REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1413.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: diabetes; cardiovascular; renal; SGLT1; SGLT2; therapy.
Online: 22 August 2023 (07:45:50 CEST)
Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) are two devastating diseases that may occur in non-diabetics or individuals with diabetes and when combined is referred to as cardiorenal disease. The impact of cardiorenal disease on society, the economy and the healthcare system is enormous. Although there are numerous therapies for cardiorenal disease, one therapy showing a great deal of promise is sodium-dependent glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors. The SGLT family member, SGLT2, is often implicated in the pathogenesis of a range of diseases and dysregulation of the activity of SGLT2 markedly effects the transport of glucose and sodium across the luminal membrane of renal cells. Inhibitors of SGLT2 were developed based on the anti-diabetic action initiated by inhibiting renal glucose reabsorption, thereby increasing glucosuria. Of great medical significance, large-scale clinical trials utilising a range of SGLT2 inhibitors have demonstrated both metabolic and biochemical benefits via numerous novel mechanisms such as sympathoinhibition which will be discussed in this review. In summary, SGLT2 inhibitors clearly exert cardio-renal protection in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects in both pre-clinical and clinical settings by improving hyperglycemia, high blood pressure, hyperlipidemia and diabetic retinopathy. (188 Words)
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0514.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: cancer; cerebrovascular diseases; cardiovascular diseases; pleiotropic effect; statin
Online: 31 December 2021 (11:36:31 CET)
The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors, also known as statins, are administered as first-line therapy for hypercholesterolemia, both as primary and secondary prevention. Besides the lipid-lowering effect, statins have been suggested to inhibit the development of cardiovascular disease through anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, vascular endothelial function-improving, plaque-stabilizing, and platelet aggregation-inhibiting effects. The preventive effect of statins on atherothrombotic stroke has been well established, but statins can influence other cerebrovascular diseases. This suggests that statins have many neuroprotective effects in addition to lowering cholesterol. Furthermore, research suggests that statins cause pro-apoptotic, growth-inhibitory, and pro-differentiation effects in various malignancies. Preclinical and clinical evidence suggests that statins inhibit tumor growth and induce apoptosis in specific cancer cell types. The pleiotropic effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases have been well established; however, the effects of statins on cancer patients have not been fully elucidated and are still controversial. This review discusses the recent evidence on the effects of statins on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases and cancer. Additionally, this study describes the pharmacological action of statins, focusing on the aspect of ‘beyond lipid-lowering.’
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.1223.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Hydrogen; cardiovascular; metabolic diseases; diet; oxidative stress; inflammation
Online: 29 April 2023 (07:44:53 CEST)
The sustainable development goals(SDG) of the UNO would be difficult to achieve without prevention of metabolic diseases and other non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Western diet and lifestyle, which are major risk factors of NCDs, are known to cause oxidative stress and decrease in production of molecular hydrogen in the intestines which leads to a decline in endogenous antioxidant status in the body, leading to increase in systemic inflammation. Many experts consider molecular hydrogen as a potential nutrient, which may be administered as gas in the body. There are gaps in the knowledge about the role molecular hydrogen plays, in the treatment of metabolic diseases and other NCDs This review aims to discuss the role of hydrogen in the pathogenesis and prevention of NCDs. Molecular hydrogen (H2) has been studied extensively as a therapeutic gas, with an estimated 2000 publications to date, exploring its potential therapeutic use in 170 disease models across every organ in the mammalian body. Hydrogen therapy can be administered through several methods, such as H2 inhalation, dissolving H2 gas in water to make hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for oral consumption or topical application, or hydrogen-rich saline. The exact mechanism of action of molecular hydrogen is not known but it is in itself a potential antioxidant that can also inhibit hydroxyl and nitrosyl radicals in the cells and tissues. Hydrogen is known to cause a marked decline in oxidative stress, and inflammation that are crucial in the pathogenesis of NCDs. Hydrogen therapy has been found protective against NCDs, including, metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), neurodegenerative diseases, chronic kidney disease, cancer and chronic lung diseases.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201808.0136.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: acute toxicity; cardiovascular depression; intravenous lipid emulsion; propofol; rat model; respiratory depression
Online: 23 October 2018 (09:34:43 CEST)
Abstract: Background and objective: Propofol is an anesthetic agent that is frequently used in anesthesia induction, maintenance and sedation. Propofol has severe side effects such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression. Although propofol is commonly used, there is no known antidote for its toxic effects. An approach to prevent toxic effects of propofol would be beneficial. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) therapy in the prevention of depressive effects of propofol on cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Materials and methods: Twenty-eight Sprague-Dawley adult rats were randomly divided into 4 groups. The saline-administered group was determined as the Control group. The second group was administered propofol (PP group); the third group was administered ILE (ILE group), and the fourth was administered propofol with ILE therapy (ILE+PP group). Systolic blood pressure (SBP), Diastolic blood pressure (DBP), Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), Respiratory rate (RR), Heart rate (HR) and mortality were recorded at 10 points during 60 minutes. A repeated measures linear mixed-effect model with unstructured covariance was used to compare the groups. Results: In the PP group, SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels were declining steadily; all rats in this group died after 60 minutes. In the ILE+PP group, after a while, the decreased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels increased SBP, DBP, MAP, RR and HR levels of the Propofol group were found to be significantly lower than those of the other groups (p<0.01). The mortality rate was 100% (surviving period, 60 min) for the PP group, whereas 0% for the ILE, ILE+PP and Control groups. Conclusion: Our results suggest that undesirable side effects that can be seen after propofol application such as hypotension, bradycardia and respiratory depression might be prevented by using ILE therapy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202208.0151.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine; COVID-19 vaccine; cardiovascular effects; myocarditis; adolescents; Thailand
Online: 8 August 2022 (10:40:23 CEST)
This study focuses on cardiovascular effects, particularly myocarditis and pericarditis events, after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine injection in Thai adolescents. This prospective cohort study enrolled students from two schools aged 13–18 years who received the second dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. Data including demographics, symptoms, vital signs, ECG, echocardiography and cardiac enzymes were collected at baseline, Day 3, Day 7, and Day 14 (optional) using case record forms.We enrolled 314 participants; of these, 13 participants were lost to follow up, leaving 301 participants for analysis. The most common cardiovascular effects were tachycardia (7.64%), shortness of breath (6.64%), palpitation (4.32%), chest pain (4.32%), and hypertension (3.99%). Seven participants (2.33%) exhibited at least one elevated cardiac biomarker or positive lab assessments. Cardiovascular effects were found in 29.24% of patients, ranging from tachycardia, palpitation, and myopericarditis. Myopericarditis was confirmed in one patient after vaccination. Two patients had suspected pericarditis and four patients had suspected subclinical myocarditis. Conclusion: Cardiovascular effects in adolescents after BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccination included tachycardia, palpitation, and myocarditis. The clinical presentation of myopericarditis after vaccination was usually mild, with all cases fully recovering within 14 days. Hence, adolescents receiving mRNA vaccines should be monitored for side effects. Clinical Trial Registration: NCT05288231
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1691.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: synephrine; glucocorticoids; selective glucocorticoid receptor activator (SEGRA); inflammation; cancer; CpdA; metabolic disorders; cardiovascular system; beta-adrenergic receptors
Online: 27 November 2023 (09:16:53 CET)
This review is focused on synephrine, the principal phytochemical found in bitter orange and other medicinal plants, and widely used as a dietary supplement for weight loss/body fat reduction. We examine different aspects of synephrine biology, delving into its established and potential molecular targets, as well as its mechanisms of action. We present an overview of the origin, chemical composition, receptors, and pharmacological properties of synephrine, including its anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer activity in various in vitro and animal models. Additionally, we conduct a comparative analysis of the molecular targets and effects of synephrine with those of its metabolite, selective glucocorticoid receptor agonist (SEGRA) Compound A (CpdA), which shares a similar chemical structure with synephrine. SEGRA, including CpdA, have been extensively studied as glucocorticoid receptor activators that have a better benefit/risk profile than glucocorticoids due to the reduced adverse effects. We discuss the potential of synephrine usage as a template for the synthesis of new generation of non-steroidal SEGRA. The review also provides insights into the safe pharmacological profile of synephrine.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201904.0037.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: second-hand smoke; cardiovascular disease; third-hand smoke; passive vaping; electronic cigarettes; heated tobacco; water pipe; myocardial infarction; stroke; diabetes
Online: 3 April 2019 (10:07:13 CEST)
In deaths and diseases attributed to tobacco smoke cardiovascular events exceed cancer and respiratory diseases. Second hand smoke (SHS) promotes the development of arteriosclerosis and can also trigger acute changes of endothelial function and of blood coagulability. Indoor smoking bans reduced coronary syndrome and myocardial infarction 10-20% within one year and were followed by sustainable decreases of stroke and diabetes. With a smoke-free hospitality industry people recognized tobacco smoke as an air pollutant, smoking in public was denormalized and social acceptance of smoking in front of children and pregnant women decreased also in homes and in cars. Combined effects with ambient air pollution are proven for active smoking and suspected for SHS. Contamination with third hand smoke (THS, “cold smoke”) persists for months in homes and cars, creating secondary pollutants that in some cases are more toxic (e.g., tobacco-specific nitrosamines). Remnants found in air, dust, and on surfaces (carpets, wallpapers, upholstery, soft toys) were associated with their metabolites in saliva and urine of children and with elevated levels of nicotine on hands and cotinine in urine of nonsmokers residing in homes previously occupied by smokers. In animal experiments effects of THS were found on thrombogenesis, insulin resistance through oxidative stress, on the developing immune system, lipid metabolism and alterations in liver, lung, skin and behavior. Much less is known about health effects for bystanders from the aerosols exhaled during “vaping” of e-cigarettes, but nicotine and other toxins from e-cigarettes are certainly a hazard, which should be prevented by the use of dermal and oral nicotine products, which are safer for nicotine replacement and without risk for bystanders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202210.0443.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: TLR4 signaling; H9C2 Myotube; C2C12 Myotube; Skeletal Muscle Cell; Cardiovascular disease; High Content Screening; MyD88
Online: 28 October 2022 (07:24:06 CEST)
Arjunolic acid (AA) is a triterpenoid saponin majorly found in the Terminalia arjuna and is claimed to exert the cardiovascular protective effects as a phytomedicine. However, it is unclear how AA exerts the effects at the molecular level. Hence, this study used an in vitro model using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes to investigate the cardioprotective effects of arjunolic acid (AA) via MyD88-dependant TLR4 downstream signaling markers expression. The myotubes were developed by differentiating rat H9C2 and mouse C2C12 myoblast cells. The MTT viability assay was used to assess the cytotoxicity of AA. LPS induced in vitro cardiovascular disease model was developed in H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes. The treatment groups were designed such as control (untreated), LPS control, positive control (LPS+ pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC)-25 µM), and treatment groups were co-treated with LPS and three doses of AA (50, 75, and 100 µM). The changes in the expression of TLR4 downstream signaling markers were evaluated through High Content Screening (HCS) and Western Blot (WB) analysis. The outcomes demonstrated that the expression of MyD88, MAPK, JNK, and NFκB markers were significantly upregulated in the LPS-treated groups compared to the untreated control. Evidently, the HCS analysis revealed that MyD88, NF-κB, p38, and JNK were significantly downregulated in the H9C2 myotube in the AA treated groups (50, 75, and 100 µM). For, the C2C12 myotube, the expression of NFκB was downregulated. TLR4 marker expression in H9C2 and C2C12 myotubes was subsequently decreased by AA treatment, suggesting possible cardioprotective effects of AA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0361.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: preeclampsia; placenta; histopathology; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular risk; postpartum
Online: 24 January 2022 (14:27:20 CET)
Preeclampsia (PE) is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in later life. Postpartum cardiovascular risk screening could identify patients who would benefit most from lifestyle interventions. However, there are no readily available methods to identify these high-risk women. We propose that placental lesions may be useful in this regard. Here, we sought to determine the association between placental lesions and lifetime CVD risk. Placentas from 85 PE women were evaluated for histopathological lesions. At 6 months postpartum, a lifetime cardiovascular risk score was calculated. Placental lesions were compared between CVD risk groups and the association was assessed using odds ratios. Multivariable logistic regression was used to develop prediction models for CVD risk with placental pathology. Placentas from high-risk women had more severe lesions of maternal vascular malperfusion (MVM) and resulted in a 3-fold increased risk of screening high-risk for CVD (OR 3.10[1.20-7.92]) compared to women without these lesions. MVM lesion severity was moderately predictive of high-risk screening (AUC 0.63[0.51,0.75]; sensitivity 71.8%[54.6,84.4]; specificity 54.7%[41.5,67.3]. When clinical parameters were added, the model’s predictive performance improved (AUC 0.73[0.62,0.84]; sensitivity 78.4%[65.4,87.5]; specificity 51.6%[34.8,68.0]. The results suggest that placenta pathology may provide a unique modality to identify women for cardiovascular screening.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0701.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; COVID-19; pathophysiology; molecular pathogenesis; personalized cardiovascular medicine.
