REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0370.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cartilage; transcriptional factors; Chondrogenesis
Online: 19 November 2021 (15:20:13 CET)
During cartilage development, the lineage commitment and condensation of stem cells into chondrocytes and their differentiation involves a ubiquitous signaling cascades and huge numbers of transcriptional factors. The kinetic requirements and the stoichiometry for the expression of key transcriptional factors are relevant and must be met to form proper and functionally competent cartilage tissue. More interestingly also, an exact and precise spatio-temporal distribution of these molecules are as necessary in the proper tissue morphogenesis and patterning as the relevant physical conditions and micro environmental forces playing at the background during embryogenesis. A milestone of experimental achievements has been obtained over the years on several signaling pathways involved in cartilage development. Several fate determining transcriptional factors has also been investigated and determined with regards to the transition of stem cells (pluripotent, embryonic, etc.) into chondrocytes. These transcriptional factors serve as master controllers in chondrocytes proliferation and hypertrophy. Concerns that variability in signaling and transcriptional factors have detrimental effect on cartilage formation and could potentiate most cartilage related diseases have led most scientists to investigate the role of signaling molecules and transcriptional factors implicated in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and other cartilage degenerative diseases. On bases of spatio-temporal distribution of transcriptional factors, there exist functional overlaps, hence, it is difficult to draw a hard line of demarcation of roles at each point of the cell’s life, nonetheless, it is also markedly established that some factors are skewed to the chondrocyte’ survival and proliferation, and others known for their master’s role in the cell’s apoptotic, necrotic and senescence. Here we review some published works on selected signaling pathways and transcriptional factors that are preferentially expressed in chondrogenic cells and their role as major players in cartilage formation, cartilage diseases, along with some highlights of unique signaling molecules that are indispensable in cartilage tissue regeneration and management.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201804.0237.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: molecular profile; extracellular matrix; osmotic pressure; depth articular cartilage; spheroidal organoid; cartilage regeneration
Online: 18 April 2018 (08:48:06 CEST)
Articular chondrocytes are surrounded by chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, which attracts an abundant volume of interstitial water. The articular cartilage is compressed with joint-loading and weight-bearing stresses, followed by a bulging of the tissue during times of off-loading. Thus, osmotic pressure in articular cartilage is higher than in other tissues due to the fixed charged density and altered between loading and off-loading due to change in water content. Another unique characteristic of the articular cartilage is that it has longitudinal depth: surface, middle, and deep zones. Since each zone composes unique components of extracellular matrices, each zone has a various level of the osmotic pressure. It was unclear how changes in osmotic pressure affected chondrocyte homeostasis and matrix accumulation in specific longitudinal zone. We hypothesized that change in extrinsic osmotic pressure alters metabolic functions and histogenesis of extracellular matrix by zone-specific chondrocytes. We compared the gene expression of matrix related typical anabolic and catabolic molecules produced by zone specific articular chondrocytes and the immunohistology of these corresponding genes. Since the newly synthesized matrix needed a space to accumulate, we used a chondrocyte-spheroid model formed by longitudinal depth zone-derived cells and altered extrinsic osmotic pressure by changing media containing different osmotic pressures. Anabolic molecules upregulated continuously at high osmotic pressure and transiently by switching back the osmotic pressure from high to low. Each zone derived chondrocytes showed zone specific level of the gene expression. The spheroids once exposed to the high osmotic pressure accumulated extracellular matrices with empty spaces.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1679.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: Articular cartilage; Mechanical stimulation; Bioreactor
Online: 25 July 2023 (10:38:54 CEST)
In vivo, articular cartilage tissue is surrounded by a cartilage membrane, and HP (HP) and compressive strain increases simultaneously with the compressive stress. However, it has been impossible to investigate the effects of simultaneous loading in vitro. In this study, a bioreactor capable of applying compressive stress under HP was developed to reproduce ex vivo the same physical loading environment found in cartilage in vivo. First, a HP stimulation unit was constructed to apply cyclic HP pressure-resistant chamber by controlling a pump and valve. A compression-loading mechanism that can apply compressive stress using an electromagnetic force was implemented in the chamber. The synchronization between the compression and HP units were evaluated and the stimulation parameters were quantitatively evaluated. Physiological HP and compressive strain were applied to the chondrocytes encapsulated in alginate and gelatin gels after applying high HP at 25 MPa, which induced damage to chondrocytes. It was found that compressive stimulation increased the expression of genes related to osteoarthritis. Furthermore, the simultaneous application of compressive strain and HP, which is similar to the physiological environment in cartilage, had an inhibitory effect on the expression of genes related to osteoarthritis. HP alone also suppressed the expression of osteoarthritis-related genes. Therefore, the simultaneous hydrostatic and compressive stress-loading device developed to simulate the mechanical environment in vivo may be an important tool for elucidating the mechanisms of disease onset and homeostasis in the cartilage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202107.0628.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: reversed biodegradation; arterial hypertension; vertebral cartilage
Online: 28 July 2021 (12:16:48 CEST)
