughout literature Originality/value – The originality of this research is that it focuses on case studies in the construction industry. It studies the operationalization of the S-LCA in this specific industry showing the different characteristics and challenges in the last 10 years.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0779.v1
Subject: Engineering, Other Keywords: real time evaluation; deviated wells; hole cleaning index (HCI); case studies; drilling performance improvement
Online: 23 April 2023 (05:28:16 CEST)
When drilling oil and gas wells, hole cleaning efficiency is crucial, particularly in the curved or severely deviated sections. Although many hole-cleaning procedures and models have been developed, most of them have substantial limitations or are difficult to apply in real time. This study aimed to develop a model for the hole cleaning index (HCI) that could be integrated into the drilling operations to provide an automated and real-time evaluation of deviated drilling hole cleaning. The new model herein was developed based on the mechanical drilling parameters, enhanced estimated drilling fluid properties, and cuttings characteristics. This HCI model was validated and tested in the field, as it was applied when drilling 12.25”-intermediate directional sections in two wells with a total length of approximately 2000 ft each. The integration of the HCI helped to attain a much better well drilling performance (50% enhancement) and mitigation of potential problems like pipe sticking and the slower rate of penetration. Since the developed index incorporates the changes in wellbore geometry and other spontaneous field data, the new model could be utilized for real-time optimization and intermediate interventions by drilling teams, unlike commercial software tools which are only useful during the planning phase. For this reason, the HCI can be linked to the driller's control panel to provide timely evaluation and corrective measures related to hole cleaning.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0467.v1
Subject: Business, Economics And Management, Business And Management Keywords: corporate digital responsibility; CDR; digital technologies; corporate social responsibility; CSR; customer interface; case studies
Online: 18 April 2023 (03:26:24 CEST)
As the digital era advances, many industries continue to expand their use of digital technologies to support company operations, notably at the customer interface, bringing new commercial opportunities and increased efficiencies. However, there are new sets of responsibilities associated with the deployment of these technologies, encompassed within the emerging concept of corporate digital responsibility (CDR), which to date has received little attention in the academic literature. This exploratory paper thus looks to make a small contribution to addressing this gap in the literature. The paper adopts a qualitative, inductive research method, employing an initial scoping literature review followed by two case studies. Based on the research findings, a simple model of CDR parameters is put forward, and the article concludes with a discussion of a number of emergent issues - fair and equitable access, personal and social well-being, environmental implications, and cross-supply chain complexities - that suggest possible directions for future research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0115.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Psychology Keywords: qualitative analysis; deconversion; case study; Faith Development Interview; subjective religiosity; narrative identity; content analysis
Online: 9 May 2022 (10:02:48 CEST)
This article addresses the question how the religious narrative identity and subjective religiosity change over the course of 15 years. The cases portrayed are deconverts who have changed their religious affiliations multiple times. It will be carved out what led to their deconversion and what remains as a core of their faith after they have turned away from organized religion for good. Interviews have been conducted at three time points and are analyzed using content analysis. It will become clear that the needs and expectations of the two individuals differ highly, as well as the reasons for turning away from a religious community; yet what is a common core in this joint faithful journey is their need to live their religiosity, now in a private setting.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0325.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Animal Science, Veterinary Science And Zoology Keywords: Farm fragmentation; bTB; bovine tuberculosis; Northern Ireland; local spread; neighbourhood; matched case-control; conacre
Online: 21 January 2022 (13:08:45 CET)
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) remains a challenging endemic pathogen of cattle in many parts of the globe. Spatial clustering of Mycoacterium bovis molecular types in cattle suggests that local factors are the primary drivers of spread. Northern Ireland’s agricultural landscape is comprised of highly fragmented farms, distributed across spatially discontinuous land parcels, and these highly fragmented farming structures are thought to facilitate localised spread. We conducted a matched case control study to quantify the risks of bTB breakdown with farm area, farm fragmentation, fragment dispersal, and contact with neighbouring herds. Whilst our results show small but significant increases in breakdown risk associated with each of farm fragmentation, farm area, fragment dispersal, and contact with neighbouring herds, these relationships were strongly confounded with the number of contiguous neighbours with bTB. Our key finding was that every infected neighbour led to an increase in the odds of breakdown by 40% to 50%, and that highly fragmented farms were almost twice as likely to have a bTB positive neighbour compared to non-fragmented farms. Our results suggest that after controlling for herd size, herd type, spatial and temporal factors, farm fragmentation increasingly exposes herds to infection originating from first order spatial neighbours. Given NI’s particularly fragmented landscape, and reliance on short-term leases, our data supports the hypothesis that between-herd contiguous spread is a particularly important component of NI’s bTB disease system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0271.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: 2019-nCoV; COVID-19; excess mortality; all-cause deaths; case fatality ratio; CFR; epidemiology