Online: 11 October 2023 (08:25:12 CEST)
Background: COVID-19 was initially identified as a respiratory system disorder, but it has been discovered to interact with and influence the cardiovascular system. COVID-19-associated cardiovascular (CV) complications are common, resulting in high acute phase mortality and a large number of morbidities in the chronic phase, thus severely impacting patients' quality of life and health outcomes. Nevertheless, clinical, cellular, and molecular biological factors underlying the pathophysiology of cardiovascular complications associated with COVID-19 are poorly understood. Objective: This review investigates putative underlying clinical factors as well as cellular and molecular biological mechanisms by which COVID-19 leads to acute CV complications, including state-of-the-art genomic sequencing-based findings, assessing the long-term CV consequences of COVID-19, and aiming to shed light on developing strategies for differential diagnosis, risk prognostic stratification, prevention, and clinical management of CV sequlea in COVID-19 patients. Methods: For this purpose, a through review of literature and published data was carried out from first report of COVID-19 till October 2023 to find out a comprehensive account of clinical, cellular and molecular genetic factors underlying COVID-19-associated cardiovascular diseases. Results: We found that the relationship between COVID-19 and CV risk is complex and multifaceted. In addition to acute COVID-19 detertriuos effects, COVID-19 survivors may experience long-term CV effects. We provide a detailed account of the involvement of a large number of genomic alterations, microRNAs, and novel viral as well as host proteins in CVDs associated with COVID-19, which has helped identify some novel drug targets to treat COVID-19-related cardiovascular complications. Conclusions: The relationship between COVID-19 and CV risk is complex and multifaceted. While COVID-19 primarily affects the respiratory system, it can also significantly affect CV health. as compared to classical cardiovascular diseases, there are new clinical, cellular and molecular biological factors in CVDs related to COVID-19, that need specific diagnostic assays, prognostic stratification and treatment modules. Therefore, specail care is must taken to treat cardiovascular diseases associated with COVID-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0768.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs); non-communicable diseases (NCDs); disease self-management; digital health application; randomized controlled trial; multiple behavior change
Online: 13 November 2023 (08:49:15 CET)
(1) Background: Prevention of acute cardiovascular events in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) requires promoting health-protective behaviors (e.g., physical activity) and preventing health-compromising behaviors (sitting). Digital health interventions provide much potential. Based on multiple behavioral change theory, an intervention (reCardial app) was evaluated, and the following hypotheses were tested: H1: Health behaviors (physical activity, sitting) and disease self-management (self-care maintenance, self-care confidence) are closely interrelated. H2: Change in health behaviors and disease self-management indicators over time is more pronounced in reCardial app-users. H3: In the intervention group, changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicate a positive trajectory. (2) Methods: A study with the design of a randomized controlled trial over 12 weeks was conducted. 40 CVD-patients were randomized equally to the Intervention Group (35% women; Mage=60.6years) and Control Group (45% women; Mage=61.5years). (3) Results: Findings support H1 with significant correlations between health behaviors (r=0.45-0.63**), and disease self-management (r=-0.32-0.54**), H2 with Eta²=0.21 (not statistically significant) and H3 partially with d=0.101 for systolic blood pressure but not regarding diastolic blood pressure. (4) Conclusions: Replications are needed with larger samples and more objective measures. The app can help prevent and manage CVD by means of promoting health-protective behaviors and preventing health-compromising behaviors. Taking different behaviors into account can increase intervention effects and with that support of users.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202103.0419.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: Resveratrol; Cardiovascular disease; Bioavailability; Diet; COVID-19; Resveratrol carriers; Cardiovascular protection
Online: 16 March 2021 (12:00:17 CET)
Resveratrol is a phytoalexin produced by many plants as a defense mechanism against stress-inducing conditions. The richest dietary sources of resveratrol are berries and grapes, their juices and wines. Good bioavailability of resveratrol is not reflected in its high biological activity in vivo because of resveratrol isomerization and its poor solubility in aqueous solutions. Proteins, cyclodextrins and nanomaterials have been explored as innovative delivery vehicles for resveratrol to overcome this limitation. Numerous in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated beneficial effects of resveratrol in cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Main beneficial effects of resveratrol intake are cardioprotective, anti-hypertensive, vasodilatory, anti-diabetic, and improvement of lipid status. As resveratrol can alleviate the numerous factors associated with CVD, it has potential as a functional supplement to reduce COVID-19 illness severity in patients displaying poor prognosis due to cardio-vascular complications. Resveratrol was shown to mitigate the major pathways involved in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 including regulation of the renin-angiotensin system and expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2, stimulation of immune system and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines release. Therefore, several studies already have anticipated potential implementation of resveratrol in COVID-19 treatment. Regular intake of resveratrol rich diet, or resveratrol-based complementary medicaments, may contribute to a healthier cardio-vascular system, prevention and control of CVD, including COVID-19 disease related complications of CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: ideal cardiovascular health; cardiovascular disease; health status; prevention and control; Poland
Online: 12 September 2018 (00:53:55 CEST)
Perfect cardiovascular health (CVH) has been defined by the American Heart Association as the lack of cardiovascular disease and the presence of seven key factors and health behaviors. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of ideal and poor CVH among the Polish adult population, taking the chosen socio-demographic factors into consideration. This is a cross-sectional study conducted among 3,901 adults without cardiovascular diseases, aged between 35 and 64 years. Participants completed a questionnaire, and they had anthropometric and physiological measurements taken. Blood samples were analyzed for fasting glucose and cholesterol levels. Ideal CVH was found in 5.4% of the participants, with the advantage of being toward city dwellers over those living in the rural areas (6.3% vs. 5.0%) p = 0.02. In case of the residents of rural areas, their likelihood of having an ideal body mass index (BMI) was found to be 22% lower (odds ratio (OR) = 0.78; 95% CI: 0.66–0.92), their likelihood of having an ideal diet was found to be 27% lower (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.54–0.94), their likelihood of having perfect blood pressure was found to be 29% lower (OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56–0.89), and their likelihood of having the perfect glucose levels were found to be 28% lower (OR = 0.72; 95% CI: 0.63–0.84), than the residents of urban areas. The prevalence of ideal cardiovascular behaviors and factors is lower in the rural community compared with people living in the city. Results indicate that more effort should be dedicated toward the country’s health policy, specifically concerning primary prevention. Preventive actions in the field of cardiovascular disease should be addressed to the residents of rural areas to a larger extent.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0154.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: miRNA; cardiomyocytes; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 10 May 2018 (05:44:24 CEST)
Study of micro-RNA regulatory networks (known as miRNA’s or miR’s), during development and in known pathologies have been the basis of study over the past decades. Herein, we recapitulate these findings in order to highlight the best underlying mechanisms found to date. We also seek to elucidate how miRNA dysregulation can be associated with many cardiovascular diseases. Furthermore, we discuss miR regulation mechanism during in early development in vivo and invitro. Since many of the miR’s are precursors to transcriptional regulation, we relate back to their molecular control as we can then look together at the fundamental disease they might be exacerbating by this dysregulation.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0527.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Prevalence; Cardiovascular diseases; Risk factors
Online: 7 December 2023 (12:06:19 CET)
Cerebrovascular diseases represent a significant mortality rate worldwide and constitute a major public health and economic challenge. Many African countries such as Cape Verde are going through an epidemiological transition from communicable to non-communicable diseases, demographic and socioeconomic changes and facing an increase in cerebrocardiovascular diseases associated with increased cardiovascular risk. The present study aimed to identify the prevalence of risk factors that predispose to cardiovascular diseases in adult individuals residing on the island of Santiago. Cross-sectional population-based study with individuals over 18 years of age, of both sexes. Data collection took place in October and November 2021, in all municipalities on the island of Santiago. Individuals with Cape Verdean nationality who stayed abroad for more than one year and who arrived on the island of Santiago less than 30 days ago and individuals with any type of disability that could prevent them from participating in the study were excluded from the study. The sample size was calculated based on the projection of the population of the island of Santiago for the year 2021, according to the appropriate epidemiological model. Sociodemographic data were obtained through the application of a questionnaire containing age, sex, race, weight, height, risk factors (presence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, heredity, physical activity, smoking habits, history of cerebrovascular events, control of weight and blood pressure). RESULTS: Study sample is predominantly female (54.8%), the age group with the largest number was 18-27 years (21%); 42.2% with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2; 65.1% sedentary; Smoking 7.3% and alcoholism 14.4%; 6.5% with diagnosed heart disease; 19.9% with close family members with cardiac pathology; 2.7% had a stroke, 0.1% had a transient ischemic attack; 0.5% acute myocardial infarction; 23.5% had the periodic habit of assessing blood pressure; 32.6% hypertensive; 4.5% with diabetics. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that there is a high prevalence of cerebrovascular risk factors on Santiago Island, especially in females. Smoking and alcoholism showed a relationship with males. BMI, physical inactivity, diabetes and dyslipidemia were shown to be related to sex. Hypertension and Diabetes revealed a significant relationship with age group. Alcoholism, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia maintained a significant relationship with the municipalities.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1463.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: vascular aging; cardiovascular disease; lifestyle
Online: 23 November 2023 (04:42:48 CET)
We explored how dietary behaviors (sucrose, fructose, sodium, and potassium consumption) and endured psychological stress in young adult males and females impact the vascular aging index (VAI) and CVD risk by mid-life. Data were obtained from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study, an ongoing longitudinal study. Included participants (n=2,656) had un-dergone carotid artery ultrasound at year 20 allowing VAIs to be calculated. Demographics, di-etary data and depression scores were obtained at baseline and year 20. Regression analyses were used to assess the predictors of VAI. Cox regression analyses were conducted to assess the risk of CVD, stroke and all-cause mortality. Predictors of vascular aging were found to be sex-specific. In females, CES-D scores at baseline were positively associated with VAI (B-weight=0.063, p=0.015). In males, sodium intake at year 20 positively predicted VAI (B-weight=0.145, p=0.003) and potassium intake inversely predicted VAI (B-weight=-0.160, p<0.001). BMI significantly predicted CVD, stroke, and death. Fructose consumption at year 20 was a significant predictor of CVD risk while having high blood pressure at baseline was signif-icantly associated with stroke risk. Our findings support the promotion of nutrient- specific be-havior changes to prevent vascular aging in early adulthood and CVD risk in mid-life.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.0440.v1
Online: 7 November 2023 (10:55:19 CET)
This mini-review examines the complex relationship between the gut microbiota and human health, with a special focus on its role in conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). It explores how dietary patterns can affect the composition of the gut microbiota, thus contributing to the development of various diseases. The gut microbiota is crucial in the production of metabolites such as trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), which play a significant role in the development of both IBD and CVD. High levels of TMAO and other metabolites, such as phenylacetylglutamine, have been linked to an increased risk of CVD. The review highlights the potential of dietary interventions and therapies designed to modulate the gut microbiota in reducing these risks. Following a Mediterranean diet may offer cardiovascular protection, emphasizing the need for further research into the molecular mechanisms of diet-related changes in the microbiota.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0582.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Green tea; Diabetes; CVD; cardiovascular
Online: 8 September 2023 (09:54:11 CEST)
A preventive effect for tea and its bio active components in cardiovascular health has been suggested by the results of several epidemiological studies, treatments utilizing randomized controlled trials, and mechanistic investigations. Therefore, scientific interest in green tea's ability to prevent cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is growing. Green tea benefits for the metabolic syndrome, which includes diabetes and hypertension but may also raise cholesterol levels. Additionally, green tea reduces the mortality from any cause, arrhythmia, stroke, coronary heart disease, heart failure, and other conditions.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0239.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiomyopathy; Genetic disorders; Cardiovascular Imagen
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:02:25 CEST)
A 52-y/o asymptomatic male with history of hypertension, was referred to our Heart Failure Clinic due to report of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, TTE with an increased end-diastolic thick-ness (basal inferoseptal of 23 mm, and basal anteroseptal of 21 mm). CMR demonstrated late gadolinium enhancement at the septum, anterior, inferolateral, and inferior walls with a mid-myocardial distribution, T1 mapping which reported an average T1 of 929 ms. A next-generation sequencing panel was requested. Results demonstrated hemizygosis, in the ga-lactosidase alpha gene, consistent with Fabry Disease. The replacement of the enzyme was start-ed. Extended familial genetic counseling and testing were done.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0099.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: oxysterol; cardiovascular disease; cholesterol metabolism
Online: 1 June 2023 (13:57:28 CEST)
Oxysterols have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Serum levels of oxysterols could be positively correlated with cholesterol absorption and synthesis. However, physiological regulation of various serum oxysterols is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between clinical factors and cholesterol metabolism markers, and identify oxysterols associated with cholesterol absorption and synthesis in patients with coronary artery disease. Subjects (n=207) who underwent coronary stenting between 2011 and 2013 were studied cross-sectionally. We measured lipid profiles including serum oxysterols. As for the serum biomarkers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption, oxysterol levels were positively correlated with campesterol and lathosterol. Covariance structure analysis revealed that dyslipidemia and statin usage had a positive correlation with “cholesterol absorption”. Statin usage also had a positive correlation with “cholesterol synthesis” Several oxysterols associated with cholesterol absorption and/or synthesis. In conclusion, we elucidated the potential clinical factors that may affect cholesterol metabolism, and the associations between various oxysterols with cholesterol absorption and/or synthesis in patients with coronary artery disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0924.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Analytical Chemistry Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; optical assay; biosensors
Online: 12 May 2023 (10:23:28 CEST)
Biomarkers play key roles in diagnosis, risk assessment, treatment and supervision of car-diovascular diseases (CVD). Optical biosensors and assays are valuable analytical tools answering the need for fast and reliable measurements of biomarkers levels. This review presents a survey of recent literature with a focus on the past 5 years. The data indicates continuing trends towards multiplexed, simpler, cheaper, faster and innovative sensing while newer tendencies concern minimizing the sample volume or using alternative sam-pling matrices such as saliva, for less invasive assays. The use of enzyme mimicking activity of nanomaterials gained ground in comparison to their more traditional roles as signaling probe, immobilization support for biomolecules or for signal amplification. The growing use of aptamers as replacements for antibodies prompted emerging applications of DNA am-plification and editing techniques. Optical biosensors and assays were tested with larger sets of clinical samples and compared with the current standard methods. The ambitious goals on the horizon for CVD testing include the discovery and determination of relevant biomarkers with the help of artificial intelligence, more stable specific recognition elements for biomarkers and fast, cheap readers and disposable tests to facilitate rapid testing at home. As the field is progressing at an impressive pace the opportunities for biosensors in the optical sensing of CVD biomarkers remain significant.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0625.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: heart failure; cardiovascular; comparative; evolution
Online: 30 October 2020 (08:06:24 CET)
Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) is a leading form of human cardiovascular disease and commonly associated with systemic hypertension. Unique evolved adaptations in giraffe myocardia may be a natural animal model of resistance to HFpEF. In humans, pressure-overload induced left ventricular thickening (PLVT) impairs diastolic relaxation, elevates left atrial pressures and may progress to heart failure with symptoms including exercise intolerance. In healthy giraffe, the left ventricle thickens as developmental neck lengthening widens the vertical distance between the heart and head increasing pressures needed to maintain constant brain perfusion. Yet, diastolic relaxation and exercise capacity are unimpaired, a critical adaptation for prey species such as giraffe. The proximate mechanisms underlying this unique cardiovascular physiology are not yet characterized. Developmental PLVT in giraffe emerges as a species-specific evolved adaptation which offers a roadmap for identifying innovations in therapeutic and prevention strategies for HFpEF.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0128.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: COVID-19; Cancer Survivors; Cardiovascular
Online: 8 April 2020 (11:49:56 CEST)
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been declared a global pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. COVID-19 is caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-Cov-2). Although primarily a respiratory disease, cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 have been increasingly recognized. In addition, higher fatality has been reported in COVID-19 patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases. Cancer survivors have a considerably increased risk for premature cardiovascular diseases, mainly due to cardiotoxic cancer treatments. Therefore, it is foreseeable that cancer survivors will be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications caused by COVID-19. In this review, three scenarios for increased cardiovascular complications of COVID-19 in cancer patients are proposed. In the first scenario, cardiotoxic cancer treatment and COVID-19 synergize to exacerbate direct myocardial damage. In the second scenario, cardiotoxic cancer treatment leads to a reduced cardiac reserve in cancer survivors, making them more vulnerable to COVID-19 in a “two-hit” model. The third scenario suggests that several shared risk factors may aggravate cardiovascular complications caused by both cancer treatment and COVID-19. Taken together, cancer survivors may be more vulnerable to cardiovascular complications when challenged by the COVID-19, and special cardiovascular care should be given to these patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202204.0233.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: chronic kidney disease; gene polymorphism; angiotensin-converting enzyme; cardiovascular disease; cardiovascular mortality risk; genotype
Online: 26 April 2022 (10:05:25 CEST)
The association between angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) polymorphisms and plasma ACE levels may allow for the optimization of a preventive intervention to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the chronic kidney disease (CKD) population. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between ACE I/D polymorphism and cardiovascular mortality risk among non-hemodialyzed chronic kidney disease patients. This cross-sectional study examined 70 patients of Javanese ethnic origin with stable CKD who did not receive hemodialysis. ACE I/D polymorphisms, plasma ACE levels, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) risk, and cardiovascular mortality risk were investigated. As per our findings, the I allele was found to be more frequent (78.6) than the D allele (21.4), and the DD genotype was less frequent than the II genotype (4.3 vs. 61.4). The ACE I/D polymorphism had a significant direct positive effect on plasma ACE levels (path coefficient = 0.302, p = 0.021). Similarly, plasma ACE levels had a direct and significant positive effect on the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (path coefficient = 0.410, p = 0.000). Moreover, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk had a significant positive effect on cardiovascular mortality risk (path coefficient = 0.918, p = 0.000). The ACE I/D polymorphism had no direct effect on ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality risk. However, our findings show that the indirect effects of high plasma ACE levels may be a factor in the increased risk of ASCVD and cardiovascular mortality in Javanese CKD patients.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201806.0135.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular risk assessment; postmenopausal women; cardiovascular risk factors; emerging risk factors; hormone replacement therapy
Online: 8 June 2018 (12:46:31 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are rising rapidly among the postmenopausal woman but they are less likely to identify their risk by an appropriate risk assessment tool. This review evaluates available literature on cardiovascular risk assessment among postmenopausal women to provide a concise view of risk factors and disease burden among them, present risk assessment systems including their drawbacks, emergence of new risk factors and their role in risk prediction, and finally use of hormone replacement therapy during menopause. Results demonstrate that menopause is a transition point for developing CVD not due to physiological changes only but psychosocial factors like depression and marital stress are also responsible. Both conventional and emerging risk factors burden are high among postmenopausal women. Though data regarding CVD risk assessment among postmenopausal population is lacking but existing evidences claimed underestimation or overestimation of risk among women. Moreover application of different tools on same population has revealed significant variation in result. In this regard, recalibration of conventional tools with local data and new risk factors has showed improvement of risk prediction. Hormone replacement therapy during early menopause has reported beneficial to prevent CVD but in secondary prevention it has no role. All of these findings demand further studies on cardiovascular risk assessment, especially in developing countries where women after menopause are not in consideration of health strategy makers.