If we accept that human body is a dissipative structure, then the recovery of the body should be considered as a redirection of the enegy flows. The recovery of vertebral cartilage through redirecting of inner dissipative flow requires the understanding of how is this case the fact of reversibility can be proven. We proposed the approach, that according to the collected data, satisfies all the scientific requirements.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201810.0269.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: 3D models; cartilage; chondrocytes; osteoarthritis (OA)
Online: 12 October 2018 (12:19:01 CEST)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a joint disease involving cartilage degeneration. This study aimed to compare properties of chondrocytes from less-affected (LA-Cartilage) and severely-affected (SA-Cartilage) of human OA articular cartilage. Based on Dougados classification, OA cartilage was classified into two groups; less-affected (Grade 0–1) and severely-affected (Grade 2–3). Chondrocytes from each group were cultured until passage (P) 4. Growth, migration, stem cell properties and chondrogenic properties under normal and inflammatory conditions, and the formation of in vitro 3D cartilage tissues were compared between groups. The growth and migratory properties of LA-chondrocytes and SA-chondrocytes were similar, except that the migration rate of SA-chondrocytes was significantly higher at P0 compared to LA-chondrocytes. Both LA-chondrocytes and SA-chondrocytes expressed mesenchymal stem cell markers and tri-lineage differentiation, but the expression of stem cell markers decreased significantly with increasing passage number. Exposure to inflammatory conditions induced distinct morphological changes and significant increases in expression of SOX9 at P4 and MMP3 at P1 for LA-chondrocytes. LA-chondrocytes and SA-chondrocytes able to develop into in vitro 3D constructs, but SA-chondrocytes exhibited superior cartilage-like properties. Chondrocytes from both less- and severely-affected regions are suitable to be used in clinical applications, however, chondrocytes from severely-affected regions could be a more favorable cell source.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1782.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Transplantation Keywords: nuclear factor-κb; decoy oligodeoxynucleotide; cartilage; resorption
Online: 27 October 2023 (12:54:50 CEST)
: Background: Cartilage harvest and transplantation is a common surgery using costal, auricular, and septal cartilage for craniofacial reconstruction. However, absorption and warping of the cartilage grafts can occur due to inflammatory factors associated with wound healing. Transcriptional factor nuclear factor κB (NFκB) is activated by cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), and plays a central role in the transactivation of this inflammatory cytokine gene. Inhibition of NFκB may have anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of an NFκB decoy oligodeoxynucleotide (Decoy) as a chondroprotective agent. Materials and Methods: Evaluation of safe and efficacious concentrations of Decoy were assessed using rabbit nasal septal chondrocytes (rNSCh) and assays for cytotoxicity, proteoglycan (PG) synthesis, and PG turnover. The efficacious concentration of Decoy determined from the rNSCh was then applied to human nasal septal cartilage (hNSC) in vitro and analyzed for PG turnover, the level of inflammatory markers, and catabolic enzymes in explant-conditioned culture medium. Results: Over the range of Decoy conditions and concentrations, no inhibition of PG synthesis or cytotoxicity was observed. Decoy at 10 μM effectively inhibited PG degradation in the hNSC explant, prolonging PG half-life 63% and decreasing matrix metalloprotease 3 (MMP3) by 70.7% (P = 0.027). Conclusions: Decoy may be a novel chondroprotective therapeutic agent in cartilage transplantation due to its ability to inhibit cartilage degradation due to inflammation cytokines.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0367.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: cartilage; autologous chondrocyte implantation; tissue engineering; hydrogels
Online: 4 August 2023 (08:36:15 CEST)
Focal cartilage defects are a prevalent knee problem affecting people of all ages. Due to its avascular nature, cartilage has limited self-repair capacity, and osteochondral defects can lead to pain and long-term complications such as osteoarthritis. Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) has been a successful surgical approach for repairing osteochondral defects over the past two decades. However, a major drawback of ACI is the de-differentiation of chondrocytes during their in vitro expansion. In this study, we isolated ovine chondrocytes and cultured them in a two-dimensional environment as for ACI procedures. We hypothesised that the 3D scaffolds would support the cells re-differentiation without the need for growth factors and so we encapsulated them into soft collagen and alginate (col/alg) hydrogels. Chondrocytes embedded into hydrogels were viable and proliferated. After 7 days they acquired a rounded morphology and started to aggregate. Gene expression studies showed that the genes associated with chondrogenesis started to be up regulated as early as day one. At 21 days chondrocytes had extensively colonized the hydrogel, forming large cell clusters and started to deposit collagen II and aggrecan with limited collagen type I deposition. These findings highlight the potential of soft col/alg hydrogels to enhance ACI outcomes by creating a favourable microenvironment for chondrocyte reprogramming and re-differentiation, eliminating the dependency on growth factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0337.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Wharton's jelly; Regenerative Medicine; Osteoarthritis; Cartilage Defects
Online: 22 July 2022 (13:08:45 CEST)
The primary objective of this study is to report the initial efficacy data observed with the use of cryopreserved human umbilical tissue allograft for the supplementation of cartilage defects in patients with symptomatic knee osteoarthritis. Our primary endpoints were pain, stiffness, and functional recovery scores. In this ongoing study, 55 participants (age 56-93 years) received a single Wharton's jelly tissue allograft application. The study dose consisted of 150mg of Wharton's jelly allograft suspended in approximately 2mL of sterile Sodium Chloride 0.9% solution (normal saline). Each study knee application was performed under ultrasound guidance in a physician's office. The research methodology consisted of NPRS scores and WOMAC subsection scores including pain, stiffness, and physical function. Study enrollment consisted of 55 patients followed for a post-application duration of 90 days. No adverse events or adverse reactions were reported. The results demonstrated statistically significant improvements of NPRS and WOMAC in initial versus 90-day examination. The data represents Wharton's jelly tissue allograft applications are a safe, non-surgical, and efficacious for patients with symptomatic articular cartilage defects associated with osteoarthritis of the knee.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1021.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: cryogels; scaffolds; tissue engineering; bone reconstruction; cartilage reconstruction
