ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0056.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Television viewing; sedentary behavior; Physical activity; cardiometabolic risk factors
Online: 3 December 2021 (14:01:39 CET)
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between television viewing/physical activity (TVV/PA) interactions and cardiometabolic risk in an adult European population. A total of 2,155 subjects (25-64 years) (45.2% males), a random population-based sample were evaluated in Brno, Czechia. TVV was classified as low (<2hours/day), moderate (2-4), and high (≥4). PA was classified as insufficient, moderate, and high. To assess the independent association of TVV/PA categories with cardiometabolic variables, multiple linear regression was used. After adjustments, significant associations were: high TVV/insufficient PA with body mass index (BMI) (β=2.61,SE=0.63), waist circumference (WC) (β=7.52,SE=1.58), body fat percent (%BF) (β=6.24,SE=1.02), glucose (β=0.25,SE=0.12), triglycerides (β=0.18,SE=0.05), and HDL-C (β=-0.10,SE=0.04); high TVV/moderate PA with BMI (β=1.98,SE=0.45), WC (β=5.43,SE=1.12), %BF (β =5.15,SE=0.72), triglycerides (β =0.08,SE=0.04), total cholesterol (β=0.21,SE=0.10), LDL-c (β=0.19,SE=0.08), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03); and moderate TVV/insufficient PA with WC (β=2.68,SE=1.25), %BF (β=3.80,SE=0.81), LDL-c (β=0.18,SE=0.09), and HDL-c (β=-0.07,SE=0.03). Independent of PA levels, higher TVV was associated with higher amounts of adipose tissue. Higher blood glucose and triglycerides were present in subjects with high TVV and insufficient PA, but not in those with high PA alone. These results affirm the independent cardiometabolic risk of sedentary routines even in subjects with high-levels of PA.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202012.0759.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: adolescents; cardiometabolic risk factors; insulin resistance; abdominal obesity; lifestyle; nutritional habits
Online: 30 December 2020 (15:16:17 CET)
The prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors has increased in Slovakian adolescents as a result of serious lifestyle changes. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the prevalence of insulin resistance (IR) and the associations with cardiometabolic and selected lifestyle risk factors in a sample of Slovak adolescents. In total, 2,629 adolescents (45.8% males) aged between 14 and 18 years were examined in the study. Anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, and resting heart rate were measured, fasting venous blood samples were analysed, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The mean HOMA-IR was 2.45±1.91 without a significant intersexual difference. IR (cut-off point for HOMA-IR=3.16) was detected in 18.6% of adolescents (19.8% males, 17.6% females). IR was strongly associated with overweight/obesity (especially central) and with almost all monitored cardiometabolic factors, except for TC and systolic BP in females. The multivariate model selected variables such as low level of physical fitness, insufficient physical activity, breakfast skipping, a small number of daily meals, frequent consumption of sweetened beverages, and low educational level of fathers as the significant risk factors of IR in adolescents. Recognizing the main lifestyle risk factors and early IR identification is important in terms of the performance of preventive strategies. Weight reduction, regular physical activity, and healthy eating habits can improve insulin sensitivity and decrease the incidence of metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, and CVD in adulthood.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202307.0453.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: postprandial bioactivity; polyphenols; functional olive oil; orange peel extract; cardiometabolic risk
Online: 7 July 2023 (03:55:50 CEST)
Olive oil, as the main source of polyphenols in the Mediterranean diet pattern, is mentioned to show remarkable postprandial bioactivity, contributing to the reduction of cardiometabolic risk factors. In recent years, the consumption of refined olive oil, instead of other olive oil classes, led to a reduced intake of polyphenols from the usual diet. This controlled, human nutritional intervention inves-tigated whether the enhancement of refined olive oil with orange peel extract may modulate postprandial lipemia, glycemia and oxidative stress, in individuals at cardiometabolic risk. In a cross-over framework, 21 participants aged 30-65 years, who met the eligibility criteria, received a fat and carbohydrated meal of mashed potatoes, homogenized with refined olive oil (50 mL) or the functional olive oil, enhanced with 10% orange peel extract, intervening a washout week. Blood draws were performed in fasting, 30min, 1.5h and 3h after the meal intake. Plasma lipids, glucose, uric acid and total plasma antioxidant capacity according to FRAP method, were measured at each timepoint. A significant reduction of LDL-cholesterol was observed, 1.5 h and 3 h after the func-tional meal intake, compared to non-significant changes after the control meal (p <0.05). No other statistically significant interactions were detected to the remaining biomarkers (p> 0.05). Further investigation is needed for safer conclusions about the postprandial modulation of cardiometabolic risk factors, by the functional olive oil, enhanced with orange peel extract.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202305.0409.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Biochemistry And Molecular Biology Keywords: smoking,; DNA methylation; cardiometabolic traits; mendelian randomization