COMMUNICATION | doi:10.20944/preprints202303.0373.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: ischemia; cardiovascular disease; diabetes; obesity; galectins
Online: 21 March 2023 (07:56:47 CET)
Background Epidemiological studies have associated plasma galectin-4 (Gal-4) levels with prevalent and incident diabetes, and with increased risk of coronary artery disease, but data regarding possible associations with stroke are lacking. Methods We tested Gal-4 association with prevalent stroke in a population-based cohort, and whether Gal-4 increases after ischemic stroke in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD). Results Gal-4 was higher in subjects with compared to without prevalent ischemic stroke, and was associated with prevalent ischemic stroke (odds ratio 1.52; 95% confidence interval 1.01-2.30; p=0.048) adjusted for age, sex and covariates of cardiometabolic health. Plasma Gal-4 increased after stroke in both controls and HFD-fed mice, but HFD exposure was devoid of impact in Gal-4 levels. Conclusions This study demonstrates higher plasma Gal-4 levels in both a stroke mouse model and individuals with prevalent stroke.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202207.0097.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Keywords: Cardiovascular Disease; Model-Agnostic Meta-Learning
Online: 6 July 2022 (10:32:15 CEST)
The pervasiveness of cardiovascular disease and physician misdiagnosis creates the urgent need for artificial intelligence models to improve diagnosis accuracy. The first objective of this study was to train machine learning models on publicly available data sets containing simple medical information of patients to diagnose cardiovascular disease. The Multilayer Perceptron (MLP) assembled for this task performed optimally with an F1 score of 0.8968. This prompted the creation of an open-source, automated cardiovascular disease diagnosis tool, powered by the MLP. The second objective of this study was to employ a meta-learning methodology called Local Interpretable Model-Agnostic Explanations (LIME) to understand the impact of different features on the model's diagnosis in the form of marginal probabilities. K-Means Clustering was employed to segment the data into ten clusters, after which each data example was passed through LIME. The resulting histograms depict the complex relationship between feature, cluster, and impact on diagnosis. A series of P-values with contrasting orders of magnitude shows the nuances in the MLP's understanding of patients from different clusters. The results of meta-learning analysis reveal that the most important features for cardiovascular disease diagnosis are fasting blood sugar, type of chest pain, and slope of the ST segment on an electrocardiogram. Future experiments should replicate the novel methodology introduced in this study on data sets containing more specialized medical features in order to gain practical medical insights about different types of cardiovascular disease represented by each cluster. Finally, feature engineering pathways should be explored with consideration of these results to create versatile diagnosis models not only for cardiovascular disease, but adaptable to other diseases as well.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0322.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: wave reflection; cardiovascular modelling; arterial hemodynamics
Online: 24 March 2022 (05:21:26 CET)
Arterial ageing is thought to cause a diastolic-to-systolic shift in the return time (RT) of backward waves to central arteries. However, current methods of estimating RT—inflection point, zero crossing, and foot methods—depend on a single waveform feature and produce systolic RT throughout life. We propose a novel centroid method that accounts for the entire backward pressure waveform and develop a ground truth RT (GTRT), which can be used in computational models to test the accuracy of RT estimation methods. Linear wave tracking was implemented in a one-dimensional systemic arterial tree model and GTRT was calculated as the amplitude-weighted mean RT of backward waves at the ascending aorta. Using a virtual cohort of 1200 patients, the centroid RT was closest to GTRT compared to the zero crossing, inflection point, and foot methods; mean differences (limits of agreement) were -8 (-47,30), vs -42 (-136,52), -78 (-305,149), and -197 (-379,-15) ms, respectively. The sensitivity of the methods to changes in RT was also assessed in ten sheep. A balloon catheter in the descending thoracic aorta was used to generate a backward-running pulse that arrived at the ascending aorta at different times during diastole or systole, allowing the “bulk” RT of the backward-running wave ensemble to be manipulated. Only the centroid method was sensitive to both diastolic and systolic changes in RT. We conclude that the accuracy and robustness of the centroid method make it most suitable for evaluating the diastolic-to-systolic shift in RT of backward waves with ageing.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0230.v1
Subject: Engineering, Bioengineering Keywords: cardiovascular modelling; arterial haemodynamics; wave reflection
Online: 16 March 2022 (10:05:44 CET)
The arterial network in healthy young adults is thought to be structured to minimise wave reflection in conduit arteries, producing an ascending aortic pressure waveform with three key features: early systolic peak, negative systolic augmentation, and diastolic hump. One-dimensional computer models have provided significant insights into arterial haemodynamics, but no previous models of the young adult have exhibited these three features. Since the latter was likely to be related to unrepresentative or non-optimised impedance properties of the model arterial networks, we developed a new ‘YoungAdult’ model that incorporated 1) a novel and more accurate empirical equation for approximating wave speeds, based on area and relative distance to elastic-muscular arterial transition points, 2) optimally-matched arterial junctions, and 3) an improved arterial network geometry that eliminated ‘within-segment’ taper (which causes wave reflection in conduit arteries) whilst establishing ‘impedance-preserving’ taper. These model properties led to wave reflection occurring predominantly at distal vascular beds, rather than in conduit arteries. The model predicted all three typical characteristics of an ascending aortic pressure waveform observed in young adults. When compared with non-invasively acquired pressure and velocity measurements (obtained via tonometry and Doppler ultrasound in 7 young adults), the model was also shown to reproduce the typical waveform morphology observed in the radial, brachial, carotid, temporal, femoral, and tibial arteries. The YoungAdult model provides support for the concept that the arterial tree impedance in healthy young adults is exquisitely optimised, and it provides an important baseline model for investigating cardiovascular changes in ageing and disease states.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0254.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular; schizophrenia; prospective cohort; hospital admissions
Online: 30 December 2021 (19:42:41 CET)
(1) Background: Patients with schizophrenia have higher mortality, with cardiovascular diseases being the first cause of mortality. This study aims to estimate the excess risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events in schizophrenic patients, adjusting for comorbidity and risk factors. (2) Methods: The APNA study is a dynamic prospective cohort of all residents in Navarra, Spain. 505889 people over 18 years were followed for five years. The endpoint was hospital admissions for a cardiovascular event. Direct Acyclic Graphs (DAG) and Cox regression were used. (3) Results: Schizophrenic patients had a Hazard Ratio (HR) of 1.414 (95% CI 1.031-1.938) of hospital admission for a cardiovascular event after adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, smoking, low income, obesity, antecedents of cardiovascular disease, and smoking. In non-adherent to antipsychotic treatment schizophrenia patients, the HR was 2.232 (95% CI 1.267-3.933). (4) Conclusions: Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of hospital admission for cardiovascular events than persons with the same risk factors without schizophrenia. Primary care nursing interventions should monitor these patients and reduce cardiovascular risk factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0183.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: obesity; prediabetes; inflammation; microRNAs; cardiovascular function
Online: 8 December 2020 (07:56:14 CET)
Background: obese pre-diabetics have altered expression of cytokines, and sirtuin-1, that might influence myocardial function via microRNAs (miRs) expression. Objectives: to evaluate inflammatory/oxidative stress, miRs’ expression and cardiovascular function in obese pre-diabetics randomly assigned to metformin therapy vs. placebo vs. normo-glycemics at 12 months of follow-up. Materials and methods: eighty-three obese patients enrolled for abdominoplastic surgery, were divided in pre-diabetics (n 55), normo-glycemics (n 28), and assigned to hypocaloric diet. Pre-diabetics were randomly assigned to metformin (n 23) or to placebo (n 22) plus hypocaloric diet. Results: at enrollment, pre-diabetics obese vs. normo-glycemic presented higher values of glucose, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, miR-195 and miR-27, and lower values of sirtuin-1 (p<0.05). At 12 months of follow up, obese pre-diabetics with metformin vs. placebo experienced significant reduction of glucose values, HOMA-IR, and inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, with significant reduction of intima-media thickness (IMT), septum and posterior wall thickness, and left ventricle mass (LVM), (p <0.05). At 12 months of follow-up, obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normo-glycemics had higher values of inflammatory/oxidative stress markers, higher values of IMT, septum and posterior wall thickness, LVM, and myocardial performance index (MPI), (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo, and obese pre-diabetics with placebo vs. normoglycemics, had significant differences about IMT, MPI, and LVM (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. placebo showed significant reduction of serum miR-195 and miR-27 (p<0.05). Obese pre-diabetics in metformin vs. normoglycemics showed higher expression of serum miR-195 and miR-27 ( p<0.05). Finally, we found inverse relation between IMT and insulin (R -0.351), HOMA-IR (R -0.340), miR-195 (R -0.355), miR-27 (R -0.181); between LVEF and Insulin (R -0.332), HOMA-IR (R -0.142), miR-195 (R -0.297) and miR-27 (R -0.163). We found inverse correlation between LVM and sirtuin-1 (R -0.272), Insulin (R -0.810), HOMA-IR (R-0.183), miR-195 (R -0.446) and miR-27 (R-0.433), and direct correlation with interleukin-6 (R 0.195). MPI inversely linked to miR-195 (R -0.260) and miR-27 (R -0.591). Conclusion: in obese pre-diabetics metformin therapy significantly reduces inflammation/oxidative stress, circulating miR-195 and miR-27, causing reduction of LVM, IMT and amelioration of cardiac performance.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0355.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: vitamin D; ACE2; diabetes; cardiovascular disease
Online: 20 April 2020 (01:37:43 CEST)
Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by a new virus which causes respiratory illness. Older adults and people who have previous chronic medical conditions are at higher risk for more serious complications from COVID-19.Hypovitaminosis D is attributed to the increased risk of lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) as well as diabetes, Cardiovascular event and associated comorbidities, which are the main causes of severe clinical problem in COVID-19 patients. Considering the protective role of vitamin D through modulating the innate and adaptive immune system as well as inhibition of Renin Angiotensin System (RAS), vitamin D supplementation might boost the immune system of COVID-19 patients and reduce severity of the disease in vitamin D deficient individuals.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202002.0150.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular disease; smoking; drinking; underserved; disparities
Online: 11 February 2020 (14:55:10 CET)
The number one leading cause of death in 2017 for Americans was cardiovascular disease, and health disparities can exacerbate risks. This study evaluates the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n=437,436) to estimate population risks for behavioral, socio-economic, psychological, and biological factors. A general linear model with a quasi-binomial link function indicated higher risks for the following groups: smokers, individuals with higher body-mass index scores, persons unable to work, individuals with depression, workers who missed more days due to mental issues, the elderly, those in race categories “indigenous Americans, Alaskan non-Hispanics” or “other, non-Hispanic,” and individuals with lower income. The results confirm previous studies and raise more questions about drinking and cardiovascular disease. Policy and ethical considerations are also discussed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0041.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiovascular disease (CVD); biomedicine; nanotechnology; drug delivery
Online: 1 December 2023 (08:10:55 CET)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) accounts for nearly one-third of all global fatalities, establishing itself as a leading cause of death. To address this pressing issue, there is a growing demand for improved diagnostic methods and secure, non-invasive imaging techniques that can deliver precise insights into the progression of CVD. The success of personalized therapy for CVD depends on a couple of critical factors: accurate diagnosis and early detection. Therapeutic options for conditions like CVD, which develop over several decades, are highly specific to the individual's condition and the stage of the disease. In the field of biomedicine, nanotechnology has become increasingly prominent as a tool with diverse applications, including diagnostics, biosensing, and drug delivery. This review article offers an in-depth look at the most recent developments in the utilization of nanotechnology for detecting and managing prevalent cardiovascular diseases, providing valuable insights into this crucial area of healthcare research.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0037.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Life Sciences Keywords: metabolic syndrome; periodontitis; periodontal medicine; cardiovascular disease
Online: 2 October 2023 (04:33:36 CEST)
This study assessed the associations between host genetic variants and subgingival microbiota in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS); 103 patients with MetS underwent medical and periodontal examinations and had blood and subgingival plaque samples taken. DNA was extracted and processed (assessing a panel of selected single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) first (hypothesis-testing), and then expanding to a discovery phase. The subgingival plaque microbiome from these patients was profiled. Analysis of associations between host genetic and microbial factors was performed, stratified for periodontal diagnosis. Specific SNPs within RUNX2, CAMTA1 and VDR genes were associated with diversity metrics, with no genome-wide associations detected for periodontitis severity or Mets components at p<10-7. Severe periodontitis was associated with pathogenetic genera and species. Some SNPs correlated with specific bacterial genera, as well as with microbial taxa, notably VDR (rs12717991) with Streptococcus mutans and RUNX2 (rs3749863) with Porphyromonas gingivalis. This is the first study exploring the role of host genotype variation in subgingival microbial dysbiosis in patients with MetS and periodontitis. In conclusion, variation in host genotypes may play a role in the dysregulated immune responses characterizing periodontitis and thus the oral microbiome, suggesting that systemic health-associated host traits further interact with oral health and microbiome.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1478.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, cigarette smoking, cardiovascular risk.