Online: 13 October 2020 (10:27:10 CEST)
Since identified as the pathogen responsible for an outbreak of severe respiratory distress in Wuhan, China, the 2019-nCoV coronavirus has caused over 30M cases and 1M deaths globally. Sporadic cases were identified in several states in the US from early January, and large-scale community transmission is believed to have started in late February, leading to a first spike in COVID-19 deaths and overall mortality in late April, and a second spike later in the summer. I show here that the dynamics of the pandemic were different in different regions of the US, showing a north-south pattern, with a first pandemic wave mainly in northern regions, followed by a second wave mainly in southern regions. Analysis of overall mortality data shows that the increase in mortality correlates well with COVID-19 incidence in most regions, and that from April through August COVID-19 deaths accounted for a substantial proportion of all deaths in all parts of the US.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0065.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: COVID-19; case fatality rate; Italy; testing; health care system; demographics; comorbidites; epidemiological trends
Online: 4 May 2020 (18:38:16 CEST)
There is much discussion among clinicians, epidemiologists, and public health experts about why case fatality rate from COVID-19 in Italy (at 13.3% as of April 20, 2020, versus a global case fatality rate of 6.9%) is considerably higher than estimates from other countries (especially China, South Korea, and Germany). In this article, we propose several potential explanations for these differences. We suggest that Italy’s overall and relative case fatality rate, as reported by public health authorities, is likely to be inflated by such factors as heterogeneous reporting of coronavirus-related fatalities across countries and the iceberg effect of under-testing, yielding a distorted view of the global severity of the COVID-19 pandemic. We also acknowledge that deaths from COVID-19 in Italy are still likely to be higher than in other equally affected nations due to its unique demographic and socio-economic profile. Lastly, we discuss the important role of the stress imparted by the epidemic on the Italian healthcare system, which weakened its capacity to adequately respond to the sudden influx of COVID-19 patients in the most affected areas of the country, especially in the Lombardy region.
HYPOTHESIS | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1640.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Information Systems Keywords: virtual tourism; sustainable tourism; cultural heritage digitization; user engagement; VRRO platform; case study; empirical analysis.
Online: 27 November 2023 (04:29:39 CET)
A sustainable smart tourism ecosystem relies on building digital networks that link tourists to destinations. This study explores how web and immersive technologies, such as the VRRO platform, can improve tourism by offering interactive experiences to augment traditional travel. The study underscores the role of VRRO's design in enhancing user interaction and engagement, thereby encouraging the generation of user content and the development of a virtual tour network. An empirical analysis investigates user engagement, revealing that the platform is accessible to users regardless of their technological familiarity. It suggests a high likelihood of sustained use and recommendations. In conclusion, VRRO demonstrates how accessible and innovative technologies in tourism modernize travel experiences and significantly contribute to the evolution of the broader tourism ecosystem.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0807.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Education Keywords: critical thinking; pre-service teachers; education for sustainable development; case-based teaching; rubric; content analysis
Online: 13 October 2023 (02:50:29 CEST)
Empowering teachers with Critical Thinking and understanding of sustainability is vital for guiding students’ informed decisions and actions in today’s world. Higher education needs innovative, student-centered methods like case-based teaching in order to promote Critical Thinking and the principles of Education for Sustainable Development. The aim of the study was to explore and evaluate pre-service teachers' Critical Thinking when engaged with case studies in a practicum preparation course centered on Education for Sustainable Development. Nine undergraduate students in Teacher Education participated in the study and answered four case studies. The case studies’ responses were analyzed through a bottom-up content analysis revealing eight higher-order categories. While approaching the case studies, student-teachers followed thinking processes similar to the processes proposed by the iterative models of Critical Thinking as perceived by Garrison (1991) and/or Brookfield (1987). Nevertheless, in some cases, pre-service teachers’ disengagement was evident. The rubric assessment highlighted that the responses fell under three profiles, namely the “Deficient Critical Thinker”, the “Emerging Critical Thinker” and the “Competent Critical Thinker”. The findings emphasize the need for targeted and individualized teaching interventions in teacher higher education programs aiming at Education for Sustainable Development complying with the learning needs of student-teachers’ Critical Thinking profiles.