Online: 16 November 2023 (02:51:42 CET)
Critical sized bone defects and articular cartilage injuries resulting from trauma, osteonecrosis or age-related degeneration are often nonhealing by the physiological repairing mechanisms, thus representing a clinic issue due to the relevant epidemiological incidence. Current treatment approaches consist of autologous or allogenic grafting, which are associated with painfulness, morbidity, risk of infections and rejection. Novel tissue-engineering approaches, aiming at the reconstruction of damaged tissues, have been proposed as alternative solutions to these conven-tional methods. These approaches are based on the combination of three fundamental compo-nents: autologous or allogenic cells, a scaffold and growth-stimulating signals, which are gener-ally referred to as the tissue engineering triad. Three-dimensional polymer networks are fre-quently used as scaffolds to allow cell proliferation and tissue regeneration. In this scenario, cryogels are giving promising results as cell scaffolds over other polymer networks, thanks to their peculiar properties. In particular, cryogels possess an interconnected porous structure and a typical sponge-like behaviour, which facilitate the cellular infiltration and ingrowth. Their properties can be appropriately adjusted to match the requirements of the specific tissue or or-gan that it is intended to regenerate. In this review it is reported the state of the art on the fabri-cation and employment of cryogels in supporting osteo or chondro-genic differentiation for the re-building of more organized tissues. Moreover, it will highlight current progress and future perspectives in the implementation of this technology in the clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.2073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: horse; castration; steroid hormones; cartilage; bone; in vivo metabolism
Online: 29 September 2023 (05:25:34 CEST)
Castration of stallions is traditionally performed after puberty around the age of 2 years old. No studies have focused on the effects of early castration on osteoarticular metabolism. Thus, we sought to compare early castration (3 days after birth) with traditional castration (18 months of age) in horses. Testosterone and estradiol levels were monitored from birth to 33 months in these two groups. We quantified the levels of biomarkers of cartilage and bone anabolism (CPII and N-MID) and catabolism (CTX-I and CTX-II), of osteoarthritis (HA and COMP) and inflammation (IL-6 and PGE2). We revealed a lack of parallelism between testosterone and estradiol syntheses after birth and during puberty in both groups. An extra-gonadal synthesis of steroids was observed around the 28 month-mark, regardless of the castration age. We found the expression of estrogen receptor (ESR1) in cartilage and bone, whereas androgen receptor (AR) expression appeared to be restricted to bone. Nevertheless, with regards to osteoarticular metabolism, steroid hormone deprivation resulting from early castration showed no discernable impact on the levels of biomarkers related to bone and cartilage metabolism, nor on those associated with OA and inflammation. Consequently, our research demonstrated that early castration does not disrupt bone and cartilage homeostasis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0232.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Atresia; Cartilage conduction hearing aids; Conductive hearing loss; Infant
Online: 4 July 2023 (12:36:49 CEST)
: Forty-nine children who started wearing cartilage conduction hearing aids (CC-HA) before elementary school graduation (including 17 cases of bilateral hearing loss and 32 cases of unilateral hearing loss) were followed up and examined. The wearing and utilization status of CC-HA, as well as the progress to date, were evaluated. In addition, 33 participants who purchased CC-Has were interviewed to assess the wearing effect. Eleven of the 17 children with bilateral hearing loss and 25 of the 32 children with unilateral hearing loss have continued using CC-HA. In terms of wearing effect, a good wearing effect was reported, even by those with one-sided hearing loss. In cases where it is difficult to wear CC-HAs stably with pasting or ear tips, it is possible to fix them stably using commercially available hair bands and eyeglass vines. In two cases, CC-HAs were worn from the age of 0. With ingenuity and appropriate educational and medical support, it is possible to wear CC-HA from infancy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0739.v1
Subject: Engineering, Automotive Engineering Keywords: mesenchymal stromal cells; articular cartilage; osteoarthrosis; collagen; hydrogel; decellularization
Online: 30 June 2021 (13:11:30 CEST)
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown a high potential for cartilage repair. Collagen-based scaffolds are used to deliver and retain cells at the site of cartilage damage. The aim of the work was a comparative analysis of the capacity of the MSCs from human adipose tissue to differentiate into chondrocytes in vitro and to stimulate the regeneration of articular cartilage in an experimental model of rabbit knee osteoarthrosis when cultured on microheterogenic collagen-based hydrogel (МCH) and the microparticles of decellularized porcine articular cartilage (DPC). The morphology of samples was evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and histological staining methods. On the surface of the DPC, the cells were distributed more uniformly than on the MCH surface. On day 28, the cells cultured on the DPC produced glycosaminoglycans more intensely compared to the MCH with the synthesis of collagen type II. However, in the experimental model of osteoarthrosis, the stimulation of the cartilage regeneration was more effective when the MSCs were administered to the MCH carrier. The present study demonstrates the way to regulate the action of the MSCs in the area of cartilage regeneration: the MCH is more conducive to stimulating cartilage repair by the MSCs, while the DPC is an inducer for a formation of a cartilage-like tissue by the MSCs in vitro.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202106.0683.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; synovitis; cartilage; bone; antisense; oligonucleotides; therapeutics.