Online: 21 September 2023 (11:30:14 CEST)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) increases the risk of mortality and morbidity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients with RA have a 50-60% increased risk for CVD compared with the general population. Cardiovascular risk is commonly meas-ured using the Systemic Coronary Risk Estimation 2 calculator modified for patients with RA. Traditional modifiable risk factors for CVD include arterial hypertension, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, cigarette smoking, and low physical activity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of smoking and the risk of CVD in patients with RA. Methods: This was a prospective, clinical, cohort study with an eight-year follow-up pe-riod. A total of 201 patients, 124 with RA (study group) and 77 with osteoarthritis (OA) (control group), were included in this study. However, only 137 patients (82 with RA and 55 with OA) completed the study. Fifty-eight patients (41 with RA and 17 with OA) died during the study period. We compared the prevalence of smoking and its association with the risk for CVD and RA. Results: The prevalence of smoking in the RA group was higher than that in the OA group (p<0.0001). Trends in the prevalence of smoking in both groups did not change signifi-cantly during the follow-up period. In the RA group, smoking was associated with the in-cidence of CVD in current smokers (p=0.028) and in patients with a history of smoking (p=0.016). These results suggest that smokers have an increased risk for RA. The trend of continued smoking in patients with RA may be attributed to attempts to reduce stress caused by RA symptoms. Conclusions: Previous studies have shown that current and former smokers with RA have more severe symptoms, more joint damage, and poorer response to therapy than those who have never smoked. However, the reason underlying the trend of continued cigarette smoking in patients with RA remains unclear. Further studies are needed to clarify the trend of continued smoking in patients with RA.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1196.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: frailty; cardiovascular disease; cancer; cardio-oncology; multimorbidity
Online: 19 September 2023 (04:05:23 CEST)
Advances in cardiovascular therapies and cancer treatments result in longer patient survival. The coexistence of cancer and cardiovascular disease has been recognized as a complex clinical scenario. Beside cardiovascular disease, older people with cancer are at greater risk of experiencing multimorbidity and the geriatric syndromes such as frailty. In older people, the concurrent presence of cancer and cardiovascular disease increased the risk of mortality, and the presence of frailty can exacerbate their conditions and hinder the treatment effectiveness. Given the significant intersection among frailty, cardiovascular disease and cancer in older people, this paper aims to provide an overview of the current research in this field and identifies gaps in research to understand the burden and impact of frailty in these populations. While many studies have examined the prevalence and impact of frailty on adverse outcomes in patients with cancer or with cardiovascular disease, evidence of frailty in individuals with both conditions is lacking. There is no universally accepted definition of frailty, which leads to inconsistencies in identifying and measuring frailty in older adults with cardiovascular disease and cancer. The frailty index seems to be a preferred frailty definition in studies in patients with cancer, while the frailty phenotype seems to be more commonly used in cardiovascular research. However, differences in how the frailty index was categorised and in how patients were classified as ‘frail’ depending on the cut points may have negative effect on understanding the impact of frailty in the studied populations. This makes it challenging to compare findings across different studies and limits our understanding of the prevalence and impact of frailty in these populations. Addressing these research gaps will contribute to our understanding of the burden of frailty in older people with cardiovascular disease and cancer, and improved clinical care protocols in this vulnerable population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1970.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular health; gut microbiota; microbiome; dysbiosis; atherosclerosis
Online: 30 August 2023 (03:54:51 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD), comprising heart and blood vessel disorders, persists as the foremost contributor to global morbidity and mortality. In modern times, the intricate composition of gut microbiota has garnered significant focus, particularly for its varying impact on diverse ailments. Perturbations in gut microbiota and consequent dysbiosis have demonstrated connections with the advancement and origin of CVD, including conditions like atherosclerosis, hypertension, and heart failure. This comprehensive review delves into the pivotal role of gut microbiota in maintaining cardiovascular well-being.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0077.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: VES-13; frailty; multimorbidity; cardiovascular diseases; diabetes
Online: 1 August 2023 (10:49:03 CEST)
With an increasing aging population worldwide, the concept of multimorbidity has attracted growing interest over recent years, especially in frailty, which leads to progressive multisystem decline and increased adverse clinical outcomes. The relative contribution of multiple disorders to overall frailty index in older populations has not been established so far. This study aimed to assess the association between the Vulnerable Elders Survey-13 (VES-13) score, which is acknowledged to be one of the most widely used measures of frailty, and the most common ac-companying diseases among hospitalized adults aged 60 years old and more. 2860 participants with an average age of 83 years were included in this study. Multiple logistic regression with adjustment for age and nutritional status was used to assess the independent impact of every particular disease on vulnerability. Diabetes mellitus type 2, coronary artery disease, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, osteoarthritis, fractures, eyes disorders, depression, dementia, pres-sure ulcers, and urinary incontinence were associated with higher scores of VES-13. Hospital admission of older subjects with those conditions should primarily draw attention to the risk of functional decline and while qualifying older patients for further treatment, particularly in surgery and oncology. At the same time, lipid disorders, gastrointestinal diseases, higher body mass index and albumins level were related to lower risk of being vulnerable, what may be attributed to younger age and better nu-tritional status of those patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.1056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: heart failure; hospitalization; cardiovascular outcomes; electronic consultation
Online: 15 May 2023 (15:30:16 CEST)
(1) Objectives. Patients with heart failure (HF) who experience hospitalizations for worsening HF (HFH) are at high risk of subsequent events. We aimed to evaluate the impact of an outpatient care management program that includes a clinician-to-clinician e-consultation using an integrated electronic medical record in a healthcare area with a widely dispersed population on delay time in care, hospital admissions, and mortality in a high-risk group of patients with HF and previous episodes of HFH. (2) Methods. We selected 6,444 HF patients who visited the cardiology service at least once between 2010 and 2021. Of these, 4,851 were attended in e-consult, and 2,008 in one-time in-person consultations. In 2,230 HF patients, there was documentation of a previous episode of HFH. Using an interrupted time series regression model, we analysed the impact of incorporating e-consult into the health care model in the group of patients with HFH and evaluated the elapsed time to cardiology care, heart failure (HF), cardiovascular (CV), and all-cause hospital admissions and mortality, calculating the incidence relative risk (iRR). (3) Results. In the group of patients with previous HF hospitalizations, the introduction of e-consult substantially decreased waiting times to cardiology care. The time elapsed to care after e-consult implementation was significantly reduced compared with the previous in-person period (8.6 [8.7] vs 55.4 [79.9] days, p<0.001). In that group of patients, after e-consult implantation, hospital admissions for HF were reduced (iRR [CI95%]: 0,837 [0,840-0,833]), 0,900 [0,862-0,949] for CV and 0,699 [0,678-0,726] for all-cause hospitalizations. There was also lower mortality (iRR [CI95%]: 0.715 [0.657-0.798] due to HF, 0,737 [0.764-0.706] for CV and 0,687 [0.652-0,718] for all-cause). The improved outcomes after e-consultation implementation were significantly higher in the group of patients with previous HFH and were independent of the patient’s clinical characteristics managed during the in-person or e-consultation periods. (4) Conclusions. In HF patients with previous HFH, an outpatient care program that includes an e-consult significantly reduced waiting times to cardiology care and was safe, with a lower rate of hospital admissions and mortality in the first year.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints202201.0177.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: variant effect maps; cardiac arrest; cardiovascular genetics
Online: 9 February 2023 (03:38:29 CET)
While genetic testing is becoming mainstream in the management of patients with potentially inherited cardiovascular disease, the prevalence of uncertain results severely limits its utility. One promising approach is to generate variant effect maps that report the function of all possible variants in a gene prospectively. The proactive clinical application of these maps is nascent, and it requires careful integration with current American College of Medical Genetics guidelines for variant interpretation. Here, we describe three pediatric cases of cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death with variants of uncertain significance in calmodulin genes. We demonstrate the prospective clinical utility of a calmodulin variant effect map to inform variant interpretation, and therefore diagnosis and family care, in each case. This study was approved by the Stanford University and Vanderbilt University Medical Center IRBs. Consent was waived based on low risk of de-identified retrospective data collection per the IRB.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0385.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: genetics of alcohol; urinary sodium; cardiovascular traits
Online: 30 May 2022 (03:34:20 CEST)
Abstract Background: Alcohol consumption is linked to urinary sodium excretion and both of these traits are linked to hypertension and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The interplay between alcohol consumption and sodium on hypertension, and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) is not well-described. Here, we used genetically predicted alcohol consumption and explored relationships between alcohol consumption, urinary sodium, hypertension, and CVDs. Methods: We performed a comparative analysis among 295,189 participants from the prospective cohort of the UK Biobank (baseline data collected between 2006 and 2010). We created a genetic risk score (GRS) using 105 published genetic variants in Europeans that were associated with alcohol consumption. We explored relationships between GRS, alcohol consumption, urinary sodium, blood pressure traits, and incident CVD. We used linear, logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards (PH) models in our analysis. Results: Our analyses supported an interaction effect between alcohol GRS and urinary sodium on hypertension (P interaction =0.03) and CVD (P interaction =0.03). In presence of high urinary sodium excretion, alcohol GRS increases blood pressure in a more enhanced fashion. Conclusions: Our results show that decrease in urinary sodium excretion offsets the risk posed by genetic risk of alcohol consumption.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0087.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Aging Keywords: iPSCs; ESC; differentiation; Cardiovascular disease, Myocardial repair
Online: 6 September 2021 (12:03:49 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the contributing factors to more than one-third of human mortality and the leading cause of death worldwide. Cardiac myocyte death is a fundamental process in cardiac pathologies caused by various heart diseases, including myocardial infarction. Thus, strategies for replacing fibrotic tissue in the infarcted region with functional myocardium have long been a goal of cardiovascular research. This review focuses primarily on induced-pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which have emerged as perhaps the most promising source of cardiomyocytes for both therapeutic applications and drug testing. We also briefly summarize other stems- and progenitor-cell populations that have been used for regenerative myocardial therapy and attempt to generate cardiomyocytes directly from cardiac fibroblasts (i.e., transdifferentiation), which, if successful, may enable the pool of endogenous cardiac fibroblasts to be used as an in-situ source of cardiomyocytes for myocardial repair.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0200.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: antioxidant; anti-inflammatory; cardiovascular; Channa striatus; diabetes
Online: 9 August 2021 (14:59:08 CEST)
Diabetes mellitus remains a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality associated with cardiovascular complications. Given the burden of diabetes-related cardiovascular complications, there is a need to identify strategies, safe and effective therapeutic agents that could effectively prevent and control diabetes. Presently, many patients living with diabetes depends on traditional medicines as an alternative cure. Channa striatus (Haruan) is a freshwater fish traditionally used to treat wounds, inflammations, and pains. Several pharmacological investigations have supported the folkloric claims of C. striatus extracts, including hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and pro-platelet aggregation activities. The therapeutic potentials of C. striatus were demonstrated to be associated with the presence of high content essential amino acids and good fatty acids known to improve cell growth and facilitate wound healing. Therefore, C. striatus bioactive compounds have great potentials to serve as lead candidates in developing novel therapeutic agents for the management of diabetes and related cardiovascular diseases. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pharmacological properties and therapeutic potentials of C. striatus for the management of diabetes and associated cardiovascular complications.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202105.0579.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: IRAK1; IRAK4; endothelial cells; inflammation; cardiovascular disease
Online: 24 May 2021 (15:09:08 CEST)
Inflammation associated endothelial dysfunction represents a pivotal contributor to atherosclerosis. Increasingly evidence has demonstrated that interleukin 1 receptor (IL1-R) / toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling participated in the development of atherosclerosis. Previous studies indicated the therapeutic potential of anti-inflammatory therapy in anti-atherosclerosis. The present study examined the effect of IL-1R-associated kinase 1 and 4 inhibitors (IRAK1/4i) in regulating endothelial dysfunction. IRAK1/4i showed little endothelial toxicity at concentrations from 1 to 10 μM. Inhibition of IRAK1/4 alleviated endothelial activation induced by LPS in vitro evidenced by attenuated monocyte adhesion to the endothelium. Mechanistically, blockade of IRAK1/4 ameliorated the transcriptional activity of NF-κB. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that dual inhibition of IRAK1 and IRAK4 attenuates endothelial dysfunction, suggesting pharmaceutical inhibition of IRAK1/4 might be a potential strategy to combat endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0629.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; metabolomics; cardiovascular disease; myectomy surgery
Online: 23 April 2021 (10:28:18 CEST)
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common inherited heart disorder complicated by left ventricle outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction, which can be treated with surgical myectomy. To date, no reliable biomarkers for LVOT obstruction exist. To determine whether metabolomic biomarkers for obstruction can be identified, we conducted metabolomic profiling on plasma samples of 18 HCM patients before and after undergoing surgical myectomy to measure changes in the plasma metabolome in the postoperative state. Plasma was collected approximately 4 weeks before surgery at the preoperative visit and approximately 3 months after the surgery at the postoperative visit. We found that 215 metabolites were altered in the postoperative state (p-value < 0.05). Identified metabolites that were significantly reduced post-myectomy included metabolites of heme, such as bilirubin, and phenylacetylglutamine, a biomarker of urea cycle disorders, which suggests that liver and kidney function are improved in the postoperative state. Markers of arginine metabolism such as homoarginine and dimethylarginine are also decreased in the postoperative state, suggestive of reduction in nitric oxide production, inflammation and heart failure after surgery. 3-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA) was also decreased, suggesting possible increased fatty acid utilization and a return to normal heart function. 12 of these metabolites were notably significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons (q-value < 0.05), including bilirubin, PFOS, PFOA, 3,5-dichloro-2,6-dihydroxybenzoic acid, 2-hydroxylaurate, trigonelline and 6 unidentified compounds, which support improved kidney and liver function and increased lean soft tissue mass. These findings suggest improved organ metabolic function after surgical relief of LVOT obstruction in HCM and further underscore the beneficial systemic effects of surgical myectomy.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202010.0021.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Pioglitazone; DPP4-inhibitor; ESRD; Cardiovascular outcome; Mortality
Online: 1 October 2020 (15:41:50 CEST)
While pioglitazone reduces insulin resistance and hepatic gluconeogenesis effectively in patients with T2DM, these benefits remained controversial in patients with ESRD. We compared MACCEs and mortality (overall, infection-related, and MACCE-related) of pioglitazone to that of DPP4-inhibitors in patients with T2DM and ESRD. From Taiwan’s national health insurance database, 647 pioglitazone users and 6080 DPP4-inhibitors users between April 1st, 2006 and December 31th, 2016 were followed from the 91th date after the ESRD certification till study outcomes, independently; withdraw from the NHI program, death, or Dec. 31th, 2017. After weighting, risks of MACCEs (10.48% vs 12.62% per person-years, [HR]: 0.85, 95% [CI]: 0.729–0.985) and all-cause mortality (12.86% vs 13.22% per person-years, [HR]: 0.88, 95% [CI]: 0.771–0.995) are significantly lower in pioglitazone group. Subgroup analysis found lower MACCEs risk in the pioglitazone users without insulin therapy (6.44% vs 10.04% [HR]: 0.59, 95% [CI]: 0.42–0.82) and lower MACCEs related death (2.76% vs 3.84% [HR]: 0.61, 95% [CI]: 0.40–0.95) in the pioglitazone group with dyslipidemia, when comparing with DPP4-inhibitors users. Pioglitazone is associated with lower all-cause mortality and MACCEs in diabetic patients with ESRD, compared to DPP4-inhibitors. These benefits were further significant in the non-insulin users and patients with dyslipidemia.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0308.v5
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Epidemiology And Infectious Diseases Keywords: Covid-19; SARS-Cov-2; Mortality rate; Cancer; Cardiovascular disease; Respiratory disease; Diabetes; Kidney diseases; April; May
Online: 3 June 2020 (05:49:12 CEST)
Covid-19 has given a halt to all the activities in the world. Europe was most affected, followed by the United States of America. It has taken more than 350000 lives until now. In this study, we have assessed the severity of Covid-19 by analyzing the mortality rate of Covid-19 and other chronic diseases. The Covid-19 data and “death rate” data caused by other diseases were downloaded from the world health organization (WHO) website. A normalized method was used to see the mortality rate of Covid-19 in comparison to other diseases. The deaths caused by Covid-19 in April 2020 have overtaken the average number of deaths caused by Cancer, Cardiovascular diseases, and other diseases in Belgium, the United Kingdom (UK), Spain, France, and Ireland. Covid-19 was found to be strongly correlated with non-communicable respiratory diseases and Cancer with correlation coefficients 0.73 and 0.67 respectively. The severity of Covid-19 in the United States of America (USA) was moderate. The severity of Covid-19 in Asian countries was found to be low. Europe showed the highest diversity in the mortality rate of Covid-19. On average, except for a few European countries, Cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and non-communicable respiratory diseases were still more lethal and caused more deaths than Covid-19.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201802.0066.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; nutrition; ecological study
Online: 8 February 2018 (03:22:54 CET)
The aim of this study was a large-scale ecological analysis of nutritional and other environmental factors potentially associated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in the global context. Indicators of CVDs from 158 countries were compared with the statistics of mean intake (supply) of 60 food items between 1993 and 2011, obesity rates, health expenditure and life expectancy. This comparison shows that the relationship between CVD indicators (raised blood pressure, CVD mortality, raised blood glucose) and independent variables in the global context is influenced by various factors such as short life expectancy, religiously conditioned dietary customs, the imprecision of some statistics and undernutrition. However, regardless of the statistical method used, the results always show very similar trends and identify high carbohydrate consumption (mainly in the form of cereals and wheat in particular) as a dietary factor most consistently associated with the risk of CVDs. These findings are in line with the changing view of the causes of CVDs. Because only the statistics of raised blood glucose include people using medications and reflect true prevalence that is independent of healthcare, more objective data on the prevalence of CVDs are needed to confirm these observed trends.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201707.0082.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: thiazide diuretics; cardiovascular risk; osteoporosis; vertebral fractures
Online: 28 July 2017 (12:20:23 CEST)
An alleged association of chronic use of thiazide diuretics with an increased risk of bone fragility fractures has been highlighted by a relatively recent prospective cohort study (Am J Med. 2016 Dec; 129(12):1299-1306). However, the concept that thiazides exert a beneficial effect on osteoporosis is still a predominant view. This effect would be mediated by the decrease in renal clearance of calcium ions, a pharmacological feature recognized for a long time now to this class of drugs , as opposed to the increase in calcium urinary excretion attributed instead to loop diuretics, i.e. furosemide and similar drugs . The purpose of this retrospective study is to attempt to clarify whether regular use of thiazide diuretics as antihypertensive therapeutics is associated with a significantly increased risk of osteoporotic fractures in female patients, aged over 70 years.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints201610.0028.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: mercury; antioxidants; cardiovascular diseases; cardiotoxicity; chelating agents
Online: 10 October 2016 (09:49:50 CEST)
Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. It has been determined that mercury is not only harmful to the health of vulnerable populations such as pregnant women and children, but is also toxic to ordinary adults in various ways. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities. Nowadays, the exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Recent studies suggest that chronic exposure, even to low concentration levels of mercury, can cause cardiovascular, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and carcinogenicity. Possible biological effects of mercury, including the relationship between mercury toxicity and diseases of the cardiovascular system, such as hypertension, coronary heart disease and myocardial infarction, are being studied. As heart rhythm and function are under autonomic nervous system control, it has been hypothesized that the neurotoxic effects of mercury might also impact cardiac autonomic function. Mercury exposure could have a long-lasting effect on cardiac parasympathetic activity and some evidence show that mercury exposure might affect heart rate variability, particularly early exposures in children. The mechanism by which mercury produces toxic effects on the cardiovascular system is not fully elucidated, but this mechanism is believed to involve an increase in oxidative stress. The exposure to mercury increases the production of free radicals, potentially because of the role of mercury in the Fenton reaction and a reduction in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, such as glutathione peroxidase. In this review we report an overview on the toxicity of mercury and focus our attention on the toxic effects on the cardiovascular system.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.2187.v2
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: Krüppel-like factors; myocardial damage; cardiovascular diseases; hypertrophy.