Online: 6 May 2023 (09:56:37 CEST)
Understanding epigenome paths through which smoking contributes to cardiometabolic traits is important for downstream applications. In this study, I used a SNP-based analytical pipeline to integrate several publicly available datasets and identify CpG sites that mediate the impact of smoking on cardiometabolic traits. After applying stringent statistical criteria, 11 CpG sites were detected that showed significant association (P<5e-8) with cardiometabolic traits at both discovery and replication stage. By integrating eQTL data, I identified genes behind a number of these associations. cg05228408 was hypomethylated in smokers and contributed to higher blood pressure by lowering the expression of CLCN6 gene. cg08639339 was hypermethylated in smokers and lowered metabolic rate by increasing the expression of RAB29; furthermore, I noted TMEM120A mediated the impact of smoking-cg17325771 on LDL, and LTBP3 mediated the smoking-cg07029024 effect on heart rate. This study provides a list of CpG sites that mediates the impact of smoking on cardiometabolic traits and a framework to investigate epigenome path through which a lifestyle habit modifies disease risks.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202108.0434.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Cardiac And Cardiovascular Systems Keywords: Cardiorespiratory Fitness; Cardiometabolic Risk Factors; Population Health; Adult; Middle Aged
Online: 23 August 2021 (12:18:10 CEST)
Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is a strong independent predictor of morbidity and mortality. However, there is no recent information about the impact of CRF on cardiometabolic risk specifically in Central and Eastern Europe, which are characterized by different biological and social determinants of health. Normative CRF values were proposed and the association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes was evaluated in an adult Czechian population. In 2054 participants (54.6 % females, median 48 years), the CRF was predicted from a non-exercise equation. Multivariable-adjusted logistic regressions were carried out to determine the associations. Higher CRF quartiles were associated with lower prevalence of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and dyslipidaemia. Comparing subjects within the lowest CRF, those within the highest CRF had decreased chances of hypertension (odds ratio [OR] = 0.36; 95% CI: 0.22-0.60); T2D (OR=0.16; 95% CI 0.05-0.47), low HDL-c (OR=0.32; 95% CI 0.17-0.60), high low-density lipoprotein (OR=0.33; 95% CI 0.21-0.53), high triglycerides (OR=0.13; 95 CI 0.07-0.81), and high cholesterol (OR=0.44; 95% CI 0.29-0.69). There was an inverse association between CRF and cardiometabolic outcomes, supporting the adoption of a non-exercise method to estimate CRF of the Czech population. Therefore, more accurate cardiometabolic studies can be performed incorporating the valuable CRF metric.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201908.0105.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Dietetics And Nutrition Keywords: lifestyle program; 25-hydroxyvitamin D; parathyroid-hormone; anthropometry; cardiometabolic factors
Online: 8 August 2019 (12:16:44 CEST)
Obesity in children is associated with vitamin D (VD) deficiency and cardiometabolic abnormalities. To analyze the effects of VD supplementation in adolescents with obesity enrolled in a weight-loss program. Adolescents with obesity (n=26) and with normal weight (n=23; controls) were matched for age, sex, and puberty stage. The obesity group followed a 3-month weight-loss program that combined a reduced caloric intake with interval training physical activity and during which they received or not VD supplementation (4000 IU/d) (n=13/group; random assignation). The anthropometric parameters (BMI z-score, fat mass); serum levels of 25(OH)D, calcium and parathyroid hormone (PTH), cardiometabolic factors (triglycerides, HDL, and LDL cholesterol), fasting glucose and insulin, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index; diastolic, systolic and mean blood pressure, and inflammatory status (C-reactive protein, CRP) were measured at baseline and at the end of the 3-month program. At baseline, 25(OH)D concentration was lower and VD insufficiency (25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L) rate was higher (73% vs 22%) in the obesity than in the normal-weight group. All cardiometabolic factors were altered in the obesity compared with the normal-weight group. After the 3-month weight-loss program, 25(OH)D levels was >50 nmol in all adolescents with obesity, but only in 46% of normal-weight adolescents. Moreover, the weight-loss program improved the cardiometabolic factors, inflammatory status (CRP) and physical performance, but VD supplementation did not have any additional effect. Analysis only of the adolescents with obesity and VD deficiency (25(OH)D <50 nmol/L) at baseline showed a significant correlation between the change in PTH and CRP (p=0.02) in the supplemented obesity group, while the increase in 25(OH)D only tended to be correlated with CRP decrease. Vitamin D supplementation could reduce VD insufficiency in adolescent with obesity, but does not have any additional effect on cardiometabolic factors when combined with a weight-loss program.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202104.0650.v1