Online: 28 June 2021 (16:01:16 CEST)
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are two of the most common chronic inflammatory joint diseases, for which there remains a great clinical need to develop safer and more efficacious pharmacological treatments. The pathology of both osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis involves multiple tissues within the joint, including the synovial joint lining and the bone, as well as the articular cartilage in osteoarthritis. In this review, we discuss the potential for the development of oligonucleotide therapies for these disorders by examining the evidence that oligonucleotides can modulate the key cellular pathways that drive the pathology of the inflammatory diseased joint pathology as well as evidence in preclinical in vivo models that oligonucleotides can modify disease progression.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0047.v2
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Hydrogels; Sodium alginate; Betamethasone; Drug delivery; Cartilage tissue engineering
Online: 6 April 2021 (10:03:04 CEST)
Hydrogels obtained from the combination of different polymers are an interesting strategy for the development of controlled release system platforms and tissue engineering scaffolds. In this study, the applicability of sodium alginate-g-(QCL-co-HEMA) hydrogels for these biomedical applications was evaluated. Hydrogels were synthesized by free-radical polymerization using different concentration of the components. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and swelling degree; betamethasone release as well as the in vitro cytocompatibility with chondrocytes and fibroblast cells were also evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the porous surface morphology of the hydrogels in all cases. The swelling percent was determined at different pH and was observed to be pH-sensitive. The controlled release behavior of betamethasone from the matrices was investigated in PBS media (pH = 7.4) and the drug was released in a controlled manner up to 8 h. Human chondrocytes and fibroblasts were cultured on the hydrogels. The MTS assay shown that almost all hydrogels are cytocompatibles and an increase the proliferation in both cell types after one week of incubation was observed by Live/Dead® assay. These results demonstrate that these hydrogels are attractive materials for pharmaceutical and biomedical applications due to their characteristics, their release kinetics and biocompatibility.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201711.0035.v1
Subject: Physical Sciences, Applied Physics Keywords: stress relaxation; polymer dynamics; biomechanical characterization; articular cartilage; osteoarthritis
Online: 6 November 2017 (06:44:18 CET)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disorder found mostly in elderly people. The role of mechanical behavior in the progression of OA is complex and remains unclear. The stress-relaxation behavior of human articular cartilage in clinically defined osteoarthritic stages may have importance in diagnosis and prognosis of OA. In this study we investigated differences in the biomechanical responses among human cartilage of ICRS grades I, II and III using polymer dynamics theory. We collected 24 explants of human articular cartilage (eight each of ICRS grade I, II and III) and acquired stress-relaxation data applying a continuous load on the articular surface of each cartilage explant for 1180 s. We observed a significant decrease in Young’s modulus, stress-relaxation time, and stretching exponent in advanced stages of OA (ICRS grade III). The stretch exponential model indicated that significant loss in hyaluronic acid polymer might be the reason for the loss of proteoglycan in advanced OA. This work encourages further biomechanical modelling of osteoarthritic cartilage utilizing these data as input parameters to enhance the fidelity of computational models aimed at revealing how mechanical behaviors play a role in pathogenesis of OA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201611.0150.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: water-based polyurethane; hyaluronic acid; cartilage tissue engineering; scaffold
Online: 30 November 2016 (04:28:15 CET)
Diseases in articular cartilages have affected millions of people globally. Although the biochemical and cellular composition of articular cartilages is relatively simple, there is the limitation in self-repair ability of cartilage. Therefore, developing the strategies for cartilage repair is very important. Here, we reported a new manufacturing process of water-based polyurethane based photosensitive materials with hyaluronic acid and applied the materials for 3D printed customized cartilage scaffolds. The scaffold has high cytocompatibility and is one that closely mimics the mechanical properties of articular cartilages. It is suitable for culturing human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells (hWJMSCs) and the cells showed an excellent chondrogenic differentiation capacity. We consider that the 3D printing hybrid scaffolds may have potential in customized tissue engineering and facilitate the development of cartilage tissue engineering.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202301.0129.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: chondrogenesis; cartilage; col11a1; collagen α1(XI), AKT; GSK3b; Wnt; ATDC5
Online: 7 January 2023 (13:00:05 CET)