Online: 13 November 2023 (10:02:18 CET)
Cardiac hypertrophy typically follows myocardial damage, a process known to involve members of the Krüppel-Like Factors (KLFs) which have pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic roles. Our study delved into the molecular mechanisms underlying KLFs-cardiac hypertrophy interplay post myocardial infraction. We induced myocardial dam-age in rats using isoproterenol. Total RNA was extracted from the left ventricle and Quantitative Real Time RT-PCR was conducted to assess the expression of KLFs, cardiac commitment genes, inflammatory markers, and certain conduction-related genes. We devel-oped a computational approach to construct a proteomic network centered on KLFs. Initial results revealed early expression (2-3 days post-induction) of KLF3, KLF4 and KLF6, followed by the subsequent expression of KLF11 and KLF15 (5-8 days after induction). In the maturation stage, KLF12 and KLF13 regulators were found upregulated. IL-6 was gradually found to be upregulated through. Interaction analysis revealed KLF3, KLF8 and KLF12 interacted with cardiac electrical functions. RT-PCR confirmed up-regulation in cardiac genes linked to electrical function and scar maturation. Our findings underscore the central role of KLFs during the modulation of the cardiac hypertrophic response. Dysregulation of KLF expression resulted in damaged myocardium, participating in the progression of abnormal hypertrophy, highlighting their potential as therapeutic targets for heart diseases.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1522.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Atenolol; mortality; Asians; chronic progressive disease; cardiovascular disease
Online: 22 September 2023 (04:36:12 CEST)
Background: The current review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of atenolol on all-cause mortality rate among Asian patients with chronic progressive diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus, primary hypertension, and coronary artery disease. Methods: We searched the COCHRANE, MEDLINE, TRIP, and EMBASE databases for published articles up to 31 March 2023. Studies that compared all-cause mortality rates among Asian patients who were on atenolol or other medications were included. Results: The review included 79603 Asian patients from three cohort studies. Out of the studied patients, 36046 were atenolol users and 43557 were non-atenolol users. The review revealed that atenolol users recorded lower all-cause mortality rates compared to non-users with a significant difference (OR= 0.57, CI= 0.44-0.75, P<0.001). The pooled estimate of the all-cause mortality rate was also lower among atenolol users (7.02%) compared to metoprolol tartrate users (13.15%) with a significant difference (OR= 0.50, CI= 0.47-0.53, p < 0.0001). Although the included studies were categorized as having a low risk of bias for most of the studied domains, significant heterogeneity was recorded across these studies (I2 =88%, P=0.001). Conclusion: This review found that atenolol when compared to a control or metoprolol tartrate, has a significant effect in reducing the all-cause mortality rate among Asian patients with chronic progressive disease.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1259.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: physiotherapy; health promotion; cardiovascular diseases; risk factors; Interventions
Online: 19 September 2023 (07:10:15 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are prevalent and lead to high morbidity and mortality globally. Physiotherapists regularly interact with patients with or at risk of CVDs (pwCVDs). This study aimed to assess the nature of existing evidence, interventional approaches used, and the population groups included in physiotherapy-led health promotion (PLHP) for pwCVDs. The scoping review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for Scoping Reviews (PRISMA-ScR) guidelines. Medline, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and PEDro databases were searched from inception until June 2023. Two reviewers independently screened the titles, abstracts, full text and conducted data extraction. All conflicts were resolved with a third reviewer. A total of 4992 records were identified, of which 20 full-text articles were included in the review. The studies had varied populations, including those with stroke, coronary artery diseases, peripheral artery diseases, hypertension, diabetes, and multiple CVD risk factors. The interventions ranged from exercise and physical activity programs, dietary interventions, education, and counselling sessions with various supplementary approaches. Most interventions were short-term, with less than 12 months of follow-up. Interventions were personalised and patientcentred to promote adherence and health behaviour change. Among the included studies, 60% employed experimental designs, with the remainder using quasi-experimental designs. Although a wide range of PLHP strategies have been used for pwCVDs, exercise and physical activity were employed in 85% of included studies. Other components of health promotion, such as sleep, smoking, and alcohol abuse, should be investigated within PLHP.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0131.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: BNT162b2 vaccine; Pfizer/BioNTech; cardiovascular events; COVID-19
Online: 4 September 2023 (08:19:54 CEST)
The analysis reported here is unique in that it is the first study of the original data from the Pfizer/BioNTech BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine clinical trial (CA4591001) to be carried out by a group unaffiliated with the trial sponsor. Our study is a forensic analysis of the 38 trial subjects who died between July 27, 2020, the start of Phase 2/3 of the clinical trial, and March 13, 2021, the data end date of their 6-Month Interim Report. Phase 2/3 of the trial involved 44,060 subjects who were equally distributed into two groups and received Dose 1 of either the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccinated or the Placebo control (0.9% normal saline). At Week 20, when the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine received Emergency Use Authorization from the U.S. FDA, subjects in the placebo arm were given the option to be BNT162b2 vaccinated. All but a few accepted. Surprisingly, a comparison of the number of subject deaths per week during the 33 Weeks of this study found no significant difference between the number of deaths in the vaccinated versus placebo arms for the first 20 weeks of the trial, the placebo-controlled portion of the trial. After Week 20, as subjects in the Placebo were unblinded and vaccinated, deaths among this still unvaccinated cohort of this group slowed and eventually plateaued. Deaths in the BNT162b2 vaccinated subjects continued at the same rate. Our analysis revealed inconsistencies between the subject data listed in the 6-Month Interim Report and publications authored by Pfizer/BioNTech trial site administrators. Most importantly, we found evidence of an over 3.7-fold increase in number of deaths due to cardiovascular events in BNT162b2 vaccinated subjects compared to Placebo controls. This significant adverse event signal was not reported by Pfizer/BioNTech. Potential sources of these data inconsistencies are identified.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0035.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Medicine And Pharmacology Keywords: Clopidogrel; Caribbean Hispanics; Biomarkers; Cardiovascular Diseases; Pharmacogenomics; Ancestry
Online: 1 September 2023 (09:43:58 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of death in Puerto Rico, where clopidogrel is commonly prescribed to prevent ischemic events. Genetic contributors to both a poor clopidogrel response and the severity of CVD have been identified mainly in Europeans. However, the non-random enrichment of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with clopidogrel resistance within risk loci linked to underlying CVDs, and the role of admixture, has yet to be tested. This study aimed to assess possible interaction between genetic biomarkers linked to CVDs and those associated with clopidogrel resistance among admixed Caribbean Hispanics. We identified 50 SNPs significantly associated with CVDs in previous genome-wide association studies (GWAS). These SNPs were combined with another ten SNPs related to clopidogrel resistance in Caribbean Hispanics. We developed Python scripts to determine whether SNPs related to CVDs are in close proximity to those associated with clopidogrel response. Average and individual local ancestry (LAI) within each locus were inferred, and 60 random SNPs with their corresponding LAI were generated for enrichment estimation purposes. Our results showed no CVD-linked SNPs in close proximity to those associated with clopidogrel response among Caribbean Hispanics. Consequently, no genetic loci with a dual predictive role for risk of CVD severity and clopidogrel resistance were found in this population. Native American ancestry was the most enriched within risk loci linked to CVDs in this population. Non-random enrichment of disease susceptibility loci with drug response SNPs is a new frontier in Precision Medicine that needs further attention.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1982.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: Hormone replacement therapy; Menopause; Cardiovascular disease; Womens Health
Online: 2 August 2023 (10:27:07 CEST)
Purpose: Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT), an FDA-approved treatment for menopausal conditions was found to be associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer and reduced oestrogen. Studies showing benefits of HRT in preventing chronic diseases lead to development of clinical guidelines by American College of Physicians. This study aims to assess effectiveness of HRT treatments across cardiometabolic measures including Triglycerides (TG), Follicle-Stimulating Hormone, LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and Estradiol in menopausal women. It reports gaps in scientific knowledge and clinical practice to enhance current guidelines and policies.Methods: A systematic methodology designed and published in PROSPERO (CRD42022346057) to report network meta-epidemiology analysis was utilised. We used databases by PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, EMBASE and MEDLINE for studies published between 30th of April 1980-2022. Effects of HRT treatments were explored using a mixed treatment comparison (MTC) model. Fixed and random-effects models were used to address heterogeneity in published studies. Publication bias was assessed and corrected using funnel plots and Egger’s test.Results: Of 45 eligible studies, our findings indicate a significant statistical heterogeneity between HRTs and reduction of TG, SFH, LDL-C alongside increase of HDL-C and Estradiol among menopausal women. The analysis suggests a lack of direct evidence to support their efficacy in reducing TG, SFH and LDL-C levels or to substantiate HRT’s effectiveness in increasing HDL-C and Estradiol. The results showed no significant publication bias in the meta-analysis of included studies.Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that use of HRT interventions among menopausal women may reduce TG, FSH and LDL-C levels and increase levels of HDL-C and estradiol via oral and oral + transdermal administration. Our study reaffirms efficacy of HRT in supporting favourable lipid profile in menopausal women whilst highlighting the need for robust and inclusive epidemiology studies and clinical trials to further develop clinical guidelines and policies.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.0178.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: 3D bioprinting; cardiovascular disease; cells; tissues; 3D printing
Online: 5 June 2023 (05:05:36 CEST)
3D printing is playing an important role in cardiovascular disease by use of personalised models with replication of normal anatomy and pathology with high accuracy and reliability. While 3D printed heart and vascular models are shown to improve medical education, preoperative planning and simulation of cardiac procedures, and enhance communication with patients, 3D bioprinting however, represents a potential advancement of 3D printing technology by printing cellular or biological components, functional tissues and organs that can be used in a variety of applications in cardiovascular disease. Recent advances in bioprinting technology have shown the ability to support vascularisation of large scale constructs with enhanced biocompatibility and structural stability, thus creating opportunities to replace damaged tissues or organs. In this review, we provide an overview of the use of 3D bioprinting in cardiovascular disease with a focus on technologies and applications in cardiac tissues, vascular constructs and grafts, heart valves and myocardium. Limitations and future research directions are highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202212.0212.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; Krüppel -like factors; Transcription factor regulation
Online: 13 December 2022 (01:13:14 CET)
KLFs seem to associate with congenital heart disease-linked syndromes, malformations because of autosomal diseases, mutations that relate to protein instability, and/or loss functions such as atheroprotective activities. Ischemic damage also relates to KLF dysregulation because of differentiation of cardiac myofibroblasts or a modified fatty acid oxidation, related to the formation of a dilated cardiomyopathy; myocardial infarctions, left ventricular hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathies. MicroRNA have been involved in certain regulatory loops of KLFs as they may function as critical modulators of vascular smooth muscle cells in atherosclerosis, in heart failure and as markers of endothelial damage in acute myocardial infarction.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202211.0227.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Orthopedics And Sports Medicine Keywords: Bayesian; cardiovascular disease; CVD; cross-sectional; logistic regression
Online: 14 November 2022 (01:55:06 CET)
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has been one of the leading causes of death and disability-adjusted life years lost worldwide. Blood pressure, lipid, and cholesterol are good predictors of CVD risk and correspond upon age and physical fitness. However, few studies have explored the variation trend of CVD risk factors across different populations upon age and their muscle strength. Objective: to analysis the variation tendency of CVD risk factors in blood according to age and relative grip strength among different populations. Method: 25363 participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study and 24709 were included in the analysis. A logistic regression and a Bayesian probabilistic analysis based on Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) Modeling is conducted to build probability prediction models of hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and hypercholesterolemia according to age, relative grip strength, body weight conditions, and physical activity levels. Results: 1) age might be the main influence factor of hypertension, which is regarded as one of the primary CVD risk factors. However, although keeping a high level of physical activity might have positive effect on preventing hypertension because that individuals with normal body weight and higher physical activity shows a lower probability of being diagnosed with hypertension, it might could not prevent individuals from getting hypertension with age. 2) After 60, individuals of normal body weight seem more likely to have hyperlipidemia than those are overweight or obese. 3) Larger relative grip strength might not be able to offset the negative effects of obesity, overweight and physical inactivity on hyperlipidemia. 4) The probability of getting hypercholesterolemia varies less with age and relative grip strength. Conclusion: Body weight management and keeping high levels of physical activity are recommended at any age. It might benefit to increase some bodyweight after 60 years old.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: telehealth; remote assessment; cardiology; cardiovascular diseases; COVID-19
Online: 7 July 2022 (08:11:31 CEST)
The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vitalness of telehealth in our medical world, where considering a restructuring of healthcare services has become paramount. In fact, telemedicine has recently earned a valuable place in many specialties; and its implications in cardiology and cardiovascular medicine were among the leading interests. In this letter, we gathered previous evidence supporting the merit of telemedicine in the fields of cardiology and cardiovascular medicine—medical branches in which patients require meticulous care and continuous monitoring—as well as protrusions of concerns about the uncertainty regarding the efficacy of telemedicine’s future implications and technologies. In sum, in the context of this still on-going pandemic, medical institutions must strive to improve telehealth technologies and implement solid future research directions in this growing field—to be able to persevere in meeting the needs of the patients. As long as no conclusive evidence exists regarding the fields where telemedicine is most worthwhile, healthcare systems will always keep the dread of wasting resources on developing ineffective programs. We conclude that telemedicine has been attributed a considerable attention in managing cardiac and cardiovascular conditions; nevertheless, further studies with solid designs are still needed to confirm its validity and utility in those specialties.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0189.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: cardiovascular diseases; Mexico COVID-19; Mexico metropolitan area
Online: 14 June 2022 (03:11:35 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD´s) continue as the primary cause of death worldwide. During the past couple of years, and with the surge of the COVID-19 pandemic, deaths linked to CVD´s were -slightly overshadowed by those deaths related to COVID-19, albeit during the highest peaks of the pandemic. The present study derived form understanding the correlation between both diseases, from the standpoint of patients already diagnosed with CVD´s (n = 41883) and what comorbidities had the highest influence on overall patient death (n = 3637). Obesity, hypertension, and diabetes are all linked to worsening the outcome of COVID-19 positive patients, hence they were considered when looking at the overview of all CVD positive patients. Our finding showed that 1697 deaths were related to diabetes (p < 0.001), 987 deaths were related to obesity (p < 0.001), and lastly 2499 deaths were attributed to hypertension (p < 0.001) individually. Using logistic regression modeling, we found diabetes (OR: 1.744, p < 0.001) and hypertension (OR: 2.179, p < 0.001) had a high impact on patient deaths. Hence, having a CVD diagnosis, with hypertension and/or diabetes seems to increase the likely-hood of complication leading to death in COVID-19 positive patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202205.0295.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: Cardiovascular Diseases; Sex differences; Pakistani; Dietary intake patterns
Online: 23 May 2022 (10:30:30 CEST)
Objective: To explore sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) related risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension, and demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, and nutritional differences among 40-60 years old Pakistani CVD patients.Design: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study.Setting: The present study was conducted at the Mayo/King Edward Medical University (K.E.M.U) Hospital Cardiology Department (CCU-I & CCU-II), Lahore, from February 2020 to June 2020. A self-administered questionnaire was used for data collection.Participants: A random sample of 300 cardiac patients was included in the study. Patient records, food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recall was used to solicit information about demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical measurements; dietary intake parameters; and CVD risk factors such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and smoking. Results: Men CVD patients had higher BMI (33.43 kg/m2 vs. 28.69 kg/m2) and higher prevalence of hypertension (81.1% vs. 59%), hypercholesterolemia (82.4% vs. 54.5%) and smoked more cigarettes (72.6% vs. 9%) as compared to women while there was higher prevalence of diabetes among women as compared to men (59% vs. 29.4%). There were 85% women vs. 80% men consuming white bread, while half of the men reported using meat daily, as compared to only 16.6% women. There were 51.5% women and 17% men who reported consuming fruits and vegetables daily. There were 40% men and 16% women who reported consuming soft drinks. Conclusion: The study showed significant sex differences in the nutritional status and risk factors of patients with CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202110.0161.v1
Subject: Engineering, Control And Systems Engineering Keywords: Machine Learning; IoT; Ubiquitous Computing; Wearables; Cardiovascular Diseases.