Subject: Medicine And Pharmacology, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: TCF7L2, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiometabolic risk factors, single nucleotide polymorphisms
Online: 26 April 2021 (10:41:30 CEST)
Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have been strongly associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TCF7L2 gene. This study investigated the association between rs12255372, rs7903146 and T2DM in a Ghanaian population. A case-control study design was used for this study. A total of 106 T2DM patients and 110 control participants were selected. Basic data collected included body mass index, blood pressure and socio-demographics. Fasting blood samples were collected and used for serum lipid analysis, HbA1c, plasma glucose estimation and DNA extraction. Common and allele-specific primers were designed for genotyping using the Modified Tetra-Primer Amplification assay. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. The rs7903146 risk variant was significantly associated with 2.16 vs 4.06 increased odds for T2DM in patients <60 years vs ≥60 years. Both rs7903146 and rs12255372 are significantly associated with increased odds of T2DM in women, overweight/obese; T2DM negative family history (T2DM-NFH) and low-HDL-C. In a multivariate model, rs7903146 but not rs12255372 was significantly associated with 2.18, 5.01 and 2.25 increased odds of T2DM, under the codominant, recessive and additive model, respectively (p<0.05). The association between rs7903146 and rs12255372 with T2DM is more highly associated in a subgroup- women and those with T2DM-NFH, yet have cardiometabolic risk.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202112.0073.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Endocrinology And Metabolism Keywords: MicroRNAs; miR-126; mir-197; mir-223; Cardiometabolic Disease; Diabetes; Cardiovascular disease; Atherosclerosis; Inter Media Thickness
Online: 6 December 2021 (12:52:25 CET)
We aim to investigate if serum levels of microRNAs: miR-126, mir-197 and mir-223, previously implicated in cardiometabolic disease, are reproducibly associated with incident-diabetes (inc-DM), incident-cardiovascular disease (inc-CVD) and with carotid atherosclerosis (measured for the maximum thickness of the intima-media of the carotid bulb (IMT)). The microRNAs were measured, one: in serum of 553 subjects from the baseline exam of the Swedish prospective cohort, Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (MDC-CC), with 169 subjects who developed CVD and 140 DM (16 years follow-up) and, two: in 1221 subjects from the Malmö Offspring Study (MOS), with 14 de-veloped CVD and 12 DM (3.7 years follow-up). Multivariate logistic and linear regression models were used to investigate the relationship of serum-concentrations of the microRNAs and inc-DM, inc-CVD, IMT-bulb respectively. In MDC-CC, miR-126 showed significant positive association with inc-DM (p= 0.01) whereas in fully adjusted model, the association was borderline significant (p= 0.05). The results were not replicated in MOS. There was no consistent significant association between the microRNAs with IMT or inc-CVD in any cohort. Our results do not support previous reports on significant associations between these microRNAs and the risk of CMD, as they were not reproducible in our cohorts. In addition, the directionality of any associations found were not consistent with those previously reported.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202206.0185.v1
Subject: Social Sciences, Behavior Sciences Keywords: Sitting; intervention; feasibility; office workers; behaviour change wheel; police; QR codes; activity breaks; cardiometabolic risk; behaviour change; wellbeing
Online: 13 June 2022 (10:45:43 CEST)