Cartilage development is a tightly regulated process that involves multiple molecules and signaling pathways. The loss of expression of a single gene can alter cell behavior and disrupt the development of the cartilage. Col11a1 encodes the alpha one chain of the minor fibrillar collagen type XI that is essential in skeletal development. We used an RNAi mediated knockdown approach to investigate the role of Col11a1 expression during chondrogenesis in ATDC5 cells. Col11a1 expression promotes the transition of mesenchymal cells to the chondrogenic phenotype, and reduction of Col11a1 expression interferes with cellular differentiation. Our results indicate that collagen α1(XI) protein is required for chondrocyte cell shape, matrix production, mineralization and gene expression through a mechanism that involves AKT/GSK3β/β-catenin and TCF/LEF activity in ATDC5 cells.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0106.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biophysics Keywords: osteoarthritis; synovitis; articular cartilage; microfocus X-ray CT; 3D analysis
Online: 9 February 2020 (15:49:10 CET)
The aim of this study was to clarify degradation characteristics in each tissue of the knee complex of a medial meniscectomy (MMx)-induced knee osteoarthritis (KOA) animal model using classical methods and a new comprehensive evaluation method called contrast-enhanced X-ray micro-computed tomography (CEX-μCT), which was developed in the study. Surgical MMx was performed in the right knee joints of five male Wistar rats to induce KOA. At 4 wk post-surgery, the synovitis was evaluated using qPCR. Degradations of the articular cartilage of the tibial plateau were evaluated using classical methods and CEX-μCT. Evaluation of the synovitis demonstrated significantly increased expression levels of inflammation-associated marker genes in MMx-treated knees compared to that in sham-treated knees. Evaluation of the articular cartilage using classical methods showed that MMx fully induced degradation of the cartilage. Evaluation using CEX-μCT showed that local areas of the medial cartilage of the tibial plateau were significantly reduced in MMx-treated knees compared to that in sham-treated knees. On the other hand, total cartilage volumes were significantly increased in MMx-treated knees. Based on the findings of this study, the researchers in KOA research could be helped to select an optimal KOA model to discover new drugs.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0018.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Nanotechnology Keywords: Diclofenac; nanoformualtion; lipid-core nanocapsules; adjuvant arthritis; stereology; cartilage; synovial membrane
Online: 1 May 2023 (04:46:33 CEST)
Introduction: Diclofenac is the most prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug worldwide and used to reliev pain and inflammation for inflammatory arthritis. Diclofenac do not slows disease progression and cartialge damage of Rheuamtoid Arthritis individuals. Moreover, it associated with seriuos adverse effects even using regular dose regimens. Drug delivery systems can overcome this issues reducing adverse effects and optmizing efficacy. Objectives: to evaluate the activity of a lipid-core nanocapsule loaded of Diclofenac (DIC-LNC) in an experimental model of adjuvant-induced arthritis and its anti-arthritic properties at the joint components. Methods: The diclofenac nanoformulation was obtained by self-assembling methodology. The stereology analysis aproach was applied for morphological quantification of the volume, density and cellular profile count of the metatarsophalangeal joints of rats induced to adjuvant arthritis. Proinflamatory cytokines and biochemical profile was also obtained. Results: DIC-LNC is able to reduce arthitis compared to control group (p<0.0001) and DIC group (p=0.009). The TNF and IL1 cytokine as well as C-reative protein and Xanthine-oxidade were efficiently reduced by DIC-LNC. Additionally, DIC-LNC reduces synovites and condrocytes lossing compared to DIC (p<0.05)and control group (p<0.05). The synovial space volume was higher for DIC-LNC compared to DIC (p<0.05) and Control (p<0.05). These data are suggesting that DIC-LNC is showing anti-arthritic actvity preserving deep joint components. Conclusion: DIC-LNC is a promissing nanoformulation for clinical use, since is able to reduce joint inflamation and synovits, avoiding damage of cartilage and synovial space at advjuvant athrits. Further studies and developments are necessary to achieve future clinical use.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0284.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: articular cartilage; Runx1/Cbfβ complex; Osteoarthritis; TGF-β signaling; proteasomal degradation
Online: 16 February 2023 (09:40:30 CET)
TGF-ꞵ signaling is a vital regulator for maintaining articular cartilage homeostasis. Runx transcription factors, downstream targets of TGF-ꞵ signaling, have been studied in the context of osteoarthritis (OA). Although Runx partner core binding factor β (Cbfβ) is known to play a pivotal role in chondrocyte and osteoblast differentiation, the role of Cbfβ in maintaining articular cartilage remains obscure. This study investigated Cbfβ as a novel anabolic modulator of TGF-ꞵsignaling and determined its role in articular cartilage homeostasis. Cbfβ significantly decreased in aged mouse articular cartilage and human OA cartilage. Articular chondrocyte-specific Cbfb-deficient mice (Cbfb△ac/△ac) exhibited early cartilage degeneration at 20 weeks old and developed OA at 12 months old. Cbfb△ac/△ac mice showed enhanced OA progression under the surgical-induced mice OA model. Mechanistically, forced expression of Cbfβ rescued Col2α1 and Runx1 expression in Cbfβ-deficient chondrocytes. TGF-ꞵ1-mediated Col2α1 expression failed despite the pSmad3 activation under TGF-ꞵ1 treatment in Cbfβ-deficient chondrocytes. Cbfβ protected Runx1 from proteasomal degradation through Cbfβ/Runx1 complex formation. These results indicate that Cbfβ is a novel anabolic regulator for cartilage homeostasis, suggesting that Cbfβ could protect OA development by maintaining the integrity of the TGF-ꞵ1 signaling pathway in articular cartilage.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0079.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Skeletal muscle; sarcopenia; osteoarthritis; osteoporosis; rheumatoid arthritis; oligonucleotides; cartilage; bone; synovium