Online: 11 October 2021 (14:03:09 CEST)
This article presents a systematic mapping study dedicated to conduct a literature review on machine learning and IoT applied in the identification of diseases through heart sounds. This research was conducted between January 2010 and July 2021, considering IEEE Xplore, PubMed Central, ACM Digital Library, JMIR- Journal of Medical Internet Research, Springer Library, and Science Direct. The initial search resulted in 4,372 papers, and after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 58 papers were selected for full reading to answer the research questions. The main results are: of the 58 articles selected, 46 (79.31%) mention heart rate observation methods with wearable sensors and digital stethoscopes, and 34 (58.62%) mention care with machine learning algorithms. The analysis of the studies based on the bibliometric network generated by the VOSviewer showed in 13 studies (22.41%) a trend related to the use of intelligent services in the prediction of diagnoses related to cardiovascular disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202109.0397.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Psychiatry And Mental Health Keywords: Hypertension management; Complications of cardiovascular; Quality of Life
Online: 23 September 2021 (09:03:57 CEST)
The aim of this study as to determine the relationship between the factors of demography, comor-bidity, medication, lifestyle, and access to health services related to the QoL of people with hy-pertension and its complications in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta. The study was conducted in a cross-sectional manner using data from Sleman HDSS (Health and Demographic Surveillance System) from 2015 to 2018 in cycles 3 and 2 with the inclusion criteria of hypertensive patients and their complications aged 25 years or older obtained by using a total sampling of 532 people. Measurement of QoL using Short Form 12v2 2a and 2b questionnaires presented in the Physical Component Summary (PCS) and Mental Component Summary (MCS). Data analysis using Mann-Whitney test and Kruskal Wallis test. The results showed factors related to the QoL in PCS were variables of gender, age, diagnosis of hypertension and its complications, the presence of comorbidities, fatty foods, drug consumption in the last two weeks, while factors related to the mental component (MCS) were education and occupation seen from the p-value <0.05. QoL with hypertension and its complications influence and decrease the physical than the patient's mental condition.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202102.0191.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy; proteomics; aptamer; cardiovascular disease; myectomy surgery
Online: 8 February 2021 (11:18:59 CET)
Left Ventricular Outflow Tract (LVOT) obstruction occurs in approximately 70% of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy (HCM) patients and currently requires imaging or invasive testing for diagnosis, sometimes in conjunction with provocative physiological or pharmaceutical stimuli. To identify potential biomarkers of LVOT obstruction, we performed proteomics profiling of 1305 plasma proteins in 12 HCM patients with documented LVOT obstruction referred for surgical myectomy. Plasma was collected at the surgical preoperative visit approximately one month prior to surgery and then at the post surgical visit approximately 3 months later. Proteomic profiles were generated using the aptamer-based SOMAscan assay. Principal Component Analysis using the highest statistically significant proteins separated all preoperative samples from all postoperative samples. Further analysis revealed a set of 25 proteins that distinguished the preoperative and postoperative states with a paired t-test p value of <0.01. Ingenuity Pathway analysis facilitated the generation of protein interaction networks and the elucidation of key upstream regulators of the differentially expressed proteins such as interferon-, TGF-1 and TNF. Biological pathways affected by the surgery included organ inflammation, migration and motility of leukocytes, fibrosis, vasculogenesis, angiogenesis, acute coronary events, endothelial proliferation, eicosanoid metabolism, calcium flux, apoptosis and morphology of the cardiovascular system. Our results indicate that surgical relief of dynamic outflow tract obstruction in HCM patients is associated with unique alterations in plasma proteomic profiles that likely reflect improvement in organ inflammation and physiological function.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202011.0223.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Immunology And Allergy Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; psychometric testing; Treatment Adherence and Compliance
Online: 5 November 2020 (19:17:33 CET)
Purpose: Determine the internal consistency and reproducibility test-retest of the Barrier Scale for Cardiac Rehabilitation (BSCR) in Colombian population. Methods: 190 patients (67% men, average age = 65 ± 12 years) completed the scale in two moments, with an average of eight days between applications. Cronbach's Alpha and Intraclass Correlation (ICC) coefficients were calculated. Results: The internal consistency of the Colombian version of the BSCR was good (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85). The ICC of the instrument was 0.69 (95% CI 0.61-0.76), 0.78 (95% CI 0.71-0.84) when used in the interview type, and 0.47 (95% CI 0, 21-0.67) when it was self-completing. Conclusions: The EBRC has an acceptable reliability in the Colombian population, however, its reproducibility decreases when it is self-directed. Identifying barriers using this scale will allow developing strategies to increase participation and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation programs focused on the real needs of patients.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202001.0241.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Oncology And Oncogenics Keywords: cardiovascular disease; particulate matter; cancer survivor; metropolitan area
Online: 21 January 2020 (11:10:42 CET)
Abstract: Cancer survivors are at an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, the association between particulate matter (PM) and CVD risk among cancer survivors (alive >5 years since diagnosis) is unclear. We investigated the risk of CVD among 40,899 cancer survivors within the Korean National Health Insurance Service database. Exposure to PM was determined by assessing yearly average PM levels obtained from the Air Korea database from 2008 to 2011. PMs with sizes <2.5 (PM2.5), <10 (PM10), or 2.5-10 (PM2.5-10) μm in diameter were compared, with each PM level exposure further divided into quintiles. Patients were followed up from January 2012 to date of CVD event, death, or December 2017, whichever came earliest. Adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for CVD were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression by PM exposure levels. Compared with cancer survivors in the lowest quintile of PM2.5 exposure, those within the highest quintile had a greater risk for CVD (aHR 1.31, 95% CI 1.07-1.59). Conversely, increasing PM10 and PM2.5-10 levels were not associated with increased CVD risk (p for trend 0.078 and 0.361, respectively). Cancer survivors who reduce PM2.5 exposure may reduce their risk of developing CVD.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0435.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: chronic kidney disease; hemodialysis; cardiovascular disease; echocardiography; child
Online: 4 July 2019 (10:37:00 CEST)
Assessment of cardiac function is the leading parameter when evaluating the state of the cardiovascular system of patients undergoing chronic hemodialysis. The aim of the paper: to assess the state of the cardiovascular system of these patients using new sensitive echocardiography and Doppler techniques and thus advance the prevention of cardiovascular disease.Method: Twenty children with end-stage renal insufficiency on chronic hemodialysis and twenty healthy controls underwent echocardiographic monitoring using standard Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging. Structural and functional changes in the left ventricle were evaluated.Results: Patients on hemodialysis had significantly greater left ventricular mass indices compared to the controls (p<0.001). The patients on hemodialysis had preserved systolic function – their fractional shortening, ejection fraction and Sm (systolic myocardial velocity) did not differ significantly compared to the controls (p>0.05). Early diastolic function in children on hemodialysis was also preserved: the E/A and Em/Am ratio did not differ significantly from the control group (p>0.05). Children on hemodialysis exhibited impaired late diastolic function (compliance index), that is, considerably higher E/Em compared to controls (p<0.00). Myocardial Performance Index values showed statistically significant elevation in children on hemodialysis compared to the control group (p<0.001).Conclusion: Tissue Doppler in tandem with conventional Pulsed Doppler can provide additional information on left ventricular filling pressures (E/Em) in children on hemodialysis. It is therefore recommended to perform routine measuring of Em waves and the E/Em ratio, not only in order to evaluate myocardial relaxation and ventricular filling pressures, but primarily to stratify risk and provide a prognosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201811.0283.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: Arthrospira maxima; antioxidant; cardiovascular; nutraceutical; systolic blood pressure
Online: 12 November 2018 (10:42:25 CET)
1) Background: Spirulina (Arthrospira) maxima has shown beneficial effects such anti-dyslipidemic, antiviral, antioxidant and antihypertensive. However, there are few and limited clinical studies. 2) Methods: a prospective, randomized, parallel pilot study of 4.5 g administration of Spirulina maxima or placebo for 12 weeks in 16 patients with systemic arterial hypertension undergoing treatment with ACE inhibitors was performed to assess the effects on endothelial damage and oxidative stress indicators. The blood levels of sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, endothelin-1, and sE-selectin were quantified; the activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and concentrations of reduced glutathione, oxidized glutathione, and thiobarbituric acid reactive susbtances, were also quantified before and after the treatment period. 3) Results: There were statistically significant (p < 0.05) decreases in systolic blood pressure, sVCAM-1, sE-selectin and endothelin-1 levels, and increases in glutathione peroxidase activity and oxidized glutathione levels. 4) Conclusion: The effects found in the present study agree with antihypertensive and antioxidant effects previously reported for Spirulina maxima. However, this is the first report about the effects on indicators of endothelial damage. More research in this field is necessary to gain an insight into the effects of Spirulina on these indicators.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201809.0431.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: hesperidin; L-NAME; cardiovascular remodeling; oxidative stress; inflammation
Online: 21 September 2018 (08:15:47 CEST)
Hesperidin is a major flavonoid isolated from citrus fruits that exhibits several biological activities. This study aims to evaluate the effect of hesperidin on cardiovascular remodeling induced by N-nitro L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with L-NAME (40 mg/kg); L-NAME plus hesperidin (15 mg/kg), or hesperidin (30 mg/kg), or captopril (2.5 mg/kg) for five weeks (n = 8/group). Hesperidin or captopril significantly prevented the development of hypertension in L-NAME rats. Moreover, hesperidin or captopril alleviated L-NAME-induced cardiac remodeling; increases in wall thickness, cross sectional area (CSA) and fibrosis of left ventricular (LV), and vascular remodeling; increases in wall thickness, CSA, vascular smooth muscle cells and collagen deposition in the aorta. These were associated with reduced oxidative stress markers, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and enhancing plasma nitric oxide metabolite (NOx) in L-NAME treated groups. Furthermore, up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor receptor type 1 (TNF-R1) and TGF-β1 protein expression and the over-expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) were suppressed in L-NAME rats treated with hesperidin or captopril. These data suggested that hesperidin had cardioprotective effects in L-NAME hypertensive rats. The possible mechanism may involve its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1538.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: cardiovascular disease; omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids; polar lipids; cardiovascular risk; thrombosis; platelet-activating factor (PAF); eicosanoids; resolvins; fish oil
Online: 22 September 2023 (08:44:08 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death across the globe, hence, establishing strategies to counteract CVD are imperative to reduce mortality and the burden on health systems. Dietary modification is an effective primary prevention strategy against CVD. Research regarding dietary supplementation has become increasingly popular. This review focuses on the current in vivo, in vitro, and epidemiological studies associated with that of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) and polar lipids (PLs) and how they play a role against CVD. Furthermore, this review focuses on the results of several major clinical trials examining n-3 PUFA regarding both primary and secondary prevention of CVD. Notably, we place a lens on the REDUCE-IT and STRENGTH trials. Finally, supplementation of PLs has recently been suggested as a potential alternative avenue for the reduction of CVD incidence versus neutral forms of n-3 PUFA. However, the clinical evidence for this argument is currently rather limited. Therefore, we draw on the current literature to suggest future clinical trials for PL supplementation. We conclude that despite conflicting evidence, future human trials must be completed to confirm whether PL supplementation may be more effective than n-3 PUFA supplementation to reduce cardiovascular risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1456.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy And Rehabilitation Keywords: circuit training; resistin; weighted vest; normal weight obesity; cardiopulmonary fitness; Vo2max; IL-6; hs-CRP, cardiovascular; cardiovascular disease risk factors
Online: 22 August 2023 (02:58:37 CEST)
This study investigated the effects of whole-body circuit training using a weighted vest on plasma resistin, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness for normal-weight obese women. In this study, thirty- six normal-weight obese women were divided into three groups: Weighted Vest Circuit Training (WVCT) (n = 12), Body Weight Circuit Training (BWCT) (n = 12), and Control (CON) (n = 12). Whole-body circuit training was conducted three times a week for eight weeks to compare and analyze plasma resistin, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and cardiorespiratory fitness before and after training. Although there was no significant baseline difference between the groups regarding skeletal muscle mass, it significantly increased for the WVCT group after eight weeks. percent body fat significantly decreased for the WVCT and BWCT groups, and there was a significant difference when the percent body fat of these two groups were compared to that of the control group. Moreover, the WVCT and BWCT groups displayed a significant decrease in plasma resistin, showing a significant difference from the CON group. The WVCT and BWCT group showed a significant decrease in plasma IL-6, whereas the CON group showed a significant increase. VO2max significantly increased post-training compared to before in the BWCT group and the WVCT group, and the WVCT group showed differences between groups compared to the BWCT group and the CON group. None of the three groups displayed significant changes in plasma hs-CRP, yet there was a significant difference between the hs-CRPs of the WVCT and BWCT group and that of the CON group. In conclusion, whole-body circuit training using a weighted vest efficiently improves body composition, plasma resistin, and cardiopulmonary fitness, reducing cardiovascular disease risk factors in normal-weight obese women.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0912.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Clinical Medicine Keywords: Testosterone therapy; cardiovascular disease markers; type 2 diabetes mellitus
Online: 16 October 2023 (08:32:27 CEST)
High hepcidin is linked to low-grade inflammation and lower iron levels. The consequence of testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is undetermined. We investigate the effect of TRT on the inflammatory cardiovascular risk markers hepcidin-iron, fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23)-phosphate-klotho, and calprotectin pathways. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study at an academic tertiary-care medical center. Interventions were testosterone gel (TRT, n=20) or placebo gel (n=19) for 24 weeks. We included 39 men (50─70 years) with type 2 diabetes (T2D) on metformin monotherapy with bioavailable testosterone levels <7.3 nmol/L. Body composition was assessed by DXA- and MRI-scans; main study outcomes were serum hepcidin-iron, FGF23, phosphate, klotho, and calprotectin. Results: Hepcidin levels decreased during TRT (β=-9.5 ng/mL, P<0.001), lean body mass (β=1.9 kg, P=0.001) increased, and total fat mass (β=-1.3 kg, P=0.009) decreased compared to placebo. Delta hepcidin was not associated with changes in lean body mass or fat mass. Iron and the pathways of FGF23-phosphate-klotho and calprotectin were unchanged during TRT. Conclusions: During TRT, the reduction in hepcidin was not associated with circulating iron levels, lean body mass, or fat mass; these findings suggested a direct anti-inflammatory effect of TRT and no indirect effect mediated through these factors.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.0816.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Framingham Risk Score; cardiovascular disease; prediction; risk factors; recalibration
Online: 12 October 2023 (16:24:30 CEST)
1. Background: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are India’s leading cause of mortality. This study aimed to recalibrate the original Framingham Risk Score (FRS) equations among adults in Kerala state. 2. Methods: Baseline survey data from the Kerala Diabetes Prevention Program were analyzed: 921 males and 567 females for lipid-based FRS scores and 1042 males and 646 females for BMI-based FRS scores. Recalibration of the original FRS scores was performed using local data on CVD risk factors and CVD mortality. 3. Results: Among males, the median 10-year CVD risk with the recalibrated lipid-based FRS score was 7.34 (IQR 4.33-12.42), compared with the original score of 8.88 (5.23-14.87) (p<0.001). For BMI-based FRS scores, the median 10-year CVD risk was 7.40 (4.27-11.83) with the recalibrated score, compared to 9.32 (5.40-14.80) for the original score (p<0.001). In females, the median 10-year CVD risk was 4.83 (2.90-8.36) with the recalibrated score, compared to 2.85 (IQR 1.71-4.98) with the original score (p<0.001). Similarly, the median 10-year CVD risk was 4.66 (2.74-8.81) with the recalibrated BMI-based FRS score, compared to 2.95 (1.72-5.61) with the original score (p<0.001). 4. Conclusions: Recalibrated FRS scores estimated a significantly lower 10-year CVD risk in males and a higher risk in females than the original FRS scores.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1913.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Obstetrics And Gynaecology Keywords: breast cancer; cardiovascular Disease; hypertension; atrial Fibrillation; myocardial Infarction