The aim of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and feasibility of a theory-derived sedentary workplace intervention (single arm, pre-post design) for police office staff. Twenty-four staff participated in an 8-week intervention incorporating an education session, team competition with quick response (QR) codes, team trophy, and weekly leaderboard newsletters, a self-monitoring phone app, and electronic prompt tools. The intervention supported participants to reduce and break up their sitting time with three minutes of incidental movement every 30 minutes at work. Feasibility and acceptability were assessed using mixed methods via the RE-AIM QuEST and PRECIS-2 frameworks. The intervention was highly pragmatic in terms of eligibility, organisation, adherence, outcome, and analysis. It was slightly less pragmatic on recruitment and setting. Delivery and follow-up were more explanatory. Reach and adoption indicators demonstrated feasibility among police staff, across a range of departments, who were demographically similar to participants in previous office-based multi-component interventions. The intervention was delivered mostly as planned with minor deviations from protocol (Implementation fidelity). Participants perceived the intervention components as highly acceptable. Preliminary results showed improvements in workplace sitting and standing, as well as small improvements in weight and positive affect. Evaluation of the intervention in a fully powered randomised controlled trial to assess behaviour and health outcomes is recommended.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints201712.0125.v1
Subject: Biology And Life Sciences, Food Science And Technology Keywords: urate; uric acid; cardiometabolic risk; fruit; sugar; sugar-sweetened soft drink; sugar-sweetened; beverage; dietary intake; dietary intervention; gout
Online: 18 December 2017 (14:18:33 CET)
High fructose and sugar-sweetened soft drink (SSSD) intakes are associated with elevated blood uric acid concentrations and increased risk of gout and cardiovascular disease. Fruits are naturally high in fructose but their effect on cardiometabolic risk is unknown. We examined the effect on serum uric acid and cardiometabolic risk factors of consuming fructose from either fruit or SSSD in overweight adults. 48 healthy, overweight (BMI≥ 28 kg/m2) men (n=21) and women (n=20) were randomised to either a fruit (n = 19) or SSSSD (n = 22) intervention for 4 weeks. The fruit group received 6 items of fresh and dried fruit per day and the SSSD group received 955ml of SSSD per day with treatments matched for energy and fructose content. Serum uric acid concentrations were significantly reduced in men in the fruit group compared to the SSSD group (difference 57.2 μmol/L [95% CI: 16.4, 98.0], p= 0.008) but there was no difference amongst women (1.3 μmol/L [95%CI: -9.5, 6.9], p= 0.295). There differences in weight change or other cardiometabolic risk factors. These findings suggest no need to restrict fruit intake in individuals with elevated serum uric acid concentrations, such as those with gout.
ARTICLE | doi:10.20944/preprints202312.0147.v1
Subject: Public Health And Healthcare, Public Health And Health Services Keywords: Impact of Event Scale-Revised/IES-R; cutoff score/cutoff point; three factors/six factors/dimensions; receiver operator curve (ROC); cardiometabolic* /hypertension; obesity/ high body mass index; dental healthcare workers
Online: 4 December 2023 (06:49:44 CET)
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or specific PTSD symptoms may evoke disordered eating and unhealthy lifestyles, resulting in adverse cardiometabolic events (e.g., hypertension and obesity) in certain groups, which may implicate the treatment of this complex condition. The diagnostic criteria of PTSD have lately expanded beyond the three common symptoms (intrusion, avoidance, and hyperarousal). Simultaneously, four-, five-, and six-dimensional structures of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), a popular PTSD measure, seem to be more robust than the original three-dimension structure. Within the context of COVID-19, this instrumental study used a convenience sample of 58 dental healthcare workers (HCWs) from Russia (mean age = 44.1±12.2 years, 82.8% females) to examine the criterion and predictive validity of two IES-R structures: the IES-R3 and the IES-R6 (with the added symptoms of numbing, sleep disturbance, and irritability). The subscales of the two IES-R structures expressed good internal consistency, strong correlations with the PTSD Symptom Scale (PSS), hypertension diagnosis, and high body mass index (BMI). In receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, all IES-R models perfectly predicted the PSS (all area under the curve (AUC) >0.9, p values <0.001). The IES-R, both hyperarousal subscales, and the IES-R3 intrusion subscale significantly predicted high BMI. Both avoidance subscales and the IES-R3 intrusion subscale, not the IES-R, significantly predicted hypertension. In conclusion, both IES-R structures can reliably measure PTSD symptoms. The IES-R, hyperarousal, and intrusion may be credible criterion variables for predicting high BMI within PTSD while the intrusion and avoidance subscales may reflect the cardiovascular consequences associated with PTSD more reliably than the IES-R itself. The IES-R subscales may predict cardiometabolic adversities in PTSD, signifying a need for proper assessment of lifestyle and the application of dietary and exercise interventions in order to lower physical morbidity in PTSD. Replicating the study in larger samples, which comprise different physical and mental conditions from heterogenous cultural contexts is pivotal to validate the results (e.g., in specific groups such as those with confirmed traumatic exposure and comorbid mood dysfunction).