Online: 5 December 2022 (15:23:19 CET)
Age-related disorders of the musculoskeletal system including sarcopenia, osteoporosis and arthritis represent some of the most common chronic conditions worldwide, for which there remains a great clinical need to develop safer and more efficacious pharmacological treatments. Collectively, these conditions involve multiple tissues, including skeletal muscle, bone, articular cartilage and the synovium within the joint lining. In this review, we discuss the potential for oligonucleotide therapies to combat the unmet clinical need in musculoskeletal disorders by evaluating the successes of oligonucleotides to modify candidate pathological gene targets and cellular processes in relevant tissues and cells of the musculoskeletal system. Further, we discuss the challenges that remain for the clinical development of oligonucleotides therapies for musculoskeletal disorders and evaluate some of the current approaches to overcome these.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0383.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Inflammatory; cytokines; biomarkers; intra-articular fracture; cartilage; joint injury; synovial fluid; osteoarthritis
Online: 15 March 2021 (13:08:12 CET)
Intra-articular fractures are a major cause of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA). Despite adequate surgical treatment, the long-term risk for PTOA is high. Previous studies reported that joint injuries initiate an inflammatory cascade characterized by elevation of synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, which can lead to cartilage degradation and PTOA development. This review summarizes the literature on the post-injury regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the markers of cartilage destruction in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures. METHODS We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases (1960–February 2020) and included studies that were performed on human participants and included control groups. Two investigators assessed the quality of the included studies using Covidence and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RESULTS Based on the surveyed literature, several synovial pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12p70, interferon-y, and tumor necrosis factor-α, were significantly elevated in patients suffering from intra-articular fractures compared to control. A simultaneous elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-10 and IL-1RA was also observed. In contrast, IL-13, CTX-II, and aggrecan concentrations did not differ significantly between the compared cohorts. CONCLUSIONS Overall, intra-articular fractures are associated with an increase in inflammation-related synovial cytokines. However, more standardized studies which focus on the ratio of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines at different time points are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0308.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: bone, cartilage; extrinsic innervation; genicular nerve; intrinsic innervation; joint pain; osteoarthritis; subchondral bone
Online: 5 July 2023 (11:50:03 CEST)
Pain in osteoarthritis (OA) results from erosion of joint cartilage, resulting in bone contacting bone without an intervening cushion. The periosteum, including its nociceptive innervation, ends at the border of the cartilage meaning that there is no extrinsic neuronal pathway between the opposing denuded bone surfaces to carry a bone-on-bone pain signal to the brain. The pain signaling pathway must therefore originate in nociceptive sensory endings within the subchondral bone itself. Selective ablation of this intrinsic nerve pathway, using any of a variety of approaches, is expected to permanently eliminate OA pain.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1184.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: cell biology; gene expression; adipose tissue; bone; cartilage; intestine; kidney; liver; lung; pancreas; skin
Online: 17 May 2023 (04:41:00 CEST)
Parathyroid-hormone-related protein (PTHrP) is encoded by PTHLH gene which, by alternative promoter usage and splicing mechanisms, can give rise to at least three isoforms of 139, 141 and 173 amino acids with distinct C-terminals. PTHrP is subjected to different post-translational processing that generates smaller bioactive forms, comprising amino terminus, midregion (containing a nuclear/nucleolar targeting signal) and carboxy terminus peptides. Both the full-length protein and the discrete peptides are key controllers of viability, proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis in diverse normal and pathological biological systems via the reprogramming of gene expression and remodulation of PKA or PKC-mediated signalization mechanisms. The aim of this review is to pick up selected studies on PTHrP-associated signatures as revealed by molecular profiling assays, focusing on the available data about exemplary differentiating, differentiated or non-tumoral cell and tissue models. In particular, the data presented relate to adipose, bone, dental, cartilaginous and skin tissues, and also intestinal, renal, hepatic, pulmonary and pancreatic epithelia, with a focus on hepatic fibrosis-, pancreatitis- and diabetes-related changes as diseased states. Whether reported, the biochemical and/or physiological aspects associated with the specific molecular modulation of gene expression and signal transduction pathways in the target model systems under examination will be also briefly commented.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0235.v1
Subject: Engineering, Industrial And Manufacturing Engineering Keywords: bone and cartilage disorders; bioactive substances; Pacific cod; processing waste utilization; collagen hydrolysate; isotonic drink.