Online: 28 September 2023 (18:13:37 CEST)
Breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) represent significant global health challenges, with CVD being the leading cause of mortality and breast cancer showing a complex pattern of incidence and mortality. We explore the intricate interplay between these two seemingly distinct medical conditions, shedding light on their shared risk factors and potential pathophysiological connections. A specific connection between hypertension (HTN), atrial fibrillation (AF), myocardial infarction (MI), and breast cancer was evaluated. HTN is explored in detail, emphasizing the role of aging, menopause, insulin resistance, and obesity as common factors linking HTN and breast cancer. Moreover, an attempt is made to identify the potential impact of antihypertensive medications and highlight the increased risk of breast cancer among those women, with a focus on potential mechanisms. A summary of key findings underscores the need for a multisystemic approach to understanding the relationship between CVD and breast cancer is also explored with a highlight for all the gaps in current research, such as the lack of clinical observational data on MI and breast cancer in humans and the need for studies specifically designed for breast cancer. This paper concludes that there should be a focus on potential clinical applications of further investigation in this field, including personalized prevention and screening strategies for women at risk. Overall, the authors attempt to provide a comprehensive overview of the intricate connections between breast cancer and cardiovascular diseases, emphasizing the importance of further research in this evolving field of cardio-oncology.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1597.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Galectin-3, acute myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiovascular events
Online: 25 September 2023 (12:58:57 CEST)
Background: Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a biomarker involved in a wide range of diseases including cardiac remodeling following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Identification of prognostic markers in patients with AMI can guide strategies towards improved survival and the quality of life. Methods: Our study included 59 patients with AMI and preserved ejection fraction. We determined the Gal-3 plasma concentration within 24 hours of chest pain onset from aortic root, femoral/radial artery, coronary sinus and cubital vein. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) were evaluated at six months follow-up. Results: MACE at six months post-AMI was recorded in 20 patients (34%). The Gal-3 plasma concentration from aortic root and the femoral/radial artery were independent predictors of MACE at six months follow-up after the first AMI (OR 1.228; 95%CI: 1.011-1.491; p=0.038; OR 3.438; 95%CI: 1.275-9.265; p=0.015). ROC analysis identifies the Gal-3 plasma concentration from aortic root as a better predictor of MACE or death (cut-off >10.86 ng/ml; AUC 0.858; 95%CI: 0.744-0.973; p<0.001) than Gal-3 plasma concentration from femoral/radial artery (cut-off >10.18 ng/ml; AUC 0.742; 95%CI: 0.596-0.888; p=0.006). Conclusion: The Gal-3 plasma concentration in patients with AMI determined during coronary angiography, especially from the aortic root, within 24 hours after chest pain onset is a valuable biomarker of prognosis at six months follow-up.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1190.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; cardiovascular complications; atherogenesis; cardiac arrhythmias; inflammation; disease
Online: 19 September 2023 (03:05:40 CEST)
The risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is 1.5 times higher compared to the general population. The objective of this retrospective study was to determine the type of cardiovascular complications that can appear in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Reducing the cardiovascular risk, through an aggressive management of the traditional and non-traditional risk factors, is another objective of this study. Early diagnosis and initiation of therapeutic measures to reduce the progression rate of rheumatoid arthritis, while also maintaining an active lifestyle, are the most important problems in young patients. We included a number of 200 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, presenting various stages of disease, concomitant with cardiovascular complications. The incidence by gender was higher in women, while men presented a higher incidence of traditional and non-traditional cardiovascular risk factors. All the patients presented an atherogenic coefficient over 2, indicating a significant risk of atherogenesis. An increased incidence of coronary artery disease was found in men. The patients presented cardiac arrhythmias, especially in the active stage of the condition, while the incidence of atrial fibrillation was higher in women. The active stage of the disease was evaluated using inflammatory biomarkers (ESR, PCR). ESR is not a specific tool for diagnosing the disease, but its important role in monitoring the activity of RA should not be ignored. Moreover, ESR has a significant role in monitoring the evolution and determining the prognostic of congestive heart failure. A target treatment prescribed a target treatment to reduce inflammation and prevent exacerbations was prescribed for all patients. However, in daily clinical practice, the screening for RA is poorly done. Thus, patients are often undiagnosed, while the risk factors are not assessed. In conclusion, even nowadays, RA patients continue to present an increased risk of developing CVD.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0802.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Cell And Developmental Biology Keywords: endothelial cells; cell membrane repair; dysferlin; annexins; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 13 September 2023 (05:43:59 CEST)
Endothelial cells are the crucial inner lining of blood vessels, pivotal in vascular homeostasis and integrity. However, these cells are perpetually subjected to a myriad of mechanical, chemical, and biological stresses that can compromise their plasma membranes. A sophisticated repair system involving key molecules, such as calcium, annexins, dysferlin, and MG53, is essential for maintaining endothelial viability. These components orchestrate complex mechanisms, including exocytosis and endocytosis, to repair membrane disruptions. Dysfunctions in this repair machinery, often exacerbated by aging, are linked to endothelial cell death, subsequently contributing to the onset of atherosclerosis and the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and stroke, major causes of mortality in the United States. Thus, identifying the core machinery for endothelial cell membrane repair is critically important for understanding the pathogenesis of CVD and stroke and developing novel therapeutic strategies for combating CVD and stroke. This review summarizes the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of endothelial cell membrane repair. The future directions of this research area are also highlighted.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0090.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Sacubitril-valsartan; heart failure; ejection fraction and cardiovascular disease
Online: 3 July 2023 (13:25:11 CEST)
Background: The 2021 “Universal Definition of Heart Failure (HF)” Proposed the following left ventricle ejection (LVEF) phenotype classification: ≤40%; HF with intermediate LVEF: between 41-49% and HF with preserved LVEF: ≥50%. LVEF represents the percentage of left ventricular ejected volume in each cardiac cycle and Cut-points considered statistically normal are: ≥52% in men and ≥54% in women. The prevalence HFpEF is of 35-60% among the HF phenotypes, with a facing to increase rates in relation to HFrEF and is associated with mortality rates similar to those of HFrEF. The pathophysiology of HFpEF is based on vascular and metabolic dysfunction, therefore, there is less neurohumoral stimulation compared to HFrEF. Methodology: A systematic review was performed to report of information related to Sacubitril-valsartan and the treatment of HFrEF. Terms related to “treatment” and “brazil” were used in the databases PubMed (MEDLINE) and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SCIELO). Results: Clinical trials testing drugs that modulate the neurohumoral system in patients with HFpEF failed to demonstrate benefit in the combined endpoint of reduced mortality/hospitalization due to HF compared to placebo to date. Sacubitril-valsartan is a drug with a mechanism of action surrogate the pathophysiological concept of HFpEF, it is safe and decreased endpoints of natriuretic peptides and left atrial structure in a phase II clinical study. Conclusions: The PARAGON-HF trial demonstrated that sacubitril-valsartan reduced the primary endpoint of the study when assessed the pre-specified subgroup of LVEF≤57% and improved the secondary endpoints of performance status and renal function in the population.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1869.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: RNA; obesity; chronic kidney disease; cardiovascular disorder; gene regulation
Online: 27 June 2023 (10:45:54 CEST)
Obesity has become a global epidemic, contributing to the development of numerous chronic diseases, including diabetes, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disorders. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators in various biological processes, including metabolism, inflammation, and tissue remodeling, making them pivotal players in obesity-related pathologies. This review aims to provide comprehensive insights into the roles of miRNAs in obesity, with a particular emphasis on their involvement in the pathogenesis of CKD and cardiovascular disorders. We highlight the involvement of specific miRNAs in adipose tissue development, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance, contributing to the pathogenesis of obesity. Moreover, we explore the impact of miRNAs on renal fibrosis, and inflammation, giving clues on their roles in the development and progression of CKD. Additionally, we discuss the influence of miRNAs on endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cardiac remodeling, emphasizing their contribution to obesity-related cardiovascular disorders. Understanding the regulatory functions of miRNAs in these interconnected conditions holds promise for improved diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic interventions. Indeed, miRNAs are potential diagnostic biomarkers for obesity-related diseases although challenges remain to be elucidated before their clinical translation. Furthermore, we highlight the emerging strategies that target miRNAs as therapeutic interventions to mitigate the detrimental effects of obesity on kidney and cardiovascular health.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202304.0738.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Heart failure; Sodium-glucose co-transporter; diabetes; cardiovascular outcomes.
Online: 23 April 2023 (03:13:59 CEST)
Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, originally used for diabetes mellitus, are gaining more popularity for other indications owing to their positive cardiovascular and renal effects. Initially, SGLT2 inhibitors were shown to reduce heart failure (HF) hospitalization and improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Later, SGLT2 inhibitors were evaluated in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF) and had beneficial effects independent of the presence of diabetes. Recently, reduction in cardiovascular outcomes were also observed in patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). SGLT2 inhibitors also reduced renal outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease. Overall, these drugs have an excellent safety profile with a negligible risk of genitourinary tract infections and ketoacidosis. In this review, we discuss the current data regarding SGLT2 inhibitors in special populations including acute myocardial infarction, acute HF, right ventricular (RV) failure, patients with left ventricular assist device (LVAD), and patients with type1 diabetes. We also discuss the potential mechanisms behind the cardiovascular benefits of these drugs.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202203.0265.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Restrictive Cardiomyopathy; Cardiomyopathy; Cardiovascular Genetics; Desmin; Troponin; Filamin-C
Online: 18 March 2022 (09:05:21 CET)
Restrictive cardiomyopathy is a rare cardiac disease causing severe diastolic dysfunction, ventricular stiffness and dilated atria. In consequence, it induces heart failure often with preserved ejection fraction and is associated with a high mortality. Since a poor clinical prognosis, patients with restrictive cardiomyopathy require frequently heart transplantation. Genetic as well as non-genetic factors contribute to restrictive cardiomyopathy and a significant portion of cases remains of unknown etiology. However, the genetic forms of restrictive cardiomyopathy and the involved molecular pathomechanisms are only partially understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about primary genetic restrictive cardiomyopathy and describe its genetic landscape, which might be of interest for geneticists as well as for cardiologists.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0119.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: astaxanthin; cardiovascular disease; atherosclerosis; inflammation; oxidative stress; carotenoids; antioxidant
Online: 5 August 2020 (09:53:14 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease is the most common cause of death. Oxidative stress and inflammation are pathophysiological processes involved in the development of cardiovascular diseases, so anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents that modulate redox balance have become the targets of research to evaluate their molecular mechanisms and therapeutic properties. Astaxanthin, a carotenoid of the xanthophyll group, has potent antioxidant effects due to its molecular structure and its arrangement in the plasma membrane, factors that favor the neutralization of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This carotenoid also stands out for its anti-inflammatory activity, possibly interrelated with its antioxidant effect, as well as for its modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism. Considering the potential positive effects of astaxanthin on cardiovascular health evidenced by preclinical and clinical studies, this paper describes the molecular and cellular mechanisms related to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of this carotenoid in cardiovascular diseases, especially atherosclerosis.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202008.0074.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Probability And Statistics Keywords: data mining; cardiovascular diseases; cluster analysis; principle component analysis
Online: 4 August 2020 (03:56:19 CEST)
Cardiovascular disease is the number one cause of death in the world and Quoting from WHO, around 31% of deaths in the world are caused by cardiovascular diseases and more than 75% of deaths occur in developing countries. The results of patients with cardiovascular disease produce many medical records that can be used for further patient management. This study aims to develop a method of data mining by grouping patients with cardiovascular disease to determine the level of patient complications in the two clusters. The method applied is principal component analysis (PCA) which aims to reduce the dimensions of the large data available and the techniques of data mining in the form of cluster analysis which implements the K-Medoids algorithm. The results of data reduction with PCA resulted in five new components with a cumulative proportion variance of 0.8311. The five new components are implemented for cluster formation using the K-Medoids algorithm which results in the form of two clusters with a silhouette coefficient of 0.35. Combination of techniques of Data reduction by PCA and the application of the K-Medoids clustering algorithm are new ways for grouping data of patients with cardiovascular disease based on the level of patient complications in each cluster of data generated.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202004.0204.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Covid-19; coronavirus; cardiovascular disease; thrombosis; hypertension; endothelial dysfunction
Online: 13 April 2020 (02:23:33 CEST)
The symptoms most commonly reported by patients affected by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) include cough, fever, and shortness of breath. However, other major events usually observed in COVID-19 patients (e.g. high blood pressure, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism) seem to suggest that the virus is targeting the endothelium, one of the largest organs in the human body. Herein, we report both clinical and preclinical evidence supporting the hypothesis that the endothelium is a key target organ of COVID-19.
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pharmacology And Toxicology Keywords: adenosine receptor; nucleoside transport; CNS; inflammation; cardiovascular system; pain
Online: 9 April 2020 (16:19:14 CEST)
Many ligands directly target adenosine receptors (ARs). Here we review the effects of noncanonical AR drugs on adenosinergic signaling. Non-AR mechanisms include raising adenosine levels by inhibiting adenosine transport (e.g. ticagrelor, ethanol, cannabidiol), affecting intracellular metabolic pathways (e.g. methotrexate, nicotinamide riboside, salicylate, 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside), or undetermined means (e.g. acupuncture). Yet other compounds bind ARs in addition to their canonical ‘on-target’ activity (e.g. mefloquine). The strength of experimental support for an adenosine-related role in a drug’s effects varies widely. AR knockout mice are the ‘gold standard’ method for investigating an AR role, but few drugs have been tested in these mice. Given the interest in AR modulation for treatment of cancer, CNS, immune, metabolic, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal conditions, it is informative to consider AR and non-AR adenosinergic effects of approved drugs and conventional treatments.
CASE REPORT | doi:10.20944/preprints201907.0216.v2
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: RMT, IMT, EMT, vascular compliance, pulmonary function, cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular
Online: 13 August 2019 (09:48:11 CEST)
Many lifestyle and occupational habits negatively impact on physical and mental health, increasing the risk of cardiovascular and other diseases. While larger institutions fulfill occupational health requirements to ensure their employees’ wellbeing at work, smaller business workers and entrepreneurs may neglect initial signs of stress or physical decline, putting themselves at increased risk. Early detection of compromised cardiopulmonary health or fitness has the potential to flag up indications for early interventions and reduce the risk of disease onset and progression. This case study highlights the usefulness of respiratory muscle training (RMT) in improving pulmonary and cardiovascular parameters as an early countermeasure to cardiopulmonary decline. We suggest RMT as an easily accessible, cost- and time effective opportunity to support a healthy lifestyle.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201805.0050.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: chronic diseases; cardiovascular; renal; endocrine; diabetes; therapeutic advances; tobacco
Online: 3 May 2018 (05:08:44 CEST)
Despite needs for new therapies and improvements in existing approaches in cardiovascular, pulmonary, endocrine, and renal disease, investment in these areas is lagging relative to other specialties. This article summarizes a meeting of key stakeholders of U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) officials, representatives from academia, national organizations, and patients and caregivers. The purpose was to identify and discuss high-priority issues, establish areas of common interest, and explore opportunities for collaboration. During the meeting (September 2016), the construct of a “multimorbidity continuum” emerged, in which chronic diseases are understood as their effects on the whole rather than individual organ systems. Cross-disciplinary priorities included: 1) the need to generate greater high-quality evidence at lower cost; 2) the imperative to develop and implement patient-centered approaches to clinical investigations; 3) the importance of trial participation in under-represented populations, particularly with comorbid conditions, and 4) the need for progress in tobacco regulation. Representatives from each therapeutic area reported on their consensus priorities, and FDA representatives discussed the agency’s role in facilitating broader approaches to therapeutic development and evaluation of disease as linked across organ systems rather than in isolation, and emphasized the importance of patient engagement, collaboration and communication across stakeholders.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202311.1494.v1
Subject: Chemistry And Materials Science, Biomaterials Keywords: Magnesium alloy; Cardiovascular stent; Corrosion resistance; Protective coating; Rapid endothelialization
Online: 23 November 2023 (08:43:42 CET)
Magnesium alloy stents have been extensively studied in the field of biodegradable metal stents due to their exceptional biocompatibility, biodegradability and excellent biomechanical properties. Nevertheless, the specific in vivo service environment causes magnesium alloy stents to degrade rapidly and fail to provide sufficient support for certain time. This paper presents an overview of the development history and protection strategies for magnesium alloy stents. Alloying, optimizing stent structure and preparing protective coating have improved the corrosion resistance of magnesium alloy stents. Based on the corrosion mechanism of magnesium alloy stents, as well as their deformation during use and environmental characteristics, we present some novel solution strategies aiming at reducing the corrosion rate of magnesium alloys and enhancing the comprehensive performance of magnesium alloy stents. These strategies include adapting protective coatings for the deformation of the stents, preparing rapid endothelialization coatings to enhance the service environment of the stent, and constructing coatings with self-healing functions. It is hoped that this review can help to understand the development of magnesium alloy cardiovascular stents and solve the problems related to magnesium alloy stents in clinical applications at the early implantation stage.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202310.1692.v1
Subject: Computer Science And Mathematics, Mathematical And Computational Biology Keywords: n/a; Ontology; Database; Cardiovascular Diseases; Diagnosis; Decision Support Systems
Online: 26 October 2023 (10:08:19 CEST)
Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are chronic diseases associated with a high risk of mortality and morbidity. Early detection of CVD is crucial to initiating timely interventions, such as appro- priate counseling and medication, which can effectively manage the condition and improve patient outcomes. Preventive measures should be implemented at the general public level, promoting a healthy lifestyle, and at the individual level, that is, in people with moderate to high risk of CVD or patients already diagnosed with CVD by addressing an unhealthy lifestyle. Personalized early diagnostic systems based on artificial intelligence (AI), ontologies, and other medical information processing systems may prove to be a great preventive measure. In this paper, we focus on the use of ontology-inspired database models in the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, as well as their potential for use in web application development.
CONCEPT PAPER | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.1755.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Neuroscience And Neurology Keywords: obesity; cancer, cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance. psychosocial impact; sleep apnea
Online: 26 September 2023 (08:51:21 CEST)
Obesity, characterized by the excessive accumulation of body fat, contributes to a multitude of physiological dysfunctions. This paper explores the complex relationship between obesity and various risk factors and complications, shedding light on critical health implications. Obesity triggers alterations in insulin, leptin, adiponectin, cytokines, and insulin-like growth factors, fostering conditions conducive to cancer initiation. Aberrations in nutrient-dependent intracellular signaling pathways, driven by the excess nutrition characteristic of obesity, contribute to the neoplastic transformation of cells. The Body Mass Index (BMI) correlates directly with adiposity, underlining its significance in cancer risk. Furthermore, insulin and insulin-like growth factors, notably IGF-2, play pivotal roles in this relationship. The expression of IR-A receptors is elevated in cancer. Obesity and cardiovascular diseases share a strong association. Obesity elevates the risk of fatal events like myocardial infarction. High cholesterol levels contribute to atherosclerosis in the aorta and coronary arteries. The severity of coronary artery disease is influenced by plaque formation characterized by calcium deposits. Obesity is also linked to hypertension and increased ventricular mass, exacerbating cardiovascular risks. Hypercholesterolemia and hypertension correlate with a high Body Mass Index (BMI). Obesity is intricately connected to insulin resistance, particularly evident in childhood obesity. It entails a gradual decline in insulin sensitivity, leading to elevated insulin levels in the bloodstream. Insulin resistance is a central factor in the development of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Obesity also results in elevated triglyceride levels and reduced high-density lipoproteins, contributing to atherogenic dyslipidemia and a heightened risk of atherosclerosis. Additionally, obesity is associated with various other disorders, including epilepsy, depression, and neuropsychological problems. Beyond its physiological impact, obesity is associated with significant psychosocial challenges. Studies indicate that individuals with obesity face a higher risk of depressive symptoms, often related to overeating and unhealthy dietary patterns. The social withdrawal tendencies of obese individuals exacerbate these symptoms, with higher rates of depression observed in this group. OSA, a sleep disorder characterized by intermittent breathing cessation during sleep, is strongly correlated with obesity. Approximately 58% of obese individuals experience OSA, with higher Body Mass Index (BMI) associated with an increased risk. Weight reduction has been found to mitigate the severity of OSA and related arrhythmias. Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy demonstrates effectiveness in reducing visceral fat accumulation and leptin levels. This comprehensive review underscores the intricate web of health implications associated with obesity, emphasizing the critical need for preventive measures and intervention strategies to address the multifaceted challenges posed by this global health concern.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202309.0584.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: telemedicine; mHealth; e-Health; telehealth; cardiology; cardiovascular medicine; myocardial infarction
Online: 8 September 2023 (10:45:49 CEST)
Telemedicine, telehealth, e-Health, and other related terms refer to the exchange of medical information or medical care from one site to another through electronic communication between a patient and healthcare provider. As telemedicine infrastructure has changed since the COVID-19 pandemic, this review provides an overview of telemedicine use and effectiveness in cardiology, with emphasis on the post-pandemic context. Pre-pandemic studies tend to report statistically insignificant or modest improvements in cardiovascular disease outcome from telemedicine use to usual care. By contrast, post-pandemic studies tend to report positive outcomes or comparable acceptance of telemedicine use to usual care. Today, telemedicine can effectively replace in person follow-ups to produce comparable (but not necessarily superior) outcomes in cardiovascular disease management. A major benefit of telemedicine is the significant reduction in follow-up time or time-to-intervention which may lead to earlier detection and prevention of adverse events. Nonetheless, there remain barriers to effective telemedicine implementation in the post-pandemic context. Providing accuracy and ease-of-use of telemedicine devices, ensuring adherence to remote rehabilitation procedures, and implementing widespread telemedicine infrastructure are such examples. Current knowledge gaps include the true economic cost of telemedicine infrastructure, feasibility of use in specific cardiology contexts, and sex/gender differences of health outcomes through telemedicine use. Future telemedicine developments will need to address these concerns to achieve widespread acceptance as the new standard of care.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.1818.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Chest Pain; Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; Outcomes; Cardiovascular Disease; Emergency Department
Online: 28 August 2023 (09:23:50 CEST)
This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and outcomes of patients who underwent per-cutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and visited an emergency department (ED) with chest pain in Saudi Arabia. A retrospective analysis of patient data was conducted, focusing on demographics, risk factors, pain assessment, triage, diagnostic testing, and management. The results revealed a young adult population (40-59 years old) at risk for coronary heart disease (CHD), highlighting the need for increased awareness and education. Gender differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) presentation and underdiagnoses in women also require attention for effective prevention and treatment. Accurate pain assessment during triage was found to be essential to prevent mistriage and negative patient outcomes. Chest pain and shortness of breath were common symptoms, emphasizing the importance of recognizing acute myocardial infarction (AMI) symptoms for proper triage, diagnostic testing, and prompt treatment. The study identified modifiable CVD risk factors, including diabetes (51.1%), hypertension (43.8%), and smoking (25.9%), stressing the importance of lifestyle modifications to reduce CVD risk. Saudi Arabia faces significant challenges in addressing cardiovascular disorders, but efforts to improve healthcare access and establish specialized centers are promising. In conclusion, this study underscores the need for increased awareness of CHD among young adults, accurate pain assessment during triage, and lifestyle modifications to address modifiable CVD risk factors. Furthermore, healthcare teams must stay updated on new chest pain guidelines in the ED and prioritize early detection of implicated arteries and prompt reperfusion. Further research investigating chest pain patient triage and assessments across Saudi Arabia is recommended to identify areas of improvement and implement necessary changes in clinical practice.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202308.0824.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: biopsychosocial approach; coronary artery disease; cardiovascular disease; SHARE survey; aging
Online: 10 August 2023 (08:14:46 CEST)
Myocardial infarction is one of the main causes of death, and cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) are always considered when studying it. However, although it is known that other social and psychological variables, and especially frailty, can increase the risk of infarction, their simultaneous effect has not been extensively studied. This study is based on data from the SHARE project (latest wave, 8), with a representative sample of 46498 participants, aged 50 or older (M = 70.40, SD = 9.33), 57.4% were females. Statistical analyses included a full structural equation model that predicts 27% of infarction occurrence and evidences the significant effect of well-being, depression, and social connectedness on frailty. Frailty in turn explains 15.5% of the variability of CVRF. This work supports the need to study these physical, social, and mental health factors together to intervene on frailty, and in turn improve cardiovascular outcomes.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.1714.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Cardiovascular diseases; mortality; modifiable risk factors; sociodemographic index; BRICS-Plus
Online: 25 July 2023 (11:32:10 CEST)
BRICS-Plus (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, and 30 other countries) is a group of 35 countries with emerging economies making up more than half of the world’s population. We explored epidemiological trends of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality attributable to modifiable risk factors and its association with period and birth cohort effects and sociodemographic index (SDI) across BRICS-Plus by using joinpoint regression and age-period-cohort (APC) modeling from 1990 to 2019. Between 1990 and 2019, the all-ages CVD deaths increased by 85.2% (6.1 million to 11.3 million) across BRICS-Plus. The CVD ASMR attributable to dietary risks and smoking significantly decreased across BRIC-Plus countries, with some exceptions. However, four-fifth of BRIC-Plus countries observed a remarkable increasing trend of high body mass-index (BMI)-related CVD deaths in particular among younger adults (25-49 years). Early birth cohorts and individuals aged greater than 50 years showed a higher risk of CVD mortality. Both China-ASEAN FTA and Mercosur regions stand out for their successful sociodemographic transition, with a significant reduction in CVD mortality over the study period. Singapore and Brazil achieved great progress in CVD mortality reduction and the other BRICS-Plus countries should follow their lead in adopting public health policies and initiatives into practice.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2222.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Gut microbiota; Cardiovascular diseases; Trimethylamine N-Oxide; Heart failure; Atherosclerosis
Online: 30 June 2023 (11:58:11 CEST)
Much evidence reveals an important link between gut microbiota and the heart. In particular, the gut microbiota plays a key role in the onset of cardiovascular (CV) disease, including heart failure (HF). In HF, splanchnic hypoperfusion causes intestinal ischemia resulting in the translocation of bacteria and their metabolites into the blood circulation. Among these, the most important is the Trimethylamine N-Oxide (TMAO), which is responsible through various mechanisms for pathological processes in different organs and tissues. In this review, we summarise the complex interaction between gut microbiota and CV disease, particularly with HF, and the possible strategies to influence its composition and function. Finally, we highlight the potential role of TMAO as a novel prognostic marker and new therapeutic target of HF.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.2064.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Other Keywords: Trends; diversity; cardiovascular disease (CVD); mortality; risk factors; Asian countries
Online: 29 June 2023 (05:17:21 CEST)
We explored the trends and the diversity of the mortality and risk factors of age-standardized cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and cerebrovascular disease (CBD) from 2000 to 2020 in five advanced Asian countries, including China, Japan, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan. Data were obtained from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) report. Overall, the CVD mortality rates decreased gradually in all five Asian countries. Singapore had the highest rates before 2011, but Taiwan replaced Singapore as the nation of the highest mortality rates after 2012. Additionally, South Korea had the highest CBD mortality rates before 2016, while Taiwan experienced a peak in 2011 and remained high thereafter. The absolute difference (AD) and relative difference (RD) for CVD mortality rates showed clear declining trends in all five countries, with South Korea and China displaying the highest reductions, respectively. It is noteworthy that overweight and obesity exhibited an increasing trend in all these five Asian countries, with China demonstrating the highest AD and RD. Except for Taiwan, where a negative association of r=-0.732 was observed, CVD mortality was positively associated with CBD, hypertension, and DM mortality in all other four countries, therefore, further investigation into these relationships are needed.
REVIEW | doi:10.20944/preprints202306.1351.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: KV channel; KV channel-interacting proteins; neurodegenerative disorders; cardiovascular diseases
Online: 19 June 2023 (11:46:08 CEST)
KV channel-interacting proteins (KChIPs) belong to a family of Ca2+-binding EF-hand proteins that are able to bind to the N-terminus of the KV4 channel α-subunits. As the auxiliary subunit, KChIPs are critically involved in regulating the amplitude and gating properties of KV4 channels by modulating their cell surface trafficking, voltage-dependent activation, inactivation kinetics, and recovery rate from inactivation. IKs, ICa,L, and INa can also be regulated by KChIPs. KChIPs are predominantly expressed in the brain and heart, where they contribute to the maintenance of the excitability of neurons and cardiomyocytes by modulating the KV4 currents. Interestingly, all KChIPs can act as transcription factors to control the expression of genes involved in pain, memory, and circadian regulation. Altered expression of KChIPs has been implicated in the pathogenesis of many diseases, such as arrhythmia, heart failure, Alzheimer's disease, etc. In this review, we summarize the research progress of KChIPs in their structural properties, physiological functions, and pathological roles in disease progression, and provide an overview of the therapeutic potential of KChIPs as pharmacological targets for associated disorders.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202302.0384.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Pediatrics, Perinatology And Child Health Keywords: Cardiovascular factors; Network analysis; Obese children; Physical activity; Sedentary behaviour.
Online: 22 February 2023 (10:45:17 CET)
This study analysed through the perspective of networks the association between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB), and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight low-income schoolchildren from the perspective of complex systems. Methods: The sample consisted of 41 overweight children between 6 and 10 years old (56% girls). PA and SB were analysed by accelerometer, and the measures of cardiovascular factor risk were: anthropometric and hemodynamic measurements, body fat, lipid profile and glucose, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), left ven-tricular mass (LVM), and Sokolov-Lyon. Network analysis with Boot-strap-1000 was performed to analyze the association between PA, SB and the cardiovascular risk factors. Results: Moderate to vigorous PA was positive related with Waist circumference (WC; 0.499), HDL-C (0.307), and CRF (0.276), and negatively associated with BMI (-0.251) and Fat (-0.341). For SB, positive associations were seen with WC (0.326), CRF (0.296), LVM (0.250) and Sokolov (0.215). Adicionalment, the centrality indicators highlighted WC as the most important variable in the network. Conclu-sion: Interventions that aim to mitigate the harmful effects of obesity on cardiovascular risk factors in overweight children should consider WC as an important variable in of system.