Online: 13 December 2022 (09:40:37 CET)
Malnutrition is one of major factors of bone and cartilage disorders. Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus) processing waste is a cheap and highly promising source of bioactive substances, including collagen-derived peptides and amino acids, for bone and cartilage structure stabilization. Addition of these substances to a functional drink is one of the ways to achieve their fast intestinal absorption. Collagen hydrolysate was obtained via enzymatic hydrolysis, ultrafiltration, freeze-drying, and grinding to powder. The lyophilized hydrolysate was a light gray powder with high protein content (>90%), including collagen (about 85% of total protein) and a complete set of essential and non-essential amino acids. The hydrolysate was applicable as a protein food supply or a structure-forming food component due to presence of collagen fiber fragments. An isotonic fitness drink (osmolality 298.1 ± 2.1 mOsm/L) containing the hydrolysate and vitamin C as a cofactor in collagen biosynthesis was prepared. Addition of the hydrolysate did not adversely affect its organoleptic parameters. Production of such functional foods and drinks is one of the beneficial ways of fish processing waste utilization.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0559.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Otolaryngology Keywords: Bone conduction; Cartilage conduction; Hearing device; Amplification; Aural atresia; Canal stenosis; Conductive hearing loss; Chronic otitis media
Online: 7 June 2023 (13:22:41 CEST)
A relatively loud sound is audible when a vibrator is attached to the aural cartilage. This form of conduction is referred to as cartilage conduction (CC). In Japan, a new type of hearing aid has been developed using CC and is available in clinical practice since 2017. A clinical study conducted prior to its launch demonstrated its benefits, particularly in patients with aural atresia who were unable to use air-conduction hearing aids. Several studies have been published on the benefits of CC hearing aids since their introduction in clinical practice. Most of the patients included in these studies had canal stenosis or aural atresia, and the purchase rates of CC hearing aids in these patients were relatively high. However, the number of patients with open ears was small, with overall poor results in the trials, with the exception in patients with continuous otorrhea. CC hearing aids are considered a good option for compensating hearing loss in ears with canal stenosis or atresia in both bilateral and unilateral cases. However, CC hearing aids are not currently considered the first choice for patients with an open ear,.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0206.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Immunology And Microbiology Keywords: Collagen triple helix repeat containing 1; CTHRC1; rheumatoid arthritis; biomarker; bone erosion; cartilage destruction; fibroblast-like synoviocytes; Wnt signaling
Online: 10 July 2020 (07:51:23 CEST)
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease, causing inflammation of joints, cartilage destruction and bone erosion. Biomarkers and new drug targets are actively sought and progressed to improve available options for patient treatment. The Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing 1 protein (CTHRC1) may have an important role as a biomarker for rheumatoid arthritis, as CTHRC1 protein concentration is significantly elevated in the peripheral blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients, compared to osteoarthritis (OA) patients and healthy individuals. CTHRC1 is a secreted glycoprotein that promotes cell migration and has been implicated in arterial tissue-repair processes. Furthermore, high CTHRC1 expression is observed in many types of cancer and this is associated with cancer metastasis to the bone and poor prognosis. However, the function of CTHRC1 in RA is still largely undefined. The aim of this review is to summarize recent findings on the role of CTHRC1 as a potential biomarker and pathogenic driver of RA progression that may be linked to the pathogenic behavior of fibroblast-like synoviocytes, cartilage destruction, and bone erosion.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived; bone regeneration; cartilage regeneration; clinical application; clinical studies; differentiation; hair loss; induced pluripotent stem cells; maxillary sinus augmentation; osteoarthritis; pluripotency; regenerative
Online: 17 April 2019 (11:25:14 CEST)
Various tissue resident stem cells are receiving attention from basic scientists and clinicians as they hold certain promise for regenerative medicine. This paper is intended to clarify and facilitate the understanding, development and adoption of regenerative medicine in general and specifically of therapies based on unmodified, autologous adipose-derived regenerative cells (UA-ADRCs). To this end, results of landmark experiments on stem cells and stem cell therapy performed in the labs of the authors are summarized, the most intriguing of which are the following: (i) vascular associated mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can be isolated from different organs (adipose tissue, heart, skin, bone marrow and skeletal muscle) and differentiated into ectoderm, mesoderm and endoderm, providing significant support for the hypothesis of the existence of a small, ubiquitously distributed, universal vascular associated stem cell with full pluripotency; (ii) the orientation and differentiation of MSCs are driven by signals of the respective microenvironment; and (iii) these stem cells irrespective of the tissue origin exhibit full pluripotent differentiation potential without any prior genetic modification or the need for culturing. They can be obtained from a small amount of adipose tissue when using the appropriate technology for isolating the cells, and can be harvested from and re-applied to the same patient at the point of care without the need for complicated processing, manipulation, culturing, expensive equipment, or repeat interventions. These findings demonstrate the potential of UA-ADRCs for triggering the development of an entire new generation of medicine for the benefit of patients and of healthcare systems.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0157.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: reptile, ventricular septation, endocardial cushions, semilunar valves, outflow tract, cartilage, foramen of Panizza, left aorta, right aorta, pulmonary trunk, pharyngeal arch arteries, coronary arter
Online: 6 August 2021 (11:08:56 CEST)
The outflow tract of crocodilians resembles that of birds and mammals as ventricular septation is complete. The arterial anatomy however, presents with a pulmonary trunk originating from the right ventricular cavum, and two aortae originating from either the right or left ventricular cavum. Mixing of blood in crocodilians cannot occur at ventricular level as in other reptiles, but instead takes place at aortic root level by a shunt, the Foramen of Panizza, the opening of which is guarded by two facing semilunar leaflets of both bicuspid aortic valves. Methods. Developmental stages of Alligator mississipiensis, Crocodilus niloticus and Caiman latirostris, have been studied. Results and Conclusions. The outflow tract septation complex can be divided into 2 components. The aorto-pulmonary septum divides the pulmonary trunk from both aortae, whereas the interaortic septum divides the systemic from the visceral aorta. Neural crest cells are most likely involved in the formation of both components. Remodeling of the endocardial cushions and both septa results in the formation of bicuspid valves in all three arterial trunks. The foramen of Panizza originates intracardially as a channel in the septal endocardial cushion.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0234.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pathology And Pathobiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells
Online: 23 August 2019 (03:33:49 CEST)
This article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic growth factors and how the technology can be used for the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected and irradiated protein packaging cell lines may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage matrix regeneration. We discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging cell lines are superior to bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new biological therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202007.0674.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Anatomy And Physiology Keywords: osteoarthritis; articular cartilage; degeneration; regeneration; therapeutic protein; growth factor; protein production platform; protein packaging cell line; transforming growth factor β (TGF-β); GP2-293 cells; TissueGene-C
Online: 28 July 2020 (10:16:51 CEST)
This review article focuses on the current state-of-the-art in the area of cellular and molecular biotechnology for over-production of clinically relevant therapeutic and anabolic growth factors. We discuss how the currently available tools and emerging technologies can be used for the regenerative treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). Transfected protein packaging cell lines such as GP-293 cells may be used as “cellular factories” for large-scale production of therapeutic proteins and pro-anabolic growth factors, particularly in the context of cartilage regeneration. However, when irradiated with gamma or x-rays, these cells lose their capacity for replication, which actually makes them safe for use as a live cell component of intra-articular injections. This innovation is already here, in the form of TissueGene-C, a new biological drug which consists of normal allogeneic primary chondrocytes combined with transduced GP2-293 cells that overexpress the growth factor transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1). TissueGene-C has revolutionized the concept of cell therapy, allowing drug companies to develop live cells as biological drug delivery systems for direct intra-articular injection of growth factors whose half-lives are in the order of minutes. Therefore, in this paper, we discuss the potential for new innovations in regenerative medicine for degenerative diseases of synovial joints using mammalian protein production platforms, specifically protein packaging cell lines, for over-producing growth factors for cartilage tissue regeneration and give recent examples. Mammalian protein production platforms that incorporate protein packaging eukaryotic cell lines are superior to prokaryotic bacterial expression systems and are likely to have a significant impact on the development of new humanized biological growth factor therapies for treating focal cartilage defects and more generally for the treatment of degenerative joint diseases such as OA, especially when injected directly into the joint.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202111.0090.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: adipose-derived regenerative cells; ADRCs; adipose-derived stem cells; ADSCs; bone regeneration, cartilage regeneration; efficacy; point of care treatment; stem cell; tendon healing without scar formation; tendon regeneration; vaPS cells
Online: 12 November 2021 (11:44:31 CET)
Background: Recently, the management of musculoskeletal disorders with the patients' own stem cells, isolated from the walls of small blood vessels, which can be found in great numbers in the adipose tissue, has received considerable attention. On the other hand, there are still misconceptions about these adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) that contain vascular-associated pluripotent stem cells (vaPS cells) in regenerative medicine. Methods: Based on our previous publications on this topic, we have developed a concept to describe the significance of the ADRCs/vaPS cells in the field of orthobiologics as briefly as possible and at the same time as precisely as possible. Results: The ADRCs/vaPS cells belong to the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells. Because the latter can both stimulate a patient’s body's localized self-healing power and provide new cells that can integrate into the host tissue during the healing response when the localized self-healing power is exhausted, this group of orthobiologics appears more advantageous than cell-free orthobiologics and orthobiologics that are based on allogeneic cells. Within the group of orthobiologics that are based on autologous cells, enzymatically isolated, uncultured ADRCs/vaPS cells have several advantages over non-enzymatically isolated cells/microfragmented fat as well as over uncultured bone marrow aspirate concentrate and cultured cells (adipose-derived stem cells, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells). Conclusions: The use of ADRCs/vaPS cells can be seamlessly integrated into modern orthopedic treatment concepts, which can be understood as the optimization of a process which - albeit less efficiently - also takes place physiologically. Accordingly, this new safe and effective type of treatment is attractive in terms of holistic thinking and personalized medicine.